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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Masaya (Nicaragua) Lava lake level drops but remains active through May 2020; weak gas plumes

Shishaldin (United States) Intermittent thermal activity and a possible new cone at the summit crater during February-May 2020

Krakatau (Indonesia) Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence during April 2020

Taal (Philippines) Eruption on 12 January with explosions through 22 January; steam plumes continuing into March

Unnamed (Tonga) Additional details and pumice raft drift maps from the August 2019 submarine eruption

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Strombolian activity November 2019 through May 2020; lava flow down the SE flank in April

Nyamuragira (DR Congo) Intermittent thermal anomalies within the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020

Nyiragongo (DR Congo) Activity in the lava lake and small eruptive cone persists during December 2019-May 2020

Kavachi (Solomon Islands) Discolored water plumes seen using satellite imagery in 2018 and 2020

Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) Eruption and ash plumes begin on 11 January 2020 and continue through April 2020

Soputan (Indonesia) Minor ash emissions during 23 March and 2 April 2020

Heard (Australia) Eruptive activity including a lava flow during October 2019-April 2020



Masaya (Nicaragua) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.985°N, 86.165°W; summit elev. 594 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake level drops but remains active through May 2020; weak gas plumes

Masaya, which is about 20 km NW of the Nicaragua’s capital of Managua, is one of the most active volcanoes in that country and has a caldera that contains a number of craters (BGVN 43:11). The Santiago crater is the one most currently active and it contains a small lava lake that emits weak gas plumes (figure 85). This report summarizes activity during February through May 2020 and is based on Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) monthly reports and satellite data. During the reporting period, the volcano was relatively calm, with only weak gas plumes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Satellite images of Masaya from Sentinel-2 on 18 April 2020, showing and a small gas plume drifting SW (top, natural color bands 4, 3, 2) and the lava lake (bottom, false color bands 12, 11, 4). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

According to INETER, thermal images of the lava lake and temperature data in the fumaroles were taken using an Omega infrared gun and a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) SC620 thermal camera. The temperatures above the lava lake have decreased since November 2019, when the temperature was 287°C, dropping to 96°C when measured on 14 May 2020. INETER attributed this decrease to subsidence in the level of the lava lake by 5 m which obstructed part of the lake and concentrated the gas emissions in the weak plume. Convection continued in the lava lake, which in May had decreased to a diameter of 3 m. Many landslides had occurred in the E, NE, and S walls of the crater rim due to rock fracturing caused by the high heat and acidity of the emissions.

During the reporting period, the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system recorded numerous thermal anomalies from the lava lake based on MODIS data (figure 86). Infrared satellite images from Sentinel-2 regularly showed a strong signature from the lava lake through 18 May, after which the volcano was covered by clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Thermal anomalies at Masaya during February through May 2020. The larger anomalies with black lines are more distant and not related to the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) made by INETER in the section of the Ticuantepe - La Concepción highway (just W of the volcano) with a mobile DOAS system varied between a low of just over 1,000 metric tons/day in mid-November 2019 to a high of almost 2,500 tons/day in late May. Temperatures of fumaroles in the Cerro El Comalito area, just ENE of Santiago crater, ranged from 58 to 76°C during February-May 2020, with most values in the 69-72°C range.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras caldera and is itself a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The Nindirí and Masaya cones, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6,500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and there is a lake at the far eastern end. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals have caused health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Shishaldin (United States) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Shishaldin

United States

54.756°N, 163.97°W; summit elev. 2857 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal activity and a possible new cone at the summit crater during February-May 2020

Shishaldin is located near the center of Unimak Island in Alaska, with the current eruption phase beginning in July 2019 and characterized by ash plumes, lava flows, lava fountaining, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. More recently, in late 2019 and into January 2020, activity consisted of multiple lava flows, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and ashfall events (BGVN 45:02). This report summarizes activity from February through May 2020, including gas-and-steam emissions, brief thermal activity in mid-March, and a possible new cone within the summit crater. The primary source of information comes from the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reports and various satellite data.

Volcanism during February 2020 was relatively low, consisting of weakly to moderately elevated surface temperatures during 1-4 February and occasional small gas-and-steam plumes (figure 37). By 6 February both seismicity and surface temperatures had decreased. Seismicity and surface temperatures increased slightly again on 8 March and remained elevated through the rest of the reporting period. Intermittent gas-and-steam emissions were also visible from mid-March (figure 38) through May. Minor ash deposits visible on the upper SE flank may have been due to ash resuspension or a small collapse event at the summit, according to AVO.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Photo of a gas-and-steam plume rising from the summit crater at Shishaldin on 22 February 2020. Photo courtesy of Ben David Jacob via AVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. A Worldview-2 panchromatic satellite image on 11 March 2020 showing a gas-and-steam plume rising from the summit of Shishaldin and minor ash deposits on the SE flank (left). Aerial photo showing minor gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit crater on 11 March (right). Some erosion of the snow and ice on the upper flanks is a result of the lava flows from the activity in late 2019 and early 2020. Photo courtesy of Matt Loewen (left) and Ed Fischer (right) via AVO.

On 14 March, lava and a possible new cone were visible in the summit crater using satellite imagery, accompanied by small explosion signals. Strong thermal signatures due to the lava were also seen in Sentinel-2 satellite data and continued strongly through the month (figure 39). The lava reported by AVO in the summit crater was also reflected in satellite-based MODIS thermal anomalies recorded by the MIROVA system (figure 40). Seismic and infrasound data identified small explosions signals within the summit crater during 14-19 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images (bands 12, 11, 8A) show a bright hotspot (yellow-orange) at the summit crater of Shishaldin during mid-March 2020 that decreases in intensity by late March. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. MIROVA thermal data showing a brief increase in thermal anomalies during late March 2020 and on two days in late April between periods of little to no activity. Courtesy of MIROVA.

AVO released a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) stating that seismicity had decreased by 16 April and that satellite data no longer showed lava or additional changes in the crater since the start of April. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery continued to show a weak hotspot in the crater summit through May (figure 41), which was also detected by the MIROVA system on two days. A daily report on 6 May reported a visible ash deposit extending a short distance SE from the summit, which had likely been present since 29 April. AVO noted that the timing of the deposit corresponds to an increase in the summit crater diameter and depth, further supporting a possible small collapse. Small gas-and-steam emissions continued intermittently and were accompanied by weak tremors and occasional low-frequency earthquakes through May (figure 42). Minor amounts of sulfur dioxide were detected in the gas-and-steam emissions during 20 and 29 April, and 2, 16, and 28 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images (bands 12, 11, 8A) show occasional gas-and-steam emissions rising from Shishaldin on 26 February (top left) and 24 April 2020 (bottom left) and a weak hotspot (yellow-orange) persisting at the summit crater during April and early May 2020. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. A Worldview-1 panchromatic satellite image showing gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit of Shishaldin on 1 May 2020 (local time) (left). Aerial photo of the N flank of Shishaldin with minor gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit on 8 May (right). Photo courtesy of Matt Loewen (left) and Levi Musselwhite (right) via AVO.

Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steam plume often rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the W and NE sides at 1,500-1,800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of Strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence during April 2020

Krakatau, located in the Sunda Strait between Indonesia’s Java and Sumatra Islands, experienced a major caldera collapse around 535 CE, forming a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands. On 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338-m-high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami (BGVN 44:03). The near-sea level crater lake inside the remnant of Anak Krakatau was the site of numerous small steam and tephra explosions. A larger explosion in December 2019 produced the beginnings of a new cone above the surface of crater lake (BGVN 45:02). Recently, volcanism has been characterized by occasional Strombolian explosions, dense ash plumes, and crater incandescence. This report covers activity from February through May 2020 using information provided by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Activity during February 2020 consisted of dominantly white gas-and-steam emissions rising 300 m above the crater, according to PVMBG. According to the Darwin VAAC, a ground observer reported an eruption on 7 and 8 February, but no volcanic ash was observed. During 10-11 February, a short-lived eruption was detected by seismograms which produced an ash plume up to 1 km above the crater drifting E. MAGMA Indonesia reported two eruptions on 18 March, both of which rose to 300 m above the crater. White gas-and-steam emissions were observed for the rest of the month and early April.

On 10 April PVMBG reported two eruptions, at 2158 and 2235, both of which produced dark ash plumes rising 2 km above the crater followed by Strombolian explosions ejecting incandescent material that landed on the crater floor (figures 108 and 109). The Darwin VAAC issued a notice at 0145 on 11 April reporting an ash plume to 14.3 km altitude drifting WNW, however this was noted with low confidence due to the possible mixing of clouds. During the same day, an intense thermal hotspot was detected in the HIMAWARI thermal satellite imagery and the NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide page showed a strong SO2 plume at 11.3 km altitude drifting W (figure 110). The CCTV Lava93 webcam showed new lava flows and lava fountaining from the 10-11 April eruptions. This activity was evident in the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) graph of MODIS thermal anomaly data (figure 111).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. Webcam (Lava93) images of Krakatau on 10 April 2020 showing Strombolian explosions, strong incandescence, and ash plumes rising from the crater. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. Webcam image of incandescent Strombolian explosions at Krakatau on 10 April 2020. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. Strong sulfur dioxide emissions rising from Krakatau and drifting W were detected using the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite on 11 April 2020 (top row). Smaller volumes of SO2 were visible in Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI maps on 13 (bottom left) and 19 April (bottom right). Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 111. Thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from 29 June-May 2020 shown on a MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph. The power and frequency of the thermal anomalies sharply increased in mid-April. After the larger eruptive event in mid-April the thermal anomalies declined slightly in strength but continued to be detected intermittently through May. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Strombolian activity rising up to 500 m continued into 12 April and was accompanied by SO2 emissions that rose 3 km altitude, drifting NW according to a VAAC notice. PVMBG reported an eruption on 13 April at 2054 that resulted in incandescence as high as 25 m above the crater. Volcanic ash, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions, continued intermittently through 18 April, many of which were observed by the CCTV webcam. After 18 April only gas-and-steam plumes were reported, rising up to 100 m above the crater; Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed faint thermal anomalies in the crater (figure 112). SO2 emissions continued intermittently throughout April, though at lower volumes and altitudes compared to the 11th. MODIS satellite data seen in MIROVA showed intermittent thermal anomalies through May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 112. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the cool crater lake on 20 March (top left) followed by minor heating of the crater during April and May 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Taal (Philippines) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Taal

Philippines

14.002°N, 120.993°E; summit elev. 311 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption on 12 January with explosions through 22 January; steam plumes continuing into March

Taal volcano is in a caldera system located in southern Luzon island and is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines. It has produced around 35 recorded eruptions since 3,580 BCE, ranging from VEI 1 to 6, with the majority of eruptions being a VEI 2. The caldera contains a lake with an island that also contains a lake within the Main Crater (figure 12). Prior to 2020 the most recent eruption was in 1977, on the south flank near Mt. Tambaro. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Philippines reports that over 450,000 people live within 40 km of the caldera (figure 13). This report covers activity during January through February 2020 including the 12 to 22 January eruption, and is based on reports by Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), satellite data, geophysical data, and media reports.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Annotated satellite images showing the Taal caldera, Volcano Island in the caldera lake, and features on the island including Main Crater. Imagery courtesy of Planet Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Map showing population totals within 14 and 17 km of Volcano Island at Taal. Courtesy of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).

The hazard status at Taal was raised to Alert Level 1 (abnormal, on a scale of 0-5) on 28 March 2019. From that date through to 1 December there were 4,857 earthquakes registered, with some felt nearby. Inflation was detected during 21-29 November and an increase in CO2 emission within the Main Crater was observed. Seismicity increased beginning at 1100 on 12 January. At 1300 there were phreatic (steam) explosions from several points inside Main Crater and the Alert Level was raised to 2 (increasing unrest). Booming sounds were heard in Talisay, Batangas, at 1400; by 1402 the plume had reached 1 km above the crater, after which the Alert Level was raised to 3 (magmatic unrest).

Phreatic eruption on 12 January 2020. A seismic swarm began at 1100 on 12 January 2020 followed by a phreatic eruption at 1300. The initial activity consisted of steaming from at least five vents in Main Crater and phreatic explosions that generated 100-m-high plumes. PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 2. The Earth Observatory of Singapore reported that the International Data Center (IDC) for the Comprehensive test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in Vienna noted initial infrasound detections at 1450 that day.

Booming sounds were heard at 1400 in Talisay, Batangas (4 km NNE from the Main Crater), and at 1404 volcanic tremor and earthquakes felt locally were accompanied by an eruption plume that rose 1 km; ash fell to the SSW. The Alert Level was raised to 3 and the evacuation of high-risk barangays was recommended. Activity again intensified around 1730, prompting PHIVOLCS to raise the Alert Level to 4 and recommend a total evacuation of the island and high-risk areas within a 14-km radius. The eruption plume of steam, gas, and tephra significantly intensified, rising to 10-15 km altitude and producing frequent lightning (figures 14 and 15). Wet ash fell as far away as Quezon City (75 km N). According to news articles schools and government offices were ordered to close and the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (56 km N) in Manila suspended flights. About 6,000 people had been evacuated. Residents described heavy ashfall, low visibility, and fallen trees.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Lightning produced during the eruption of Taal during 1500 on 12 January to 0500 on 13 January 2020 local time (0700-2100 UTC on 12 January). Courtesy of Chris Vagasky, Vaisala.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Lightning strokes produced during the first days of the Taal January 2020 eruption. Courtesy of Domcar C Lagto/SIPA/REX/Shutterstock via The Guardian.

