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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 6 April-12 April 2016.


















 Activity for the week of 6 April-12 April 2016

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Kerinci Indonesia New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Langila New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New
Pavlof United States New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Sangay Ecuador New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Masaya Nicaragua Ongoing
Momotombo Nicaragua Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Telica Nicaragua Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Kerinci  | Indonesia  | 1.697°S, 101.264°E  | Elevation 3800 m

Based on a pilot observation and reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 April ash plumes from Kerinci rose to altitudes of 4-4.3 km (13,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that Strombolian explosions and gas-and-steam emission continued to be observed at Klyuchevskoy during 3-8 April. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly during 1 and 5-7 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Langila  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.525°S, 148.42°E  | Elevation 1330 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 April ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Pavlof  | United States  | 55.417°N, 161.894°W  | Elevation 2493 m

On 6 April AVO stated that the eruption at Pavlof had ended; during the previous week satellite images indicated no signs of ash emissions or lava effusion, and seismicity was at low levels. Thermal anomalies at the summit were occasionally visible though likely indicating cooling processes of previously erupted lava. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level to Advisory.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

During 6-12 April there were 38-136 emissions from Popocatépetl and as many as six explosions detected daily; some emissions corresponded with increased crater incandescence. Periods of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were detected during 6-8 April. An explosion at 0111 on 9 April produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted NE, and ejected incandescent fragments 300 m away onto the E flank. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 April an ash plume from Sangay drifted over 35 km NW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 4-8 April the seismic network at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano detected four explosions at Showa Crater, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim. One of the explosions, recorded at 1333 on 6 April, produced an ash plume that rose 3.5 km. An explosion at 1922 on 8 April generated an ash plume that rose 3.7 km and ejected cinders as far as 1.3 km away. Small-scale explosions occurred at Minamidake summit crater on 5, 6, and 9 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Alaid  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 50.861°N, 155.565°E  | Elevation 2285 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 1-8 April. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. A gas-and-steam plume containing minor amounts of ash drifted about 40 km SW on 1 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, during 4-5 and 7 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam images, and notices from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 6-8 April ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 5.8-6.1 km (19,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE and NE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 110 km in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

In a special bulletin from 7 April, INSIVUMEH reported that moderate and strong explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose 850-1,050 m and drifted 15 km SW. The explosions were heard in areas as far as 20 km away, and were accompanied by shock waves that vibrated structures within a 12-km radius. Rumbling was heard in Santa Lucia Cotzulmaguapa (20 km SW). Ash fell in local areas including Panimache and Panimache II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). During 7-8 April gray ash plumes from explosions rose as high as 950 m and drifted 15 km W and SW. Rumbling noises and detectable shock waves continued. Incandescent material was ejected 250 m high and generated avalanches down the Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. A high level of activity continued during 9-12 April; five to six explosions per hour were detected during 9-10 April. Dense ash plumes rose over 1 km high and drifted 15 km SW. Ashfall was noted in multiple villages including San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km N), Panimaché, and Sangre de Cristo. Shock waves vibrated structures within 15 km, and rumbling was heard 30 km away. At night block avalanches were seen reaching vegetated areas on the flanks. During 11-12 April incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, causing avalanches down the Las Lajas, Trinidad, Santa Teresa, Taniluyá, and Ceniza (SSW) drainages.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 1-8 April. Satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 1 and 6 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 6-12 April. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The lava lake dropped during a deflationary event that began on 4 April and, by 7 April, was 52 m below the crater floor, the deepest it has been since 30 December 2015. On 7 April at 0147 a large part of the inner crater wall fell into the lake. The deflationary event lasted for about four days. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 7.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Masaya  | Nicaragua  | 11.985°N, 86.165°W  | Elevation 594 m

INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



Volcano index photo  Momotombo  | Nicaragua  | 12.423°N, 86.539°W  | Elevation 1270 m

INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 1-8 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and an ash plume that drifted 65 km SE on 2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6, 8-10, and 12 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.8 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and WNW.

On 10 April BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung has not shown any signs of ceasing since the onset of activity in September 2013. Activity remained high, characterized by almost daily lava extrusion and pyroclastic flows, and high levels of seismicity. Four events on 10 April generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km. BNPB noted that although there were no new evacuees that day, 9,322 people (2,592 families) remained in 10 evacuation centers. Many families awaited relocation; 1,212 people had already been permanently relocated to new homes. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was reminded to stay outside of a 3-km radius. People within 7 km of the volcano in the SSE sector, within 6 km in the ESE sector, and within 4 km in the NNE sector should remain evacuated.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

PVMBG reported that during 4-11 April diffuse white plumes from Soputan rose as high as 100 m above the crater and drifted E. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating avalanches and emissions; avalanche signals became less intense as compared to the previous week. A few volcanic and shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected during 6 and 9-10 April. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km. [Correction; the Alert Level remained at 3.]

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Telica  | Nicaragua  | 12.606°N, 86.84°W  | Elevation 1036 m

INETER reported that during 6-11 April micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and lava in a vent on the crater floor was observed. Gas emissions were at low to moderate levels and RSAM values were low.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

Based on satellite images, wind data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-8 and 10-12 April ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, WSW, and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that at Zhupanovsky no activity was observed after an explosion on 24 March. A very weak thermal anomaly was detected over the volcano in satellite images on 1 and 10 April. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow won 13 April.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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Agung Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sotara
Ahyi Concepcion Ibu Lewotolo Parker Soufriere Hills
Aira Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Akan Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Alaid Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo Spurr
Alu-Dalafilla Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Ambae Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Stromboli
Ambang Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Ambrym Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Anatahan Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Sundoro
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suretamatai
Antuco Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Suwanosejima
Apoyeque Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Taal
Arenal Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Tair, Jebel at
Asamayama Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Takawangha
Askja Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Talang
Asosan Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tambora
Augustine Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tanaga
Avachinsky Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Awu Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Axial Seamount Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Azul, Cerro Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Tara, Batu
Azumayama Fogo Kavachi Merapi Ruang Telica
Bagana Fonualei Kelimutu Midagahara Ruapehu Tenerife
Balbi Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Bamus Fourpeaked Kerinci Miyakejima Sabancaya Three Sisters
Banda Api Fuego Ketoi Momotombo Sakar Tinakula
Bardarbunga Fujisan Kharimkotan Monowai Salak Tofua
Barren Island Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Batur Galeras Kikai Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Bezymianny Galunggung Kilauea Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Bogoslof Gamalama Kirishimayama Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Brava Gamkonora Kizimen Nabro Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Turrialba
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ubinas
Calbuco Great Sitkin Korovin Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Callaqui Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Cayambe Guntur Kuchinoerabujima NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Cereme Hachijojima Kurikomayama Nyamuragira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Nyiragongo Sheveluch Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Okataina Shishaldin Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Lamington Okmok Simbo Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Ontakesan Sinabung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Oraefajokull Sinarka Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Osorno Siple Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pacaya Sirung Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Pagan Slamet Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Soputan
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Sorikmarapi
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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)