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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 13 February-19 February 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 13 February-19 February 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) New
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia) New
Pacaya Guatemala New
Paluweh Indonesia New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Pagan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tongariro North Island (New Zealand) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Barren Island  | Andaman Islands (India)  | 12.278°N, 93.858°E  | Elevation 354 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 February an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 220 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that during 12-15 February elevated surface temperatures from Cleveland's lava dome were detected in satellite images. Clouds obscured views of the dome during 16-19 February. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that during the evenings of 13 and 14 February a camera recorded incandescence from Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC). In the early hours of 15 February incandescent bombs were ejected just higher than the crater rim. Strombolian activity gradually intensified on 17 February along with volcanic tremor amplitude. Small Strombolian explosions occurred every 1-2 seconds at daybreak, launching coarse-grained pyroclastic material a few tens of meters above the crater rim. After reaching a peak around 0700, activity started to diminish; a few hours later, the volcanic tremor amplitude returned to background levels, and by the evening there was no sign of eruptive activity.

Shortly before midnight on 18 February, the clouds dissipated from the summit area, revealing continuous weak Strombolian activity within NSEC. During 0000-0200 on 19 February the volcanic tremor amplitude rose gradually, then distinctly increased after 0200. Contemporaneously, the eruptive activity started to intensify from one vent in the center of the crater. About 10 minutes later, lava started to overflow through the deep notch in the SE crater rim, expanding slowly toward the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove. At 0457 the small pit crater that had formed on the SW rim of the NSEC on 27 August 2012 started to emit ash, and repeated rim collapses generated small landslides. Activity of the main vent within the crater rapidly increased, and at 0503 a lava fountain rose about 200 m above the summit of the cone.

During the interval from 0503 until 0507, several vents became active along a fracture from the pit crater to the notch in the SE crater rim. A dense cloud of ash rose and drifted E. Next, the entire NSEC cone was subjected to heavy fallout of coarse-grained pyroclastic material. The main lava flow advanced SE, and a small lava flow that developed on the flank below the pit crater traveled along the March 2012 fracture zone between the old and new SEC cones. At 0515 lava fountains rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and produced bombs and spatter that covered the S flank of the cone. Small avalanches of this incandescent material generated ash clouds. During 0516-0518 the S flank of the cone was veiled by a dense curtain of fallout from the lava fountains. At the same time, dense vapor clouds rose from the upper E flank of Etna, generated by the copious fallout of incandescent pyroclastic material onto the snow.

At 0519, a more substantial avalanche of fresh material detached from the S flank of the cone, generating a small pyroclastic flow that expanded a few hundred meters first S and then E. At 0536 a thermal monitoring camera recorded a lahar from near the Belvedere area, which was followed by a broad lava flow that descended the steep slope and reached the base after less than 20 minutes. During its descent, the lava continued to melt snow, producing numerous small lahars. At 0550 a second lava flow N of the first also generated lahars. Finally, at about 0600, a third lava flow, which generated a lahar, descended the W slope of the Valle del Bove to the S of the first flow.

Lava fountaining from the pit crater started to diminish around 0525, and at 0535 transitioned into ash emissions alternating with brief jets of incandescent lava. At 0545, one single vent, in the central portion of the NSEC, continued to produce lava fountains about 200 m high. A few minutes later, however, a new lava flow started to descend the lower SE flank of the cone, possibly after the opening of a new eruptive vent in the lower part of the notch cutting that sector of the cone. Surveillance cameras showed brief lava fountaining at that site, before all lava fountaining ceased shortly before 0600. During the interval between 0600 and 0615, the activity was characterized by emission of a dense ash plume with frequent jets of lava and powerful explosions, which launched large glowing bombs beyond the summit of the old Southeast Crater cone. After 0615 only ash emission persisted. At 0622 a puff of ash was emitted from the Bocca Nuova; shortly thereafter, ash emissions from the NSEC diminished notably and became discontinuous; the last, weak puffs of ash were observed around 0710. Slow lava emissions continued for a few more hours from the lowermost vent, which had opened shortly after 0547 on the SE flank of the cone. During the late afternoon of 19 February, small ash puffs were again emitted from the Bocca Nuova. Tephra fell in a narrow area extending from the NSEC towards the E, including Milo and Fornazzo (10 km E), Giarre (16 km E) and Riposto (18 km E).

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]  | Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia)  | 45.012°N, 147.871°E  | Elevation 1158 m

Based on visual observations, SVERT reported that on 16 February an ash-and-gas plume from Grozny Group rose 3 km a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

Based on INSIVUMEH notices, CONRED reported that explosions at Pacaya detected on 13 February were accompanied by rumbling. No material was ejected. The next day a diffuse white plume rose 200 m and drifted W and SW. Rumbling was heard in San Francisco de Sales (5 km N) and San Vicente Pacaya (5 km NW).

Sources: Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

CVGHM reported that activity at Paluweh during October 2012-January 2013 was characterized by lava-dome growth, incandescent avalanches, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km above the dome, and ejected material deposited 3 km away. The whole island was affected by ashfall, which was an average of 2 cm thick on some areas. Some infrastructure and several homes were damaged by ash and lahars.