In a statement issued at 0320 on 13 January, PHIVOLCS noted that ashfall had been reported across a broad area to the north in Tanauan (18 km NE), Batangas; Escala (11 km NW), Tagaytay; Sta. Rosa (32 km NNW), Laguna; Dasmariñas (32 km N), Bacoor (44 km N), and Silang (22 km N), Cavite; Malolos (93 km N), San Jose Del Monte (87 km N), and Meycauayan (80 km N), Bulacan; Antipolo (68 km NNE), Rizal; Muntinlupa (43 km N), Las Piñas (47 km N), Marikina (70 km NNE), Parañaque (51 km N), Pasig (62 km NNE), Quezon City, Mandaluyong (62 km N), San Juan (64 km N), Manila; Makati City (59 km N) and Taguig City (55 km N). Lapilli (2-64 mm in diameter) fell in Tanauan and Talisay; Tagaytay City (12 km N); Nuvali (25 km NNE) and Sta (figure 16). Rosa, Laguna. Felt earthquakes (Intensities II-V) continued to be recorded in local areas.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Ashfall from the Taal January 2020 eruption in Lemery (top) and in the Batangas province (bottom). Photos posted on 13 January, courtesy of Ezra Acayan/Getty Images, Aaron Favila/AP, and Ted Aljibe/AFP via Getty Images via The Guardian.

Magmatic eruption on 13 January 2020. A magmatic eruption began during 0249-0428 on 13 January, characterized by weak lava fountaining accompanied by thunder and flashes of lightning. Activity briefly waned then resumed with sporadic weak fountaining and explosions that generated 2-km-high, dark gray, steam-laden ash plumes (figure 17). New lateral vents opened on the N flank, producing 500-m-tall lava fountains. Heavy ashfall impacted areas to the SW, including in Cuenca (15 km SSW), Lemery (16 km SW), Talisay, and Taal (15 km SSW), Batangas (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Ash plumes seen from various points around Taal in the initial days of the January 2020 eruption, posted on 13 January. Courtesy of Eloisa Lopez/Reuters, Kester Ragaza/Pacific Press/Shutterstock, Ted Aljibe/AFP via Getty Images, via The Guardian.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Map indicating areas impacted by ashfall from the 12 January eruption through to 0800 on the 13th. Small yellow circles (to the N) are ashfall report locations; blue circles (at the island and to the S) are heavy ashfall; large green circles are lapilli (particles measuring 2-64 mm in diameter). Modified from a map courtesy of Lauriane Chardot, Earth Observatory of Singapore; data taken from PHIVOLCS.

News articles noted that more than 300 domestic and 230 international flights were cancelled as the Manila Ninoy Aquino International Airport was closed during 12-13 January. Some roads from Talisay to Lemery and Agoncillo were impassible and electricity and water services were intermittent. Ashfall in several provinces caused power outages. Authorities continued to evacuate high-risk areas, and by 13 January more than 24,500 people had moved to 75 shelters out of a total number of 460,000 people within 14 km.

A PHIVOLCS report for 0800 on the 13th through 0800 on 14 January noted that lava fountaining had continued, with steam-rich ash plumes reaching around 2 km above the volcano and dispersing ash SE and W of Main Crater. Volcanic lighting continued at the base of the plumes. Fissures on the N flank produced 500-m-tall lava fountains. Heavy ashfall continued in the Lemery, Talisay, Taal, and Cuenca, Batangas Municipalities. By 1300 on the 13th lava fountaining generated 800-m-tall, dark gray, steam-laden ash plumes that drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 5,299 metric tons/day (t/d) on 13 January and dispersed NNE (figure 19).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Compilation of sulfur dioxide plumes from TROPOMI overlaid in Google Earth for 13 January from 0313-1641 UT. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page and Google Earth.

Explosions and ash emission through 22 January 2020. At 0800 on 15 January PHIVOLCS stated that activity was generally weaker; dark gray, steam-laden ash plumes rose about 1 km and drifted SW. Satellite images showed that the Main Crater lake was gone and new craters had formed inside Main Crater and on the N side of Volcano Island.

PHIVOLCS reported that activity during 15-16 January was characterized by dark gray, steam-laden plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the vents in Main Crater and drifted S and SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 4,186 t/d on 15 January. Eruptive events at 0617 and 0621 on 16 January generated short-lived, dark gray ash plumes that rose 500 and 800 m, respectively, and drifted SW. Weak steam plumes rose 800 m and drifted SW during 1100-1700, and nine weak explosions were recorded by the seismic network.

Steady steam emissions were visible during 17-21 January. Infrequent weak explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated and were as high as 4,353 t/d on 20 January and as low as 344 t/d on 21 January. PHIVOLCS reported that white steam-laden plumes rose as high as 800 m above main vent during 22-28 January and drifted SW and NE; ash emissions ceased around 0500 on 22 January. Remobilized ash drifted SW on 22 January due to strong low winds, affecting the towns of Lemery (16 km SW) and Agoncillo, and rose as high as 5.8 km altitude as reported by pilots. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low at 140 t/d.

Steam plumes through mid-April 2020. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 on 26 January and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island and Taal Lake, nor into towns on the western side of the island within a 7-km radius. PHIVOLCS reported that whitish steam plumes rose as high as 800 m during 29 January-4 February and drifted SW (figure 20). The observed steam plumes rose as high as 300 m during 5-11 February and drifted SW.

Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged around 250 t/d during 22-26 January; emissions were 87 t/d on 27 January and below detectable limits the next day. During 29 January-4 February sulfur dioxide emissions ranged to a high of 231 t/d (on 3 February). The following week sulfur dioxide emissions ranged from values below detectable limits to a high of 116 t/d (on 8 February).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Taal Volcano Island producing gas-and-steam plumes on 15-16 January 2020. Courtesy of James Reynolds, Earth Uncut.

On 14 February PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level to 2, noting a decline in the number of volcanic earthquakes, stabilizing ground deformation of the caldera and Volcano Island, and diffuse steam-and-gas emission that continued to rise no higher than 300 m above the main vent during the past three weeks. During 14-18 February sulfur dioxide emissions ranged from values below detectable limits to a high of 58 tonnes per day (on 16 February). Sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits during 19-20 February. During 26 February-2 March steam plumes rose 50-300 m above the vent and drifted SW and NE. PHIVOLCS reported that during 4-10 March weak steam plumes rose 50-100 m and drifted SW and NE; moderate steam plumes rose 300-500 m and drifted SW during 8-9 March. During 11-17 March weak steam plumes again rose only 50-100 m and drifted SW and NE.

PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level to 1 on 19 March and recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone. During 8-9 April steam plumes rose 100-300 m and drifted SW. As of 1-2 May 2020 only weak steaming and fumarolic activity from fissure vents along the Daang Kastila trail was observed.

Evacuations. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 53,832 people dispersed to 244 evacuation centers by 1800 on 15 January. By 21 January there were 148,987 people in 493 evacuation. The number of residents in evacuation centers dropped over the next week to 125,178 people in 497 locations on 28 January. However, many residents remained displaced as of 3 February, with DROMIC reporting 23,915 people in 152 evacuation centers, but an additional 224,188 people staying at other locations.

By 10 February there were 17,088 people in 110 evacuation centers, and an additional 211,729 staying at other locations. According to the DROMIC there were a total of 5,321 people in 21 evacuation centers, and an additional 195,987 people were staying at other locations as of 19 February.

The number of displaced residents continued to drop, and by 3 March there were 4,314 people in 12 evacuation centers, and an additional 132,931 people at other locations. As of 11 March there were still 4,131 people in 11 evacuation centers, but only 17,563 staying at other locations.

Deformation and ground cracks. New ground cracks were observed on 13 January in Sinisian (18 km SW), Mahabang Dahilig (14 km SW), Dayapan (15 km SW), Palanas (17 km SW), Sangalang (17 km SW), and Poblacion (19 km SW) Lemery; Pansipit (11 km SW), Agoncillo; Poblacion 1, Poblacion 2, Poblacion 3, Poblacion 5 (all around 17 km SW), Talisay, and Poblacion (11 km SW), San Nicolas (figure 21). A fissure opened across the road connecting Agoncillo to Laurel, Batangas. New ground cracking was reported the next day in Sambal Ibaba (17 km SW), and portions of the Pansipit River (SW) had dried up.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Video screenshots showing ground cracks that formed during the Taal unrest and captured on 15 and 16 January 2020. Courtesy of James Reynolds, Earth Uncut.

Dropping water levels of Taal Lake were first observed in some areas on 16 January but reported to be lake-wide the next day. The known ground cracks in the barangays of Lemery, Agoncillo, Talisay, and San Nicolas in Batangas Province widened a few centimeters by 17 January, and a new steaming fissure was identified on the N flank of the island.

GPS data had recorded a sudden widening of the caldera by ~1 m, uplift of the NW sector by ~20 cm, and subsidence of the SW part of Volcano Island by ~1 m just after the main eruption phase. The rate of deformation was smaller during 15-22 January, and generally corroborated by field observations; Taal Lake had receded about 30 cm by 25 January but about 2.5 m of the change (due to uplift) was observed around the SW portion of the lake, near the Pansipit River Valley where ground cracking had been reported.

Weak steaming (plumes 10-20 m high) from ground cracks was visible during 5-11 February along the Daang Kastila trail which connects the N part of Volcano Island to the N part of the main crater. PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-24 February steam plumes rose 50-100 m above the vent and drifted SW. Weak steaming (plumes up to 20 m high) from ground cracks was visible during 8-14 April along the Daang Kastila trail which connects the N part of Volcano Island to the N part of the main crater.

Seismicity. Between 1300 on 12 January and 0800 on 21 January the Philippine Seismic Network (PSN) had recorded a total of 718 volcanic earthquakes; 176 of those had magnitudes ranging from 1.2-4.1 and were felt with Intensities of I-V. During 20-21 January there were five volcanic earthquakes with magnitudes of 1.6-2.5; the Taal Volcano network (which can detect smaller events not detectable by the PSN) recorded 448 volcanic earthquakes, including 17 low-frequency events. PHIVOLCS stated that by 21 January hybrid earthquakes had ceased and both the number and magnitude of low-frequency events had diminished.

Geologic Background. Taal is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. Though not topographically prominent, its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the landscape of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 km2 surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that have grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions have caused many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Department of Science and Technology, University of the Philippines Campus, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (URL: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/); Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) (URL: https://dromic.dswd.gov.ph/); United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Philippines (URL: https://www.unocha.org/philippines); James Reynolds, Earth Uncut TV (Twitter: @EarthUncutTV, URL: https://www.earthuncut.tv/, YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/TyphoonHunter); Chris Vagasky, Vaisala Inc., Louisville, Colorado, USA (URL: https://www.vaisala.com/en?type=1, Twitter: @COweatherman, URL: https://twitter.com/COweatherman); Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore (URL: https://www.earthobservatory.sg/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Relief Web, Flash Update No. 1 - Philippines: Taal Volcano eruption (As of 13 January 2020, 2 p.m. local time) (URL: https://reliefweb.int/report/philippines/flash-update-no-1-philippines-taal-volcano-eruption-13-january-2020-2-pm-local); Bloomberg, Philippines Braces for Hazardous Volcano Eruption (URL: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-01-12/philippines-raises-alert-level-in-taal-as-volcano-spews-ash); National Public Radio (NPR), Volcanic Eruption In Philippines Causes Thousands To Flee (URL: npr.org/2020/01/13/795815351/volcanic-eruption-in-philippines-causes-thousands-to-flee); Reuters (http://www.reuters.com/); Agence France-Presse (URL: http://www.afp.com/); Pacific Press (URL: http://www.pacificpress.com/); Shutterstock (URL: https://www.shutterstock.com/); Getty Images (URL: http://www.gettyimages.com/); Google Earth (URL: https://www.google.com/earth/).


Unnamed (Tonga) — March 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Unnamed

Tonga

18.325°S, 174.365°W; summit elev. -40 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Additional details and pumice raft drift maps from the August 2019 submarine eruption

In the northern Tonga region, approximately 80 km NW of Vava’u, large areas of floating pumice, termed rafts, were observed starting as early as 7 August 2019. The area of these andesitic pumice rafts was initially 195 km2 with the layers measuring 15-30 cm thick and were produced 200 m below sea level (Jutzeler et al. 2020). The previous report (BGVN 44:11) described the morphology of the clasts and the rafts, and their general westward path from 9 August to 9 October 2019, with the first sighting occurring on 9 August NW of Vava’u in Tonga. This report updates details regarding the submarine pumice raft eruption in early August 2019 using new observations and data from Brandl et al. (2019) and Jutzeler et al. (2020).

The NoToVE-2004 (Northern Tonga Vents Expedition) research cruise on the RV Southern Surveyor (SS11/2004) from the Australian CSIRO Marine National Facility traveled to the northern Tonga Arc and discovered several submarine basalt-to-rhyolite volcanic centers (Arculus, 2004). One of these volcanic centers 50 km NW of Vava’u was the unnamed seamount (volcano number 243091) that had erupted in 2001 and again in 2019, unofficially designated “Volcano F” for reference purposes by Arculus (2004) and also used by Brandl et al. (2019). It is a volcanic complex that rises more than 1 km from the seafloor with a central 6 x 8.7 km caldera and a volcanic apron measuring over 50 km in diameter (figures 19 and 20). Arculus (2004) described some of the dredged material as “fresh, black, plagioclase-bearing lava with well-formed, glassy crusts up to 2cm thick” from cones by the eastern wall of the caldera; a number of apparent flows, lava or debris, were observed draping over the northern wall of the caldera.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Visualization of the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano (marked “Volcano F”) using bathymetric data to show the site of the 6-8 August 2020 eruption and the rest of the cone complex. Courtesy of Philipp Brandl via GEOMAR.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Map of the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano using satellite imagery, bathymetric data, with shading from the NW. The yellow circle indicates the location of the August 2019 activity. Young volcanic cones are marked “C” and those with pit craters at the top are marked with “P.” Courtesy of Brandl et al. (2019).

