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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 4 October-10 October 2023
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Inielika Indonesia New
Klyuchevskoy Russia New
Ruby United States New
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Indonesia 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Katmai United States Continuing
Lascar Chile Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Mayon Philippines 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nishinoshima Japan Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin United States Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Ubinas Peru 2024 May 6 Continuing
Whakaari/White Island New Zealand Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Inielika
PVMBG reported that seismicity at Inielika generally consisted of low levels of low-frequency earthquakes and 0-1 daily deep volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity began to increase on 29 September and remained elevated at least through 4 October. The daily number of deep volcanic earthquakes increased to an average of 9, though notably a total of 17 were recorded on 1 October and 18 were recorded on 3 October. The temperatures and gas concentrations at four hot spring locations had significantly decreased compared to July measurements. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) at 1000 on 4 October due to increased potential for a phreatic eruption; the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the summit crater and to stay away from solfatara zones.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that the Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued 28 September-11 October. Lava fountaining fed flows that alternately advanced down the Apakhonchichsky and Kozyrevsky drainages on the S and SE flanks. A daily bright thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images; the anomaly was larger during 8-9 October. On 11 October activity increased and gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash drifted 65 km NE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates and times are in UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Ruby
The US Geological Survey lowered both the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Ruby to Unassigned on 6 October, noting that eruptive activity was last detected during 14-15 September. The level of Unassigned reflected the lack of nearby monitoring instruments that could detect lower-level events.
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Villarrica
On 6 October SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Volcanic Alert Level for Villarrica to Yellow (the second level on a four-level scale), noting that activity had returned to moderate and more stable levels during the previous few days. The frequency and intensity of emissions had declined; gas emissions rose to low heights and sometimes contained small amounts of tephra. Nighttime crater incandescence was observed, and Strombolian explosions ejected material onto the upper flanks. The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the crater. SENAPRED maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and Panguipulli.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Sistema y Servicio Nacional de Prevención y Repuesta Ante Desastres (SENAPRED)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 2-9 October, with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. An explosion at 2228 on 4 October produced an ash plume that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted S and ejected large blocks 600-900 m from the crater. A very small eruptive event was recorded during 6-9 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 28 September-5 October. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 30 September and 2 October; weather clouds obscured views on other days. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions on 4 October generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l and drifted to the E and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin was confirmed by a radar image from 3 October and likely continued through 10 October. Seismicity was characterized as low, with only a few daily earthquakes recorded by the seismic network during 3-7 October. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 8-10 October. Weather clouds sometimes obscured views. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 4-10 October. White-and-gray ash emissions rose as high as 1.1 km above the summit during 4-6 October and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Katmai
AVO reported that during 3-4 and 9 October strong winds in the vicinity of Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes dispersed unconsolidated ash up to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. to the W and SE. The ash was originally deposited during the Novarupta-Katmai eruption in 1912. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Normal (the lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Lascar
On 6 October SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Alert Level for Láscar had been lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) because activity had returned to baseline levels. During 16-30 September sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low, averaging 565 tons per day (t/d) with a maximum of 1,109 t/d on 28 September. Passive, low-energy, whitish gas continued to be emitted, rising as high as 600 m above the crater rim on 28 September. Thermal anomalies continued to be absent in satellite data and deformation was not detected. The public was warned to stay at least 500 m away from the crater. SENAPRED declared a “preventative early warning” for San Pedro de Atacama (70 km NW) and maintained a safety perimeter of 3 km around the volcano.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Sistema y Servicio Nacional de Prevención y Repuesta Ante Desastres (SENAPRED)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 4-10 October. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 250 m above the summit and drifted N and NW on 4 October. The next day a Volcano Observatory Notices for Aviation (VONA) was issued for a gray ash plume that rose as high as 700 m and drifted W. Ash plumes rose 200-500 m and drifted N, NW, and W on 8 and 10 October. On the other days during the week white steam-and-gas plumes were visible rising as high as 500 m and drifting N, NW, and W. At 2024 on 9 October a webcam image captured incandescent material being ejected above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that slow lava effusion at Mayon’s summit crater continued during 3-10 October. The lengths of the lava flow in the Mi-Isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages remained at 2.8 km, 3.4 km, and 1.1 km, respectively. Collapses at the lava dome and from the margins of the lava flows produced incandescent rockfalls and occasional pyroclastic density currents (PDCs, or pyroclastic flows) that descended the flanks as far as 4 km. Each day seismic stations recorded 92-180 rockfall events, 0-6 PDC events, and 4-30 daily volcanic earthquakes. Sulfur dioxide emissions measured almost daily averaged between 690 and 1,969 tonnes per day, with the highest value recorded on 3 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS recommended that civil aviation authorities advise pilots to avoid flying close to the summit.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 29 September-5 October and seismicity remained at elevated levels. The SW lava dome produced a total of 177 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks; 21 traveled as far as 1.6 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage, 155 traveled as far as 2 km down the upper Bebeng drainage, and one traveled 700 m down the Senowo drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing collapses of material; based on webcam images the SW dome had grown slightly taller while the dome in the summit crater remained unchanged. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nishinoshima
A small eruption at Nishinoshima’s central crater was observed during an overflight conducted by the Japan Coast Guard on 4 October. Gray ash-and-gas plumes rose to 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. Gas emissions from the central crater were at similar levels to those seen on 20 September, though gas emissions had increased at the fumaroles widely distributed along the E and N parts of the island. Dark reddish-brown-to-green discolored water was visible around most of the island.