On 1 February at 1652 an eruption generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. Pyroclastic flows and avalanches were observed. On 2 February an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 4 km and was accompanied by booms and rumbling. The ash plume drifted S and deposited ashfall up to 1 mm thick in Ende (60 km S); thick ashfall was reported in Ona (SE part of the island) and thin deposits were reported in other areas of the island to the W, N, and E. About 25% of the S portion of the dome was lost; the lava-dome volume was an estimated 5.1 million cubic meters on 13 January. On 3 February an ash eruption was observed as well as incandescence from the crater. During 4-10 February diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a 3-km-radius.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km E and NE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 8-15 February activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level, although sulfur dioxide gas flux remained elevated following the activity during 3-6 February. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and one volcano-tectonic earthquake. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Stromboli  | Aeolian Islands (Italy)  | 38.789°N, 15.213°E  | Elevation 924 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that a new phase of intermittent effusive activity at Stromboli, which consisted of small overflows of lava from the crater terrace, began on 8 February and continued until the morning of 17 February. During this interval several episodes of effusive activity occurred in the N and NW sectors of the Sciara del Fuoco, producing lava flows that traveled several tens to a few hundred meters.

Lava overflows ceased on the afternoon of 10 February, but effusive activity resumed in the early morning hours of the next day. On the afternoon of 11 February, three small lava flows were visible on the upper slope of the Sciara del Fuoco; the westernmost flow traveled a few hundred meters. That evening two of these flows remained active and continued to be fed until the morning of 12 February. The more westerly of the flows then stopped, whereas the flow traveling N continued until the early afternoon.

After an interval of non-visibility due to inclement weather conditions, a new lava flow traveled NW in the evening of 12 February. This flow progressively diminished, but was still active at about 1100 on 13 February.

The vent N2, perched on the NW rim of the crater terrace, produced continuous spattering, which also fed a small lava flow parallel to the already active flow. Spattering continued for a few hours, and then diminished during the late afternoon of 14 February. Subsequently, effusive activity diminished considerably, and only very small lava overflows extended a few tens of meters NW. In the morning of 17 February, all effusive activity ceased and mild Strombolian activity resumed.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 12-15 February 16 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected and ejected tephra fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was clearly detected at night.

Based on information from JMA, explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 13-18 February generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Tokyo VAAC reported that pilots observed ash plumes at altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 13 and 15-16 February.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-14 February ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-55 km SW and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that on 13 February ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km N. On 18 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly and weak steam-and-gas emissions from Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, were detected in satellite images during 14-15 February; cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano on other days during 11-18 February. The Aviation Color Code was Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 14-15 February white plumes rose 150 m above Fuego's crater and drifted W and NW. The lava flow traveled 500 m SSW down the Ceniza drainage and produced avalanches. Activity increased on the night of 16 February and was characterized by explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lava flows. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km down the Ceniza drainage. Ash plumes drifted 20 km W and SW, and produced ashfall in Panimache I and Panimache II (8 KM SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Yepocapa (8 km WNW). On 17 February collapses from the lava-flow fronts and pyroclastic flows were observed. Ash plumes rose 3 km and drifted 10 km W and SW. Seismicity decreased. According to the Washington VAAC ash plumes detected in satellite imagery drifted 19 km W, 10 km SW, and 5 km S. INSIVUMEH noted that lava effusion continued and ash fell on the flanks. On 18 February an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted 10 km NE. Two other explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m. Avalanches traveled S and W.

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Karymsky was detected during 8-15 February. Possible ash explosions on 11 February produced an ash plume that rose 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the volcano during 12-13 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 13-19 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was between 25-30 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 13 and 15-17 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched crusted lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flowed from the SE and S spatter cones on 13 February and from the SW cone on 17 February. On 19 February lava flowed from the SW and NE spatter cones. New breakouts occurred on the Kahauale'a lava tube high on the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Multiple lava flows, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, from the lava lake (perched 5-6 m higher than the crater rim) traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance N and E over older flows. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o) and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced towards the coast and produced scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 8-15 February moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing summit incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Manam was observed on 12 February at an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. On 16 February an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Pagan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 18.13°N, 145.8°E  | Elevation 570 m

Satellite imagery showed a plume of gas and water vapor drifting 240 km downwind from Pagan daily during 9-15 February. A USGS team that visited Pagan on 9 February observed a continuous, vigorous plume and noted a sulfur odor downwind of the summit.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 13-19 February seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Observers reported that gas-and-steam plumes drifted NE, E, and SE; a plume rose 1.2 km above the crater on 19 February. During 18-19 February the emissions possibly contained ash. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 8-15 February a viscous lava flow effused on the E flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 8-15 February that traveled to the W, S, and SE sides of the plateau. Four cinder cones continued to grow on the S fissure above Krasny cone. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A very large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tongariro  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.157°S, 175.632°E  | Elevation 1978 m

On 14 February GeoNet reported that Tongariro remained quiet with no eruptive activity being detected since the explosion on 21 November 2012. Steam-and-gas plumes rose from the Te Maari Craters, and were unusually strong during the recent weeks possibly due to weather conditions. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow (second lowest on a 4 four-color scale) and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: GeoNet



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Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

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U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
Contact: USGS Web Team
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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)