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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 19 October-25 October 2022
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Alaid Russia New
Bezymianny Russia 2016 Dec 5 New
Cotopaxi Ecuador New
Kerinci Indonesia New
Langila Papua New Guinea 2015 Oct 22 (?) New
Mauna Loa United States New
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 New
Taal Philippines 2024 Apr 12 New
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Home Reef Tonga Continuing
Kilauea United States Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Pavlof United States Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Whakaari/White Island New Zealand Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Alaid
KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 14-20 October. An intense thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 13-16 and 20 October; weather clouds obscured views on the other days. Explosive activity during 13-16 October generated ash plumes that rose as high as 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 360 km E and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Bezymianny
Activity at Bezymianny increased during 22-23 October characterized by incandescence at the summit, sometimes strong fumarolic activity, and an increasing temperature of a thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). A strong explosive phase commenced and by 2340 local time on 23 October satellite images showed ash plumes rising to 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 10 km ENE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. By 1005 local time on 24 October the phase was over, and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Satellite images showed gas-and-steam plumes drifting NE and an intense thermal anomaly. The ash plumes from the day before had drifted as far as 1,915 km NE. At 2028 local time on 25 October KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and noted that the intense thermal anomaly persisted. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported minor eruptive activity at Cotopaxi. A low-amplitude tremor signal recorded by the seismic network from 1950 on 21 October to 0040 on 22 October was associated with gas-and-ash emissions. The emissions were not visible due to darkness and weather conditions, but minor ashfall and a sulfur odor was reported by mountaineers in the Refugio José Rivas, 2 km N of the summit crater; the mountaineers evacuated. The Washington VAAC reported that during 2150-2200 on 21 October ash plumes rose to 7.6-8.5 (25,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE based on information from IG and the Guayaquil MWO, satellite images, and webcam views. The ash had dissipated by 0410 on 22 October. A second ash plume was identified in webcam and satellite images rising to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W at 0700 on 22 October. Ash was no longer visible by 1250. IG noted that following the end of the tremor signal seismicity declined and plumes of gas-and-steam rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W. Based on the reports from IG the Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 22 October.

Weather conditions at the volcano improved on 23 October and a layer of dark gray ash on the volcano, deposited the previous two days, became visible. Based on seismic data and media reports, small secondary lahars generated from the melted glacier beneath the ash deposit, were recorded during 1115-1300 and traveled short distances down the flanks. Weather clouds frequently prevented views of the volcano during 24-25 October, though steam emissions rising 200 m above the summit and drifting W were visible during a break in the cloud cover the morning of 25 October.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Kerinci
PVMBG reported that white-and-brown or gray plumes from Kerinci rose as high as 750 m above the summit and drifted NE and NW during 18-24 October. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Langila
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 October an ash plume from Langila rose 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The plume had dissipated within 5 hours.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Mauna Loa
HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 19-25 October. The seismic network detected 10-46 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 3-5 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera and 6-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week. A M 3.1 earthquake was recorded at 2035 on 23 October at a depth of 4 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that there were 27-62 steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing minor amounts of ash, rising from Popocatépetl each day during 19-25 October. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of activity. The seismic network recorded daily periods of tremor lasting from 16 minutes to 10 hours and 35 minutes. One or two daily volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded. During 20-23 October daily periods of low-amplitude, high-frequency events varied between two hours and 19 minutes to five hours, and periods of harmonic tremor lasted from 11 minutes to five hours and 35 minutes. A small explosion was recorded at 0039 on 25 October. According to a news article a small new lava dome, about 60 m in diameter, had been growing on the crater floor since 7 October. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Tribuna Noticias
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported continuing unrest at Taal during 18-25 October. Daily white steam emissions rose as high as 3 km above the lake and drifted NE, NW, and SW. Upwelling gasses and hot fluids in the lake were periodically visible. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 6,702 tonnes per day on 20 October. The seismic network recorded 0-6 daily volcanic earthquakes and a few periods of volcanic tremor during 20-23 October. Webcam images showed increased activity during 21-22 October with 29 small phreatomagmatic bursts from a vent on the NE part of the lake, each lasting 1-5 minutes long. Some of the events produced 200-m-tall steam-rich plumes and very, short, dark ash plumes that immediately collapsed back into the water. Not all events generated detectable signals in the seismic and infrasound records. Ash plumes rose to 600 m (2,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 October and drifted W according to the Tokyo VAAC. Two small phreatomagmatic bursts, each lasting 6-7 minutes long were recorded during 22-23 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,403 tonnes per day on 24 October. Ground deformation measurements continued to show slight inflation in the western half of the caldera and deflation in the eastern half. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Villarrica
On 25 October SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Villarrica had been gradually increasing. Both the number and amplitude of long-period earthquakes increased during the month, and further increased the last week. Continuous tremor increased slightly. Webcams showed persistent gas emissions rising 460 m above the crater rim, and ash plumes drifting downwind on 2 and 23 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 535 (plus or minus 115) tonnes per day, peaking at 1,273 tonnes per day on 13 October. These values were within normal levels and were lower than in September. Crater incandescence increased in both frequency and intensity, consistent with reports from POVI and other collaborators, and likely indicated periodic Strombolian activity. On 14 October satellite images showed the active lava lake covering an area of 36 square meters in the E part of the crater floor. A partial collapse (less than 300 square meters) of the inner SSW crater rim was also evident.

