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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 10 September-16 September 2014.

 Activity for the week of 10 September-16 September 2014

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Askja Iceland New
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) New
Bardarbunga Iceland New
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) New
Kusatsu-Shiranesan Honshu (Japan) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Nishinoshima Japan New
Slamet Central Java (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Ambrym Vanuatu Ongoing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing

New Activity / Unrest

Volcano index photo  Askja  | Iceland  | 65.033°N, 16.783°W  | Elevation 1080 m

IMO had maintained the Aviation Colour Code for Askja at Yellow since 28 August due to elevated seismicity and localized deformation. On 11 September the Colour Code was reduced to Green when seismicity had diminished significantly.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)

Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that Alert Level 2 at Asosan continued during 8-16 September. A persistent white plume was observed 1,000 m above the crater.

Preliminary counts for volcanic earthquakes (394-564 per day) and tremor (80-174 per day) were reported during 8-15 September. Field surveys conducted on 9 and 12 September yielded elevated temperatures from fumaroles and the surface of the S crater wall.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

Volcano index photo  Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.633°N, 17.516°W  | Elevation 2000 m

During 10-16 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Lava flows continued to advance at a consistent rate toward the E and W, and by 13 September, the lava field measured 24.5 km2. The main flow had entered the river bed of Jökulsá á Fjöllum and continued to follow its course; steam rose from the river where the lava was in contact but no explosive activity occurred. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárðarbunga caldera; approximately 23 m of total subsidence was measured during a survey on 14 September.

Seismicity persisted mainly around the caldera and the Dyngjujökull glacier. The largest earthquakes, M 5.5, M 5.3, and M 5.0, were detected on 10, 11, and 15 September respectively.

IMO reported continued elevated SO2 emissions during 10-16 September and issued warnings to the public in the municipality of Fjarðarbyggð on 13 September.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)

Volcano index photo  Kuchinoerabujima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 30.443°N, 130.217°E  | Elevation 657 m

During 8-16 September JMA reported that Alert Level 3 conditions persisted at Kuchinoerabujima, but no eruptive activity was observed. Low-level seismicity continued and tremor was absent. White plumes were visible on webcamera images rising 800 m from the crater during 8-12 September and to 600 m during 13-16 September. A field survey on 12 September measured SO2 emissions that were similar to pre-eruptive levels (300 tons/day).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

Volcano index photo  Kusatsu-Shiranesan  | Honshu (Japan)  | 36.618°N, 138.528°E  | Elevation 2165 m

During 5-12 September JMA maintained Alert Level 2 for Kusatsu-Shiranesan due to continued unrest. GPS measurements indicated inflation, although thermal anomalies had been absent since July. Volcanic earthquakes continued at a low level (a maximum of 3 per day) and tremor was absent.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported Mayon’s earthquakes, rockfall events, and an inflationary trend from leveling surveys on 15 September. A noticeable escalation occurred later that day, including 39 rockfall events and 32 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes. Crater glow became visible around 2000 and PHIVOLCS released an informational bulletin at 2200 announcing Alert Level 3. On 16 September incandescent rockfalls spread to the upper reaches of Bonga Gully on the SE flank.

News reports highlighted the evacuation orders announced by the governor of Albay province, which included the 6 km permanent danger zone surrounding the volcano; an assisted evacuation was enforced for the 6-8 km extended danger zone. In an interview with the press, the governor noted that some residents had already fled their homes in Guinobatan (11.8 km SW) on the evening of 15 September.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), ABS-CBN News

Volcano index photo  Nishinoshima  | Japan  | 27.247°N, 140.874°E  | Elevation 25 m

The Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume from Nishinoshima that rose to an altitude of about 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 16 September.

The University of Hawaii reported that satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) resulted in frequent MODVOLC alerts for Nishinoshima, as recently as 11 September.

Sources: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team, Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)

Volcano index photo  Slamet  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.242°S, 109.208°E  | Elevation 3428 m

PVMBG reported explosive activity from Slamet during 4-12 September. During the past week, activity peaked with incandescent explosions; rumbling sounds were heard by scientists at the Slamet observation post. On 11 September the largest ash plume was observed (200-1,500 m above the summit) and incandescent plumes reached 400 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by emissions and explosion signals. Deformation data indicated that relatively little pressure was accumulating due to magma movement. PVMBG maintained the Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)

Ongoing Activity

Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

During 8-16 September JMA maintained Alert Level 3 for Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano. Volcanic earthquakes and tremor were detected during this time period. There were 12 explosions that ejected tephra up to 1,300 m above Showa crater. Sustained eruptions from the crater were recorded on 10 and 11 September and nighttime incandescence was detected during 11-16 September.

