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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 9 December-15 December 2020
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) 2018 Sep 25 New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2021 Apr 3 New
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 New
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 New
Telica Nicaragua New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,844 individual reports over 1,072 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 311 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague Spurr
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo St. Helens
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Taal
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antuco Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Takawangha
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Talang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Tambora
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tanaga
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asosan Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Awu Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Telica
Axial Seamount Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Bagana Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Tinakula
Balbi Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tofua
Bamus Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tokachidake
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Toliman
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Tongariro
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tungurahua
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Turrialba
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Ubinas
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bulusan Great Sitkin Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Osorno Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Papandayan Sotara
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Parker Soufriere Hills
Concepcion Ibu Lewotolok Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Barren Island
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 December an ash plume from Barren Island rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Karymsky
At 2045 on 9 December explosions at Karymsky generated ash plumes that rose 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km NW, prompting KVERT to raise the Alert Level to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Explosions continued the next day; ash plumes drifted 220 km NW, W, and SW. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 4, 8, and 10 December.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolo continued during 9-15 December. Black, gray, and brown ash plumes were visible daily, rising as high as 1 km above the summit. Strombolian explosions were visible most nights ejecting material above the summit crater. The Alert Level was remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that during 4-10 December white emissions from Merapi rose as high as 400 m above the summit. Rock avalanches traveled around 200 m down the Lamat drainage on the W flank. A comparison of photos taken on 29 November and 8 December showed some morphological changes in the summit area; drone footage from 5 December revealed no new lava dome material in the summit crater. Seismic activity was less intense than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data continued to measure a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 9 cm per day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Telica
INETER reported that there were two small ash-and-gas explosions at Telica recorded during 8-9 December, making a total of 1,315 small explosions recorded since the latest activity began 30 November. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim.
Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 7-14 December incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly and the sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high. Three explosions during 7-11 December produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. An eruptive event at 0514 on 14 December produced a plume that rose 1.8 km and blended into weather clouds. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 December ash plumes from Dukono rose 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-9 December that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that during 7-12 December activity at Etna was similar to the previous week, characterized by intra-crater Strombolian activity at Northeast Crater (NEC), and Strombolian activity, lava effusion, and pyroclastic flows at the Southeast Crater (SEC). Additionally, infrequent ash emissions at the Bocca Nuova (BN) craters and some explosions and minor ash emissions at the Voragine (VOR) were also recorded. Webcam views of activity was limited due to weather conditions; a field visit was made on 14 December.

Strombolian activity originated from the E and central vents at SEC ejected lava onto the inner crater walls. Occasional ash emissions dispersed quickly near the summit. Activity intensified at 2020 on 13 December and lava fountains formed around 2300. Collapses of the SW part of the SEC cone spurred a series of pyroclastic flows. At 2315 a small pyroclastic flow traveled down the SSW flank. A second pyroclastic flow began at 2316 and traveled 2 km down the SSW flank and covered Monte Frumento Supino cone (SSW). At 2330 a third and minor pyroclastic flow traveled SSW. Around the same time as the generation of the first two pyroclastic flows, two fissures opened on the SW flank of the SEC and produced lava flows to the S and SW until about 2350. A period of lava fountaining was visible during 0050-0110 and 0210-0223 on 14 December.

During a field inspection on 14 December scientists confirmed the partial cone collapses and noted that the two lava flows (S and SW) were cooling. The S lava flow had widened at the near the base of SEC and formed four lobes. One of the lobes continued on and stopped just NW of cones that had formed in 2002-2003. The SW flow traveled SSW, branched, curved around the W part of Monte Frumento Supino, and then stopped. Explosive activity from central SEC vent continued, with roaring and sporadic ash emissions. An explosion at 1352 formed an ash plume that rose about 4 km and drifted S. Strombolian explosions deposited material outside of the crater.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 3-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 8-15 December at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 10-25 km generally S, SW, and W. Shock waves rattled buildings within 20 km of the summit. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Incandescent material was occasionally ejected 100-200 m. Ashfall was reported most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Kirishimayama
JMA noted that no eruption had occurred at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) since 28 June 2018. Volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake had increased around 17 November 2019, fluctuated afterwards, and then began a decreasing trend in mid-October 2020. Sulfur dioxide levels were generally low, deformation data showed no changes, and both fumarolic and geothermal area activity remained stable. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) on 11 December.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that Strombolian and Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 4-7 December and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km NW and NE. The Aviation Color Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 December a new lava flow emerged from a vent S of Cerro Chino, NNW of Pacaya’s summit, and traveled as far as 250 m WSW. The branched lava flow which had opened in October on the WSW flank was active, with lengths between 400 and 600 m. Avalanches of material from the new flow and the SW-flank lava flows descended 100 m. Strombolian explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater were visible on most days during 9-15 December and ejected material as high as 150 m above the vent. Gray ash plumes were occasionally visible drifting S, SW, and W at generally low altitudes. On 12 December strong winds picked up ash deposits and created ash curtains that drifted 1.5 km away and dispersed. Lava flows on the SW flank varied in length between 500 m and 1,000 m. The NW-flank lava flow ceased effusing by 13 December.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 54 explosions at Sabancaya during 7-13 December. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the summit and drifted NW, W, and SW. Eight thermal anomalies over the crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N) and on the SE flank. INGEMMET stated that ashfall was noted in the towns of Cabanaconde (22 km NW), Pinchollo (20 km N), and Madrigal (20 km NE) during 9-10 December. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-15 December explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the complex. The extrusion of blocky lava at the WSW part of Caliente dome generated block-and-ash flows that descended the NW, WSW, SW, and E flanks often reaching the base of the complex. The activity increased at 0430 on 11 December with notable avalanches of material and block-and-ash flows lava dome traveling down the W and SW flanks. Ash plumes drifted 15 km SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Finca Montebello, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajunoj. Activity remained elevated at least through 13 December; ash plumes drifted as far as 20 km W, SW, and S, and pyroclastic flows descended the flanks.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 9-15 December. Incandescent material was ejected 50-100 m above the summit on 9 December and rock avalanches descended the Kobokan drainage 500 m on the SE flank. Explosions were recorded by the seismic network during 10-12 December but they could not be visually confirmed due to weather conditions. On 13 December a pyroclastic flow originating from the end of a lava flow traveled 1.5 km down the Kembar drainage (S flank), reaching a maximum distance of 3.5 km from the crater. The next day a pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the Kobokan drainage. Rock avalanches from the end of a lava flow traveled 300-1,500 m down both drainages during 14-15 December. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 4-11 December. The lava block, named “Dolphin,” which had emerged in the E part of the summit lava dome, was absent in an 8 December photo of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Volcanoes of Kurile-Kamchatka Island Arc Information System (VOKKIA) Geoportal
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 4-11 December. A total of 20 explosions were recorded, ejecting bombs up to 500 m away from the crater and producing gray-and-white plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
POVI reported that during an over-flight of Villarrica on 9 December scientists observed a small lava lake, 10-15 m in diameter, partially covered by floating black solidified lava. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone of 500 m around the crater.
Sources: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)