POVI reported that lava fountaining and Strombolian explosions were visible in webcam images at 1917 on 18 October. The most intense thermal anomaly over the crater since September 2019 was detected in satellite images on 23 October, and crater incandescence was visible in webcam images. That same day tourists described seeing splashes of lava ejected from a depth of 80 m and hearing loud degassing sounds. Deposits of ejected tephra were visible around the crater rim and on the upper flanks on 24 October, and intense crater incandescence was visible in images on 25 October. The Alert Level remained at Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that four eruptive events and seven explosions at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 17-24 October. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km from the vent. Incandescence at the crater was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 13-16 and 18 October generated ash plumes that rose to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 13 October and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 15-16 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 19-25 October along with low levels of seismicity. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-22 October. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Home Reef
The Tonga Geological Services reported that the eruption at Home Reef that began on 10 September was over. Satellite-based measurements showed that the island had not changed in size since 28 September, remaining at 268 m N-S, 283 m E-W, and 15-18 m high. A thermal anomaly was last observed on 17 October. On 22 October the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) and the warning to mariners was lifted, though the public was prohibited from landing on the island.
Source: Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 19-25 October entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that multiple ash plumes were visible rising from Anak Krakatau during 24-25 October. Webcam views showed that at 1757 on 24 October a dense black ash plume rose about 150 m above the summit, and at 2111 a dense gray-to-black ash plume rose 150 m and drifted E. Dense gray-to-black ash plumes were visible on 25 October at 0727, 0956, and 1711 rising 150-200 m above the summit and drifting NE. An eruptive event was recorded at 1845 by the seismic network; a webcam photo showed incandescent material being ejected above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 18-25 October. Daily white emissions rose as high as 600 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. During 22-23 October white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 500 m and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater and 4 km away from the crater on the SE flank.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 14-20 October and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced as many as five minor lava avalanches that traveled up to 1.8 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in drone photographs. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 18-25 October and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple daily explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data. Sequences of small explosions during 18-20 October were accompanied by incandescence near the summit in webcam views. Webcam images from the afternoon of 20 October showed a new dark flow of lava and debris extending about a third of the way down the E flank. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on almost all days. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Reventador
IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 18-25 October. Daily seismicity was characterized by 9-45 explosions, 2-67 long-period earthquakes, 4-25 signals that indicated emissions, and during 20-25 October there were 2-6 periods of harmonic tremor. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed almost daily with webcams or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted SW, W, and NW. Weather clouds sometimes prevented visual observations. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible and the lava flow on the NE flank was active. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 52-83 tons per day during 19-23 October.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 18-25 October. Daily seismic counts ranges were 230-734 explosions, 39-86 tremor events indicating emissions, and 1-2 lahar events; 10-23 long-period events were recorded during 22-23 October. Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in IG webcam images and/or visible in satellite images according to the Washington VAAC. Plumes generally rose as high as 2.1 km above the volcano and drifted NW, W, and SW. Almost daily thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images, though weather clouds sometimes prevented views. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 363-1,716 tons per day during 18-25 October. Incandescence at the summit and from a new lava flow on the SE flank was visible during 18-19 October; incandescence from lava-flow activity continued to be periodically visible the rest of the week. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias lowered the Alert Level to Yellow (on a four-color scale) during 20-21 October.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 19-24 October. Eruptive events at 0454 and 0633 on 20 October, 0451 on 21 October, 0634 on 23 October, and 0554 on 24 October produced ash plumes that rose 500 m above the summit and drifted mainly S and W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion during 14-20 October. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 17-24 October. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. A total of 119 explosions during 17-21 October produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 800 m from the vent. Occasional rumbling noises and ashfall were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). Only one explosion was reported during 21-24 October. Plumes rose as high as 1.5 km and blocks were ejected as far as 200 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
On 26 October GeoNet reported continuing unrest at Whakaari/White Island characterized by persistent gas-and-steam emissions and intermittent, minor, passive ash emissions during the previous two weeks. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low, averaging around 217 tonnes per day when measured during an overflight on 7 October. During an observation overflight on 19 October scientists saw gas-and-steam plumes rising from several vents on the NW and W sides of the lake. The temperature of the emissions was 145 degrees Celsius, slightly less than the 165 degrees measured on 5 October. The Aviation Color Code was remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5).
Source: GeoNet