During 10-16 September JMA reported ash eruptions, causing the Tokyo VAAC to issue regular advisories; however, ash was not visible in satellite images.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)

Volcano index photo  Ambrym  | Vanuatu  | 16.25°S, 168.12°E  | Elevation 1334 m

On 11 September, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported increased seismicity from Ambrym and raised the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)

Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT maintained Alert Level Yellow during the week of 12 September for Bezymianny. Weak seismic activity continued, and according to video data, moderate gas and steam activity occurred, although the volcano was frequently obscured by clouds. Satellite data showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano during 4-5 and 11 September.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)

Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

During 1 to 16 September thermal anomalies were detected from Chirpoi in satellite images when clear conditions permitted. On 4 September SVERT increased the Aviation Color Code from Green to Yellow due to renewed activity including thermal anomalies. Gas-and-steam plumes were visible on 11 and 15-16 September.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)

Volcano index photo  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

On 14 September SERNAGEOMIN reported elevated seismicity from Copahue. A seismic swarm occurred during 1200-1900 comprising 389 LP earthquakes; epicenters were within the crater area and hypocenters were at depths less than 3 km. SERNAGEOMIN noted that this unrest was similar to that from May and October 2013. Web cameras located nearby captured a persistent vapor plume that reached ~250 m above the crater and drifted ~700 m ENE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)

Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

During 10-16 September INSIVUMEH reported that white fumarolic plumes rose 200-600 m above Fuego’s summit. Variable explosions generated ash plumes 500-1,00 m above the summit; during 24-hour periods there were daily counts of 28, 32, 21, 12, 0, 8, and 11. The lava flow was active within the Ceniza drainage (SSW) on 13 September and had extended 100 m.

Moderate rumbling was heard and shockwaves caused roofs to shake on some houses near the volcano. On 10-13, 15, and 16 September incandescent plumes were observed 100-200 m above the crater.

Weak avalanches were frequently channeled into the drainages of Ceniza, Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa (W), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda (E) during 10-16 September.

During 10-13 and 15 September fine gray ash from explosions fell over the areas of Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (10 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and others. During 14 September ashfall was reported in Yepocapa (8 km WNW), Panimaché, Sangre de Cristo, Morelia, and others. During 16 September ashfall was reported in Alotenango (8 km ENE), Antigua (18 km NE), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), and other areas.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)

Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate-to-weak seismic activity continued at Karymsky and maintained Yellow Alert during the week of 12 September. On 10 September satellite data showed an ash plume at that extended about 100 km SE. The volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days of week.

According to the Tokyo VAAC, ash plumes were detected by satellite images during 10 and 16 September. Plume heights were 2,100-3,000 m (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l..

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)

Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 10-16 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining 50-60 m below the Overlook Crater rim. Elevated gas emissions were detected during the week of 9 September, with amounts of 3,300-6,700 tonnes per day, and persisted through this reporting period. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have fallen several kilometers away.

During 10-16 September little change was recorded from Pu`u `O`o; glow was visible overnight above several outgassing openings in the crater floor. By 16 September the NE-trending lava flow extended 15.5 km from the vent, placing the active flow front within the NW portion of the Kaohe Homesteads, a vacant forested portion of the subdivision. The flow had advanced at an average rate of 215 m/day between 12 and 15 September and continued to generate smoke and localized fires as it spread through the forest.

The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

During 10-16 September INSIVUMEH reported that a weak fumarolic plume was frequently visible rising 50-75 m above the summit of Pacaya. The plume tended to drift 500-600 m S, SW, and W. On 14 September, B-type earthquakes were detected associated with gas emissions.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)

Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

During 10-16 September CENAPRED maintained Alert Level Yellow Phase 2 for Popocatepetl. Nighttime incandescence from the crater was visible during this time. Low-intensity exhalations were observed during 24-hour periods with consecutive daily counts of 31, 5, 7, 36, 64, 36, and 1. VT earthquakes of magnitude 1.9 and 2.2 was detected on 11 and 13 September, respectively. Weather conditions frequently prevented visual observations.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)

Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported moderate volcanic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and tremor at Reventador during 10-16 September. On 10 September continuous steam with minor ash plumes rose 1,000 m above the summit and drifted NW. Cloudy conditions frequently obscured views of the summit.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)

Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

During 10-16 September INSIVUMEH reported white fumarolic plumes rising 150-500 m above Santa Maria’s active cone, Santiaguito. The active lava flow on the E flank continued to generate ash plumes and incandescence. On 14 September INSIVUMEH observed that the lava flow advancing within the Nimá 1 drainage had reached a total of 3,500 m from the summit.

