Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 3 January-9 January 2024
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Grimsvotn Iceland New
Kanaga Andreanof Islands (USA) New
Lewotobi Flores Island 2023 Dec 23 New
Marapi Central Sumatra 2023 Dec 3 New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Gamalama Halmahera Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Iya Flores Island Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Purace Colombia Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 19,996 individual reports over 1,215 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 332 different volcanoes.

Search by Date



Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.

Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.          



Search by Volcano



Agung Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ahyi Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Aira Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Akan Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alaid Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Alu-Dalafilla Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambae Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambang Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Ambrym East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Anatahan Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Antuco Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Arenal Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Askja Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Asosan Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Awu Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Axial Seamount Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Bagana Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Balbi Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Bamus Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Bardarbunga Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Barren Island Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Batur Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Bulusan Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Calbuco Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cameroon Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network CAP Feed

The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.



Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Grimsvotn
A brief seismic swarm at Grímsvötn was recorded by the seismic network beginning at 1600 on 4 January, prompting Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale). The swarm consisted of seven earthquakes with magnitudes above 1, which was considered unusual. Since the beginning of December there had been evidence of water drainage from the lake; the earthquakes may have been related to the drainage, but it was not confirmed. Activity did not escalate on 5 January and only one M 0.6 earthquake was detected. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. The report noted that seismic activity at the volcano had been above background levels during the previous four months.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Kanaga
AVO reported that unrest at Kanaga continued during 3-9 January; no new eruptive activity was evident in satellite and webcam images. Small daily earthquakes were detected until 2 January when a storm-related power failure took local monitoring data offline. Satellite radar images showed that large NW-SE-trending fractures intersecting the summit crater had likely formed around the time of the 18 December explosive event. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano from a fissure on the upper NNW flank and from a vent on the upper SSE flank was ongoing during 3-9 January. White plumes rose 300-1,000 m above the summit and drifted SW and W during 3-5 December. During the rest of the week white-and-gray or gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 1-1.5 km above the summit and drifted NW, N, and NE. The ash plumes were sometimes dense.

Masks had been distributed in Hokeng Jaya, Pululera, Klatanlo, and Nawakote in the district of Wulanggitan and the village of Dulempari in the district of Bura after the eruption began in late December and residents were encouraged to wear them when outside to minimize ash inhalation. On 1 January as many as 1,185 residents of Boru Village and 328 residents in the Konga Village area self-evacuated to several other locations including relatives’ homes and evacuation posts. Ash fell in several areas in the Wulanggitan and Bura districts. Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah (BPBD) East Flores Regency mobilized and provided residents with essentials including mobile kitchens, food, tents, and cleaned ash off roadways. By 4 January a total of 3,898 people had evacuated. The Frans Xavier Seda Airport in Sikka District closed on 1 January due to thick ash deposits on the runways; it remained closed as of 9 January.

Activity intensified during the evening of 9 January. Incandescent material was ejected from the summit and lava flows from the NNW-flank fissure descended the NW flank. At 2300 the Alert Level was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the Perempuan and Laki-laki craters and an additional 5 km from the NNW flanks of Laki-laki.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah Provinsi Jawa Timur (East Java BPBD), Directorate General Of Civil Aviation, Ministry Of Transportation Republic Of Indonesia
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing at Verbeek Crater during 3-9 January. White plumes rose 300-350 m above the summit and drifted S and SW on 4 January. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 150-600 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, N, and NE during 5-8 January.