The International Seismological Centre (ISC) Preliminary Bulletin listed a particularly strong (5.7 Mw) earthquake at 2201 local time on 5 August, 15 km SSW of the volcano at a depth of 10 km (Brandl et al. 2019). This event was followed by six slightly lower magnitude earthquakes over the next two days.

Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed two concentric rings originating from a point source (18.307°S 174.395°W) on 6 August (figure 21), which could be interpreted as small weak submarine plumes or possibly a series of small volcanic cones, according to Brandl et al. (2019). The larger ring is about 1.2 km in diameter and the smaller one measures 250 m. By 8 August volcanic activity had decreased, but the pumice rafts that were produced remained visible through at least early October (BGVN 44:11). Brandl et al. (2019) states that, due to the lack of continued observed activity rising from this location, the eruption was likely a 2-day-long event during 6-8 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Sentinel-2 satellite image of possible gas/vapor emissions (streaks) on 6 August 2019 drifting NW, which is the interpreted site for the unnamed Tongan seamount. The larger ring is about 1.2 km in diameter and the smaller one measures 250 m. Image using False Color (urban) rendering (bands 12, 11, 4); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The pumice was first observed on 9 August occurred up to 56 km from the point of origin, according to Jutzeler et al. (2020). By calculating the velocity (14 km/day) of the raft using three satellites, Jutzeler et al. (2020) determined the pumice was erupted immediately after the satellite image of the submarine plumes on 6 August (UTC time). Minor activity at the vent may have continued on 8 and 11 August (UTC time) with pale blue-green water discoloration (figure 22) and a small (less than 1 km2) diffuse pumice raft 2-5 km from the vent.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Sentinel-2 satellite image of the last visible activity occurring W of the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano on 8 August 2019, represented by slightly discolored blue-green water. Image using Natural Color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) and enhanced with color correction; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Continuous observations using various satellite data and observations aboard the catamaran ROAM tracked the movement and extent of the pumice raft that was produced during the submarine eruption in early August (figure 23). The first visible pumice raft was observed on 8 August 2019, covering more than 136.7 km2 between the volcanic islands of Fonualei and Late and drifting W for 60 km until 9 August (Brandl et al. 2019; Jutzeler 2020). The next day, the raft increased to 167.2-195 km2 while drifting SW for 74 km until 14 August. Over the next three days (10-12 August) the size of the raft briefly decreased in size to less than 100 km2 before increasing again to 157.4 km2 on 14 August; at least nine individual rafts were mapped and identified on satellite imagery (Brandl et al. 2019). On 15 August sailing vessels observed a large pumice raft about 75 km W of Late Island (see details in BGVN 44:11), which was the same one as seen in satellite imagery on 8 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Map of the extent of discolored water and the pumice raft from the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano between 8 and 14 August 2019 using imagery from NASA’s MODIS, ESA’s Sentinel-2 satellite, and observations from aboard the catamaran ROAM (BGVN 44:11). Back-tracing the path of the pumice raft points to a source location at the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano. Courtesy of Brandl et al. (2019).

By 17 August high-resolution satellite images showed an area of large and small rafts measuring 222 km2 and were found within a field of smaller rafts for a total extent of 1,350 km2, which drifted 73 km NNW through 22 August before moving counterclockwise for three days (figure f; Jutzeler et al., 2020). Small pumice ribbons encountered the Oneata Lagoon on 30 August, the first island that the raft came into contact (Jutzeler et al. 2020). By 2 September, the main raft intersected with Lakeba Island (460 km from the source) (figure 24), breaking into smaller ribbons that started to drift W on 8 September. On 19 September the small rafts (less than 100 m x less than 2 km) entered the strait between Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, the two main islands of Fiji, while most of the others were stranded 60 km W in the Yasawa Islands for more than two months (Jutzeler et al., 2020).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Time-series map of the raft dispersal from the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano using multiple satellite images. A) Map showing the first days of the raft dispersal starting on 7 August 2019 and drifting SW from the vent (marked with a red triangle). Precursory seismicity that began on 5 August is marked with a white star. By 15-17 August the raft was entrained in an ocean loop or eddy. The dashed lines represent the path of the sailing vessels. B) Map of the raft dispersal using high-resolution Sentinel-2 and -3 imagery. Two dispersal trails (red and blue dashed lines) show the daily dispersal of two parts of the raft that were separated on 17 August 2019. Courtesy of Jutzeler et al. (2020).

References: Arculus, R J, SS2004/11 shipboard scientists, 2004. SS11/2004 Voyage Summary: NoToVE-2004 (Northern Tonga Vents Expedition): submarine hydrothermal plume activity and petrology of the northern Tofua Arc, Tonga. https://www.cmar.csiro.au/data/reporting/get file.cfm?eovpub id=901.

Brandl P A, Schmid F, Augustin N, Grevemeyer I, Arculus R J, Devey C W, Petersen S, Stewart M , Kopp K, Hannington M D, 2019. The 6-8 Aug 2019 eruption of ‘Volcano F’ in the Tofua Arc, Tonga. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.106695

Jutzeler M, Marsh R, van Sebille E, Mittal T, Carey R, Fauria K, Manga M, McPhie J, 2020. Ongoing Dispersal of the 7 August 2019 Pumice Raft From the Tonga Arc in the Southwestern Pacific Ocean. AGU Geophysical Research Letters: https://doi.orh/10.1029/2019GL086768.

Geologic Background. A submarine volcano along the Tofua volcanic arc was first observed in September 2001. The newly discovered volcano lies NW of the island of Vava'u about 35 km S of Fonualei and 60 km NE of Late volcano. The site of the eruption is along a NNE-SSW-trending submarine plateau with an approximate bathymetric depth of 300 m. T-phase waves were recorded on 27-28 September 2001, and on the 27th local fishermen observed an ash-rich eruption column that rose above the sea surface. No eruptive activity was reported after the 28th, but water discoloration was documented during the following month. In early November rafts and strandings of dacitic pumice were reported along the coast of Kadavu and Viti Levu in the Fiji Islands. The depth of the summit of the submarine cone following the eruption determined to be 40 m during a 2007 survey; the crater of the 2001 eruption was breached to the E.

Information Contacts: Jan Steffen, Communication and Media, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity November 2019 through May 2020; lava flow down the SE flank in April

Klyuchevskoy is part of the Klyuchevskaya volcanic group in northern Kamchatka and is one of the most frequently active volcanoes of the region. Eruptions produce lava flows, ashfall, and lahars originating from summit and flank activity. This report summarizes activity during October 2019 through May 2020, and is based on reports by the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and satellite data.

There were no activity reports from 1 to 22 October, but gas emissions were visible in satellite images. At 1020 on 24 October (2220 on 23 October UTC) KVERT noted that there was a small ash component in the ash plume from erosion of the conduit, with the plume reaching 130 km ENE. The Aviation Colour Code was raised from Green to Yellow, then to Orange the following day. An ash plume continued on the 25th to 5-7 km altitude and extending 15 km SE and 70 km SW and reached 30 km ESE on the 26th. Similar activity continued through to the end of the month.

Moderate gas emissions continued during 1-19 November, but the summit was obscured by clouds. Strong nighttime incandescence was visible at the crater during the 10-11 November and thermal anomalies were detected on 8 and 10-13 November. Explosions produced ash plumes up to 6 km altitude on the 20-21st and Strombolian activity was reported during 20-22 November. Degassing continued from 23 November through 12 December, and a thermal anomaly was visible on the days when the summit was not covered by clouds. An ash plume was reported moving to the NW on the 13th, and degassing with a thermal anomaly and intermittent Strombolian activity then resumed, continuing through to the end of December with an ash plume reported on the 30th.

Gas-and-steam plumes continued into January 2020 with incandescence noted when the summit was clear (figure 33). Strombolian activity was reported again starting on the 3rd. A weak ash plume produced on the 6th extended 55 km E, and on the 21st an ash plume reached 5-5.5 km altitude and extended 190 km NE (figure 34). Another ash plume the next day rose to the same altitude and extended 388 km NE. During 23-29 Strombolian activity continued, and Vulcanian activity produced ash plumes up to 5.5 altitude, extending to 282 km E on the 30th, and 145 km E on the 31st.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Incandescence and degassing were visible at Klyuchevskoy through January 2020, seen here on the 11th. Courtesy of KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. A low ash plume at Klyuchevskoy on 21 January 2020 extended 190 km NE. Courtesy of KVERT.

Strombolian activity continued throughout February with occasional explosions producing ash plumes up to 5.5 km altitude, as well as gas-and-steam plumes and a persistent thermal anomaly with incandescence visible at night. Starting in late February thermal anomalies were detected much more frequently, and with higher energy output compared to the previous year (figure 35). A lava fountain was reported on 1 March with the material falling back into the summit crater. Strombolian activity continued through early March. Lava fountaining was reported again on the 8th with ejecta landing in the crater and down the flanks (figure 36). A strong persistent gas-and-steam plume containing some ash continued along with Strombolian activity through 25 March (figure 37), with Vulcanian activity noted on the 20th and 25th. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity was reported through the end of March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. This MIROVA thermal energy plot for Klyuchevskoy for the year ending 29 April 2020 (log radiative power) shows intermittent thermal anomalies leading up to more sustained energy detected from February through March, then steadily increasing energy through April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Strombolian explosions at Klyuchevskoy eject incandescent ash and gas, and blocks and bombs onto the upper flanks on 8 and 10 March 2020. Courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Weak ash emission from the Klyuchevskoy summit crater are dispersed by wind on 19 and 29 March 2020, with ash depositing on the flanks. Courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Activity was dominantly Strombolian during 1-5 April and included intermittent Vulcanian explosions from the 6th onwards, with ash plumes reaching 6 km altitude. On 18 April a lava flow began moving down the SE flank (figures 38). A report on the 26th reported explosions from lava-water interactions with avalanches from the active lava flow, which continued to move down the SE flank and into the Apakhonchich chute (figures 39 and 40). This continued throughout April and May with sustained Strombolian and intermittent Vulcanian activity at the summit (figures 41 and 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Strombolian activity produced ash plumes and a lava flow down the SE flank of Klyuchevskoy on 18 April 2020. Courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. A lava flow descends the SW flank of Klyuchevskoy and a gas plume is dispersed by winds on 21 April 2020. Courtesy of Yu. Demyanchuk, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show the progression of the Klyuchevskoy lava flow from the summit crater down the SE flank from 19-29 April 2020. Associated gas plumes are dispersed in various directions. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy ejects incandescent ejecta, gas, and ash above the summit on 27 April 2020. Courtesy of D. Bud'kov, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Klyuchevskoy show the progression of the SE flank lava flow through May 2020, with associated gas plumes being dispersed in multiple directions. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyamuragira

DR Congo

1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal anomalies within the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020

Nyamuragira (also known as Nyamulagira) is located in the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and consists of a lava lake that reappeared in the summit crater in mid-April 2018. Volcanism has been characterized by lava emissions, thermal anomalies, seismicity, and gas-and-steam emissions. This report summarizes activity during December 2019 through May 2020 using information from monthly reports by the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) and satellite data.

According to OVG, intermittent eruptive activity was detected in the lava lake of the central crater during December 2019 and January-April 2020, which also resulted in few seismic events. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows thermal anomalies within the summit crater that varied in both frequency and power between August 2019 and mid-March 2020, but very few were recorded afterward through late May (figure 88). Thermal hotspots identified by MODVOLC from 15 December 2019 through March 2020 were mainly located in the active central crater, with only three hotspots just outside the SW crater rim (figure 89). Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery also showed activity within the summit crater during January-May 2020, but by mid-March the thermal anomaly had visibly decreased in power (figure 90).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. The MIROVA graph of thermal activity (log radiative power) at Nyamuragira during 27 July through May 2020 shows variably strong, intermittent thermal anomalies with a variation in power and frequency from August 2019 to mid-March 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Map showing the number of MODVOLC hotspot pixels at Nyamuragira from 1 December 2019 t0 31 May 2020. 37 pixels were registered within the summit crater while 3 were detected just outside the SW crater rim. Courtesy of HIGP-MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) confirmed ongoing thermal activity (bright yellow-orange) at Nyamuragira from February into April 2020. The strength of the thermal anomaly in the summit crater decreased by late March 2020, but was still visible. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

Information Contacts: Information contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/exp.


Nyiragongo (DR Congo) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyiragongo

DR Congo

1.52°S, 29.25°E; summit elev. 3470 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Activity in the lava lake and small eruptive cone persists during December 2019-May 2020

Nyiragongo is located in the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, part of the western branch of the East African Rift System and contains a 1.2 km-wide summit crater with a lava lake that has been active since at least 1971. Volcanism has been characterized by strong and frequent thermal anomalies, incandescence, gas-and-steam emissions, and seismicity. This report summarizes activity during December 2019 through May 2020 using information from monthly reports by the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) and satellite data.

