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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 22 April-28 April 2009
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) New
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 New
Galeras Colombia New
Pagan Mariana Islands (USA) New
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 New
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 New
Slamet Central Java (Indonesia) New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) 2018 Sep 25 Continuing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Continuing
Chaiten Chile Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2021 Apr 3 Continuing
Kerinci Indonesia 2021 May 31 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Continuing
Koryaksky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Llaima Chile Continuing
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days Continuing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Continuing
Redoubt United States Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Tungurahua Ecuador Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,844 individual reports over 1,072 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 311 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague Spurr
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo St. Helens
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Taal
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antuco Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Takawangha
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Talang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Tambora
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tanaga
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asosan Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Awu Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Telica
Axial Seamount Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Bagana Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Tinakula
Balbi Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tofua
Bamus Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tokachidake
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Toliman
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Tongariro
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tungurahua
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Turrialba
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Ubinas
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bulusan Great Sitkin Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Osorno Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Papandayan Sotara
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Parker Soufriere Hills
Concepcion Ibu Lewotolok Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bagana
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 April an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 28 km S.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that during 17-24 April observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. during 17-19 April and drifted 8 km NE. On 22 April, light ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-26 April ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Galeras
INGEOMINAS reported that on 24 April seismicity from Galeras was similar to that seen prior to previous eruptions. Video camera views of the crater showed decreased gas emissions. The Alert Level was raised to II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks"). Later that day, an explosive eruption was detected, prompting INGEOMINAS to raise the Alert Level to I (Red; "imminent eruption or in progress"). Incandescent blocks caused fires on the N flank. An accompanying shock wave was reported by residents up to 25 km away. A second eruption, of greater duration but less energy than the first, was detected about a half an hour later. Incandescence from both eruptions was seen from the city of Pasto (10 km E). An ash plume rose to an altitude of 10.3 km (33,800 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in areas up to 20 km W, WNW, and NW. According to a news article, populations living near the volcano were ordered to evacuate; about 200 people responded. On 25 April, ash-and-gas plumes rose 1 km above the crater. Thermal anomalies in the crater near the W flank measured 100 degrees Celsius. Ejected rocks had landed 2-3 km from the crater. The Alert Level was lowered to II.
Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Colombia Reports
Report for Pagan
The USGS stated that a crew from a NOAA ship working at Pagan observed continuous steam emissions from the N crater during 21-22 April. Satellite imagery analyzed by the Washington VAAC showed a diffuse plume drifting 15 km W on 23 April. On 28 April, steam emissions had decreased so the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to "Unassigned." There are no monitoring instruments on Pagan, thus the levels "Green" or "Normal" do not apply because background activity is not defined. Monitoring is done by satellite and ground observers.
Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program
Report for Reventador
The IG reported that seismicity from Reventador decreased to low levels on 26 March, after the seismic network had detected an earthquake swarm the same day. On 23 April, increased seismicity was characterized by long-period events interspersed with bands of spasmodic and harmonic tremor. Observers reported that steam plumes with low ash content rose to altitudes of 5.6-6.6 km (18,400-21,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Intense noises from the volcano were also reported. A thermal anomaly and a steam plume drifting 26 km WSW were detected on satellite imagery.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 17-24 April. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to altitudes of 4.5-5.3 km (14,800-17,400 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. According to observers, fumaroles were active during 16-22 and 22 April. A hot avalanche produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. on 22 April.

On 25 April, increased seismicity indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. On 26 April, seismicity remained at high levels; continuous spasmodic tremor and a series of weak shallow earthquakes occurred. An ash explosion from the lava dome was seen on video camera. Ash emitted from a large fissure on the S flank of the lava dome produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Red. The next day, seismicity decreased slightly but remained elevated and gas-and-steam emissions with some ash content emanated from the fissure. Based on video camera views and analysis of satellite imagery, plumes rose to altitudes of 3.5-5 km (11,500-16,400 ft) a.s.l. during 27-28 April and drifted 250 km NE. On 28 April, pyroclastic flows originated from areas near the lava dome. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Slamet
CVGHM reported that seismicity from Slamet increased during 19-23 April. Diffuse white plumes rose about 50 m above the crater on 20 April. During 21-23 April, white and white-to-brownish plumes rose 50-800 m above the crater. On 23 April, the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4); people were advised not to climb the summit. According to a news article, a CVGHM volcanologist stated that lava was ejected 600 m high and ash bursts up to 112 times within a 6-hour period were detected.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Jakarta Globe
Report for Aira
On 24 April, JMA lowered the Alert Level for Sakura-jima from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). No large eruptions occurred after 11 April, seismicity was low, and deformation was not detected.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Barren Island
