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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 3 April-9 April 2024
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Atka Volcanic Complex United States New
Barren Island India 2024 Mar 15 New
Etna Italy New
Fernandina Ecuador New
Poas Costa Rica 2023 Dec 1 New
Reykjanes Iceland 2023 Dec 18 New
Ahyi United States Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Lewotobi Indonesia 2023 Dec 23 Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Atka Volcanic Complex
AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for the Atka volcanic complex to Normal (the lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Green (the lowest color on a four-color scale) at 0734 on 9 April. The report noted that activity at the volcano had decreased following the small explosion at the summit crater of Korovin on 27 March, one of the volcanoes at the complex. Though occasional small earthquakes and weak volcanic tremor continued to be recorded, the activity was at background levels.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Barren Island
Eruptive activity at Barren Island continued according to notices from the Darwin VAAC. Ash plumes identified in satellite images during 2-3 April rose 0.9-1.5 km (3,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. Weather conditions prevented views on 4 April. A thermal anomaly over the summit was identified in Sentinel data on 30 March and 4 April.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Copernicus
Report for Etna
A small vent at Etna’s Southeast Crater began emitting unprecedented quantities of volcanic gas puffs that formed vortex rings during the evening of 2 April. INGV issued a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) at 2016 on 2 April raising the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second highest color on a four-color scale) due to increased signs of unrest. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange at 2030 because explosive activity at the summit craters was visible in webcam images; ash emissions were not produced.

A series of six explosive events were recorded by the seismic network during 1501-1510 on 7 April. Coincident with the seismic signals a four-minute-long, dense ash emission from Bocca Nuova Crater rose to 5 km a.s.l., or about 1.6 km above the summit, and quickly dispersed to the S. A VONA issued at 1018 on 9 April noted sporadic activity at the summit craters.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Fernandina
Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN) reported that during 2 March-1 April an estimated 44 million cubic meters of lava had erupted at Fernandina, making the current eruption the largest in the last 15 years, surpassed only by the 2009 eruption. Fissure 13, located just below the crater rim on the upper SE flank, continued to be active during 2-9 April; the rate of lava effusion was about five cubic meters per second at least through 4 April, though the advancement rate of the distal end of the lava flow was variable. Sulfur dioxide emissions were generally at moderate levels, fluctuating between about 100 and 1,000 tons per day, though emissions were as high as around 1,650 tons per day on 4 April. Daily thermal anomalies over the lava flow continued to be detected and were variable in both number and intensity. The lava flows continued to advance down the flank and by 4 April were about 13.2 km long and about 1.3 km from the coastline. Based on observations from the Dirección del Parque Nacional Galápagos, the Ministerio del Ambiente, and Agua y Transición Ecológica the flows reached the ocean on 7 April. An 8 April satellite image showed plumes of gas and steam rising from the ocean entry.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing emissions at Poás during 3-9 April. Vents on the nearly dry crater floor vigorously emitted plumes of gas and steam; ash was present in the plumes during 3-5 April and absent on the rest of the days. The plumes rose a few hundred meters above the crater rim and mainly drifted W, SW, and S and were often detected downwind in residential areas of Heredia and El Valle Central. Incandescence was visible from Boca A and Boca C during 3-4 April, and at Boca A during 4-5 April. A sulfur odor was reported in Heredia and El Valle Central during 3-4 April and in Sarchí on 9 April. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Reykjanes
IMO reported that the eruption along the fissure within the Reykanes volcanic system continued during 3-9 April. Two cones produced lava flows during the beginning of the week, but by 8 April only the larger, main cone was active. Lava flowed mostly S and the flows thickened near the crater and slightly to the S where the flows were most active. On 7 April lava filled the main crater, overflowed the crater rim, and cascaded down the cone’s flank. Part of N crater rim collapsed at 2130 causing lava to flow N; the lava built up a mound, blocking the path, and by the next day most of the lava again flowed S.