In the December 2019 monthly report, OVG stated that the level of the lava lake had increased. This level of the lava lake was maintained for the duration of the reporting period, according to later OVG monthly reports. Seismicity increased starting in November 2019 and was detected in the NE part of the crater, but it decreased by mid-April 2020. SO2 emissions increased in January 2020 to roughly 7,000 tons/day but decreased again near the end of the month. OVG reported that SO2 emissions rose again in February to roughly 8,500 tons/day before declining to about 6,000 tons/day. Unlike in the previous report (BGVN 44:12), incandescence was visible during the day in the active lava lake and activity at the small eruptive cone within the 1.2-km-wide summit crater has since increased, consisting of incandescence and some lava fountaining (figure 72). A field survey was conducted on 3-4 March where an OVG team observed active lava fountains and ejecta that produced Pele’s hair from the small eruptive cone (figure 73). During this survey, OVG reported that the level of the lava lake had reached the second terrace, which was formed on 17 January 2002 and represents remnants of the lava lake at different eruption stages. There, the open surface lava lake was observed; gas-and-steam emissions accompanied both the active lava lake and the small eruptive cone (figures 72 and 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Webcam image of Nyiragongo in February 2020 showing an open lava lake surface and incandescence from the active crater cone within the 1.2 km-wide summit crater visible during the day, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions. Courtesy of OVG (Rapport OVG February 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Webcam image of Nyiragongo on 4 March 2020 showing an open lava lake surface and incandescence from the active crater cone within the 1.2 km-wide summit crater visible during the day, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions. Courtesy of OVG (Rapport OVG Mars 2020).

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data continued to show frequent strong thermal anomalies within 5 km of the summit crater through May 2020 (figure 74). Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported multiple thermal hotspots almost daily within the summit crater between December 2019 and May 2020. These thermal signatures were also observed in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery within the summit crater (figure 75).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Thermal anomalies at Nyiragongo from 27 July through May 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were frequent and strong. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) showed ongoing thermal activity (bright yellow-orange) in the summit crater at Nyiragongo during January through April 2020. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. The steep slopes of a stratovolcano contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks, which is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundated portions of the major city of Goma in January 2002.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kavachi (Solomon Islands) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kavachi

Solomon Islands

8.991°S, 157.979°E; summit elev. -20 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Discolored water plumes seen using satellite imagery in 2018 and 2020

Kavachi is a submarine volcano located in the Solomon Islands south of Gatokae and Vangunu islands. Volcanism is frequently active, but rarely observed. The most recent eruptions took place during 2014, which consisted of an ash eruption, and during 2016, which included phreatomagmatic explosions (BGVN 42:03). This reporting period covers December 2016-April 2020 primarily using satellite data.

Activity at Kavachi is often only observed through satellite images, and frequently consists of discolored submarine plumes for which the cause is uncertain. On 1 January 2018 a slight yellow discoloration in the water is seen extending to the E from a specific point (figure 20). Similar faint plumes were observed on 16 January, 25 February, 2 March, 26 April, 6 May, and 25 June 2018. No similar water discoloration was noted during 2019, though clouds may have obscured views.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Satellite images from Sentinel-2 revealed intermittent faint water discoloration (yellow) at Kavachi during the first half of 2018, as seen here on 1 January (top left), 25 February (top right), 26 April (bottom left), and 25 June (bottom right). Images with “Natural color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity resumed in 2020, showing more discolored water in satellite imagery. The first instance occurred on 16 March, where a distinct plume extended from a specific point to the SE. On 25 April a satellite image showed a larger discolored plume in the water that spread over about 30 km2, encompassing the area around Kavachi (figure 21). Another image on 30 April showed a thin ribbon of discolored water extending about 50 km W of the vent.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Sentinel-2 satellite images of a discolored plume (yellow) at Kavachi beginning on 16 March (top left) with a significant large plume on 25 April (right), which remained until 30 April (bottom left). Images with “Natural color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Named for a sea-god of the Gatokae and Vangunu peoples, Kavachi is one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Vangunu Island. Sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), this shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier eruptions. The roughly conical edifice rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the SE. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the ephemeral islands.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kuchinoerabujima

Japan

30.443°N, 130.217°E; summit elev. 657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption and ash plumes begin on 11 January 2020 and continue through April 2020

Kuchinoerabujima encompasses a group of young stratovolcanoes located in the northern Ryukyu Islands. All historical eruptions have originated from the Shindake cone, with the exception of a lava flow that originated from the S flank of the Furudake cone. The most recent previous eruptive period took place during October 2018-February 2019 and primarily consisted of weak explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall. The current eruption began on 11 January 2020 after nearly a year of dominantly gas-and-steam emissions. Volcanism for this reporting period from March 2019 to April 2020 included explosions, ash plumes, SO2 emissions, and ashfall. The primary source of information for this report comes from monthly and annual reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and advisories from the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Activity has been limited to Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater.

Volcanism at Kuchinoerabujima was relatively low during March through December 2019, according to JMA. During this time, SO2 emissions ranged from 100 to 1,000 tons/day. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequently observed throughout the entire reporting period, rising to a maximum height of 1.1 km above the crater on 13 December 2019. Satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 showed gas-and-steam and occasional ash emissions rising from the Shindake crater throughout the reporting period (figure 7). Though JMA reported thermal anomalies occurring on 29 January and continuing through late April 2020, Sentinel-2 imagery shows the first thermal signature appearing on 26 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showed gas-and-steam and ash emissions rising from Kuchinoerabujima. Some ash deposits can be seen on 6 February 2020 (top right). A thermal anomaly appeared on 26 April 2020 (bottom right). Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

An eruption on 11 January 2020 at 1505 ejected material 300 m from the crater and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater rim, extending E, according to JMA. The eruption continued through 12 January until 0730. The resulting ash plumes rose 400 m above the crater, drifting SW while the SO2 emissions measured 1,300 tons/day. Ashfall was reported on Yakushima Island (15 km E). Minor eruptive activity was reported during 17-20 January which produced gray-white plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater. On 23 January, seismicity increased, and an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km altitude, according to a Tokyo VAAC report, resulting in ashfall 2 km NE of the crater. A small explosion was detected on 24 January, followed by an increase in the number of earthquakes during 25-26 January (65-71 earthquakes per day were registered). Another small eruptive event detected on 27 January at 0148 was accompanied by a volcanic tremor and a change in tilt data. During the month of January, some inflation was detected at the base on the volcano and a total of 347 earthquakes were recorded. The SO2 emissions ranged from 200-1,600 tons/day.

An eruption on 1 February 2020 produced an eruption column that rose less than 1 km altitude and extended SE and SW (figure 8), according to the Tokyo VAAC report. On 3 February, an eruption from the Shindake crater at 0521 produced an ash plume that rose 7 km above the crater and ejected material as far as 600 m away. As a result, a pyroclastic flow formed, traveling 900-1,500 m SW. The previous pyroclastic flow that was recorded occurred on 29 January 2019. Ashfall was confirmed in the N part of Yakushima Island with a large amount in Miyanoura (32 km ESE) and southern Tanegashima. The SO2 emissions measured 1,700 tons/day during this event.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Webcam images from the Honmura west surveillance camera of an ash plume rising from Kuchinoerabujima on 1 February 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Weekly bulletin report 509, February 2020).

Intermittent small eruptive events occurred during 5-9 February; field observations showed a large amount of ashfall on the SE flank which included lapilli that measured up to 2 cm in diameter. Additionally, thermal images showed 5-km-long pyroclastic flow deposits on the SW flank. An eruption on 9 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km altitude, drifting SE. On 13 February a small eruption was detected in the Shindake crater at 1211, producing gray-white plumes that rose 300 m above the crater, drifting NE. Small eruptive events also occurred during 20-21 February, resulting in gas-and-steam emissions that rose 200 m above the crater. During the month of February, some horizontal extension was observed since January 2020 using GNSS data. The total number of earthquakes during this month drastically increased to 1225 compared to January. The SO2 emissions ranged from 300-1,700 tons/day.

By 2 March 2020, seismicity decreased, and activity declined. Gas-and-steam emissions continued infrequently for the duration of the reporting period. The SO2 emissions during March ranged from 700-2,100 tons/day, the latter of which occurred on 15 March. Seismicity increased again on 27 March. During 5-8 April 2020, small eruptive events were detected, generating ash plumes that rose 900 m above the crater (figure 9). The SO2 emissions on 6 April reached 3,200 tons/day, the maximum measurement for this reporting period. These small eruptive events continued from 13-20 and 23-25 April within the Shindake crater, producing gray-white plumes that rose 300-800 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Webcam images from the Honmura Nishi (top) and Honmura west (bottom) surveillance cameras of ash plumes rising from Kuchinoerabujima on 6 March and 5 April 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Weekly bulletin report 509, March and April 2020).

Geologic Background. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km W of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shindake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furudake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shindake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Soputan (Indonesia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Soputan

Indonesia

1.112°N, 124.737°E; summit elev. 1785 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor ash emissions during 23 March and 2 April 2020

Soputan is a stratovolcano located in the northern arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. Previous eruptive periods were characterized by ash explosions, lava flows, and Strombolian eruptions. The most recent eruption occurred during October-December 2018, which consisted mostly of ash plumes and some summit incandescence (BGVN 44:01). This report updates information for January 2019-April 2020 characterized by two ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions. The primary source of information come from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Activity during January 2019-April 2020 was relatively low; three faint thermal anomalies were observed at the summit at Soputan in satellite imagery for a total of three days on 2 and 4 January, and 1 October 2019 (figure 17). The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) based on analysis of MODIS data detected 12 distal hotspots and six low-power hotspots within 5 km of the summit during August to early October 2019. A single distal thermal hotspot was detected in early March 2020. In March, activity primarily consisted of white to gray gas-and-steam plumes that rose 20-100 m above the crater, according to PVMBG. The Darwin VAAC issued a notice on 23 March 2020 that reported an ash plume rose to 4.3 km altitude; minor ash emissions had been visible in a webcam image the previous day (figure 18). A second notice was issued on 2 April, where an ash plume was observed rising 2.1 km altitude and drifting W.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected a total of three thermal hotspots (bright yellow-orange) at the summit of Soputan on 2 and 4 January and 1 October 2019. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Minor ash emissions were seen rising from Soputan on 22 March 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Geologic Background. The Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano is located SW of Riendengan-Sempu, which some workers have included with Soputan and Manimporok (3.5 km ESE) as a volcanic complex. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Heard (Australia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptive activity including a lava flow during October 2019-April 2020

Heard Island is located on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean and contains Big Ben, a snow-covered stratovolcano with intermittent volcanism reported since 1910. Due to its remote location, visual observations are rare; therefore, thermal anomalies and hotspots detected by satellite-based instruments are the primary source of information. This report updates activity from October 2019 to April 2020.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed three prominent periods of strong thermal anomaly activity during this reporting period: late October 2019, December 2019, and the end of April 2020 (figure 41). These thermal anomalies were relatively strong and occurred within 5 km of the summit. Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported a total of six thermal hotspots during 28 October, 1 November 2019, and 26 April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Thermal anomalies at Heard from 29 April 2019 through April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were strong and frequent in late October, during December 2019, and at the end of April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Six thermal satellite images ranging from late October 2019 to late March showed evidence of active lava at the summit (figure 42). These images show hot material, possibly a lava flow, extending SW from the summit; a hotspot also remained at the summit. Cloud cover was pervasive during the majority of this reporting period, especially in April 2020, though gas-and-steam emissions were visible on 25 April through the clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Thermal satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben showing strong thermal signatures representing a lava flow in the SW direction from 28 October to 17 December 2019. These thermal anomalies are located NE from Mawson Peak. A faint thermal anomaly is also captured on 26 March 2020. Satellite images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin - Volume 10, Number 11 (November 1985)

Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland

Aira (Japan)

Vigorous explosions continue

Arenal (Costa Rica)

Lava flows and tephra ejection continues

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989) (Unknown)

New stratospheric aerosol layers

Bagana (Papua New Guinea)

Explosions; weak glow; increased seismicity

Colima (Mexico)

New fissures; fumaroles to 800°C; felt seismicity

Concepcion (Nicaragua)

Ash eruption

Fournaise, Piton de la (France)

Earthquake swarm then fissure eruption

Fukujin (United States)

No water discoloration observed, December 1983-December 1985

Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba (Japan)

Water discoloration observed frequently during December 1983-October 1985

Guallatiri (Chile)

Vapor plumes at 1-minute intervals

Karangetang (Indonesia)

Small ash eruption

Kasuga 1 (United States)

No water discoloration observed, December 1983-December 1985

Kilauea (United States)

Episode 39 includes S-flank vent activity

Klyuchevskoy (Russia)

Ash explosions; lava flows

Lamongan (Indonesia)

Seismicity declines

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Two small explosions

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Ashfall on NW and SW parts of island

Masaya (Nicaragua)

Gas column heights in 1985

Michoacan-Guanajuato (Mexico)

Fumarole temperatures increase

Momotombo (Nicaragua)

Fumarole temperatures during 1985

Nikko (Japan)

No water discoloration observed, December 1983-December 1985

Poas (Costa Rica)

Fumarole temperatures decrease

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Seismicity and deformation continue to decline

Raung (Indonesia)

Many small explosions; light ashfalls

Ruapehu (New Zealand)

Crater lake upwelling; higher temperatures

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Seismic swarms, latest with inflation; more on 13 November activity and products

Sangeang Api (Indonesia)

Strombolian explosions; lava flow in growing channel; pyroclastic flow deposit

St. Helens (United States)

New lahar warning gauge; background activity

Supply Reef (United States)

T-Phases recorded in Tahiti may be from this site

Tangkuban Parahu (Indonesia)

Crater temperatures rise; seismicity unchanged

Tangkuban Parahu (Indonesia)

Minor steam explosions

Telica (Nicaragua)

Continued normal activity and strong seismicity

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Increasing seismicity then tephra ejection & lava flow

Villarrica (Chile)

Small lava fountains and ash; increased seismicity

Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand)

Fumarole temperatures drop; magnetic anomaly



Aira (Japan) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vigorous explosions continue

Eruptive activity remained vigorous in November, when 34 explosions were recorded. Frequent powerful explosions produced air shocks and scattered incandescent blocks to about 2 km from the summit. No damages were reported. An explosion on 25 November at 1427 was accompanied by a small pyroclastic flow, which only covered part of the summit area.

