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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 4 January-10 January 2023
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ijen Indonesia New
Kaitoku Seamount Japan New
Kilauea United States New
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 New
Semisopochnoi United States New
Ahyi United States Continuing
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Cleveland United States Continuing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Etna Italy 2022 Nov 27 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kerinci Indonesia Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Chile Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Italy 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,115 individual reports over 1,220 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 333 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
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 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ijen
PVMBG reported that beginning in July 2022 the seismic network at Ijen began detecting increasing numbers of shallow volcanic earthquakes and earthquake signals characteristic of emissions, indicating increasing pressure at shallow depths within the hydrothermal system. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes again increased on 1 January. The temperature of the crater lake water rose from 16 degrees Celsius in December 2022 to 45.6 degrees Celsius on 5 January 2023. During a field visit on 5 January scientists noted that the color of the lake water was light green, dense white solfatara plumes were visible rising from vents, and the sulfur odor was strong. Increased activity at the volcano is often characterized by a change in the lake water color from green to whitish-green due to the resuspension of disturbed lake-bottom sediments from increased gas emissions. The elevated unrest promoted PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 7 January. Residents, visitors, and miners were advised to not approach the crater within 1.5 km.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kaitoku Seamount
Discolored water around the Kaitoku Seamount was visible in 1 and 6 January Sentinel satellite images. Concentric circles of discolored water radiated out from the vent area and a plume drifted W. The plume of discolored water extended S in the 6 January image.
Source: Sentinel Hub
Report for Kilauea
Small earthquake swarms were recorded at Kilauea on 30 December 2022 and 2 January 2023, with heightened seismicity in between those dates. Increased seismicity and changes in the pattern of deformation began to be recorded during the morning of 5 January. At around 1500 both the rate of deformation and seismicity dramatically increased indicating magma moving towards the surface; at 1520 HVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest color on a four-color scale).

Incandescence seen in webcam images at 1634 on 5 January indicated that an eruption began in Halema’uma’u Crater, prompting HVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest color on a four-color scale). Vents opened in the E central portion of the crater floor and produced multiple lava fountains and flows. Fountain bursts ejected lava as high as 50 m during the initial phase of activity, though in general fountaining was consistently 10 m high. By 1930 lava had covered most of the crater floor (an area of about 120 hectares) to a depth of 10 m. A higher-elevation island that formed during the initial phase of the December 2020 eruption remained exposed (and appeared darker in images) along with a ring of older lava around the lava lake that was active prior to December 2022. Overnight during 5-6 January the lava fountains became less vigorous, rising to 5 m, and lava effusion slowed. By 0815 on 6 January HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange because the initial high effusion rates were declining and there was no threat of significant volcanic ash outside of the closed area within?Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 12,500 tonnes per day. Lava continued to erupt from the vents during 6-8 January, though the footprint of the active area had shrunk, which has been common during the early stages of recent eruptions within Halema’uma’u. By 9 January only one dominant fountain was visible that continued to be active at least through 10 January.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that an explosive eruption at Marapi began at 0611 on 7 January, generating a dense white-and-gray ash plume that rose 300 m above the summit and drifted SE. Images posted with the report showed jets of dark material rising from the crater. Emissions continued to periodically rise form the crater; at 0944, 1034, and 1451 dense white or white-to-gray ash plumes rose 200-250 m above the summit and drifted SE. Seismic signals indicated that eruptive events also occurred at 1135, 1144, 1230, 1715, and 1821, but no ash emissions were visually observed. At 1250 on 8 January a dense white ash plume rose 150 m and drifted SE and at 1300 a dense white-to-gray ash plume rose 200 m and drifted E. Seismic signals indicated eruptive events at 0447, 1038, and 1145, but again no ash emissions were visually observed. At 0634 on 9 January a dense white ash plume rose around 250 m and drifted E and SE. The eruption was preceded by an increase in the number of deep volcanic earthquakes beginning on 25 December 2022 and summit inflation. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi’s Mount Young, formerly Mount Cerberus, was ongoing during 4-10 January. Daily minor steam emissions were visible in webcam views. Seismicity was above background levels; low-level explosive activity was detected in geophysical data during 4-5 January with elevated seismicity and infrasound signals observed on local stations. Volcanic tremor was detected during 7-9 January, and very weak explosive activity was detected in seismic and infrasound data on 9 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ahyi
Unrest continued to be detected at Ahyi Seamount during 4-10 January. Daily signals possibly indicating explosions were detected by hydrophone sensors on Wake Island (2,270 km E of Ahyi), though a data outage began at 0118 on 8 January. No activity was visible in mostly cloudy satellite images, though a plume of discolored water originating from the summit region of the seamount was seen in partly cloudy satellite images on 8 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 2-9 January. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were slightly elevated at 1,000 tons per day on 4 January. One explosion on 3 January and two explosions on 8 January were recorded by the seismic network. Eruption plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 1.1 km from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Cleveland