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-25 April ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-65 km NE, E, and SE.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Batu Tara
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-25 and 28 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted up to 110 km in multiple directions.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Chaiten
SERNAGEOMIN reported that gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex during 15-21 April. Seismicity remained elevated; the largest earthquakes recorded were M 4.5. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 25 and 28 April, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and N. According to a news article, one of about 70 people who had refused to evacuate Chaitén town (and stayed without basic services) died from hypothermia.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Herald Tribune
Report for Dukono
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 April an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km E.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Fuego
On 24 and 28 April, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.8 km (13,500-15,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10 km SW. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling noises and shock waves detected 5 km away. Avalanches of blocks traveled down the flanks. Fumarolic plumes rose 50-150 m and drifted S, NW, and N. On 28 April, incandescent material was ejected 75-100 m into the air.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that fumarolic activity from Karymsky was seen by volcanologists during 17-24 April. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly on the volcano on 17 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kerinci
CVGHM reported that diffuse white plumes from Kerinci typically rise about 300 m above the crater. On 9 September 2007 the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) because "black smoke" plumes rose 800 m above the crater. The height of the plumes (described as "smoke") declined, but remained variable, so the Alert Level continued at 2. On 24 March 2008, ash-and-gas plumes rose to 4.3 km (14,100 ft) a.s.l. In early April 2009, increased seismicity was accompanied by ash plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater. During 1-20 April, light and dark plumes rose to a maximum of 500 m above the crater. On 19 April, ashfall was reported at a nearby observation post. During 19-20 April, noises indicative of an eruption were heard at the observation post. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
During 22-28 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry, and on 22 April small littoral explosions continued to build up a steep-sided cone at the Kupapa'u entry. Surface flows were present on the coastal plain. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted SW, N, and NE. Poor air quality in nearby communities was sometimes caused by the plume. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas or rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Various amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair, spatter, and ash, were frequently retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Koryaksky
During 17-25 April, KVERT reported that seismic activity at Koryaksky was above background levels and weak volcanic tremor was detected. Gas plumes containing a small amount of ash drifted in multiple directions during 17-18 April. On 17 and 18 April, gas-and-ash plumes were also seen on satellite imagery and drifted 100 km NE. On 20 April, a sulfur dioxide plume extended about 15 km from the volcano. During 26-28 April, seismic activity decreased to background levels; tremor was occasionally detected. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Krakatau
According to a news article on 29 April, some residents on western Java (Lampung) near Krakatau have evacuated due to their observations of increased volcanic activity during the previous week. Observers reported loud blasts, lava flows, and ash plumes that rose 200-800 m above the Anak Krakatau crater. Pilots had also reported seeing ash plumes. A volcanologist from CVGHM stated that the activity did not merit an increase in the Alert level. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), The Jakarta Post
Report for Llaima
SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 24 April ash plumes originating from an area about 700 m down the E flank of Llaima rose 500 m and drifted E. Steam emissions that accompanied the ash plumes indicated that the point of activity came from underneath the glacier. The activity lasted about 1.5 hours. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
Report for Pacaya
On 24 and 28 April, INSIVUMEH reported gas emissions from Pacaya's MacKenney cone; occasional ash explosions ejected tephra 15-25 m high. The seismic network detected tremor and explosions. A small spatter cone being built in the S part of the crater was 4 m high. Rumbling noises were heard 3-5 km away and degassing produced sounds resembled airplane engines. Lava flows traveled 50-400 m down the SW flank and fumarolic plumes drifted S.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Rabaul
RVO reported that during 18-25 April white and gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 0.5-1.5 km above the crater. Plumes drifted E and SE. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and occasional roaring noises were reported. Ashfall was reported in Kokopo, about 20 km SE, and surrounding areas. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 and 28 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km S and 35 km SW.
Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Redoubt
AVO reported that during 22-28 April seismicity from Redoubt remained above background levels, indicating ongoing growth of the lava dome in the summit crater. On 22 April, the web camera showed steam-and-gas plumes that may have occasionally contained small amounts of ash rising from the lava dome. Views during 23-28 April were prevented by meteorological clouds. Pilots reported sulfur odors to the NE on 22 April and to the S on 28 April. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-28 April explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that drifted 5-8 km WSW. Gas plumes rose 25-75 m above Caliente dome. The number of explosions had decreased during the previous few weeks.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Soufriere Hills
MVO reported that during 17-24 April activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. On 24 April, a small pyroclastic flow traveled E down the Tar River Valley. The Hazard Level remained at 3.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
Report for Suwanosejima
The Tokyo VAAC reported that a pilot saw an ash plume from Suwanose-jima on 22 April. JMA reported that an eruption the next day produced ash plumes to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and S. On 27 April, an explosion was reported but details of a possible resultant ash plume were not. On 28 April, explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Tungurahua
The IG reported that during 22-28 April steam-and-gas plumes occasionally containing ash rose from Tungurahua to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. Roaring noises were reported. Ashfall was noted in areas to the SW on 21 April. During 21-22 April, incandescence from the crater was seen; incandescent blocks ejected from the crater on 22 April rolled down the flanks. On 25 April, a lahar descended the Patacocha drainage.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)