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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 21 February-27 February 2024
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Bezymianny Russia 2016 Dec 5 Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Gamalama Indonesia Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Ubinas Peru 2024 May 6 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 15-27 February. White-and-gray ash plumes generally rose 200-800 m above the summit though some rose as high as 1 km above the summit and were dense. The seismic network recorded 3,615 signals indicating emissions during 16-26 February, according to a news article. Avalanches were detected but not visually observed during 15-23 February, and seismicity fluctuated but the data indicated an upward trend. Explosions continued to be recorded but began to intensify, ejecting incandescent material as far as 500 m from the crater rim and producing taller ash plumes.

Lava flows advanced over the crater rim on 15 February and traveled 400 m from the vent down the S and SE flanks. The flows continued to advance and by 23 February the SE flow was 1 km long and the S flow was 600 m long. The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit and 3 km away on the S and SE flanks. According to news articles activity significantly increased during 24-26 February; ash plumes continued to rise as high as 1 km above the summit and avalanches of material descended the SE and S flanks as far as 1 km. The SE lava flow advanced relatively fast, reaching 2 km long by 26 February. At 1000 on 27 February PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone on the S and SE flanks was increased to 4 km. Though evacuations were not mandatory in Jontona, there were plans to assist residents who chose to evacuate; the lava flow was 2 km from the village.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News, Antara News, Antara News
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 17-26 February with nighttime crater incandescence. Very small eruptive events were recorded during 17-23 February. An explosion at 1734 on 24 February generated an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim before entering weather clouds, and ejected blocks as far as 1.2 km away from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Bezymianny
KVERT reported that a daily thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 15-22 February. Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 21-27 February. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes generally rose as high as 1.6 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions; at 1050 on 24 February ash plumes rose to 2.7 km and drifted N according to a news article. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 15-22 February. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 16 and 18-20 February generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l and drifted E and NW. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk during 18-19 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Fuego during 20-27 February. Explosions were recorded daily, averaging 5-11 per hour on most days, when counts were reported. The explosions generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 30 km W, SW, and S. Explosions caused frequent block avalanches that descended various drainages including the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), and Las Lajas (SE), and sometimes reached vegetated areas. The explosions also ejected incandescent material 100-300 m above the summit on most of the days and ejected ballistics as far as 2 km during 20-21 February. Weak rumbling sounds and shock waves were frequently reported. Ashfall was reported on most days in areas downwind including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km W), Finca La Asunción (12 km SW), La Rochela (8 km SSW), Finca Ceilán (9 km S), San Andrés Osuna (11 km SSW), Siquinalá (21 km SSW), and Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa (22 km SW).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Gamalama
Although there was no eruptive activity reported at Gamalama, in a 23 February press release PVMBG noted that the number of daily deep volcanic earthquakes had significantly increased. A total of 14 deep volcanic earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network on 22 February, higher than the average of 2-3 events per day that had been recorded since January 2023. At 1623 on 22 February an observer saw a dense white-to-gray ash plume rising 400 m above the summit and drifting W. During 0000-0830 on 23 February the network recorded an additional four deep volcanic earthquakes as well as three events indicating emissions; dense white plumes were visible rising 100-400 m above the summit and drifting N. Seismicity before the increase, during 1-22 February, consisted of one tornillo earthquake, two harmonic earthquakes, one shallow volcanic earthquake, 34 deep volcanic earthquakes, two seismic events indicating floods or lahars, and 26 events indicating emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued in Great Sitkin’s summit crater during 21-27 February, confirmed by a 24 February satellite image. A few small volcanic earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network during 24-26 February. Weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 21-27 February. White-and-gray gas-and-ash plumes rose 200-600 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on most days; white plumes rose 250 m and drifted SW, W, and NW on 27 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 16-22 February. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 145 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks; three traveled S as far as 1 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and 142 traveled SW as far as 1.7 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Two pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 1.6 km down the SW flank. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 21-27 February. The seismic network recorded daily periods of high-frequency, low-amplitude tremor that lasted from about 90 minutes to almost 22 hours. The Washington VAAC reported that daily ash plumes visible in webcam and satellite images generally rose to 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted predominantly E, SE, S, and SW. The ash emissions were continuous for periods of time with remnant ash continuing to be visible in subsequent satellite images, drifting 75-140 km before dissipating. At 1151 on 24 February a dense ash plume rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE; the plume was visible in satellite images the next day drifting almost 225 km SE. Several ash emissions lasting 1-2 hours each were visible in webcam and satellite images during 26-27 February.

