Activity for the week of 9 November-15 November 2005
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 1.22°N, 77.37°W
| Elevation 4276 m
INGEOMINAS reported that during 9-14 November, a large number of tornillo earthquakes (long-period seismic events related to pressurized fluid flow at shallow depth) continued to occur below Galeras. In the previous 2 weeks, 25 tornillos were recorded. The earthquakes had characteristics similar to those that occurred before eruptions in 1992-1993. A small amount of deformation was recorded at Galeras during the report period. Activity in the previous month suggested that the volume of magma beneath the volcano was greater than that inferred to have been present during the 1992-1993 eruptions. Due to the increased activity at Galeras, the Alert level was raised from 3 (changes in the behavior of volcanic activity have been noted) to 2 (probable eruption in days or weeks).
According to new reports, on 14 November local authorities recommended the voluntary evacuation of as many as 9,000 people living in towns near the volcano, including in parts of Pasto (to the W), La Florida (to the N), and Nariño (to the N).
Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), El Tiempo, IOL News
| Andaman Islands (India)
| 12.278°N, 93.858°E
| Elevation 354 m
An increase in volcanic activity at Barren Island began on 4 November. During 12-15 November, ash plumes emitted from Barren Island were visible on satellite imagery drifting predominately SSW. Ash was no longer visible on satellite imagery on 16 November. Barren Island began erupting on 28 May 2005.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
Several small explosions occurred at Colima during 9-10 November, producing plumes that rose to ~5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l.
Sources: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
During 11-14 November, three lava flows were emitted from Fuego. On the 14th, two of the lava flows traveled from the S edge of the central crater 150 m toward the Ceniza ravine, and 400 m toward the Taniluyá ravine, and the third traveled 600 m W toward the Santa Teresa ravine. Avalanches of volcanic material spalled from the fronts of the lava flows.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
Seismicity was above background levels at Karymsky during 4-11 November, when five gas-and-steam plumes with some ash may have reached heights of 3-3.5 km (9,850-11,500 ft) a.s.l. The lava dome inside the volcano's crater continued to grow. Karymsky remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
On 14 November, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area. Surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp although surface activity had decreased in comparison to the previous week. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 5.525°S, 148.42°E
| Elevation 1330 m
During 11-12 November, low-level ash plumes emitted from Langila were visible. The heights of the plumes were not reported.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| South Sandwich Islands (UK)
| 58.445°S, 26.374°W
| Elevation 1370 m
A partly cloudy ASTER satellite image from 3 November appeared to indicate that large-scale effusive activity from the summit of Montagu Island (Mt. Belinda) had ceased. The image showed that the 3.5-km-long lava flow noted in previous reports (observed entering the sea in an image from 23 September 2005) had extended the shoreline on the N side of island. The new land extended approximately 500 m from the previous shoreline, and was ~400 m wide, equating to a total area of 0.2 square kilometers.
Sources: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team, British Antarctic Survey
| DR Congo
| 1.52°S, 29.25°E
| Elevation 3470 m
On 13 November, a plume that may have contained some ash was emitted from Nyiragongo and seen on satellite imagery.
Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 0.077°S, 77.656°W
| Elevation 3562 m
During 31 October to 6 November, seismicity was at low levels at Reventador and several small explosions occurred. Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that ash from an explosion on 12 November rose to a height of ~3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| El Salvador
| 13.853°N, 89.63°W
| Elevation 2381 m
During 9-14 November, seismicity at Santa Ana was above background levels and slightly increased on 13 November. Small earthquakes occurred that were interpreted as being associated with the fracturing of rocks and gas pulses. The amount of gas emitted was low. The sulfur-dioxide flux ranged between 100 and 1,200 metric tons daily. The Alert Level within a 5-km radius around the volcano's central crater remained at Red, the highest level.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
During 11-14 November, several explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash plumes to a height of 1.2 km above the volcano (or 16,300 ft a.s.l.). Several small pyroclastic flows traveled down the SW, NE, and S flanks of Caliente dome. Frequent avalanches of volcanic material occurred off of the fronts of active lava flows mostly to the W of Caliente dome, and less frequently to the S and NE. An ash-and-gas emission on 14 November produced a cloud that was visible on satellite imagery.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained elevated during 4-11 November. Images showed incandescence at the lava dome at night, and growth of the E, S, and SE sectors. Radar imaging of the lava dome indicated that its volume was about 6.5 million cubic meters, suggesting a growth rate over the past 2 weeks between 1.3 and 1.8 cubic meters per second. The sulfur-dioxide flux averaged 445 metric tons per day.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| United States
| 46.2°N, 122.18°W
| Elevation 2549 m
Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continued during 9-14 November, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. There were no significant changes in seismicity or deformation during the report period. St Helens remained at Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
During 9-14 November, volcanic activity at Tungurahua remained at low levels as it has since mid-February 2005. There were small emissions of steam and gas with low ash content. During the evening of 13 November lahars traveled down the volcano's W flank, leading to the temporary closure of the Baños -Riobamba highway. On 14 November, a steam emission with little ash reached a height of ~500 m above the volcano's summit (or 18,100 ft a.s.l.).
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
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