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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 31 March-6 April 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 New
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Iceland New
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days New
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days New
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 New
Veniaminof United States New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 Continuing
Gareloi United States Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Langila New Britain (Papua New Guinea) 2015 Oct 22 (?) Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Continuing
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 Continuing
Soufriere St. Vincent St. Vincent Continuing
Tanaga Andreanof Islands (USA) Continuing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Continuing
Ubinas Peru Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,119 individual reports over 1,085 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 316 different volcanoes.

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Agung Concepcion Ijen Little Sitkin Peuet Sague Spurr
Ahyi Copahue Iliamna Llaima Pinatubo St. Helens
Aira Cotopaxi Iliwerung Loihi Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Akan Cuicocha Inielika Lokon-Empung Poas Sulu Range
Alaid Cumbal Ioto Lopevi Popocatepetl Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Irazu Machin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Makian Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kambalny Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Egon Kanaga Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Epi Karangetang Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erta Ale Karthala Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Etna Karymsky Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Fernandina Katmai Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fogo Kavachi Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fonualei Kelimutu Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fourpeaked Kerinci Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fuego Ketoi Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fujisan Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Galeras Kikai Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galunggung Kilauea Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Gamalama Kirishimayama Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamkonora Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gareloi Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gaua Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gorely Korovin Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Great Sitkin Koryaksky Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Grimsvotn Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Cayambe Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chaiten Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Siple Yasur
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Panarea Sorikmarapi
Ciremai Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Papandayan Sotara
Cleveland Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Parker Soufriere Hills
Colima Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Ibu Lewotolok Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that explosions at 1130 on 4 April likely caused ash plumes to rise to 8.5 km (27,900 ft) a.s.l. above Karymsky and drift NE, based on satellite data. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Krysuvik-Trolladyngja
IMO reported that the small eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 31 March-6 April. Video and visitor photographs showed spattering and lava fountaining from the two cones, and lava flows from both cones moved W and S within the Geldingadalur valley. A new fissure, 100-200 m long, opened about 700 m NE of the Geldingadalur cones around noon on 5 April. During a helicopter overflight, scientists observed a gas plume rising from the new fissure and a fast-moving lava flow descending into the Meradalir valley to the SE. On 6 April lava from the second fissure was advancing at a rate of 7 cubic meters per second; lava-flow rates at the Geldingadalir site averaged 5.5 cubic meters per second. Around midnight during 6-7 April a third fissure opened in between the first two; all three were oriented NE-SW. Earlier on 6 April field teams had observed a landslide in same area. Lava from the third fissure mostly flowed SW into Geldingadalur. The Aviation Color Code remained Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Icelandic Coast Guard
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater during 30-31 March produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 1.8 km above the summit and drifted up to 50 km S, SW, W, and NW. Explosions ejected blocks as high as 150 m above the summit. Lava flows on the W flank advanced to 3 km long and were near La Breña; the flows overtook an unoccupied building on the Campo Alegre farm that was used for monitoring and visitor services. The flow front was about 500 m from the town of El Patrocinio. Incandescent blocks detached from the end of the lava flow and set fire to vegetation. During 31 March-2 April explosions ejected incandescent blocks as high as 225 m above the summit. Ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted 20 km S and SW. The SW-flank lava flows remained active. Explosions continued during 3-6 April, with ash plumes rising as high as 1 km and drifting 6-20 km W, SW, and S. The lava flow continued to be active on the SW flank, setting fire to local vegetation. Strombolian activity ejected material 300 m high during 5-6 April.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that a small plume from Semisopochnoi’s North Cerberus crater was visible in a satellite image on 31 March. Steam obscured the crater during the first part of 1 April. Later that day an ash plume was visible, and was followed by a sulfur dioxide plume an hour later. At 2200 a plume rose to an altitude below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. No activity was identified in partly cloudy images during 2-6 April. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that during 30-31 March large volcanic bombs were ejected at least 41 times from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater as high as 800 m above the crater rim and to distances as far as 1 km. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale) at 0330 on 31 March and the public was warned to stay outside a 2 km radius of the crater. The increased activity prompted an overflight that same day where scientists confirmed several hundred high-temperature bomb deposits with a thermal camera within a 1 km radius. Explosions at 2205 on 30 March and 0257 on 31 March ejected bombs onto the S and SE flanks, respectively. Grayish-white emissions rose from the crater. After 1500 eruption plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim. The number of explosions decreased; two per day were recorded during 1-2 April and one was recorded on 3 April. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 5 April and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Veniaminof
AVO reported that during 31 March-1 April clear satellite and web camera images of Veniaminof showed no signs of emissions. On 2 April the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Satellite data showed elevated surface temperatures, especially over the flank-vent lava flows through 4 April. Low-level ash emissions were recorded by the webcam on 5 April, prompting AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code to Watch and Orange, respectively. Tephra deposits were visible to the SE.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 29-30 March explosions at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 600-900 m away. An explosion was recorded on 4 April. An explosion at 0641 on 5 April ejected bombs 800-1,100 m away from the crater and generated an ash plume that rose up to 3 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 March-6 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and SSE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25 and 28-29 March that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km a.s.l. (8,200 ft) and drifted in different directions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining, intra-crater explosive activity, and discontinuous ash emissions at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) during the week of 29 March-4 April, though weather conditions often prevented visual observations. Gas emissions rose from the other summit craters and occasional explosive activity was visible; puffs of ash sometimes rose from Voragine Crater during 31 March-2 April.