PVMBG reevaluated instrumental data and visual observations at Marapi and concluded that activity was continuing at high levels; at 1800 on 9 January they raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and warned the public to stay 4.5 km away from Verbeek Crater. They noted that ongoing high seismicity and increasing numbers of low-frequency and deep volcanic earthquakes indicated that magma continued to be supplied at depth. Incandescence at the crater and the ejection of incandescent material after the 3 December eruption indicated that the eruption style had change from phreatic to magmatic; sulfur dioxide emissions measured from satellite were at high levels.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 1-8 January with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. Small eruptive events were occasionally recorded during the week. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 3-9 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 4 km above the summit and drifted SW on 3 January. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 100-1,900 m above the summit and drifted W and SW during 4 and 6-8 January. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 28 December 2023-4 January 2024. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 30-31 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Gamalama
Although there was no eruptive activity reported at Gamalama, in a 4 January press release PVMBG noted that the number of daily deep volcanic earthquakes had significantly increased. The seismic network recorded a total of 45 deep volcanic earthquakes during 0000-0600 on 4 January; an average of 2-3 events per day had been recorded since January 2023. Diffuse white plumes only rose as high as 120 m above the summit during the previous month whereas typically they can rise as high as 300 m. PVMBG noted that the most likely hazard would be a phreatic event that could ejected material within the 1.5-km radius, though ash may be carried farther by wind. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that a radar image of Great Sitkin showed continuing growth of a thick flow in the summit crater with expansion to the E; effusion likely continued during 3-9 January. Radial cracks around the central vent widened and pushed material 15 m N. Weather clouds often obscured views of the volcano. Seismicity was low, though beginning during 2-4 January web cameras and seismic data were offline due to a power failure. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Iya
PVMBG reported that during 1-31 December diffuse white plumes rose as high as 80 m above Iya’s summit. During most of that period seismicity was at normal levels and characterized by both deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes. A total of 55 deep volcanic earthquakes were recorded during the month with 12 of them recorded during 30-31 December, signifying a significant increase during that period. The Alert Level was remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to limit activity near the active crater area.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 3-9 January. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 300-350 m above the summit and drifted NW on 3 and 6 January. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 400-500 m above the summit and drifted NW on the other days. Incandescent lava was occasionally ejected about the vent. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 29 December 2023-4 January 2024. The SW lava dome produced a total of 83 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks; six traveled S as far as 1.4 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and the other 77 traveled SW as far as 2 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Two pyroclastic flows descended the Bebeng, traveling as far as 1.8 km. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images were due to continuing collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that eruptive activity at Nevado del Ruiz continued at moderate levels during 2-8 January. Seismic events indicating rock fracturing increased in both number an intensity. These events were located in areas up to 4 km in various directions from Arenas Crater at depths of 1-7 km. The seismic activity was most notable on 3 and 5 January; the largest earthquake, a M 3.9, was recorded at 1103 on 3 January and felt by officials of the Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados, SGC personnel in the field, and residents in Manizales (27 km NW). Seismicity associated with ash-and-gas emissions decreased in both size and number. The maximum height of the ash-and-gas emissions was 1.8 km above the summit, recorded on 6 January. Emissions during the week drifted NW, W, and SW, causing ashfall near the volcano and occasionally in Manizales. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Level III (the second level on a four-level scale), and the public was warned to stay out of the restricted areas around Arenas Crater.
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Purace
Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Popayán, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) reported increased unrest at Puracé on 5 January. A sudden increase in carbon dioxide emissions was detected during the morning and decreased through the day; increased gas emissions were visible in webcam images during the afternoon. Seismicity increased at 1450 and continued at high levels at least through 1715, the time the report was issued. The earthquake signals indicated fluid movement, had low magnitudes, and were located less than 2 km below the summit. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Reventador
IG-EPN reported that a moderate eruption at Reventador was ongoing during 2-9 January. Seismicity was characterized by 37-58 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor associated with emissions. Several ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted S, SW, W, and NW, though cloudy conditions often prevented views. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible during both overnight and morning hours; incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater and avalanches of incandescent material descended the flanks as far as 600 m from the summit during 6-9 January. A small lahar was recorded on 6 January. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that the eruption at Sabancaya continued at moderate levels during 3-7 January with a daily average of 61 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.7 km above the summit and drifted less than 10 km NW, W, and SW. Thermal anomalies over the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Slight inflation was detected near the Hualca Hualca sector (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12 km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sangay
IG-EPN reported a high level of eruptive activity at Sangay during 1-9 January, with seismic stations recording 173-583 daily explosions. Ash-and-gas plumes were visible, in both webcam and satellite images, rising as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifting SW during 1-5 January. Webcam images showed incandescence at the summit vent and incandescent material descending the SE flank as far as 1.8 km from the crater. Beginning at 1536 on 6 January a series of explosions and ash emissions were visible in webcam images with ash-and-gas plumes rising 3 km above the summit and drifting NW. The activity continued into the late afternoon and intensified; ash plumes rose as high as 8 km above the summit and drifted W, NW, and N. Ashfall was reported in several towns downwind, including San Antonio, Pancún, Cebadas (35 km WNW), Gualiñag, Guargallá Chico, Guamote (40 km WNW), Pungalá (25 km NW), and Chunchi (73 km SW) in the province of Chimborazo, Chillanes (80 km W) in the province of Bolívar, Montalvo (106 km WNW), Babahoyo (135 km WNW), Ventanas, Pueblo Viejo (141 km NW), Vinces (165 km WNW), and Baba (152 km WNW) in the province of El Oro, and Palestina (185 km WNW) in the province of Guayas. Several pyroclastic flows descended the SE drainage during 6-7 January. Ash-and-gas plumes rose 400-800 m above the summit during 7-8 January. During the morning of 8 January, a pyroclastic flow descended the SE drainage and minor ashfall was reported in the Guamote-Chimborazo canton. Cloudy weather prevented views during 8-9 January, though crater incandescence was observed overnight. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 3-9 January. Daily white-and-gray ash plumes that were sometimes dense rose 400-1,200 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 28 December 2023-4 January 2024 with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 1-8 January. No explosions were detected, though large blocks were ejected as far as 400 m from the vent. Ash plumes rose 1-2 km above the crater rim during 1-2, 6, and 8 January and drifted in multiple directions. Ash emissions were continuous during 0157-0620 and 0834-2235 on 2 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ulawun
Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 6 December 2023-9 January 2024. During periods of good visibility white steam plumes of variable densities were seen rising from the summit crater. On 19 December visibility was poor, though during a brief clear period, observers noted brown-tinged steam plumes. On 31 December residents of Noau Village photographed dense brown ash plumes rising a few hundred meters above the summit and drifting W, and a small pyroclastic flow descending the NNE flank. The Alert Level remained at Stage 1 (on the four-level scale).
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)