The frequency of explosions increased further in early December. By the 5th, 19 explosions were recorded, bringing 1985's total to 416, the largest since discrete explosive activity began in 1955 (figure 15). A series of small explosions on 3 December shattered windows of several buildings in northern Kagoshima and disrupted telephone service in some areas. The summit crater of Minami-dake erupted on 5 December at 0220 and 0648, dropping ash on Kagoshima, but there was no damage.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Summary table of monthly and yearly number of explosions at Sakura-jima since the summit eruption began in 1955. Courtesy of JMA.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo; UPI.


Arenal (Costa Rica) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava flows and tephra ejection continues

Lava production continued through early November from the active vent (Crater C), feeding lava flows that advanced NW, W, and S. A dome has formed on the W rim of Crater C. Gas emission was continuous. The ejections of pyroclastic materials that began in June 1984 were also continuing in early November. Geologists noted that when the advance of the lava flows was slow, the explosions were strong and very frequent, whereas when much lava was flowing from the crater there were almost no pyroclastic ejections. There were strong explosions during the first week in October. A 50 x 60 cm bomb fell 1 km from the crater, forming an impact crater that measured 80 x 50 cm and 20 cm deep. A block with dimensions of 90 x 30 x 20 cm formed a 90 x 100 cm crater that was 30 cm deep; this block came to rest 20 m from its initial impact crater. Small quantities of ash were emitted. Prevailing winds carried the ash about 3 km W and SW.

Further Reference. Alvarado, I.G.E. and Barquero, R., 1987, Las señales sísmicas del volcán Arenal (Costa Rica) y su relación con las fases eruptivas (1968-1986): Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, Departamento de Geología, San José, 33 p.

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: J. Barquero H. and E. Fernández S., Univ. Nacional, Heredia.


Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989) (Unknown) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)

Unknown

Unknown, Unknown; summit elev. m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New stratospheric aerosol layers

Data from Hawaii and Wyoming suggest that aerosol material, perhaps from the 13 November eruption of Ruiz volcano, Colombia, has recently been injected into the stratosphere. Through 22 November, lidar measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii continued to show only remnants of the 1982 El Chichón aerosol cloud. On 26 and 27 November, a distinct new layer centered at 25-25.5 km appeared on Mauna Loa lidar profiles (figure 12), accompanied by a substantial increase in total backscatter. This layer was absent over Mauna Loa on 3 December, but new layers centered at 15, 16.8, and 18.6 km altitude (tropopause altitude was 16.5 km) were detected and total backscatter remained elevated. Preliminary data 7 and 10 December showed some apparent new material, but less distinctly than on the 3rd. No new material was evident 10 December over Hampton, Virginia.

Figure with caption Figure 12. Arrival of Ruiz aerosols at different altitudes, shown by preliminary lidar profiles from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 26 November-30 December 1985. Backscattering ratios are on the x axis, altitudes above sea level on the y axis. In the six dated graphs, the solid line records the data collected that night, the dotted line represents the average December profile. The final graph compares the average December profile (solid line) containing the new Ruiz aerosols with the average November profile (dotted line), primarily aerosols remaining from the 1982 eruption of El Chichón. Courtesy of Thomas DeFoor.

While flying from Honolulu to Los Angeles on 27 November at approximately 22°N, 140°W, David Hofmann saw a cloud of particles above the aircraft at an estimated elevation of 12 km. The gray haze and large ring around the sun were very similar towhat Hofmann observed shortly after the eruption of Fuego volcano, Guatemala in October 1974, suggesting that this cloud was also of volcanic origin.

On 5 December, balloon-borne particle counters detected a 10-fold increase in condensation nuclei (CN, H2SO4 droplets with diameters much less than 0.1 µm) between 15 and 17 km altitude over Laramie, Wyoming. Particle counts were 400 per cm3 compared to background values of 40 particles per cm3 at that altitude [see 10:12]. This CN event is distinguishable from El Chichón aerosols by both its altitude (El Chichón aerosols are found at 17-19 km) and particle size (El Chichón particles are now larger than 0.1 µm). A subsequent balloon flight on 11 December showed only background CN concentrations at these elevations.

Geologic Background. The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found here.

Information Contacts: D. Hofmann and J. Rosen, Univ. of Wyoming; T. DeFoor, MLO; R. Reiter, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, W Germany; W. Fuller, NASA.


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions; weak glow; increased seismicity

"A moderate level of activity was observed during November with occasional reports of weak nighttime glows from the summit crater and occasional audible explosions. Seismic activity increased in the middle of the month to about 50 earthquakes per day. Previous levels were generally less than 10. This level of seismic activity persisted to the end of the month."

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: P. Lowenstein, RVO.


Colima (Mexico) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New fissures; fumaroles to 800°C; felt seismicity

"Dartmouth volcanologists visited Colima 26-27 November. Large linear fractures had opened on the NE flank of the volcano between the summit and Volcancito Cone, at an elevation of approximately 3,700 m (figure 1). These fractures strike N30-45°E and are as much as 15 m deep, 5 m wide, and 50-100 m long. New arcuate fractures of comparable size are concave downslope and head across the linear fractures. Fumarolic activity in an area of 100 m2 was intense with temperatures up to 800°C and several fumaroles hotter than 600°C. Fracturing and fumarolic activity persisted at higher elevations, but was concentrated below the summit. Hundreds of tremors were felt during a bivouac near the fumarole field on the night of 26 November. A small fissure was observed cutting across the summit of Volcancito roughly in line with those found at higher elevations. Temperatures in this fissure were 40°C. This is a marked change in activity since our group last visited Colima in April 1983, when fractures and fumarolic activity were not observed in this area. The 1983 fumaroles were located at higher elevations and were much cooler; highest temperature was 565°C."

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Location of the area of active fracturing and intense fumarolic activity on Colima. The 1975-76 lava flow is shaded. Base map modified from Luhr (1981).

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the high point of the complex) on the north and the historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of late-Pleistocene cinder cones is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, producing thick debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions have destroyed the summit (most recently in 1913) and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: C. Connor, B. Gemmell, and R. Stoiber, Dartmouth College.


Concepcion (Nicaragua) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Concepcion

Nicaragua

11.538°N, 85.622°W; summit elev. 1700 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash eruption

A violent tephra eruption occurred on 2 January 1985, accompanied by strong rumbling. Ashfall damaged tobacco and sesame crops, and fell on the towns of Esquipulas, Los Angeles, and to a lesser extent, Moyogalpa (at the W foot of the volcano). As the eruption began, Esquipulas was celebrating the festival of its patron saint, but heavy ashfall forced the festival's suspension. Blocks fell on the volcano's flanks. The eruption was comparable to that of 1977 (2:4).

During Space Shuttle mission 61B (27 November-3 December 1985), astronauts photographed Concepción three times. The first two photographs (nos. 61B-121-101 and 61B-36-086), taken on 28 November at 1300 and 30 November at 1230, showed no plume or other signs of volcanic activity. A photograph (no. 61B-39-066) taken later in the mission, however, exhibited a buff-brown plume over the volcano, which could be traced clearly for 6.6 km to the SW with possible wispy material for an additional 10 km.

Geologic Background. Volcán Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighboring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the N flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.

Information Contacts: D. Fajardo B., INETER; C. Wood, M. Helfert, NASA, Houston.


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Earthquake swarm then fissure eruption

"Seismic activity was very low during all of November and was at shallow depth (1-2 km) under the summit. Small deformation was measured only on the summit stations. Continuously-recording tiltmeters indicated progressive deformation on Bory Crater since 28 November.

"During the night of 1-2 December, a very short seismic crisis occurred. For 17 minutes, very shallow low-magnitude events occurred under Dolomieu crater at depths of 0.5-1.5 km. A 1.5-km fissure opened from the top of Bory crater down to the S flank of the central cone. This eruption lasted only 28 hours, from 2 December at 0215 to 3 December at 0600. The amount of basaltic lava emitted was very small.

"A major inflation pattern was recorded only on the summit stations. No deformation was found in the rest of the geodimeter net."

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: H. Delorme and J. Delarue, OVPDLF; P. Bachelery, Univ. de la Réunion.


Fukujin (United States) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Fukujin

United States

21.93°N, 143.47°E; summit elev. -217 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


No water discoloration observed, December 1983-December 1985

JMSA has continued frequent aerial monitoring of several known submarine volcanoes. Volcanic activity has often been observed at Fukutoku-okanoba during overflights since late 1983, but no water discoloration has been seen at Kasuga, Nikko, or Fukujin.

Geologic Background. One of the larger of the submarine volcanoes of the Marianas arc, Fukujin seamount has risen on occasion to just beneath the sea surface. Intermittent periods of water discoloration have been observed since the mid-20th century, and eruptions producing floating pumice were noted on several occasions.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba (Japan) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba

Japan

24.285°N, 141.481°E; summit elev. -29 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Water discoloration observed frequently during December 1983-October 1985

JMSA has continued frequent aerial monitoring of several known submarine volcanoes. Volcanic activity has often been observed at Fukutoku-Okanoba during overflights since late 1983 . . . . Discolored water was observed at Fukutoku-Okanoba on: 21 December 1983; 30 January, 23 February, 15 March, 6 and 23 April, 18 May, 9 June, 10 July, 1 August, 6 September, and 16 November 1984; and 14 February, 15 March, 17 April, 14 May, 17 September, and 17 October 1985; and was not visible 26 September, 24 October, and 12 December 1984.

[Additional water discoloration in 1985 was reported (Bulletin of Volcanic Eruptions no. 25, 1988) on 14 June, 17 July, 13 August, 14 November, and 23 December.]

Geologic Background. Fukutoku-Oka-no-ba is a submarine volcano located 5 km NE of the pyramidal island of Minami-Ioto. Water discoloration is frequently observed from the volcano, and several ephemeral islands have formed in the 20th century. The first of these formed Shin-Ioto ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, and the most recent island was formed in 1986. The volcano is part of an elongated edifice with two major topographic highs trending NNW-SSE, and is a trachyandesitic volcano geochemically similar to Ioto.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Guallatiri (Chile) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Guallatiri

Chile

18.42°S, 69.092°W; summit elev. 6071 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vapor plumes at 1-minute intervals

[This activity was initially attributed to Acotango in the Quimsachata Volcano Group. It is now thought to have originated from Guallatiri, further along the same line of sight as Acotango (figure 1). Investigation of Acotango volcano in 1987, by Oscar González-Ferrán, revealed no evidence of a recent eruption.]

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Sketch map of the Nevados de Quimsachata area. Volcano names are in large type, town names in smaller type. Roads are indicated by pairs of dashed lines. Contour interval is 500 m. Robert Koeppen's line of sight fro his observation point near Sajama, Bolivia, is shown by a dashed line. The border between Chile and Bolivia is not shown, but follows the crest of the Andes.

The quoted material is a report from Robert Koeppen. "On 1 December at 0750, Robert Koeppen (USGS), Walter West (U. S. Embassy, La Paz, Bolivia), and Jaime Jauregui (Geological Survey of Bolivia) observed steam plumes erupting from a source near the crest of Nevados de Quimsachata. The observation was made from a point about 25 km to the NNE, near the W base of Volcán Nevado Sajama, Bolivia. Visibility was initially excellent, but within about 45 minutes cloud cover completely obscured the mountain's summit. Intervening peaks prevented exact determination of the vent, but the eruption appeared to originate from Cerro Acotango, either from the main summit or possibly immediately to the NW. If the eruption plume came from Volcán Guallatiri, the next possible source area along the line of sight, then it would represent a significantly larger eruption (figure 1).

"The eruptions produced white, billowing clouds that rose vertically above the Quimsachata crest, perhaps about 500 m, then drifted W. The eruptions occurred in episodic bursts, and, based on first sightings of the plumes, at intervals ranging from 45-75 seconds. One large plume drifted more NW and appeared to trail a curtain, possibly of ash fallout. Several bursts seemed particularly vigorous and appeared to consist of several plumes coalescing at higher levels."

Chilean forest service personnel based near Lago Chungara, roughly 20 km to the NW, reported that they had seen no activity, but visibilities in the area are frequently poor.

No eruptions are known in historic time from Cerro Acotango, but Yoshio Katsui and Oscar González-Ferrán (1968) mapped it as Holocene. Four historic eruptions bave been reported from Guallatiri, most recently in December 1960. Chilean geologists note that fumarolic activity from Guallatiri is apparently continuous but less vigorous than the plume emission observed 1 December.