Source: Japan Coast Guard
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 3-10 October. Long-period events totaling 54-590 per day were accompanied by steam-and-gas plumes that sometimes contained minor amounts of ash. Some of the plumes drifted NW and W; cloudy weather conditions prevented visual observations on several of the days. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 4-10 October. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Dense white-and-gray ash plumes rose 500-700 m above the summit and drifted S and SW at 0710 on 5 October and 0704 on 9 October. White steam-and-gas plumes were visible rising 200 m above the summit and drifting S, SW, W, and NW on 7 October. Eruptive events at 0759, 1852, and 1933 on 10 October produced dense white-and-gray ash plumes that rose 400-500 m and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 28 September-5 October. Thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images during 28-29 September and 1-2 and 5 October; observations on other days were obscured by weather clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 4-10 October. After the significant explosive event on 3 October, ash plumes continued to be produced for over eight hours until around 1400. Hot rock avalanches had descended the SW and NE flanks; two explosion craters located at the base of the NE deposits, about 3.2 km from the crater rim, were the sources of persistent ash. During 3-4 October small, local ash plumes from occasional collapse events were visible in webcam images. Seismicity remained elevated during 4-10 October with small frequent earthquakes. Gas emissions were occasionally visible, though weather clouds occasionally prevented views. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 8-10 October. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 2-9 October. Crater incandescence was visible nightly, and blocks were ejected as far as 600 m from the crater. Explosions at 0304, 2141, and 2359 on 2 October, at 0112 on 3 October, and 1326 on 6 October produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SW and W. An explosion was recorded at 0428 on 3 October, though emission details were unknown. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that the eruption at Ubinas continued during 3-9 October at low to moderate levels. There were daily averages of 155 volcano-tectonic earthquakes indicating rock fracturing and 27 long-period earthquakes signifying the movement of gas and magma. In addition, seismic signals associated with ash emissions were recorded for a total of 25 hours during the week. On 4 October IGP reported that an ash plume drifted more than 15 km SW and S. According to the Washington VAAC small, diffuse ash plumes identified in satellite images drifted N, E, SE, and S at altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. during 4-8 October. IGP noted that on 7 October a steam, gas, and ash plume rose as high as 1.9 km above the crater rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the crater.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
On 10 October GeoNet reported that activity at Whakaari/White Island was characterized by minor steam-and-gas emissions during the past few months based on gas and observational overflights. The active vents located on the W shore of the lake continued to produce steam-and-gas plumes that were sometimes tall (particularly on 8 October) due to local atmospheric conditions. Gas emissions were within normal ranges and there was no evidence of ash emissions or eruptions. Temperatures at the larger vents declined from more than 240 degrees Celsius in March, around 120 degrees during June-August, to 95 degrees in October. Minor morphological changes were due to erosion. During a 4 October observation flight scientists saw a rockfall from Troup Head on the E end of the island, with rocks descending both the N and S sides of the ridge. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale). GeoNet noted that Alert Levels reflect the level of unrest at the volcano but also consider the greater level of uncertainty due to the current lack of consistent and useful real-time data.
Source: GeoNet