At 0707 on 31 March a loud explosion was followed by several ash puffs, marking the beginning of the 17th lava-fountaining episode since they began on 16 February. At around 1100 a thermal anomaly at the S base of SEC was visible during an overflight and in thermal camera images. Explosive activity increased by late afternoon and several lava flows effused from the S-base vent. The main part of the flow traveled towards the Valle del Bove with other smaller flows traveled S and SW. Two other vents at the S base had opened by evening and one ejected spatter a few tens of meters high. Periods of lava fountaining began through the night, and the main lava flow descended the W wall of the Valle del Bove. Strombolian activity intensified at 1950, with an eruption plume that rose to 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. Lava fountaining began at around 0100 on 1 April. At 0218 lava overflowed the E rim of SEC and headed towards the Valle del Bove, running parallel to the flows from the S base.

Lava fountains continued to be visible during the morning of 1 April and intense Strombolian activity produced dense ash plumes that drifted S. By 0940 the eruption plume had risen to 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. Lava fountaining ceased around 1000 and the eruption plume rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Ash fell in Milia, Nicolosi, and Catania and lapilli (1 cm in diameter) fell in Rifugio Sapienza. Lava effusion and flow advancement continued; lava from the S base of SEC spread out like a fan. A series of loud bangs were audible in the late morning and ash emissions continued until the afternoon. Lava overflowed the E rim of SEC at 1040, and a SSE flow entered the Valle del Bove at the SW wall. Explosive activity began to decline at 1320, and effusive activity waned overnight during 1-2 April.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Gareloi
AVO reported that a loss of operation and communication with all seismic stations on Gareloi was likely due to snow cover. Both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were changed to Unassigned, reflecting the lack of this data to detect unrest. The observatory noted that regional infrasound networks, lightning detection, and satellite images will be used to monitor and detected unrest.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 31 March-6 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The total depth of the lake measured about 225 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified and expanded toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tons/day on 1 April. HVO field crews observed weak spattering from two areas at the W vent during 1-2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Langila
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 April an ash plume from Langila rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the Strombolian eruption at Lewotolok continued during 30 March-6 April. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 700 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions, though rainy weather conditions prevented visual observations during 2-3 and 5 April. Incandescent material was ejected 300-500 m above the summit and 500 m SE during 30-31 March; eruptive events were recorded by the seismic network on the other days but not visually confirmed. Rumbling was occasionally noted. According to news articles secondary lahars from Cyclone Seroja destroyed homes, and impacted as many as 300, in several villages to the SW; mud-and-debris flows and flooding severely impacted other parts of Indonesia and killed at least 70 people. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summit crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Reuters, South China Morning Post
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 26 March-1 April. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1,060,000 cubic meters on 1 April, with a growth rate of about 13,400 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of 14 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 1.8 km down the SW flank. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 158 times, traveled as far as 1.1 km down the SW flank. The summit lava dome had grown to 70 m tall and produced one incandescent avalanche. Minor ashfall was reported in Ngadirojo, Stabelan (4 km NW), Takeran, Tlogolele (5 km NW), Selo (3 km NNW), Pos Babadan (4 km NW), and Pasar Talun (12 km W). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Raung
PVMBG reported that daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose 50-500 m above Raung's summit during 31 March-5 April and drifted N and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 28 March-2 April. On 3 April a plume of re-suspended ash rose to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.sl. and drifted 250 km ESE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reinstated the Green Aviation Color Code and the Normal Volcano Alert Level for Shishaldin on 2 April, after several seismic stations again became operational following a months-long outage, thus improving the observatory’s monitoring capability.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 31 March-6 April. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations of the volcano, though daily white fumarolic plumes were visible rising as high as 500 m above the summit. Avalanches were detected daily by the seismic network and observed traveling 500-1,500 m down the E and SE flanks. An eruptive event produced a gray ash plume that rose 500 m above them summit on 1 April. Pyroclastic flows went as far as 1.5 km down the E and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 0.7-2 km during 2-5 April and mainly drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Soufriere St. Vincent
University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to slowly grow during 31 March-6 April, expanding to the N and S. Gas-and-steam continued to rise from the top of the dome, as well as along the contact with the pre-existing 1979 dome. A swarm of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes began at 0638 on 5 April. The number and frequency of the VTs increased until about 0830 and then stabilized. The rate declined at around 1400 and then significantly dropped at 1600, though small VT events continued to be detected through 1800. The events were located at depths of 6 km, slightly deeper than the swarm events recorded during 22-25 March, located at revised depths of 3-5 km. Several reports of felt events came from nearby communities, including Fancy and Chateaubelair. The largest event, a M 3.5, was recorded at 0920 and felt by local residents. The swarm was more intense than the previous one, with an average rate of about 50 earthquakes per hour compared with 1.5 per hour during 22-25 March. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC), National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Report for Tanaga
AVO reported a loss of operation and communication with all but two seismic stations on Tanaga, likely caused by snow cover. Both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were changed to Unassigned, reflecting the inability to locate earthquakes to detect unrest. Monitoring will continue with the remaining seismic stations, regional infrasound networks, lightning detection, and satellite images.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Tengger Caldera
PVMBG reported that during 30 March-5 April white steam-and-gas plumes rose 50-700 m above the summit of Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. The plumes were white to gray during 1-2 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that during 29 March-4 April there were 11 volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Ubinas with magnitudes less than 1.8, and a few seismic signals indicated emissions. Sporadic steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim. On 5 April the Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)