Reference. Katsui, Y., and González-Ferrán, O., 1968, Geología del area neovolcánica de los Nevados de Payachata: Publicaciones del Instituto de Geología, Universidad de Chile, no. 29, 161 p.

Geologic Background. One of northern Chile's most active volcanoes, Volcán Guallatiri is a symmetrical ice-clad stratovolcano at the SW end of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcano group. It lies just W of the border with Bolivia and is capped by a central dacitic dome or lava complex, with the active vent situated on its S side. Thick lava flows are prominent on the lower N and W flanks of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic volcano. Minor explosive eruptions have been reported since the beginning of the 19th century. Intense fumarolic activity with "jet-like" noises continues, and numerous solfataras extend more than 300 m down the W flank.

Information Contacts: R. Koeppen, USGS, Reston, VA; L. López E., Univ. de Chile, Santiago.


Karangetang (Indonesia) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Karangetang

Indonesia

2.781°N, 125.407°E; summit elev. 1797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small ash eruption

"Api Siau erupted from the main crater (Kawah Utama) on 6 November. A 1.5-km-high ash column covered villages S of the volcano (Salili, Beong, Kanawong, and Lehi) with 1-3 mm of ash. Detonations were heard from the observation post at Muaralawa, 4.5 km SW of the volcano. Additional detonations were reported throughout the month. Possible precursory signs of this activity included a darkening of the normally whitish quiescent plume beginning on 4 November."

Geologic Background. Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, about 125 km NNE of the NE-most point of Sulawesi island. The stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. It is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts have produced pyroclastic flows.

Information Contacts: T. Casadevall and L. Pardyanto, VSI.


Kasuga 1 (United States) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Kasuga 1

United States

21.765°N, 143.71°E; summit elev. -598 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


No water discoloration observed, December 1983-December 1985

JMSA has continued frequent aerial monitoring of several known submarine volcanoes. Volcanic activity has often been observed at Fukutoku-okanoba during overflights since late 1983, but no water discoloration has been seen at Kasuga, Nikko, or Fukujin.

Geologic Background. The Kasuga 1 seamount is a conical volcano that rises to within 598 m of the sea surface SE of Fukujin submarine volcano. It was listed as an active volcano by the Japan Meteorological Agency, and floating pumice attributed to a submarine eruption was seen south of the volcano in the summer of 1959. Water discoloration from a possible submarine eruption was reported near the seamount in November 1975. Kasuga, the northernmost of three seamounts in the the Kasuga seamount chain, rises from a depth of 3000 m. A series of flank vents are located low on the southern side of the edifice. The summit does not have a caldera or display hydrothermal activity, and the volcano is largely mantled by volcaniclastics. Altered basaltic and andesitic rocks dredged from the summit suggest that it is the oldest of the three seamounts, although delicately preserved lava flow lobes and toes from a flank eruption suggest a very youthful age.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Kilauea (United States) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Episode 39 includes S-flank vent activity

EPISODE 39

"Kilauea's eruption continued in November with the 39th eruptive episode. From 12-13 November, the magma column was within a few meters of the conduit rim and spattering nearly continuously. At about 0530 on 13 November, three small vents opened on the S flank of Pu`u `O`o. Two of these vents remained active through the day and produced a pahoehoe flow that extended approximately 600 m beyond the base of Pu`u `O`o.

"The summit of Kilauea began to deflate on 13 November at 1430. An hour later, activity at the main Pu`u `O`o vent increased, and a low fountain began to feed a thin pahoehoe flow. The fountains gradually increased in height, reaching 415 m by 1925. The vents on the S side of the cone probably died at about the same time. The high fountains continued until 0124 the next morning and produced an aa flow that extended 6 km ESE of Pu`u `O`o (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Lava flows produced by the E rift zone eruption since January 1983. Episode 39 flows are marked by diagonal lines.

"Summit subsidence continued until 14 November at 0330, with a total loss of 13.9 µrad recorded by the summit tiltmeter. By the end of November, the summit had regained 9.6 µrad.

"Harmonic tremor associated with episode 39 increased gradually from 13 November at 1610, peaked in amplitude between 1725 and 0100, and decreased at 0126 on 14 November. Following episode 39, harmonic tremor persisted at background levels in the E rift zone near Pu`u `O`o."

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: C. Heliker, R. Hanatani, R. Koyanagi, HVO.


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash explosions; lava flows

The quoted part of the following report is from S. Fedotov. "Activity at Kliuchevskoi's summit crater has increased since 17 August, following a period of slight fumarolic activity. Since then, the height of steam and gas explosions increased gradually from 200 to 1,000 m, and reached 3,000 m between 5 and 11 November; the number of ash explosions has increased as well. Since 4 November, lava fountains 300-500 m high from two vents in the crater have been observed. Lava flows more than 2 km long poured from the summit crater onto the SW and NE flanks of the volcano."

Moscow Domestic Service reported that powerful explosions occurred on the slope of the volcano on 2 December, and that eruptions at the summit were continuing.

[This report was not included in GV 75-85.]

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: S. Fedotov, IV; Moscow Domestic Service.


Lamongan (Indonesia) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Lamongan

Indonesia

7.981°S, 113.341°E; summit elev. 1641 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismicity declines

"November activity consisted of an average of one earthquake/day in the October swarm area W of the volcano. Detailed geological and monitoring efforts are now in progress by VSI to evaluate the possibility of a future eruption from the epicentral area."

Geologic Background. Lamongan, a small stratovolcano located between the massive Tengger and Iyang-Argapura volcanic complexes, is surrounded by numerous maars and cinder cones. The currently active cone has been constructed 650 m SW of Gunung Tarub, the volcano's high point. As many as 27 maars with diameters from 150 to 700 m, some containing crater lakes, surround the volcano, along with about 60 cinder cones and spatter cones. Lake-filled maars, including Ranu Pakis, Ranu Klakah, and Ranu Bedali, are located on the E and W flanks; dry maars are predominately located on the N flanks. None of the maars has erupted during historical time, although several of the youthful maars cut drainage channels from Gunung Tarub. The volcano was very active from the time of its first historical eruption in 1799 through the end of the 19th century, producing frequent explosive eruptions and lava flows from vents on the western side ranging from the summit to about 450 m elevation.

Information Contacts: T. Casadevall and L. Pardyanto, VSI.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Two small explosions

"Activity was at a low level during November with occasional reports of grey ash clouds from Crater 2. A column of dark cloud was reported rising to about 200-300 m above the summit on the 30th. Two audible explosions (heard at the observation post, 10 km NW of the crater) were reported on the 17th and 30th. Crater 3 remained inactive throughout the month. Seismic activity remained at a low level throughout the month with only 2 explosion shocks recorded, on the 17th and the 30th."

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower E flank of the extinct Talawe volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: B. Talai, RVO.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ashfall on NW and SW parts of island

"A slight increase in activity occurred in November with reports of brown ash clouds from Southern and Main craters. Ashfalls were reported along the NW and SW parts of the island. On the 26th, small incandescent ejections were reported from Southern crater and rumbling was heard at the observatory 7-9, 25-26, and 29 November. Seismic amplitudes remained at non-eruptive levels with a slight increase toward the end of the month. Daily numbers of earthquakes remained low throughout the month."

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These valleys channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most observed eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: B. Talai, RVO.


Masaya (Nicaragua) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.985°N, 86.165°W; summit elev. 594 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Gas column heights in 1985

Heights of the gas column above the rim of Santiago Crater (485 m above sea level) were measured on three occasions in 1985: 22 January (48 m), 17 June (78 m), and 21 October (78 m).

On 3 December, during re-entry from mission 61-B, Space Shuttle pilot Brian O'Connor took three 35-mm photographs (nos. 61B-12-020, 021, and 022) of Masaya. These showed a large white plume extending at least 25 km due W toward the Pacific Ocean.

Further Reference. Stoiber, R.E., Williams, S.N., and Huebert, B.J., 1986, Sulfur and Halogen Gases at Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua: Total Flux and Variations with Time; JGR, v. 91, no. B12, p. 12215-12232.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras caldera and is itself a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The Nindirí and Masaya cones, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6,500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and there is a lake at the far eastern end. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals have caused health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: D. Fajardo B., INETER; C. Wood, M. Helfert, NASA, Houston.


Michoacan-Guanajuato (Mexico) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Michoacan-Guanajuato

Mexico

19.85°N, 101.75°W; summit elev. 3860 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarole temperatures increase

"Fumarolic activity persisted at Ahuan vent on the SW flank. When temperatures were measured at Ahuan vent on 29 November, the hottest fumarole was 473°C, 70° higher than in April 1983, when Dartmouth scientists last measured temperatures at Parícutin. Several fumaroles over an area of about 50 m2 were hotter than 300°C. No physical changes in the area were apparent since April 1983."

Geologic Background. The widespread Michoacán-Guanajuato volcanic field contains over 1,400 vents, including the historically active cinder cones of Parícutin and Jorullo, covering a 200 x 250 km wide area of Michoacán and Guanajuato states in west-central México. Cinder cones are the predominant volcanic form, but small shield volcanoes, lava domes, maars and tuff rings (many in the Valle de Santiago area), and coneless lava flows are also present. The volcanoes with shield-type morphologies are mostly Pleistocene in age, although the Michoacán-Guanajuato centers have higher slope angles and smaller basal diameters. Jorullo, which was constructed in the 18th century, and Parícutin, which grew above a former cornfield during 1943-52, are the two best known volcanic features scattered throughout the field.

Information Contacts: C. Connor, B. Gemmell, and R. Stoiber, Dartmouth College.


Momotombo (Nicaragua) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Momotombo

Nicaragua

12.423°N, 86.539°W; summit elev. 1270 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarole temperatures during 1985

On 30 May Momotombo was monitored with three sensitive portable seismographs. Three microearthquakes were recorded, one of which was detected by all three instruments, and was located at 12.455°N, 86.547°W at 1.27 km depth. Fumarole temperatures remained high (table 2), but were slightly lower than the 895°C measured in August 1984.

Table 2. Fumarole temperatures at Momotombo, January-October 1985. Courtesy of INETER.

Month Temperature (°C)
January 870
February 870
March 875
April 879
May 882
June 875
July 875
August 875
September 874
October 874

Further Reference. Menyailov, I.A., Nikitina, L.P., Shapar, V.N., and Pilipenko, V.P., 1986, Temperature increase and chemical change of fumarolic gases at Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua, in 1982-1985: Are these indicators of a possible eruption?: JGR, v. 91, no. B12, p. 12199-12214.

Geologic Background. Momotombo is a young stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows extend down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms an island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of Strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional stronger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after a 10 April 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the south flank.

Information Contacts: D. Fajardo B., INETER.


Nikko (Japan) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Nikko

Japan

23.078°N, 142.326°E; summit elev. -392 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


No water discoloration observed, December 1983-December 1985

JMSA has continued frequent aerial monitoring of several known submarine volcanoes. Volcanic activity has often been observed at Fukutoku-okanoba during overflights since late 1983, but no water discoloration has been seen at Kasuga, Nikko, or Fukujin.

Geologic Background. Nikko submarine volcano is a massive seamount that rises from nearly 3 km depth to within 392 m of the sea surface at the SE end of a submarine ridge segment extending from Minami-Ioto island. Two large cones at the basaltic-to-andesitic volcano have been constructed on the NW and NE rims of a roughly 3-km-wide, flat-floored submarine caldera, whose rim is prominently displayed on the southern side, but largely buried on the north. A smaller cones lies on the SE caldera floor. The larger NW cone lies within a partially buried crater and displays hydrothermal activity. Discolored water was observed in July 1979, but none has been observed during semi-regular seasonal reconnaissance flights since then. Hydrothermal venting was documented during a recent NOAA expedition.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Poas (Costa Rica) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarole temperatures decrease

Fumarolic activity continued, with constant gas emission. Fumarole temperatures have dropped substantially since early 1985 (table 3).

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: J. Barquero H., E. Fernández S., Univ. Nacional, Heredia.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismicity and deformation continue to decline

"Seismicity and ground deformation rates were in further decline from previous months. The total number of caldera earthquakes in November was 115, of which only one was locatable. On 26 November, no caldera earthquakes were recorded for the first time since 24 May 1983. Ground deformation was minimal."

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: B. Talai, RVO.


Raung (Indonesia) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Raung

Indonesia

8.119°S, 114.056°E; summit elev. 3260 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Many small explosions; light ashfalls

"Raung resumed activity during November with a series of small explosions. The summit crater has not been visited since the start of the latest activity. However, observations begun 1 November from the new Raung observation post about 15 km SE of the summit at 700 m altitude (at Mangaran) indicated that the explosions have been centered along the E side of the large summit crater, near the recently active eruptive vent on the crater floor. At least 44 explosion clouds were observed during November, mostly whitish in color but dark gray ash-laden clouds were also seen. On 15 November, light ashfall was reported from SE flank villages (Bejong, Mangaran, and Seragi) and from Banjuyangi City, 35 km ESE of the volcano. The Mangaran seismometer recorded 52 explosion earthquakes during November. Activity was continuing as of 12 December."

"The last eruption of Raung that produced a lava flow was in 1973. That flow was confined to the summit crater. Explosions similar to the November activity have frequently been reported over the last decade."

Geologic Background. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The unvegetated summit is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the W flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and W, respectively.

Information Contacts: T. Casadevall and L. Pardyanto, VSI; Antara News Service, Jakarta.