The average lava effusion rate decreased from about 6.6 cubic meters per second during 27 March-3 April to about 3.6 cubic meters per second during 3-8 April. During an overflight on 8 April observers confirmed that there had been a gradual decrease in the intensity of the eruption. The lava-flow field was an estimated 6.14 square kilometers with an approximate volume of 31.1 million cubic meters. Concurrent with a decrease in eruption intensity, inflation had accelerated. Seismicity continued to be at low levels and was concentrated between Sylingarfell and Stóra-Skógfell, and in the W part of Grindavík. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to be high around the eruption site and were detected in residential areas downwind. On 3 April the Civil Protection Emergency Level was lowered to the middle level on a three-level scale. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra (National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police and Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management)
Report for Ahyi
Signs of unrest at Ahyi Seamount had not been observed in satellite images since 27 March when an area of discolored water was present near the seamount. Both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Unassigned at 0346 on 10 April due to the absence of activity and the lack of local monitoring stations.
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 3-9 April. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted SW, S, and SE during 3 and 7-9 April. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l., or about 1.6 km above the summit, and drifted SW on 4 April. Plumes were either absent or not observed due to weather conditions on the other days. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 28 March-4 April. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 28-29 March and 1 and 3-4 April generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 29 March and 4 April; on other days there was no activity or weather conditions prevented views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Fuego during 1-9 April. Explosions were recorded daily, averaging 2-10 per hour on most days, when counts were reported. The explosions generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 30 km NW, W, and SW. Explosions caused frequent, daily block avalanches that descended various drainages including the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), and Las Lajas (SE), and sometimes reached vegetated areas. Weak rumbling sounds and shock waves were reported on most days. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind during 4-7 April including El Porvenir (11 km SW), El Rodeo, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Yepocapa (8 km NW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Los Yucales (12 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km WSW), and Morelia (9 km SW); ash possibly fell in La Soledad (11 km N), Acatenango (8 km E), Parramos (18 km NNE), and other nearby communities during 4-5 April. The explosions also ejected incandescent material up to 300 m above the summit during 5-6 April. In the afternoon of 8 April lahars descended the Las Lajas and Ceniza drainages, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks as large as 1.5 m in diameter.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued in Great Sitkin’s summit crater during 3-9 April. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 2-3 April. Seismicity was low with a few small daily earthquakes recorded by the seismic network; the network was not operational during 8-9 April. Weather clouds fully or partly obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes rose 50-200 m above the summit of Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano and drifted N, NE, and E on 6 and 9 April. White plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on 3, 5, and 7 April; no plumes were visible on 4 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside of the exclusion zone, defined as a 2-km radius around Laki-laki crater, 3 km to the NNE, and 5 km on the NE flanks.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 3-9 April. White-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 350 m above the summit and drifted E and SE on 4 and 7 April. White emissions rose as high as 600 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on the other days. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the residents of Lamawolo, Lamatokan, and Jontona were warned to stay 2 km away from the vent and 3 km away from the vent on the S and SE flanks.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 3-9 April. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 250-1,500 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions during 3-5 and 8-9 April. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 250-300 m above the summit and drifted E and SE during 6-7 April.

Lahars generated by intense rainfall were detected by the seismic network during 1400-1530 on 5 April. The lahars originated in multiple drainages on Marapi and damaged homes and infrastructure in parts of the Agam and Tanah Datar regencies including Bukik Batabuah and Aia Angek, and villages in the districts of Sungai Pua, Candung, and Batipuah. According to news articles at least two pulses of lahars damaged the Bukittinggi-Padang highway, causing it to be impassible for several hours. The lahars infiltrated about 65 hectares of rice fields, damaged 72 houses, and affected 38 businesses. In some areas, cars were stranded and some motorists were trapped, smaller roads were blocked, gas stations were impacted, and a few farm animals were swept away. About 270 residents were affected, and at least 68 were evacuated. Some residents were taken to the hospital, but no fatalities were reported. Based on field observations during 5-6 April authorities identified several rivers that had shallowed due to deposited material from the lahars and needed to be dredged so that they could flow normally and not cause further flooding. Efforts to remove the lahar and debris deposits such as tree trunks and branches was underway. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News, Antara News, Antara News, Antara News, Antara News, Antara News
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 29 March-4 April. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 49 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.8 km down the SW flank. One pyroclastic flow traveled 1.7 km SW down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The volume of the SW dome was an estimated 2,054,600 cubic meters and the dome in the main crater was an estimated 2,358,200 cubic meters based on a 30 March drone survey and webcam images. The highest temperature of the SW dome was 243 degrees Celsius, lower than the previous measurement. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Reventador
IG-EPN reported that a moderate eruption at Reventador was ongoing during 2-9 April. Seismicity was characterized by 46-78 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor associated with emissions. Ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, W, and SW during 2-4 and 7 April. Weather conditions sometimes prevented views; emissions were not visible on the other days of the week. Avalanches of incandescent material were visible most overnights, descending the flanks as far as 800 m from the summit. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Sangay
IG-EPN reported that high levels of eruptive activity continued at Sangay during 2-9 April. The seismic network recorded 1,106 explosions during 2-3 April and 20-411 daily explosions during the rest of the week. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 300-1,000 m above the summit and drifted SW on most days; weather conditions often hindered views during the week. Incandescent material descended the SE flank as far as 600 m during 2-3 April. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 1-9 April with a lava extrusion and avalanches at the Caliente dome. Incandescence from the dome was visible during most nights and early mornings, and occasional incandescence was also present along the upper parts of the lava flow on the WSW, S, and SE flanks. Daily explosions (1-7 per hour on some days) generated gas-and-ash plumes that mainly rose 600-900 m above the summit and drifted as far as 20 km NW, W, and SW. The explosions produced block avalanches on the dome’s flanks and generated occasional, short-range pyroclastic flows that mainly descended E, SE, and SW flanks. Block avalanches from the dome and the margins of the upper part of the lava flow were also sometimes visible. Rumblings were occasionally heard. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW), Loma Linda (7 km W), Llanos de Pinal, and other nearby communities during 4-5 April.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 3-9 April. Daily white-and-gray ash plumes rose 400-800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that eruptive activity at Sheveluch continued during 28 March-4 April with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. On 29 March a plume of resuspended ash drifted 65 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)