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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 17 April-23 April 2024
Name Country Volcanic Province Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bagana Papua New Guinea Solomon Volcanic Arc 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) New
Poas Costa Rica Central America Volcanic Arc 2023 Dec 1 New
Ruang Indonesia Sangihe Volcanic Arc 2024 Apr 16 New
Semeru Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2017 Jun 6 New
Taal Philippines Taiwan-Luzon Volcanic Arc 2024 Apr 12 New
Aira Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Indonesia Halmahera Volcanic Arc 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia Kuril Volcanic Arc 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fernandina Ecuador Galapagos Hotspot Volcano Group Continuing
Great Sitkin United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Indonesia Halmahera Volcanic Arc 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Kavachi Solomon Islands Solomon Volcanic Arc Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc Continuing
Lateiki Tonga Tofua Volcanic Arc Continuing
Lewotobi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2023 Dec 23 Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Reykjanes Iceland Iceland Neovolcanic Rift Zone 2023 Dec 18 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Italy Aeolian Volcanic Arc 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,299 individual reports over 1,228 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 335 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Raung Talang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reventador Tanaga
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Matthew Island Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bagana
The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Bagana was identified in satellite images rising to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW at 0820 on 22 April. The plume had dissipated by 1420.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing gas-and-steam emissions rose from vents Boca A and Boca B on the crater floor of Poás. Ash ceased to be detected in the emissions at some point during 16-17 April but was again present during 22-23 April.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Ruang
PVMBG raised the Alert Level for Ruang to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) at 1300 on 16 April due to intensifying seismicity. A minor eruption began at around 1337 on 16 April and produced dense white emissions; at 1600 the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Explosive activity began at 2145 and ash plumes rose 2 km above the summit. Activity continued to escalate. An explosive pulse was recorded at 0108 on 17 April. According to the Darwin VAAC ash plumes had risen to 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W by 0230, and at 0300 they reached 12.2 km (40,000 ft) a.s.l. and detached from the summit. Ash plumes at a lower altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted WSW. BNPB reported that 828 people from Pumpente and Laingpatehi villages evacuated to neighboring Tagulandang Island to the NE and the communication network in Laingpatehi village was non-operational. Photos showed incandescent material being ejected above the summit, incandescent material on the flanks, pyroclastic density currents descending the flanks, and dense ash plumes with lightning rising into dark, nighttime skies. Another explosive pulse was recorded at 0505 according to PVMBG, and the VAAC noted that by 0600 ash plumes had risen to 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The plume was detached from the summit by 0713. Additional smaller eruptive events produced ash plumes that rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

PVMBG recorded bigger eruptive pulses at 1800 and 2015 on 17 April. Roaring and booming noises were sometimes heard, with gray-to-black ash plumes at 2015 and a felt earthquake. According to the VAAC ash plumes rose to 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. by 2000 and at least to 19.2 km (63,000 ft) a.s.l. by 2020; the plumes drifted NW. PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 4, the highest level, at 2100 on 17 April noting that seismicity continued to increase, ash plumes were getting taller, and incandescent rocks were ejected as far as 5 km with some reaching Tagulandang Island. The public was warned to stay 6 km away from Ruang’s main crater. Several residents in Tagulandang were hit with tephra and some received medical treatment according to BNPB. Ashfall was recorded in as many as 10 villages in two sub-districts on Tagulandang and in several sub-districts of North Minahasa Regency (75 km SSW) including West Likupang, Wori, East Likupang, and South Likupang. Communication networks in Lumbo Village on Tagulandang were not properly functioning. An estimated 6,045 people living in the W part Tagulandang evacuated. According to a news article, there was damage to more than 3,000 homes, two churches, and an elementary school.

Multiple ash layers were identified in a satellite image 2310 on 17 April according to the VAAC; ash at 16.8 km (55,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NW and E and ash at 14.3 km (47,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted WSW. At 0310 on 18 April ash plumes rose to 12.2 km and drifted WNW and W and detached from the volcano by 0600; earlier high-level plumes continued to expand as they drifted NW. According to a news report the Sam Ratulangi International Airport, 98 km SW in Manado, North Sulawesi, closed on 18 April due to the presence of ash.

