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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 2 December-8 December 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 2 December-8 December 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Momotombo Nicaragua New
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New

Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Rinjani Lombok Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV reported that after a progressive intensification of activity during the evening of 2 December, an eruption at Etna's Voragine Crater peaked between 0330 and 0410 on 3 December. During the peak period sustained lava fountains rose over 1 km above the crater with some jets of hot material rising 3 km high. An ash plume rose several kilometers high and drifted NE, causing ashfall in Linguaglossa, Francavilla di Sicilia, Milazzo, Messina, and Reggio Calabria. Activity had almost ceased by dawn. This event was among the largest in the last 20 years, similar to large events occurring at the same crater on 22 July 1998 and 4 September 1999.

At about 1000 on 4 December renewed activity at Voragine Crater was characterized by tall lava fountains and an ash plume that rose 7-8 km high. The ash plume had a mushrooming top and produced deposits of coarse-grained pyroclastic material on the upper SW flank above 2 km elevation. Ashfall was reported in Giarre-Zafferana Etnea on the E flank. The activity was accompanied by frequent ash emissions from a new pit crater that had recently opened on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Two more events occurred at Voragine Crater during 4-5 December, between 2130 and 2215 on 4 December and 1555 and 1635 on 5 December, again producing tall lava fountains and many-kilometer-high ash plumes.

During the evening of 5 December activity at Voragine Crater progressively diminished. Between 0300 and 0400 on 6 December surveillance cameras recorded the onset of vigorous Strombolian activity from the vent on the E flank of the NSEC cone. Repeated collapses of both old and new material from the cone's flank generated hot avalanches that traveled a few hundred meters E towards the Valle del Bove. Ongoing effusive activity through the day produced two lava flows; one advanced NE for less than 1 km and the other advanced E. Strombolian activity continued through the evening. On 7 December a second vent on the E part of NSEC was also active, and the main lava flow had advanced 4 km. During the early morning hours of 8 December Strombolian activity progressively diminished and then ended. Later that afternoon weak Strombolian activity and ash emission were observed at the Northeast Crater.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Momotombo  | Nicaragua  | 12.423°N, 86.539°W  | Elevation 1270 m

Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

PVMBG reported that during 15 November-4 December white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose as high as 150 m above the crater, and an intense sulfur dioxide odor was noted at the Bromo observation post. On 15, 23, and 27 November dense ash plumes rose 150 m above the crater rim. RSAM values increased at the beginning of November, and then sharply increased in the beginning of December. Based on seismic analysis, visual observations, and hazard potential, the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 4 December. Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the crater within a radius of 2.5 km.

Based on information from PVMBG and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5 and 7-8 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-185 km W, SW, S, and SE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported moderate eruptive activity at Zhupanovsky during 27 November-4 December. Explosions on 27 and 30 November generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 300 km E and SE. Pyroclastic flow deposits 15.5 km long were observed on the S flank after the 30 November event. Weak thermal anomalies were detected in satellite images over the crater on both of those days, and in the area of the pyroclastic flow deposits on 30 November and 3 December.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

On 7 December SVERT reported that the Aviation Color Code for Chirinkotan had been lowered to Green.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, revealed a thermal anomaly during 1-3 and 6 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam images, and notices from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-7 December ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.6-7.6 km (15,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted multiple directions.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cotopaxi  | Ecuador  | 0.677°S, 78.436°W  | Elevation 5911 m

IG reported that during 2-8 December seismic activity at Cotopaxi was characterized by volcano-tectonic, hybrid, and long-period events. Signals indicating emissions and explosions were also detected. Although cloud cover often prevented observations, gas-and-steam emissions were visible daily. A plume containing ash rose as high as 1 km and drifted NW on 7 December.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-5 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-165 km in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported during 25 November-3 December that the lava dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white emissions rose as high as 300 m above Main Crater. RSAM values had been stable since 6 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Karymsky continued during 27 November-4 December. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 27 November and 3 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 2-8 December. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Lokon-Empung  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.358°N, 124.792°E  | Elevation 1580 m

Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 26 November-3 December observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater), saw white plumes rising as high as 350 m above the crater. Seismicity fluctuated, but the seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) showed a gradually increasing trend. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 2.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Rinjani  | Lombok Island (Indonesia)  | 8.42°S, 116.47°E  | Elevation 3726 m

Based on satellite and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 and 5 December ash plumes from Rinjani rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-110 km SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 27 November-4 December lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images detected a daily and intense thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SE. On 7 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
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Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
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Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)