Report on Etna (Italy) — 17 July-23 July 2002
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
17 July-23 July 2002
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Etna (Italy). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 17 July-23 July 2002. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3357 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 19-21 July, explosions at Etna's Northeast Crater emitted gas and ash, and ejected volcanic bombs and fresh lava that landed within the crater. At Bocca Nuova crater, gas-and-ash emissions and explosions also occurred. At Voragine crater, degassing was less intense than it had been during previous observations on 22 June 2002. According to the Air Force Weather Agency, surface observations revealed that on 22 July a low-level ash cloud was visible. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.
Geological Summary. Mount Etna, towering above Catania on the island of Sicily, has one of the world's longest documented records of volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.