The VAAC continued to track the plumes; lower-altitude plumes at 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted SE. The higher plumes, between 10.7-15.2 km (35,000-50,000 ft) a.s.l., continued to drift NW and WNW and had dissipated by 1710 on 19 April, though sulfur dioxide continued to be tracked W. Weather clouds began to obscure the plumes. On 19 April PVMBG reported that ash plumes rose 400-750 m above the summit and drifted S. During 20-21 April the VAAC issued notifications of ash plumes rising 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting S and SW based on satellite images and information from PVMBG. The closure of the Sam Ratulangi International Airport affected 150 flights and about 19,085 passengers as of 20 April based on a news report; the airport resumed operations at noon on 22 April. PVMBG reported that during 21-23 April dense white steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 200 m and drifted SW, W, and NW. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 at 0900 on 22 April because activity had decreased. Residents were warned to stay 4 km away from the crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Antara News, Antara News, Tempo, VOI
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 17-23 April. White-and-gray or occasionally white-to-brown ash plumes rose 300-1,500 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on most days. Eruptive events were recorded during 17, 19-20, and 22-23 April; no emissions were visible, possibly due to weather conditions. BNPB reported that intense rain on 18 April caused lahars in the Regoyo River basin and in the Mujur and Glidik watersheds in the Lumajang Regency during 18-19 April. Three deaths were reported: one person was buried by landslides in the Pronojiwo District and two were swept away by lahars in the Candipuro District. Lahars damaged nine bridges and destroyed an additional eight bridges, flooded the Candipuro National Road, and damaged three houses. As many as 32 families self-evacuated. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported that sulfur dioxide emissions at Taal had decreased the last week and averaged 2,104 tonnes per day (t/d) on 18 April; despite the decrease averages in 2024 remained high at 9,698 t/d. Short-lived phreatic events were recorded during 0850-0852, 0909-0912, 1102-1107, and 1710-1714 on 20 April based on seismic data and webcam images. White steam plumes rose 300-600 m above Main Crater and drifted WSW, SW, and NW. During 21-23 April emissions rose 600-900 m and drifted NW and SW and observers noted pronounced upwelling of gases and hot fluids in the lake. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to take extra precautions around Main Crater, when boating on Taal Lake, and along the Daang Kastila fissure.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 15-22 April with nighttime crater incandescence. Very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 17-23 April. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 100-1,200 m above the summit and drifted E, N, and W almost daily; emissions were not observed on 22 April. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 11-18 April. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 12-17 April generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, and E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 13 and 16-17 April; on other days either no activity was observed or weather conditions prevented views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fernandina
Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN) reported that the eruption at Fernandina continued during 16-23 April. Daily thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images. Sulfur dioxide emissions, measured using satellite data, fluctuated between about 207 and 1,418 tons per day. Gas-and-steam emissions rose from the area where lava entered the ocean; a 16 April photo showed three bright areas where lava entered the water and gas-and-steam plumes rising from the entries. During 21-22 April satellite images showed another lobe of lava low on the flank, descending towards the shoreline.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued in Great Sitkin’s summit crater during 17-23 April. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 17-18 April. Seismicity was low with a few small daily earthquakes recorded by the seismic network. Weather clouds partly or mostly obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 17-23 April. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 200-2,500 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on 17 and 21 April. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 200-600 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on the other days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kavachi
Satellite data showed an area of yellow-green discolored water that was about 4.2 km in diameter in the vicinity of the submarine Kavachi volcano on 19 April. A more diffuse plume of discolored water extended another ~11 km NE before dissipating.
Source: Copernicus
Report for Krakatau
On 19 April PVMBG lowered the Alert Level for Krakatau to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) based on visual observations and instrumental data. The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lateiki
Satellite data showed an area of yellowish-green discolored water that was about 5 km long in the N-S direction and about 3 km in the E-W direction, in the vicinity of the submarine Lateiki volcano on 21 April. A more diffuse plume of discolored water extended another ~12 km WNW before dissipating.
Source: Copernicus
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that during 17-18 and 20-22 April white steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 100 m above the summit of Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano and drifted N, NE, and E. On 23 April a white-and-gray ash plume rose 100-200 m and drifted SW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside of the exclusion zone, defined as a 2-km radius around Laki-laki crater, 3 km to the NNE, and 5 km on the NE flanks.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 17-23 April. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 100-600 m above the summit and drifted SE, W, and NW almost every day; white emissions rose 300-500 m above the summit and drifted W and NW during 19-20 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the residents of Lamawolo, Lamatokan, and Jontona were warned to stay 2 km away from the vent and 3 km away from the vent on the S and SE flanks.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 17-22 April. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 250-300 m above the summit and drifted SE and W on 21 April. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 250-300 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on 17, 19, and 22 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 12-18 April. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 111 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.7 km down the SW flank. One pyroclastic flow traveled 1 km SW down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 16-23 April. The seismic network recorded long-period events totaling 43-171 per day that were sometimes accompanies by steam-and-gas emissions. The seismic network also recorded 5-14 minutes of tremor each day during 16-19 April and a few volcano-tectonic earthquakes. According to the Washington VAAC ash plumes visible in webcam and sometimes also satellite images rose to 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Reykjanes
IMO reported that the cone just E of Sundhnúk and along the fissure within the Reykanes volcanic system continued to erupt lava during 15-23 April. Gas emissions continued to drift downwind and residents were advised to monitor air quality. Lava flowed a short distance from the crater mostly S and the flows thickened near the crater. Lava tubes in an area about 1 km SE transported lava to an active flow field N of Hagafell; webcam images showed inflation of the part of the flow field located along the barriers E of Grindavík during 18-23 April. Inflation from magma accumulation beneath Svartsengi was first detected at the beginning of April and continued at a steady rate based on modeling of GPS and satellite data.

The average effusion rate was 3-4 cubic meters per second during 1-15 April. Results from a 15 April overflight where scientists acquired images for mapping showed that the lava-flow field was an estimated 6.15 square kilometers with an approximate volume of 33.2 (± 0.8) million cubic meters.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that eruptive activity at Sheveluch continued during 11-18 April with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that eruptive activity continued at Stromboli during 15-21 April. Webcam images showed Strombolian activity at two vents in Area N (one at N1 and one at N2), within the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and from three vents at S2 in Area C-S (South-Central Crater) in the crater terrace. Weather conditions and technical difficulties sometimes prevented observations. At Area N, low- to medium-intensity explosive activity was observed from sectors N1 and N2 with the eruption of coarse material (bombs and lapilli) less than 80 m and 150 m above the vents, respectively. The average frequency of explosions from this area was 4-9 events per hour. At Area C-S, explosive activity at two vents in sector S2 ejected both coarse and fine material less than 150 m above the vent. The average explosion rate was 2-10 events per hour.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that eruptive activity at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 15-22 April. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly. No explosions were detected but ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW); dates were not specified. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1.5 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)