Based on information from El Centro Nacional de Comunicación y Operación de Protección Civil (CENACOM), CENAPRED noted that minor ashfall was reported in Hueyapan (17 km SSW), Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), and Jiutepec (59 km SW) in the state of Morelos on 21 February and in the municipalities of Jiutepec (60 km WSW), Atlatlahucán (30 km WSW), Cuautla (43 km SW), Tlaltizapan (65 km SW), and Ciudad Ayala in Morelos, and in Huaquechula (30 km SE) and Tlapanalá (39 km SE), Puebla, on 22 February. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Hueyapan, Yecapixtla (30 km SW) and Tetela del Volcán, Morelos; in Ixtacuixtla, Panotla, Tepetitla (36 km NE), Nativitas (40 km NE), Zacatelco (45 km NE), Santa Apolonia Teacalco (40 km NE), San Damián Texóloc (45km NE), Tetlahuaca (40 km NE), Zacatelco (45 km NE), Xicohtzingo (40 km ENE), Papalotla (62 km NNW), Tenancingo (47 km ENE), Santa Catarina Ayometla (47 km ENE), Magdalena Tlaltelulco (53 km NE), San Francisco Tetlanohcan (55 km NE), and Teolocholco (51 km ENE), Tlaxcala; in Iztacalco (62 km NW), Iztapalapa (59 km NW), and Coyoacán (65 km WNW), Mexico City; and finally in Atlautla (16 km W), Ayapango (21 km NW), Ecatzingo (15 km SW), Chalco (44 km NW), Tenango del Aire (29 km NW), Temamatla (32 km NW), Ozumba (18 km W), Tepetlixpa (20 km W), Tlalmanalco (30 km NW), and Amecameca (20 km NW), State of Mexico on 27 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Reventador
IG-EPN reported that a moderate eruption at Reventador was ongoing during 21-27 February. Seismicity was characterized by 28-62 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor associated with emissions. Daily ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions, though weather conditions sometimes prevented views. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible during both overnight and morning hours; avalanches of incandescent material descended the flanks as far as 800 m from the summit on a few of the days and incandescent material was ejected 200 m above the crater during 23-24 February. A seismic signal indicating a lahar was recorded at 0015 on 24 February. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Sangay
IG-EPN reported that high levels of eruptive activity continued at Sangay during 20-27 February. The seismic network recorded 185-465 daily explosions. Gas plumes with low ash content rose 500-1,000 m above the summit and drifted SE during 20-21 February. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible and incandescent material descended the SE flank as far as 1 km during 20-23 February. Weather conditions prevented views during the rest of the week. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito lava dome complex during 20-27 February with a lava extrusion at the Caliente dome. Incandescence from the dome was visible during most nights and early mornings, and occasional incandescence was also present along the upper part of the SW-flank lava flow. Daily explosions generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose 600-900 m above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S; the explosions occurred at a rate of 1-7 per hour on at least a few of the days. The explosions produced block avalanches on the dome’s W, SW, S, and E flanks and generated occasional, short-range pyroclastic flows that descended multiple flanks. Block avalanches from the margins of the upper part of the lava flow on the WSW flank were also occasionally visible. Ashfall occurred in Loma Linda (7 km W) and San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW) during 20-21 February and caused hazy conditions around the volcano during 22-23 February.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 21-27 February. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes, often dense, rose 400-1,000 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that eruptive activity at Sheveluch continued during 15-22 February with a thermal anomaly identified in satellite images during 16, 18-19, and 22 February. On 19 February plumes of resuspended ash rose to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 55 km ESE. Weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 19-26 February. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly. Large blocks were sometimes ejected up to 400 m from the vent. Explosions were recorded at 0616 on 19 February, at 0604 and 2157 on 24 February, and at 1149 on 25 February; details of emissions were unknown. Eruptive events at 1702 and 2056 on 23 February produced ash plumes that rose at least 1 km above the crater rim and drifted S. Explosions at 2343 on 25 February and at 0431, 1402, 1910, and 1918 on 26 February produced ash plumes that rose 400-800 m above the crater rim and drifted S. The plume from the explosion at 1918 on 26 February rose to 800 m before entering into weather clouds. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a lahar descended the Volcánmayo drainage on the SE flank at Ubinas at 1745 on 25 February and traveled towards the Ubinas River. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to avoid driving on the Querapi-Ubinas-Huarina highway.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)