AVO lowered both the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland to Unassigned (insufficient monitoring to make an assessment) on 5 January, noting that signs of unrest had declined over the previous several months. Elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were occasionally identified in satellite images but at a reduced frequency and strength. The last eruptive activity was a short-lived explosion on the evening of 1 June 2020, and sulfur dioxide emissions were last detected on 29 July 2022.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported that the low-level eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 3-11 January, characterized by daily steam-and-gas emissions often with low ash content. Plumes of gas, steam, and minor ash content rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, W, SW, and E, based on webcam views, satellite images, and information from the Guayaquil Meteorological Office. Minor ashfall was reported in the sectors of Colcas, San Ramon, and San Agustin de Callo (18 km WSW). Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 29 December 2022-5 January 2023. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 31 December and 1-5 January generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 3-4 January and an ash cloud drifted 12 km NE on 4 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that the vents at the NE base of Etna’s SE Crater, in the Valle del Leone at about 2,800 m elevation, continued to feed lava flows during 2-8 January. The active flow field consisted of overlapping lava flows that expanded into the Valle del Leone and the Valle del Bove and hornitos. By 7 January the longest active lava flow had descended to 2,170 m elevation, and the area of the flow field was an estimated 0.63 square kilometers. Gas emissions rose from the summit craters, mainly at Bocca Nuova.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 2-8 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 3-10 January, generating ash plumes that rose more than 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 30 km in various directions. Daily ashfall was noted in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Los Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Finca Palo Verde. The avalanches occasionally resuspended ash deposits that rose 100 m and drifted W and SW. Daily shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano. Daily block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Honda, Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (ESE), and Trinity drainages, sometimes reaching vegetated areas. Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 300 m above the summit almost daily.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion likely continued at Great Sitkin during 4-10 January, though weather clouds often obscured satellite and webcam views. A few small daily earthquakes were detected during 6-10 January and slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 7-10 January. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kerinci
The eruption at Kerinci was ongoing during 4-8 January with brown, brown-to-gray, or white-and-brown ash plumes rising as high as 200 m above the crater rim and drifting NE and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Anak Krakatau continued. A dense gray ash plume was seen at 1410 on 4 January rising 100 m above the summit and drifting E, followed at 1509 by a dense gray-to-black ash plume to 3 km above summit that also drifted E. Another event at 0013 on 5 January sent a dense gray ash plume 750 m above the summit that drifted NE. Although weather sometimes prevented visual observations during 6-9 January, white plumes of variable intensities rose as high as 200 m from the summit and drifted mainly NE and E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 30 December 2022-5 January 2023 and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced eight lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Kali Bebeng drainage). One pyroclastic flow descended 900 m SW. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in webcam images. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) reported that at 0706 on 6 January an ash cloud rose from Nevado del Ruiz and drifted NE, causing ashfall in Villahermosa (27 km NE). The ash emission occurred simultaneously with a seismic signal indicated moving fluids within the volcano’s conduit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
On 10 January SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level for Nevados de Chillán to Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale. No activity at the surface had been observed since mid-October 2022; other data reflected ongoing internal processes, though recently the activity had been lower and gradually returning to background levels. The report reminded residents not to approach the crater within 500 m. According to ONEMI, Sistema Nacional de Prevención y Respuesta ante Desastres (SINAPRED) declared “Preventive Early Warning” for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 3-10 January. Effusion from Caliente cone fed lava flows that descended the San Isidro and El Tambor drainages on the W and SW flanks. Occasional block avalanches from the dome, and from both the ends and sides of the flows, descended the S, SW, and W flanks. The avalanches sometimes generated minor ash plumes that rose along their paths. Almost daily explosions produced gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash that rose as high as 800 m above the complex and sometimes drifted 5-8 km SW. Ashfall was reported in Las Marías (10 km S) and El Viejo Palmar (11 km S) during 8-9 January.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 3-10 January; weather clouds prevented visual observations during 4-6 January. At 0503 on 7 January a white-to-gray ash plume rose 400 m above the summit and drifted N. Ash plumes of variable densities generally rose 200-400 m above the summit and drifted N and NE on 8 January. At 0819 a white-to-brown ash plume rose 500 m and drifted N and NE. A webcam image posted on social media showed an incandescent lava flow extending 500 m from the summit crater on the SE flank. On 9 January at 0652 a white-to-brown ash plume rose 200 m and drifted N and NE. On 10 January white-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 300 m and drifted N and NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Info Semeru
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 29 December 2022-5 January 2023 was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images, and ash plumes from lava-dome collapses drifted 175 km E, NE, W, and SW during 30-31 December and 4-5 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that both explosive and effusive activity at Stromboli occurred during 2-8 January at four vents in Area N, within the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and at one vent in the Area C-S (South-Central Crater area) in the crater terrace area. The explosions were variable in intensity and ejected coarse material (bombs and lapilli) 80-150 m at a rate of 3-10 explosions per hour. Intense spattering from all four vents occurred during the week. Explosive activity at the Central-South area (CS) ejected fine-to-coarse material as high as 250 m above the vent at a rate of 1-4 explosions per hour.

At 2136 on 2 January lava overflowed vents in the N2 area, after a period of intense spattering. The lava flowed part way down the Sciara del Fuoco, likely channeled in the ravine that had formed in October, out of view from webcams. The flow was well-fed for a couple of hours but then effusion slowed or stopped, and it began to cool. The same activity occurred again, with a lava overflow occurring at 0224 on 4 January, traveling about the same distance, and cooling within a few hours.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 2-9 January. No explosions were recorded, though eruption plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim. During 2-6 January blocks were ejected as far as 200 m from the vent and ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Villarrica had increased in recent weeks, with explosions ejecting material almost as far as 480 m, near the extent of the 500 m exclusion zone in place around the crater. On 6 January the exclusion zone was increased to 1 km as a preventative measure. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)