INSIVUMEH reported hot lahars in the drainages of Cabello de Ángel and Río Nimá 1 on 11 September. Tree trunks and branches were entrained and the flow was 20 m wide and 2 m deep. Moderate vibrations could be felt from the ground as it passed the observatory; sulfur odors were also noticed.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)

Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that the explosive and effusive eruption of Shiveluch continued and maintained Alert Level Orange during the week of 12 September. Activity was dominated by lava dome growth on the SE flank, moderate ash explosions, fumarolic activity, and hot avalanches. Satellite data showed a persistent thermal anomaly from the dome region during 4-5, 7 and 11 September. Remobilized ash was observed in a dust plume on 11 September that rose 1-2 km (3,280-6,562 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)

Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that low-level seismicity and eruptive activity continued from Shishaldin during 10-16 September. Observations were frequently restricted due to cloudy conditions, although elevated temperatures were observed on 15 September in one satellite image.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)

Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported moderate volcanic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and tremor at Tungurahua during 10-16 September. On 10 September a minor ash plume was visible drifting SE from the summit. Ahfall was reported in the area of Quero (20 km NW) and Tisaleo (29 km NW) on 10 September. In the morning of 11 September, small explosions were reported that generated rockfalls on the flanks. Moderate rainfall on 12 and 15 September generated lahars within the NW drainages of Achupashal and La Pampa. Light ashfall was reported from Cusúa (~8 km NW of the summit) on 16 September and, during clear viewing conditions, snowfall was noted on Tungurahua’s upper flanks. Cloudy conditions frequently obscured views of the summit.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)

Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

During 10-16 September IGP reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing and maintained Alert Level Orange. On 10 September there were 15 explosions with plumes 900-1,700 m above the crater and 10 exhalation events; on 11 September there was one explosion with a plume 3,000 m above the crater and 8 exhalation events (600-900 m above the crater). There were no explosions or exhalations during 12-16 September, although seismicity (LP, VT, and hybrid earthquakes) continued except on 13 September when hybrid earthquakes were absent.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)

Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported ashfall from Zhupanovsky in the area of IVS FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky) during 1100-1300 on 7-8 September. The moderate explosive eruption continued and Alert Level Orange was maintained through the week of 12 September. According to visual data, ash plumes extended about 50 and 70 km S and SE of the volcano on 10 and 11 September, respectively. Persistent thermal anomalies were detected from the summit area based on satellite images during 4-5 and 10-11 September.

Satellite data showed ash plumes up to 3.5-4.0 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. mainly during 9-11 September, and ash plumes drifted about 1,113 km SE and S.

According to the Tokyo VAAC, ash plumes were detected by satellite images during 10-16 September with the exception of 15 September. Plume heights were 2,400-3,700 m (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l..

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)

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Agung Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sotara
Ahyi Concepcion Ibu Lewotolo Parker Soufriere Hills
Aira Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Akan Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Alaid Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo Spurr
Alu-Dalafilla Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Ambae Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Stromboli
Ambang Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Ambrym Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Anatahan Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Sundoro
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suretamatai
Antuco Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Suwanosejima
Apoyeque Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Taal
Arenal Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Tair, Jebel at
Asamayama Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Takawangha
Askja Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Talang
Asosan Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tambora
Augustine Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tanaga
Avachinsky Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Awu Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Axial Seamount Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Azul, Cerro Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Tara, Batu
Azumayama Fogo Kavachi Merapi Ruang Telica
Bagana Fonualei Kelimutu Midagahara Ruapehu Tenerife
Balbi Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Bamus Fourpeaked Kerinci Miyakejima Sabancaya Three Sisters
Banda Api Fuego Ketoi Momotombo Sakar Tinakula
Bardarbunga Fujisan Kharimkotan Monowai Salak Tofua
Barren Island Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Batur Galeras Kikai Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Bezymianny Galunggung Kilauea Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Bogoslof Gamalama Kirishimayama Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Brava Gamkonora Kizimen Nabro Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Turrialba
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ubinas
Calbuco Great Sitkin Korovin Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Callaqui Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Cayambe Guntur Kuchinoerabujima NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Cereme Hachijojima Kurikomayama Nyamuragira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Nyiragongo Sheveluch Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Okataina Shishaldin Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Lamington Okmok Simbo Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Ontakesan Sinabung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Oraefajokull Sinarka Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Osorno Siple Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pacaya Sirung Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Pagan Slamet Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Soputan
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Sorikmarapi
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 Criteria & Disclaimers


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)