Ruapehu (New Zealand) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Ruapehu

New Zealand

39.28°S, 175.57°E; summit elev. 2797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Crater lake upwelling; higher temperatures

Park Ranger Paul Dale witnessed a large upwelling and surging of the lake on 31 October at 1342, lasting 30-40 seconds and producing [25 cm] waves on the shore. The lake temperature at 1405 was 26.5°C with an outflow rate of 150 l/s, a significant increase from the 20.0°C temperature and water level 0.1-0.2 m below overflow recorded on 17 October. Fresh ash was not present on the snow. Pilot Bruce Williams, flying just E of the mountain on 11 November at 1100, reported steam accompanying strong upwelling in the lake center. He considered the lake to be in the most agitated state he had observed since witnessing a relatively large eruption 4 years ago; the activity was also observed by a Geyserland Airways pilot.

During a 15 November inspection by NZGS personnel, the lake was gray with scattered yellow sulfur slicks, in contrast to the 17 October observation of dark concentric rings of sulfur. An upwelling of muddy water occurred at 1027, doming to 2 m above the lake surface, and generating steam and 0.5 m waves near the center of the lake. At 1336 water domed to 4-5 m, producing 1 m waves. The waves did not further erode the low-lying snow or generate significant surges in the outlet channel, illustrating the difficulty of detecting evidence for small events. The upwellings observed during the November inspection were smaller than some seen during a period of apparently similar activity in May (10:05). A minor inflationary extension measured on 17-18 October had reversed by 15 November. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes increased in magnitude in October. Seismic records 4-10 November included both low- (~2 Hz) and high-frequency (~5 Hz) tremor of generally low amplitude. Some small B-type events were recorded on 4 November and very shallow earthquakes (L-shocks) were common. During the geologists' 15 November observations, seismometers recorded low-frequency (2 Hz) tremor.

Geologic Background. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least four cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The dominantly andesitic 110 km3 volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and surrounded by another 100 km3 ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake (Te Wai a-moe), is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3,000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

Information Contacts: P. Otway, NZGS, Wairakei.


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic swarms, latest with inflation; more on 13 November activity and products

Since the 13 November eruption, activity at Ruiz has been limited to emission of a vapor plume and a few seismic swarms, one accompanied by measureable inflation. Work by numerous geologists has yielded new information on the 13 November eruption, its products, and pre-eruption activity.

Pre-13 November activity. The most vigorous seismic energy release at Ruiz occurred in the days preceding the 11 September ash emission. The rate of energy release increased prior to the 13 November eruption, but more gradually than before the 11 September activity. Hypocenters were concentrated N and NE of the summit with best-located events concentrated at depths 0-1 km below sea level (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Pre-13 November 1985 hypocenters projected onto a vertical E-W plane passing through the summit of Ruiz. Depths are below a datum at 3.8 km altitude. No vertical exaggeration. Reprinted from Estudio de los Riesgos Potentiales del Volcán Nevado del Ruiz; Informe de las Actividades Desarolladas (Periodo Octubre 8 - Noviembre 10, 1985); INGEOMINAS, Bogotá, Colombia.

The quoted material below is from a report from Rodolfo Van der Laat, Eduardo Parra, and Heyley Vergara.

"After 11 September, when there was a significant ash emission, activity at Ruiz had decreased notably through 10 November. The activity caused concern in Manizales (30 km NW of Arenas Crater), but the presentation by INGEOMINAS of a preliminary volcanic risk map (figure 4) calmed the population.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Volcanic risk map presented by geologists from INGEOMINAS and the Univ. de Caldas to officials and the press before the 13 November 1985 eruption. Some redrafting has been done to facilitate reproduction in the Bulletin, but boundaries of hazard zones are unchanged.

"Seismic activity reached a maximum of 60 events per day 19-21 October, declining by 3 November to 3-5 daily locatable events. An increase in temperature of the thermal vent 'La Hedionda' (on the NE flank) may have been related to the increase in seismic activity.

"The height of the plume during this period decreased from about 3 km at the end of September and the beginning of October to about 800 m, with an occasional nucleus of ash 200-300 m high. There were two main fumarolic vents: one yellowish (sulfur), the smaller one gray/coffee-colored (ash derived from mud).

"A tilt network was established, detecting a general deflation 26 October-3 November, with small pulses of inflation of the order of 5-10 µrad per day. At the beginning of November, the first measurement was made of a geodesic net to monitor horizontal deformation by the Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi."

13 November eruption and products. Details of the 13 November eruption sequence remain uncertain and field investigations were still in progress at press time. An initial explosion at 1530 deposited a very thin, fine-grained layer of ash around the summit and NNE of the volcano. The main explosion started at 2108 or 2109 and continued for 20-30 minutes. Five kilometers from the crater, tephra from the main explosion was 7 cm thick and included 30-cm pumice fragments, but the deposit thinned rapidly and was only 1-2 mm thick at Armero with similar amounts at Mariquita and Honda (75 km NE). Preliminary estimates by Haraldur Sigurdsson and Steven Carey place the volume of tephra at roughly 39 x 106 m3. Cloudy weather and lack of nearby wind data on 13 November impeded determination of the height of the Ruiz eruption column. Based on the position of tephra diameter isopleths, Sigurdsson and Carey inferred that the top of the eruption cloud reached [31] km altitude, but emphasized that most of the tephra probably remained in the upper troposphere [Naranjo and others, 1986].

Mudflows that moved E down the valleys of the Lagunillas and Azufrado rivers and inundated Armero were overlain by airfall tephra within 5-10 km of the volcano. However, the mudflow that moved W down the Río Claro valley to Chinchiná contained fresh pumice, and the fluid mudflow that traveled down the Gualí river washed tephra off vegetation, suggesting that both were generated after tephra ejection. The Armero mudflows emerged from both the Lagunillas and Azufrado valleys, which join upstream from the city. The first wave of mud, probably from the Lagunillas, was apparently colder, lighter colored, more water-rich, and formed a more extensive deposit than the second wave, probably from the Azufrado, which was hotter, coarser, and darker-colored. Donald Lowe estimated that outflow from the mouth of the Río Lagunillas reached about 47,500 m3/s. Preliminary calculations by Sigurdsson and Carey yield a volume of about 30-60 x 106 m3 for the deposits of the Armero, and Gualí and Chinchiná valley mudflows, plus about 30-90 x 106 m3 of water, roughly 6-18% of the pre-eruption volume of the summit ice cap. The Lagunillas mudflow probably included water from a lake that had been trapped behind a debris dam in that valley's headwaters for at least several months. Other estimates suggested that about 5% of the summit ice was removed during the 13 November eruption.

Preliminary chemical analyses of a few samples of the 13 November pumice suggest that it is a hypersthene andesite, very similar to an earlier pumice that was probably from Ruiz's last large eruption, in 1595. Little systematic variation was found in different-colored samples that had suggested mixed magma in hand specimen (table 1).

Table 1. Preliminary analyses of bulk compositions of Ruiz pumice (1-4) and glass septa (5-6). Numbers 1, 2, 5, and 6 are from electron microprobe analyses by William Melson and Deborah Reid Jerez; 3 and 4 are X-ray fluorescence analyses by Joseph Taggart.

Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6
SiO2 59.31 58.69 59.50 61.50 65.36 63.97
Al2O3 16.83 16.81 15.70 15.20 16.01 16.33
FeO* 5.87 5.72 5.94 5.44 3.98 4.14
MgO 5.40 5.13 4.94 3.98 1.51 1.54
CaO 6.30 6.04 6.11 5.43 3.81 4.24
K2O 1.87 1.85 3.67 3.66 3.47 3.15
Na2O 3.80 3.79 2.07 2.45 4.12 4.22
TiO2 0.82 0.81 0.67 0.65 0.77 0.77
P2O5 0.30 0.28 0.19 0.19 0.30 0.29
MnO -- -- 0.09 0.09 -- --
Total 100.50 99.12 98.90 98.60 99.33 98.65

Notes:
Samples 1 and 5: 13 November 1985 pumice collected by Stanley Williams. USNM116158.
Samples 2 and 6: Probable 1595 pumice collected by Stanley Williams. USNM116159.

Post-13 November activity. No significant eruptive activity occurred in the succeeding weeks. The vapor column varied in height from 200-300 m to 1-1.4 km. Rates of SO2 emission measured by COSPEC were 200 t/d on 18 November, 50 t/d on the 19th, and several thousand tons per day on 22 November. Possible new fissures have been observed near the summit along with possible development of a depression SW of the summit. However, the fissures may have been pre-existing features exposed by clearer weather and seasonal snowmelt. Slight advances of some of the summit glaciers have been noted, but no large-scale ice movements were apparent and there was no evidence of significant melting from below.

Six telemetering seismometers have been installed, ringing the summit at elevations of 4,000-4,500 m, supplementing the four-station seismic net that was in place before 13 November. Telemetering tiltmeters were emplaced at 4,200 m elevation on the NW flank, 4,600 m elevation on the NNW flank, and on the NE flank, and 8-10 EDM lines have been established, in addition to the dry-tilt network installed on the N flank in October.

Seismic energy release was at relatively low levels shortly after the 13 November eruption, but the slope of the energy release curve steepened in the succeeding weeks. Earthquake swarms that were small but of increasing energy occurred 19-20 and 27 November, and 6-7 December. Maximum magnitudes were 2.5-3 in the November swarms; the 6-7 December activity included two magnitude 3-3.5 shocks. Locations were available for only a few events, which were centered along a generally N-S trend, usually somewhat N of the crater. The swarms were not accompanied by measurable tilt episodes or obvious changes to the plume. The rate of seismic energy release doubled during the first day of a stronger swarm 12-13 December and Civil Defense personnel were put on alert. The same day, the NW flank tiltmeter recorded a 5 µrad tilt event, the first change recorded in the weeks since it was installed, and a NW flank EDM line shortened 14 cm between measurements 11 and 13 December. However, seismicity declined 13 December, and the seismic energy release curve was nearly flat 14-17 December.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: P. Medina, Comité de Estudios Vulcanológicos, Manizales; A. López R., INGEOMINAS, Bogotá; R. Van der Laat, Univ. Nacional, Heredia; E. Parra, INGEOMINAS, Medellín; H. Vergara, INGEOMINAS, Tolima; H. Sigurdsson and S. Carey, Univ. of Rhode Island; S. Williams and D. Lowe, Louisiana State Univ.; A. Londoño C., Univ. Nacional, Manizales; Néstor Garcia P., Industria Licorera de Caldas, Manizales; R. Stoiber and B. Gemmell, Dartmouth College; D. Harlow, USGS, Menlo Park, CA; C. Hearn, D. Klick, D. Herd, and R. Tilling, USGS, Reston, VA; J. Taggart, Jr., USGS, Denver, CO; W. Melson and D. Jerez, SI; P. Clemente-Colón, NOAA/NESDIS.


Sangeang Api (Indonesia) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangeang Api

Indonesia

8.2°S, 119.07°E; summit elev. 1912 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions; lava flow in growing channel; pyroclastic flow deposit

"Sangeang Api continued to erupt with 10-30 Strombolian explosions/day in November and the first week in December. The 1985 lava channel had not lengthened from the 4.7 km observed in late September. However, the volume of the main channel has grown because of a considerable increase in height during the past 2 months. A slow-moving lava flow in the central channel is located atop the main feeder tube. Periodic overflows of this channel add both fluid lava and rubble to the outer flanks of this tube. On 5 December, four separate overflows of fluid lava and rock rubble were observed rolling down the sides of the central channel.

"A brief visit was made to the central crater on 4 December during a period of quiet. The active vent was a large cinder cone in Doro Api Crater. This central cone, which previously rose about 40 m from the floor of Doro Api, was estimated to be approximately 180-200 m above the floor during the 4 December visit. Thundering detonations were heard almost continuously during the 15 minutes spent in the crater and 1 mild Strombolian explosion hurled incandescent blocks. At night, a continuous reddish glow at the bottom of the gas plume over the crater suggested that a small lava lake may exist within Doro Api or the central cone. Fountaining of fluid lava, sheets, or ribbons was observed to accompany some of the larger Strombolian explosions at night.

"We also confirmed the existence of a small-volume pyroclastic flow that was probably produced during the initial activity of 30 July. Local residents reported that the activity caused a number of small fires in the vicinity of Doro Montoy crater (just N of Doro Api) and the Sori Mbere drainage on the S flank of the volcano. A small block and ash flow, still hot to the touch, was found in the Sori Mbere drainage in December. Lahars generated by heavy rainfall and unconsolidated material on the upper slopes of the volcano have been common during and immediately after previous episodes. Outcrops along the shoreline indicate that a number of lahars and possibly also pyroclastic flows have entered the sea. Small mudflows were produced by heavy rains on 2 December. One traveled down the Sori Mbere drainage while a second mudflow entered the sea at Oi Nono Jara on the S side of Sangeang Island.

"This pattern of activity conforms to that of previous 20th century eruptions of Sangeang Api. The 1911 activity included numerous explosions and a lava flow from the summit crater that moved more than 6 km down the W flank. The activity that began in March 1953 produced a lava flow and intermittent explosions through 1954. The 1964 eruption began on 29 January with strong explosions from the 1954 crater, and a lava flow first observed on 3-4 February moved N and E to about 750 m elevation. Explosions and outflow of lava continued for at least several months and possibly until the end of 1965."

Geologic Background. Sangeang Api volcano, one of the most active in the Lesser Sunda Islands, forms a small 13-km-wide island off the NE coast of Sumbawa Island. Two large trachybasaltic-to-tranchyandesitic volcanic cones, Doro Api and Doro Mantoi, were constructed in the center and on the eastern rim, respectively, of an older, largely obscured caldera. Flank vents occur on the south side of Doro Mantoi and near the northern coast. Intermittent historical eruptions have been recorded since 1512, most of them during in the 20th century.

Information Contacts: T. Casadevall and L. Pardyanto, VSI.


St. Helens (United States) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

St. Helens

United States

46.2°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2549 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New lahar warning gauge; background activity

Mt. St. Helens was quiet through November and early December, with seismic activity, SO2 emission, and displacement rates remaining at background levels. Displacement rates on the dome were less than 1 mm/day; SO2 levels continued to be low and quite variable.

The USGS's Water Resources Division has installed a new gauge along the crater's main drainage channel to improve warnings of mudflows and snow avalanches. The new gauge, just N of the crater (in Loowit Channel at The Steps), and an existing one 25 km downstream in the North Fork Toutle River (at Elk Rock) transmit to CVO via satellite every 5 minutes. These stations, in addition to seismometers and other gauges downstream, should provide an early warning of rapidly rising water levels (figure 29).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Location of monitoring sites, Mt. St. Helens, Washington; circles indicate seismometers, triangles indicate gauges. Base map modified from Childers and Carpenter, 1985.

Much of the network was installed prior to November 1982 to monitor levels of the lakes created when the 18 May 1980 avalanche blocked the outflow from Spirit Lake and downstream tributaries to the North Fork Toutle River. Major flooding could occur if one of the debris dams failed, and seismometers were installed in 1983 to supplement the gauges. A characteristic signature is produced by lahars flowing from the crater in a confined channel, as in May and June 1984. Although exact times and discharge volumes could not be determined from the seismic records for those events, future refinements may provide a relationship between seismic signals and discharge volumes (Brantley and others, 1985).

References. Brantley, S., Power, J., and Topinka, L., 1985, Reports from the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory at Vancouver, Washington; Earthquake Information Bulletin, v. 17, no. 1, p. 20-32.

Childers, D. and Carpenter, P.J., 1985, International Symposium on Erosion, Debris Flow, and Disaster Prevention; September 3-5, Tsukuba, Japan.

Geologic Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fujisan of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. Prior to 2,200 years ago, tephra, lava domes, and pyroclastic flows were erupted, forming the older edifice, but few lava flows extended beyond the base of the volcano. The modern edifice consists of basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the north flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

Information Contacts: G. Gallino, S. Brantley, E. Iwatsubo, USGS CVO, Vancouver, WA; C. Jonientz-Trisler, University of Washington.


Supply Reef (United States) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Supply Reef

United States

20.13°N, 145.1°E; summit elev. -8 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


T-Phases recorded in Tahiti may be from this site

Between 2 August and 5 September, 109 T-phase events originating in the NW Pacific were received by a high-gain station at Rangiroa, Tahiti. J.M. Talandier notes that their characteristics are typical of submarine volcanic eruptions, being of shallow (ocean) depth; the timing of the events coincides with the presence of a zone of discolored water near [Supply Reef]. However, a precise origin cannot be determined because the events were of weak amplitude and recorded by only one station.

Geologic Background. Supply Reef is a conical submarine volcano in the northern Mariana Islands that rises to within 8 m of the surface. The andesitic seamount lies about 10 km NW of the Maug Islands, the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that is joined to Supply Reef by a low saddle at a depth of about 1800 m. Supply Reef was mapped as Quaternary; living corals on the crater rim suggest that it is either dormant or extinct (Corwin, 1971). Several submarine eruptions have been detected by sonar signals originating from points very approximately located at distances of 15-25 km NW.

Information Contacts: J. Talandier, Lab. de Geophysique, Tahiti.


Tangkuban Parahu (Indonesia) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Tangkuban Parahu

Indonesia

6.77°S, 107.6°E; summit elev. 2084 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Crater temperatures rise; seismicity unchanged

Temperatures in Kawah Baru, a small vent on the W side of the summit crater, active during the 1896 eruption, rose steadily from 90 to 140°C in the two weeks prior to 9 December. No changes have been detected in the volcano's continuing low-level background seismicity.

Geologic Background. Gunung Tangkuban Parahu is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung. The volcano was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera, which formed about 190,000 years ago. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The Sunda caldera rim forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the rim is largely buried by deposits of the current volcano. The dominantly small phreatic eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression.

Information Contacts: T. Casadevall and L. Pardyanto, VSI.


Tangkuban Parahu (Indonesia) — November 1985

Tangkuban Parahu

Indonesia

6.77°S, 107.6°E; summit elev. 2084 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor steam explosions

[Minor steam explosions were reported from Kawah Baru crater on 15 November 1985. The explosions were described as essentially phreatic, producing a 200-m-high eruption cloud. There was no mention of tephra ejection. After this event, temperatures in the Kawah Baru solfatara field increased from 95 to 168°C].

Geologic Background. Gunung Tangkuban Parahu is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung. The volcano was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera, which formed about 190,000 years ago. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The Sunda caldera rim forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the rim is largely buried by deposits of the current volcano. The dominantly small phreatic eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat, Kaswanda, and Tulus, VSI (as reported in BVE, no. 25, March 1988).


Telica (Nicaragua) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Telica

Nicaragua

12.606°N, 86.84°W; summit elev. 1036 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued normal activity and strong seismicity

Although normal activity continued, Telica continued to show stronger seismic activity than other Nicaraguan volcanoes. A seismograph registered 24 low-frequency microearthquakes in a 5-hour period on 9 July.

Geologic Background. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately E, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.

Information Contacts: D. Fajardo B., INETER.


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Increasing seismicity then tephra ejection & lava flow

"A brief, spectacular Strombolian eruption took place 17-22 November, developing rapidly after about five days of precursory seismicity.

"Seismic activity began to increase on 12 November with the occasional appearance of small discrete B-type volcanic earthquakes. These increased in size and number over the following three days, resulting in an official notification on the 15th of an increased risk of an eruption. Seismic activity continued to increase over the following two days with the appearance of low-amplitude continuous harmonic tremor on 17 November at 1600.

"At 2000, notification was received by radio from Ulamona Catholic Mission (figure 1) of a summit Strombolian eruption in progress, with ejections of incandescent lava fragments to heights of 300-500 m above the crater every few seconds. The eruption was reported to have begun at about 1830, following, or in association with, a rapid increase in the amplitude of the harmonic tremor.

"The intensity of the eruption increased with the emission of two large, dark clouds of ash at about 2045 before settling down to a more steady pattern of Strombolian explosions every few seconds, accompanied by a fairly constant level of strong continuous harmonic tremor.

"Volcanologists carried out an aerial inspection at about 0700 the next day and observed regular Strombolian ejections of incandescent lava every few seconds to heights of about 200 m above the summit crater. A small cone was being constructed in the summit crater, but some ejecta were falling outside the crater rim. Small debris slides were occurring intermittently around the N side of the crater. The eruption column at that time was about 2 km high and was lightly laden with ash. The eruption plume was about 10 km long and trended approximately S. During the day the rate of ash production increased, resulting in a dense pall of ash on the E side of the volcano.

"A lava flow started to descend the N slope in the early evening of the 18th. This flow originated from a fissure about 70 m below the summit crater, and although it moved rapidly at first on the steep upper slopes of the volcano (it may have advanced about 3 km downslope in the first few hours), its progress became very slow when it reached the volcano's gentler middle slopes.

"Spectacular `fire-fountaining' at the summit crater was observed beginning the night of the 18th. The sub-continuous showering of explosion debris around the crater built up an apron of highly unstable material. Intermittent slides of this material, mainly into the NW valley, produced impressive ash clouds rising from the volcano's slopes. The first of these moderate-sized avalanches was observed moving down the N flank at about 0715 on the 19th. Several more slides occurred later the same day. Throughout the 20th, debris slides were common on the N flank and NW valley. Most advanced less than 4 km from the crater, but a few traveled about 5 km downslope.

"By early morning of the 19th the lava flow had bifurcated, with the E lobe slightly longer. Progress of the flow was slow on the 19th and 20th. At 1400 on the 20th, the nose of the E lobe was about 4 km from the summit, and was about 100 m longer than the W lobe. Their widths were 20-40 m.

"The eruption column was very impressive on the morning of the 20th. Dark grey and convoluted at its base, it paled upward, rising to an altitude of 7-8 km, and was crowned by an elliptical pale grey vapour and ash plume extending W. Most of the ash fallout was controlled by the low-level wind system (below 4 km altitude) blowing from the NW.

"The intensity and mode of activity remained unchanged on the 21st, but seismicity began increasing during the early hours of the 22nd. After reaching a peak at about 0800 on the 22nd, seismicity suddenly declined and within 2 hours, the eruption ended.

"When the eruption stopped, the most distal part of the lava flow was about 5.5 km from the crater. Samples collected from the flow are coarsely porphyritic with conspicuous plagioclase phenocrysts. The lava has a similar appearance to previous Ulawun lavas, which are quartz tholeiites.

"During the eruption, on the 18th and 20th, measurements were made at a number of dry tilt arrays around Ulawun. The readings on these days showed that little or no tilting was occurring. Unfortunately, no base line measurements are available to check whether deformation had occurred prior to the eruption."

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: C. McKee and P. Lowenstein, RVO.


Villarrica (Chile) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Villarrica

Chile

39.42°S, 71.93°W; summit elev. 2847 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small lava fountains and ash; increased seismicity

The following is a report from Gustavo Fuentealba Cifuentes.

"When the last eruptive cycle of Villarrica Volcano (30 October-26 February) began to decay in January 1985, seismic activity also decreased. Between January and June 1985, the seismograph located on the N flank of the volcano recorded a monthly average of 15 volcanic earthquakes (Minakami's B-type). In February, only five seismic events were recorded with very little harmonic tremor. However, since June 1985 volcano-seismic activity has increased significantly. At the same time, notable harmonic tremor was observed. Figure 2 shows monthly seismic activity between January and November 1985. This situation was continuing as of 25 November, with a small gap in mid-late November. On 19 November at 0700, harmonic tremor stopped abruptly, and only apparently very shallow seismic activity was recorded. On 21 November at 1000, harmonic tremor activity resumed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Number of earthquakes per month at Villarrica, January-November 1985. Courtesy of Gustavo Fuentealba C.

"According to personal observations and reports from Pucón, a town at the N foot of the volcano, an increase in fumarolic activity and lava fountaining with weak explosions and very small ash emissions have been registered since April. A red glow has been seen at night since late September."

Further References. Acevedo, P., and Fuentealba, G., 1987, Antecedentes de la actividad microsísmica del volcán Villarrica relacionada con la erupción de Octubre de 1984: Boletín de Vulcanología (Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica), no. 18, p. 13-17.

Moreno, H., Fuentealba, G., and Riffo, P. (in press), The 1984-1985 eruption of Villarrica, southern Andes of Chile (39°21'S): Basaltic Lava Flows Furrowed the Ice Cap.

Geologic Background. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

Information Contacts: G. Fuentealba C., P. Riffo A., and P. Acevedo, Univ. de La Frontera, Temuco; H. Moreno R., Univ. de Chile, Santiago.


Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) — November 1985 Citation iconCite this Report

Whakaari/White Island

New Zealand

37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 294 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarole temperatures drop; magnetic anomaly

When geologists visited White Island on 13 November, there was no evidence that any eruptive activity had occurred since their visit on 21 May. Deflation of the Donald Mound area, roughly 100 m E of the 1978 Crater, continued. The area of subsidence was a NW-SE ellipsoid about 400 m long by 250 m wide, centered on Donald Mound. One station had dropped 112 mm since a small ash eruption in February 1984; stations immediately W of the area, which had dropped 15-25 mm May 1984-May 1985, had fully recovered by the November visit.

Magnetic data showed a small but high-amplitude anomaly centered N of Donald Mound, suggesting to geologists that substantial near-surface cooling had occurred in the area since the May magnetic survey. At one vent, fumarole temperatures had declined to 390°C from 523° in May. No low-frequency (B-type) events were recorded from February until late September, when they resumed following a M 7 event, 350-400 km NE of White Island. Since 25 October, 6-35 low-frequency events have occurred per day, with unusually large amplitudes (up to 50 mm peak to peak). The number of high-frequency (volcano-tectonic) earthquakes remained relatively constant in 1985, with 3-5 recorded on most days.

Geologic Background. The uninhabited Whakaari/White Island is the 2 x 2.4 km emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes. The SE side of the crater is open at sea level, with the recent activity centered about 1 km from the shore close to the rear crater wall. Volckner Rocks, sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NW. Descriptions of volcanism since 1826 have included intermittent moderate phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and Strombolian eruptions; activity there also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries caused rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project. Explosive activity in December 2019 took place while tourists were present, resulting in many fatalities. The official government name Whakaari/White Island is a combination of the full Maori name of Te Puia o Whakaari ("The Dramatic Volcano") and White Island (referencing the constant steam plume) given by Captain James Cook in 1769.

Information Contacts: I. Nairn, A. Cody, B. Scott, C. Wood, and W. Davis, NZGS, Rotorua; P. Otway, NZGS, Wairakei; D. Christoffel and E. Hardy, Victoria Univ. Wellington; W. Giggenbach, DSIR, Wellington.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports