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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Masaya (Nicaragua) Lava lake level drops but remains active through May 2020; weak gas plumes

Shishaldin (United States) Intermittent thermal activity and a possible new cone at the summit crater during February-May 2020

Krakatau (Indonesia) Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence during April 2020

Taal (Philippines) Eruption on 12 January with explosions through 22 January; steam plumes continuing into March

Unnamed (Tonga) Additional details and pumice raft drift maps from the August 2019 submarine eruption

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Strombolian activity November 2019 through May 2020; lava flow down the SE flank in April

Nyamuragira (DR Congo) Intermittent thermal anomalies within the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020

Nyiragongo (DR Congo) Activity in the lava lake and small eruptive cone persists during December 2019-May 2020

Kavachi (Solomon Islands) Discolored water plumes seen using satellite imagery in 2018 and 2020

Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) Eruption and ash plumes begin on 11 January 2020 and continue through April 2020

Soputan (Indonesia) Minor ash emissions during 23 March and 2 April 2020

Heard (Australia) Eruptive activity including a lava flow during October 2019-April 2020



Masaya (Nicaragua) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.985°N, 86.165°W; summit elev. 594 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake level drops but remains active through May 2020; weak gas plumes

Masaya, which is about 20 km NW of the Nicaragua’s capital of Managua, is one of the most active volcanoes in that country and has a caldera that contains a number of craters (BGVN 43:11). The Santiago crater is the one most currently active and it contains a small lava lake that emits weak gas plumes (figure 85). This report summarizes activity during February through May 2020 and is based on Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) monthly reports and satellite data. During the reporting period, the volcano was relatively calm, with only weak gas plumes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Satellite images of Masaya from Sentinel-2 on 18 April 2020, showing and a small gas plume drifting SW (top, natural color bands 4, 3, 2) and the lava lake (bottom, false color bands 12, 11, 4). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

According to INETER, thermal images of the lava lake and temperature data in the fumaroles were taken using an Omega infrared gun and a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) SC620 thermal camera. The temperatures above the lava lake have decreased since November 2019, when the temperature was 287°C, dropping to 96°C when measured on 14 May 2020. INETER attributed this decrease to subsidence in the level of the lava lake by 5 m which obstructed part of the lake and concentrated the gas emissions in the weak plume. Convection continued in the lava lake, which in May had decreased to a diameter of 3 m. Many landslides had occurred in the E, NE, and S walls of the crater rim due to rock fracturing caused by the high heat and acidity of the emissions.

During the reporting period, the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system recorded numerous thermal anomalies from the lava lake based on MODIS data (figure 86). Infrared satellite images from Sentinel-2 regularly showed a strong signature from the lava lake through 18 May, after which the volcano was covered by clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Thermal anomalies at Masaya during February through May 2020. The larger anomalies with black lines are more distant and not related to the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) made by INETER in the section of the Ticuantepe - La Concepción highway (just W of the volcano) with a mobile DOAS system varied between a low of just over 1,000 metric tons/day in mid-November 2019 to a high of almost 2,500 tons/day in late May. Temperatures of fumaroles in the Cerro El Comalito area, just ENE of Santiago crater, ranged from 58 to 76°C during February-May 2020, with most values in the 69-72°C range.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras caldera and is itself a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The Nindirí and Masaya cones, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6,500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and there is a lake at the far eastern end. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals have caused health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Shishaldin (United States) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Shishaldin

United States

54.756°N, 163.97°W; summit elev. 2857 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal activity and a possible new cone at the summit crater during February-May 2020

Shishaldin is located near the center of Unimak Island in Alaska, with the current eruption phase beginning in July 2019 and characterized by ash plumes, lava flows, lava fountaining, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. More recently, in late 2019 and into January 2020, activity consisted of multiple lava flows, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and ashfall events (BGVN 45:02). This report summarizes activity from February through May 2020, including gas-and-steam emissions, brief thermal activity in mid-March, and a possible new cone within the summit crater. The primary source of information comes from the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reports and various satellite data.

Volcanism during February 2020 was relatively low, consisting of weakly to moderately elevated surface temperatures during 1-4 February and occasional small gas-and-steam plumes (figure 37). By 6 February both seismicity and surface temperatures had decreased. Seismicity and surface temperatures increased slightly again on 8 March and remained elevated through the rest of the reporting period. Intermittent gas-and-steam emissions were also visible from mid-March (figure 38) through May. Minor ash deposits visible on the upper SE flank may have been due to ash resuspension or a small collapse event at the summit, according to AVO.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Photo of a gas-and-steam plume rising from the summit crater at Shishaldin on 22 February 2020. Photo courtesy of Ben David Jacob via AVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. A Worldview-2 panchromatic satellite image on 11 March 2020 showing a gas-and-steam plume rising from the summit of Shishaldin and minor ash deposits on the SE flank (left). Aerial photo showing minor gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit crater on 11 March (right). Some erosion of the snow and ice on the upper flanks is a result of the lava flows from the activity in late 2019 and early 2020. Photo courtesy of Matt Loewen (left) and Ed Fischer (right) via AVO.

On 14 March, lava and a possible new cone were visible in the summit crater using satellite imagery, accompanied by small explosion signals. Strong thermal signatures due to the lava were also seen in Sentinel-2 satellite data and continued strongly through the month (figure 39). The lava reported by AVO in the summit crater was also reflected in satellite-based MODIS thermal anomalies recorded by the MIROVA system (figure 40). Seismic and infrasound data identified small explosions signals within the summit crater during 14-19 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images (bands 12, 11, 8A) show a bright hotspot (yellow-orange) at the summit crater of Shishaldin during mid-March 2020 that decreases in intensity by late March. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. MIROVA thermal data showing a brief increase in thermal anomalies during late March 2020 and on two days in late April between periods of little to no activity. Courtesy of MIROVA.

AVO released a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) stating that seismicity had decreased by 16 April and that satellite data no longer showed lava or additional changes in the crater since the start of April. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery continued to show a weak hotspot in the crater summit through May (figure 41), which was also detected by the MIROVA system on two days. A daily report on 6 May reported a visible ash deposit extending a short distance SE from the summit, which had likely been present since 29 April. AVO noted that the timing of the deposit corresponds to an increase in the summit crater diameter and depth, further supporting a possible small collapse. Small gas-and-steam emissions continued intermittently and were accompanied by weak tremors and occasional low-frequency earthquakes through May (figure 42). Minor amounts of sulfur dioxide were detected in the gas-and-steam emissions during 20 and 29 April, and 2, 16, and 28 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images (bands 12, 11, 8A) show occasional gas-and-steam emissions rising from Shishaldin on 26 February (top left) and 24 April 2020 (bottom left) and a weak hotspot (yellow-orange) persisting at the summit crater during April and early May 2020. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. A Worldview-1 panchromatic satellite image showing gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit of Shishaldin on 1 May 2020 (local time) (left). Aerial photo of the N flank of Shishaldin with minor gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit on 8 May (right). Photo courtesy of Matt Loewen (left) and Levi Musselwhite (right) via AVO.

Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steam plume often rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the W and NE sides at 1,500-1,800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of Strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence during April 2020

Krakatau, located in the Sunda Strait between Indonesia’s Java and Sumatra Islands, experienced a major caldera collapse around 535 CE, forming a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands. On 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338-m-high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami (BGVN 44:03). The near-sea level crater lake inside the remnant of Anak Krakatau was the site of numerous small steam and tephra explosions. A larger explosion in December 2019 produced the beginnings of a new cone above the surface of crater lake (BGVN 45:02). Recently, volcanism has been characterized by occasional Strombolian explosions, dense ash plumes, and crater incandescence. This report covers activity from February through May 2020 using information provided by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Activity during February 2020 consisted of dominantly white gas-and-steam emissions rising 300 m above the crater, according to PVMBG. According to the Darwin VAAC, a ground observer reported an eruption on 7 and 8 February, but no volcanic ash was observed. During 10-11 February, a short-lived eruption was detected by seismograms which produced an ash plume up to 1 km above the crater drifting E. MAGMA Indonesia reported two eruptions on 18 March, both of which rose to 300 m above the crater. White gas-and-steam emissions were observed for the rest of the month and early April.

On 10 April PVMBG reported two eruptions, at 2158 and 2235, both of which produced dark ash plumes rising 2 km above the crater followed by Strombolian explosions ejecting incandescent material that landed on the crater floor (figures 108 and 109). The Darwin VAAC issued a notice at 0145 on 11 April reporting an ash plume to 14.3 km altitude drifting WNW, however this was noted with low confidence due to the possible mixing of clouds. During the same day, an intense thermal hotspot was detected in the HIMAWARI thermal satellite imagery and the NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide page showed a strong SO2 plume at 11.3 km altitude drifting W (figure 110). The CCTV Lava93 webcam showed new lava flows and lava fountaining from the 10-11 April eruptions. This activity was evident in the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) graph of MODIS thermal anomaly data (figure 111).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. Webcam (Lava93) images of Krakatau on 10 April 2020 showing Strombolian explosions, strong incandescence, and ash plumes rising from the crater. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. Webcam image of incandescent Strombolian explosions at Krakatau on 10 April 2020. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. Strong sulfur dioxide emissions rising from Krakatau and drifting W were detected using the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite on 11 April 2020 (top row). Smaller volumes of SO2 were visible in Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI maps on 13 (bottom left) and 19 April (bottom right). Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 111. Thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from 29 June-May 2020 shown on a MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph. The power and frequency of the thermal anomalies sharply increased in mid-April. After the larger eruptive event in mid-April the thermal anomalies declined slightly in strength but continued to be detected intermittently through May. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Strombolian activity rising up to 500 m continued into 12 April and was accompanied by SO2 emissions that rose 3 km altitude, drifting NW according to a VAAC notice. PVMBG reported an eruption on 13 April at 2054 that resulted in incandescence as high as 25 m above the crater. Volcanic ash, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions, continued intermittently through 18 April, many of which were observed by the CCTV webcam. After 18 April only gas-and-steam plumes were reported, rising up to 100 m above the crater; Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed faint thermal anomalies in the crater (figure 112). SO2 emissions continued intermittently throughout April, though at lower volumes and altitudes compared to the 11th. MODIS satellite data seen in MIROVA showed intermittent thermal anomalies through May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 112. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the cool crater lake on 20 March (top left) followed by minor heating of the crater during April and May 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Taal (Philippines) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Taal

Philippines

14.002°N, 120.993°E; summit elev. 311 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption on 12 January with explosions through 22 January; steam plumes continuing into March

Taal volcano is in a caldera system located in southern Luzon island and is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines. It has produced around 35 recorded eruptions since 3,580 BCE, ranging from VEI 1 to 6, with the majority of eruptions being a VEI 2. The caldera contains a lake with an island that also contains a lake within the Main Crater (figure 12). Prior to 2020 the most recent eruption was in 1977, on the south flank near Mt. Tambaro. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Philippines reports that over 450,000 people live within 40 km of the caldera (figure 13). This report covers activity during January through February 2020 including the 12 to 22 January eruption, and is based on reports by Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), satellite data, geophysical data, and media reports.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Annotated satellite images showing the Taal caldera, Volcano Island in the caldera lake, and features on the island including Main Crater. Imagery courtesy of Planet Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Map showing population totals within 14 and 17 km of Volcano Island at Taal. Courtesy of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).

The hazard status at Taal was raised to Alert Level 1 (abnormal, on a scale of 0-5) on 28 March 2019. From that date through to 1 December there were 4,857 earthquakes registered, with some felt nearby. Inflation was detected during 21-29 November and an increase in CO2 emission within the Main Crater was observed. Seismicity increased beginning at 1100 on 12 January. At 1300 there were phreatic (steam) explosions from several points inside Main Crater and the Alert Level was raised to 2 (increasing unrest). Booming sounds were heard in Talisay, Batangas, at 1400; by 1402 the plume had reached 1 km above the crater, after which the Alert Level was raised to 3 (magmatic unrest).

Phreatic eruption on 12 January 2020. A seismic swarm began at 1100 on 12 January 2020 followed by a phreatic eruption at 1300. The initial activity consisted of steaming from at least five vents in Main Crater and phreatic explosions that generated 100-m-high plumes. PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 2. The Earth Observatory of Singapore reported that the International Data Center (IDC) for the Comprehensive test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in Vienna noted initial infrasound detections at 1450 that day.

Booming sounds were heard at 1400 in Talisay, Batangas (4 km NNE from the Main Crater), and at 1404 volcanic tremor and earthquakes felt locally were accompanied by an eruption plume that rose 1 km; ash fell to the SSW. The Alert Level was raised to 3 and the evacuation of high-risk barangays was recommended. Activity again intensified around 1730, prompting PHIVOLCS to raise the Alert Level to 4 and recommend a total evacuation of the island and high-risk areas within a 14-km radius. The eruption plume of steam, gas, and tephra significantly intensified, rising to 10-15 km altitude and producing frequent lightning (figures 14 and 15). Wet ash fell as far away as Quezon City (75 km N). According to news articles schools and government offices were ordered to close and the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (56 km N) in Manila suspended flights. About 6,000 people had been evacuated. Residents described heavy ashfall, low visibility, and fallen trees.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Lightning produced during the eruption of Taal during 1500 on 12 January to 0500 on 13 January 2020 local time (0700-2100 UTC on 12 January). Courtesy of Chris Vagasky, Vaisala.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Lightning strokes produced during the first days of the Taal January 2020 eruption. Courtesy of Domcar C Lagto/SIPA/REX/Shutterstock via The Guardian.

In a statement issued at 0320 on 13 January, PHIVOLCS noted that ashfall had been reported across a broad area to the north in Tanauan (18 km NE), Batangas; Escala (11 km NW), Tagaytay; Sta. Rosa (32 km NNW), Laguna; Dasmariñas (32 km N), Bacoor (44 km N), and Silang (22 km N), Cavite; Malolos (93 km N), San Jose Del Monte (87 km N), and Meycauayan (80 km N), Bulacan; Antipolo (68 km NNE), Rizal; Muntinlupa (43 km N), Las Piñas (47 km N), Marikina (70 km NNE), Parañaque (51 km N), Pasig (62 km NNE), Quezon City, Mandaluyong (62 km N), San Juan (64 km N), Manila; Makati City (59 km N) and Taguig City (55 km N). Lapilli (2-64 mm in diameter) fell in Tanauan and Talisay; Tagaytay City (12 km N); Nuvali (25 km NNE) and Sta (figure 16). Rosa, Laguna. Felt earthquakes (Intensities II-V) continued to be recorded in local areas.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Ashfall from the Taal January 2020 eruption in Lemery (top) and in the Batangas province (bottom). Photos posted on 13 January, courtesy of Ezra Acayan/Getty Images, Aaron Favila/AP, and Ted Aljibe/AFP via Getty Images via The Guardian.

Magmatic eruption on 13 January 2020. A magmatic eruption began during 0249-0428 on 13 January, characterized by weak lava fountaining accompanied by thunder and flashes of lightning. Activity briefly waned then resumed with sporadic weak fountaining and explosions that generated 2-km-high, dark gray, steam-laden ash plumes (figure 17). New lateral vents opened on the N flank, producing 500-m-tall lava fountains. Heavy ashfall impacted areas to the SW, including in Cuenca (15 km SSW), Lemery (16 km SW), Talisay, and Taal (15 km SSW), Batangas (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Ash plumes seen from various points around Taal in the initial days of the January 2020 eruption, posted on 13 January. Courtesy of Eloisa Lopez/Reuters, Kester Ragaza/Pacific Press/Shutterstock, Ted Aljibe/AFP via Getty Images, via The Guardian.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Map indicating areas impacted by ashfall from the 12 January eruption through to 0800 on the 13th. Small yellow circles (to the N) are ashfall report locations; blue circles (at the island and to the S) are heavy ashfall; large green circles are lapilli (particles measuring 2-64 mm in diameter). Modified from a map courtesy of Lauriane Chardot, Earth Observatory of Singapore; data taken from PHIVOLCS.

News articles noted that more than 300 domestic and 230 international flights were cancelled as the Manila Ninoy Aquino International Airport was closed during 12-13 January. Some roads from Talisay to Lemery and Agoncillo were impassible and electricity and water services were intermittent. Ashfall in several provinces caused power outages. Authorities continued to evacuate high-risk areas, and by 13 January more than 24,500 people had moved to 75 shelters out of a total number of 460,000 people within 14 km.

A PHIVOLCS report for 0800 on the 13th through 0800 on 14 January noted that lava fountaining had continued, with steam-rich ash plumes reaching around 2 km above the volcano and dispersing ash SE and W of Main Crater. Volcanic lighting continued at the base of the plumes. Fissures on the N flank produced 500-m-tall lava fountains. Heavy ashfall continued in the Lemery, Talisay, Taal, and Cuenca, Batangas Municipalities. By 1300 on the 13th lava fountaining generated 800-m-tall, dark gray, steam-laden ash plumes that drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 5,299 metric tons/day (t/d) on 13 January and dispersed NNE (figure 19).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Compilation of sulfur dioxide plumes from TROPOMI overlaid in Google Earth for 13 January from 0313-1641 UT. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page and Google Earth.

Explosions and ash emission through 22 January 2020. At 0800 on 15 January PHIVOLCS stated that activity was generally weaker; dark gray, steam-laden ash plumes rose about 1 km and drifted SW. Satellite images showed that the Main Crater lake was gone and new craters had formed inside Main Crater and on the N side of Volcano Island.

PHIVOLCS reported that activity during 15-16 January was characterized by dark gray, steam-laden plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the vents in Main Crater and drifted S and SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 4,186 t/d on 15 January. Eruptive events at 0617 and 0621 on 16 January generated short-lived, dark gray ash plumes that rose 500 and 800 m, respectively, and drifted SW. Weak steam plumes rose 800 m and drifted SW during 1100-1700, and nine weak explosions were recorded by the seismic network.

Steady steam emissions were visible during 17-21 January. Infrequent weak explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated and were as high as 4,353 t/d on 20 January and as low as 344 t/d on 21 January. PHIVOLCS reported that white steam-laden plumes rose as high as 800 m above main vent during 22-28 January and drifted SW and NE; ash emissions ceased around 0500 on 22 January. Remobilized ash drifted SW on 22 January due to strong low winds, affecting the towns of Lemery (16 km SW) and Agoncillo, and rose as high as 5.8 km altitude as reported by pilots. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low at 140 t/d.

Steam plumes through mid-April 2020. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 on 26 January and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island and Taal Lake, nor into towns on the western side of the island within a 7-km radius. PHIVOLCS reported that whitish steam plumes rose as high as 800 m during 29 January-4 February and drifted SW (figure 20). The observed steam plumes rose as high as 300 m during 5-11 February and drifted SW.

Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged around 250 t/d during 22-26 January; emissions were 87 t/d on 27 January and below detectable limits the next day. During 29 January-4 February sulfur dioxide emissions ranged to a high of 231 t/d (on 3 February). The following week sulfur dioxide emissions ranged from values below detectable limits to a high of 116 t/d (on 8 February).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Taal Volcano Island producing gas-and-steam plumes on 15-16 January 2020. Courtesy of James Reynolds, Earth Uncut.

On 14 February PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level to 2, noting a decline in the number of volcanic earthquakes, stabilizing ground deformation of the caldera and Volcano Island, and diffuse steam-and-gas emission that continued to rise no higher than 300 m above the main vent during the past three weeks. During 14-18 February sulfur dioxide emissions ranged from values below detectable limits to a high of 58 tonnes per day (on 16 February). Sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits during 19-20 February. During 26 February-2 March steam plumes rose 50-300 m above the vent and drifted SW and NE. PHIVOLCS reported that during 4-10 March weak steam plumes rose 50-100 m and drifted SW and NE; moderate steam plumes rose 300-500 m and drifted SW during 8-9 March. During 11-17 March weak steam plumes again rose only 50-100 m and drifted SW and NE.

PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level to 1 on 19 March and recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone. During 8-9 April steam plumes rose 100-300 m and drifted SW. As of 1-2 May 2020 only weak steaming and fumarolic activity from fissure vents along the Daang Kastila trail was observed.

Evacuations. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 53,832 people dispersed to 244 evacuation centers by 1800 on 15 January. By 21 January there were 148,987 people in 493 evacuation. The number of residents in evacuation centers dropped over the next week to 125,178 people in 497 locations on 28 January. However, many residents remained displaced as of 3 February, with DROMIC reporting 23,915 people in 152 evacuation centers, but an additional 224,188 people staying at other locations.

By 10 February there were 17,088 people in 110 evacuation centers, and an additional 211,729 staying at other locations. According to the DROMIC there were a total of 5,321 people in 21 evacuation centers, and an additional 195,987 people were staying at other locations as of 19 February.

The number of displaced residents continued to drop, and by 3 March there were 4,314 people in 12 evacuation centers, and an additional 132,931 people at other locations. As of 11 March there were still 4,131 people in 11 evacuation centers, but only 17,563 staying at other locations.

Deformation and ground cracks. New ground cracks were observed on 13 January in Sinisian (18 km SW), Mahabang Dahilig (14 km SW), Dayapan (15 km SW), Palanas (17 km SW), Sangalang (17 km SW), and Poblacion (19 km SW) Lemery; Pansipit (11 km SW), Agoncillo; Poblacion 1, Poblacion 2, Poblacion 3, Poblacion 5 (all around 17 km SW), Talisay, and Poblacion (11 km SW), San Nicolas (figure 21). A fissure opened across the road connecting Agoncillo to Laurel, Batangas. New ground cracking was reported the next day in Sambal Ibaba (17 km SW), and portions of the Pansipit River (SW) had dried up.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Video screenshots showing ground cracks that formed during the Taal unrest and captured on 15 and 16 January 2020. Courtesy of James Reynolds, Earth Uncut.

Dropping water levels of Taal Lake were first observed in some areas on 16 January but reported to be lake-wide the next day. The known ground cracks in the barangays of Lemery, Agoncillo, Talisay, and San Nicolas in Batangas Province widened a few centimeters by 17 January, and a new steaming fissure was identified on the N flank of the island.

GPS data had recorded a sudden widening of the caldera by ~1 m, uplift of the NW sector by ~20 cm, and subsidence of the SW part of Volcano Island by ~1 m just after the main eruption phase. The rate of deformation was smaller during 15-22 January, and generally corroborated by field observations; Taal Lake had receded about 30 cm by 25 January but about 2.5 m of the change (due to uplift) was observed around the SW portion of the lake, near the Pansipit River Valley where ground cracking had been reported.

Weak steaming (plumes 10-20 m high) from ground cracks was visible during 5-11 February along the Daang Kastila trail which connects the N part of Volcano Island to the N part of the main crater. PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-24 February steam plumes rose 50-100 m above the vent and drifted SW. Weak steaming (plumes up to 20 m high) from ground cracks was visible during 8-14 April along the Daang Kastila trail which connects the N part of Volcano Island to the N part of the main crater.

Seismicity. Between 1300 on 12 January and 0800 on 21 January the Philippine Seismic Network (PSN) had recorded a total of 718 volcanic earthquakes; 176 of those had magnitudes ranging from 1.2-4.1 and were felt with Intensities of I-V. During 20-21 January there were five volcanic earthquakes with magnitudes of 1.6-2.5; the Taal Volcano network (which can detect smaller events not detectable by the PSN) recorded 448 volcanic earthquakes, including 17 low-frequency events. PHIVOLCS stated that by 21 January hybrid earthquakes had ceased and both the number and magnitude of low-frequency events had diminished.

Geologic Background. Taal is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. Though not topographically prominent, its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the landscape of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 km2 surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that have grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions have caused many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Department of Science and Technology, University of the Philippines Campus, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (URL: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/); Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) (URL: https://dromic.dswd.gov.ph/); United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Philippines (URL: https://www.unocha.org/philippines); James Reynolds, Earth Uncut TV (Twitter: @EarthUncutTV, URL: https://www.earthuncut.tv/, YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/TyphoonHunter); Chris Vagasky, Vaisala Inc., Louisville, Colorado, USA (URL: https://www.vaisala.com/en?type=1, Twitter: @COweatherman, URL: https://twitter.com/COweatherman); Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore (URL: https://www.earthobservatory.sg/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Relief Web, Flash Update No. 1 - Philippines: Taal Volcano eruption (As of 13 January 2020, 2 p.m. local time) (URL: https://reliefweb.int/report/philippines/flash-update-no-1-philippines-taal-volcano-eruption-13-january-2020-2-pm-local); Bloomberg, Philippines Braces for Hazardous Volcano Eruption (URL: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-01-12/philippines-raises-alert-level-in-taal-as-volcano-spews-ash); National Public Radio (NPR), Volcanic Eruption In Philippines Causes Thousands To Flee (URL: npr.org/2020/01/13/795815351/volcanic-eruption-in-philippines-causes-thousands-to-flee); Reuters (http://www.reuters.com/); Agence France-Presse (URL: http://www.afp.com/); Pacific Press (URL: http://www.pacificpress.com/); Shutterstock (URL: https://www.shutterstock.com/); Getty Images (URL: http://www.gettyimages.com/); Google Earth (URL: https://www.google.com/earth/).


Unnamed (Tonga) — March 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Unnamed

Tonga

18.325°S, 174.365°W; summit elev. -40 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Additional details and pumice raft drift maps from the August 2019 submarine eruption

In the northern Tonga region, approximately 80 km NW of Vava’u, large areas of floating pumice, termed rafts, were observed starting as early as 7 August 2019. The area of these andesitic pumice rafts was initially 195 km2 with the layers measuring 15-30 cm thick and were produced 200 m below sea level (Jutzeler et al. 2020). The previous report (BGVN 44:11) described the morphology of the clasts and the rafts, and their general westward path from 9 August to 9 October 2019, with the first sighting occurring on 9 August NW of Vava’u in Tonga. This report updates details regarding the submarine pumice raft eruption in early August 2019 using new observations and data from Brandl et al. (2019) and Jutzeler et al. (2020).

The NoToVE-2004 (Northern Tonga Vents Expedition) research cruise on the RV Southern Surveyor (SS11/2004) from the Australian CSIRO Marine National Facility traveled to the northern Tonga Arc and discovered several submarine basalt-to-rhyolite volcanic centers (Arculus, 2004). One of these volcanic centers 50 km NW of Vava’u was the unnamed seamount (volcano number 243091) that had erupted in 2001 and again in 2019, unofficially designated “Volcano F” for reference purposes by Arculus (2004) and also used by Brandl et al. (2019). It is a volcanic complex that rises more than 1 km from the seafloor with a central 6 x 8.7 km caldera and a volcanic apron measuring over 50 km in diameter (figures 19 and 20). Arculus (2004) described some of the dredged material as “fresh, black, plagioclase-bearing lava with well-formed, glassy crusts up to 2cm thick” from cones by the eastern wall of the caldera; a number of apparent flows, lava or debris, were observed draping over the northern wall of the caldera.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Visualization of the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano (marked “Volcano F”) using bathymetric data to show the site of the 6-8 August 2020 eruption and the rest of the cone complex. Courtesy of Philipp Brandl via GEOMAR.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Map of the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano using satellite imagery, bathymetric data, with shading from the NW. The yellow circle indicates the location of the August 2019 activity. Young volcanic cones are marked “C” and those with pit craters at the top are marked with “P.” Courtesy of Brandl et al. (2019).

The International Seismological Centre (ISC) Preliminary Bulletin listed a particularly strong (5.7 Mw) earthquake at 2201 local time on 5 August, 15 km SSW of the volcano at a depth of 10 km (Brandl et al. 2019). This event was followed by six slightly lower magnitude earthquakes over the next two days.

Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed two concentric rings originating from a point source (18.307°S 174.395°W) on 6 August (figure 21), which could be interpreted as small weak submarine plumes or possibly a series of small volcanic cones, according to Brandl et al. (2019). The larger ring is about 1.2 km in diameter and the smaller one measures 250 m. By 8 August volcanic activity had decreased, but the pumice rafts that were produced remained visible through at least early October (BGVN 44:11). Brandl et al. (2019) states that, due to the lack of continued observed activity rising from this location, the eruption was likely a 2-day-long event during 6-8 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Sentinel-2 satellite image of possible gas/vapor emissions (streaks) on 6 August 2019 drifting NW, which is the interpreted site for the unnamed Tongan seamount. The larger ring is about 1.2 km in diameter and the smaller one measures 250 m. Image using False Color (urban) rendering (bands 12, 11, 4); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The pumice was first observed on 9 August occurred up to 56 km from the point of origin, according to Jutzeler et al. (2020). By calculating the velocity (14 km/day) of the raft using three satellites, Jutzeler et al. (2020) determined the pumice was erupted immediately after the satellite image of the submarine plumes on 6 August (UTC time). Minor activity at the vent may have continued on 8 and 11 August (UTC time) with pale blue-green water discoloration (figure 22) and a small (less than 1 km2) diffuse pumice raft 2-5 km from the vent.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Sentinel-2 satellite image of the last visible activity occurring W of the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano on 8 August 2019, represented by slightly discolored blue-green water. Image using Natural Color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) and enhanced with color correction; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Continuous observations using various satellite data and observations aboard the catamaran ROAM tracked the movement and extent of the pumice raft that was produced during the submarine eruption in early August (figure 23). The first visible pumice raft was observed on 8 August 2019, covering more than 136.7 km2 between the volcanic islands of Fonualei and Late and drifting W for 60 km until 9 August (Brandl et al. 2019; Jutzeler 2020). The next day, the raft increased to 167.2-195 km2 while drifting SW for 74 km until 14 August. Over the next three days (10-12 August) the size of the raft briefly decreased in size to less than 100 km2 before increasing again to 157.4 km2 on 14 August; at least nine individual rafts were mapped and identified on satellite imagery (Brandl et al. 2019). On 15 August sailing vessels observed a large pumice raft about 75 km W of Late Island (see details in BGVN 44:11), which was the same one as seen in satellite imagery on 8 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Map of the extent of discolored water and the pumice raft from the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano between 8 and 14 August 2019 using imagery from NASA’s MODIS, ESA’s Sentinel-2 satellite, and observations from aboard the catamaran ROAM (BGVN 44:11). Back-tracing the path of the pumice raft points to a source location at the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano. Courtesy of Brandl et al. (2019).

By 17 August high-resolution satellite images showed an area of large and small rafts measuring 222 km2 and were found within a field of smaller rafts for a total extent of 1,350 km2, which drifted 73 km NNW through 22 August before moving counterclockwise for three days (figure f; Jutzeler et al., 2020). Small pumice ribbons encountered the Oneata Lagoon on 30 August, the first island that the raft came into contact (Jutzeler et al. 2020). By 2 September, the main raft intersected with Lakeba Island (460 km from the source) (figure 24), breaking into smaller ribbons that started to drift W on 8 September. On 19 September the small rafts (less than 100 m x less than 2 km) entered the strait between Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, the two main islands of Fiji, while most of the others were stranded 60 km W in the Yasawa Islands for more than two months (Jutzeler et al., 2020).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Time-series map of the raft dispersal from the unnamed submarine Tongan volcano using multiple satellite images. A) Map showing the first days of the raft dispersal starting on 7 August 2019 and drifting SW from the vent (marked with a red triangle). Precursory seismicity that began on 5 August is marked with a white star. By 15-17 August the raft was entrained in an ocean loop or eddy. The dashed lines represent the path of the sailing vessels. B) Map of the raft dispersal using high-resolution Sentinel-2 and -3 imagery. Two dispersal trails (red and blue dashed lines) show the daily dispersal of two parts of the raft that were separated on 17 August 2019. Courtesy of Jutzeler et al. (2020).

References: Arculus, R J, SS2004/11 shipboard scientists, 2004. SS11/2004 Voyage Summary: NoToVE-2004 (Northern Tonga Vents Expedition): submarine hydrothermal plume activity and petrology of the northern Tofua Arc, Tonga. https://www.cmar.csiro.au/data/reporting/get file.cfm?eovpub id=901.

Brandl P A, Schmid F, Augustin N, Grevemeyer I, Arculus R J, Devey C W, Petersen S, Stewart M , Kopp K, Hannington M D, 2019. The 6-8 Aug 2019 eruption of ‘Volcano F’ in the Tofua Arc, Tonga. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.106695

Jutzeler M, Marsh R, van Sebille E, Mittal T, Carey R, Fauria K, Manga M, McPhie J, 2020. Ongoing Dispersal of the 7 August 2019 Pumice Raft From the Tonga Arc in the Southwestern Pacific Ocean. AGU Geophysical Research Letters: https://doi.orh/10.1029/2019GL086768.

Geologic Background. A submarine volcano along the Tofua volcanic arc was first observed in September 2001. The newly discovered volcano lies NW of the island of Vava'u about 35 km S of Fonualei and 60 km NE of Late volcano. The site of the eruption is along a NNE-SSW-trending submarine plateau with an approximate bathymetric depth of 300 m. T-phase waves were recorded on 27-28 September 2001, and on the 27th local fishermen observed an ash-rich eruption column that rose above the sea surface. No eruptive activity was reported after the 28th, but water discoloration was documented during the following month. In early November rafts and strandings of dacitic pumice were reported along the coast of Kadavu and Viti Levu in the Fiji Islands. The depth of the summit of the submarine cone following the eruption determined to be 40 m during a 2007 survey; the crater of the 2001 eruption was breached to the E.

Information Contacts: Jan Steffen, Communication and Media, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity November 2019 through May 2020; lava flow down the SE flank in April

Klyuchevskoy is part of the Klyuchevskaya volcanic group in northern Kamchatka and is one of the most frequently active volcanoes of the region. Eruptions produce lava flows, ashfall, and lahars originating from summit and flank activity. This report summarizes activity during October 2019 through May 2020, and is based on reports by the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and satellite data.

There were no activity reports from 1 to 22 October, but gas emissions were visible in satellite images. At 1020 on 24 October (2220 on 23 October UTC) KVERT noted that there was a small ash component in the ash plume from erosion of the conduit, with the plume reaching 130 km ENE. The Aviation Colour Code was raised from Green to Yellow, then to Orange the following day. An ash plume continued on the 25th to 5-7 km altitude and extending 15 km SE and 70 km SW and reached 30 km ESE on the 26th. Similar activity continued through to the end of the month.

Moderate gas emissions continued during 1-19 November, but the summit was obscured by clouds. Strong nighttime incandescence was visible at the crater during the 10-11 November and thermal anomalies were detected on 8 and 10-13 November. Explosions produced ash plumes up to 6 km altitude on the 20-21st and Strombolian activity was reported during 20-22 November. Degassing continued from 23 November through 12 December, and a thermal anomaly was visible on the days when the summit was not covered by clouds. An ash plume was reported moving to the NW on the 13th, and degassing with a thermal anomaly and intermittent Strombolian activity then resumed, continuing through to the end of December with an ash plume reported on the 30th.

Gas-and-steam plumes continued into January 2020 with incandescence noted when the summit was clear (figure 33). Strombolian activity was reported again starting on the 3rd. A weak ash plume produced on the 6th extended 55 km E, and on the 21st an ash plume reached 5-5.5 km altitude and extended 190 km NE (figure 34). Another ash plume the next day rose to the same altitude and extended 388 km NE. During 23-29 Strombolian activity continued, and Vulcanian activity produced ash plumes up to 5.5 altitude, extending to 282 km E on the 30th, and 145 km E on the 31st.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Incandescence and degassing were visible at Klyuchevskoy through January 2020, seen here on the 11th. Courtesy of KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. A low ash plume at Klyuchevskoy on 21 January 2020 extended 190 km NE. Courtesy of KVERT.

Strombolian activity continued throughout February with occasional explosions producing ash plumes up to 5.5 km altitude, as well as gas-and-steam plumes and a persistent thermal anomaly with incandescence visible at night. Starting in late February thermal anomalies were detected much more frequently, and with higher energy output compared to the previous year (figure 35). A lava fountain was reported on 1 March with the material falling back into the summit crater. Strombolian activity continued through early March. Lava fountaining was reported again on the 8th with ejecta landing in the crater and down the flanks (figure 36). A strong persistent gas-and-steam plume containing some ash continued along with Strombolian activity through 25 March (figure 37), with Vulcanian activity noted on the 20th and 25th. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity was reported through the end of March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. This MIROVA thermal energy plot for Klyuchevskoy for the year ending 29 April 2020 (log radiative power) shows intermittent thermal anomalies leading up to more sustained energy detected from February through March, then steadily increasing energy through April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Strombolian explosions at Klyuchevskoy eject incandescent ash and gas, and blocks and bombs onto the upper flanks on 8 and 10 March 2020. Courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Weak ash emission from the Klyuchevskoy summit crater are dispersed by wind on 19 and 29 March 2020, with ash depositing on the flanks. Courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Activity was dominantly Strombolian during 1-5 April and included intermittent Vulcanian explosions from the 6th onwards, with ash plumes reaching 6 km altitude. On 18 April a lava flow began moving down the SE flank (figures 38). A report on the 26th reported explosions from lava-water interactions with avalanches from the active lava flow, which continued to move down the SE flank and into the Apakhonchich chute (figures 39 and 40). This continued throughout April and May with sustained Strombolian and intermittent Vulcanian activity at the summit (figures 41 and 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Strombolian activity produced ash plumes and a lava flow down the SE flank of Klyuchevskoy on 18 April 2020. Courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. A lava flow descends the SW flank of Klyuchevskoy and a gas plume is dispersed by winds on 21 April 2020. Courtesy of Yu. Demyanchuk, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show the progression of the Klyuchevskoy lava flow from the summit crater down the SE flank from 19-29 April 2020. Associated gas plumes are dispersed in various directions. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy ejects incandescent ejecta, gas, and ash above the summit on 27 April 2020. Courtesy of D. Bud'kov, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Klyuchevskoy show the progression of the SE flank lava flow through May 2020, with associated gas plumes being dispersed in multiple directions. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyamuragira

DR Congo

1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal anomalies within the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020

Nyamuragira (also known as Nyamulagira) is located in the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and consists of a lava lake that reappeared in the summit crater in mid-April 2018. Volcanism has been characterized by lava emissions, thermal anomalies, seismicity, and gas-and-steam emissions. This report summarizes activity during December 2019 through May 2020 using information from monthly reports by the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) and satellite data.

According to OVG, intermittent eruptive activity was detected in the lava lake of the central crater during December 2019 and January-April 2020, which also resulted in few seismic events. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows thermal anomalies within the summit crater that varied in both frequency and power between August 2019 and mid-March 2020, but very few were recorded afterward through late May (figure 88). Thermal hotspots identified by MODVOLC from 15 December 2019 through March 2020 were mainly located in the active central crater, with only three hotspots just outside the SW crater rim (figure 89). Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery also showed activity within the summit crater during January-May 2020, but by mid-March the thermal anomaly had visibly decreased in power (figure 90).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. The MIROVA graph of thermal activity (log radiative power) at Nyamuragira during 27 July through May 2020 shows variably strong, intermittent thermal anomalies with a variation in power and frequency from August 2019 to mid-March 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Map showing the number of MODVOLC hotspot pixels at Nyamuragira from 1 December 2019 t0 31 May 2020. 37 pixels were registered within the summit crater while 3 were detected just outside the SW crater rim. Courtesy of HIGP-MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) confirmed ongoing thermal activity (bright yellow-orange) at Nyamuragira from February into April 2020. The strength of the thermal anomaly in the summit crater decreased by late March 2020, but was still visible. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

Information Contacts: Information contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/exp.


Nyiragongo (DR Congo) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyiragongo

DR Congo

1.52°S, 29.25°E; summit elev. 3470 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Activity in the lava lake and small eruptive cone persists during December 2019-May 2020

Nyiragongo is located in the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, part of the western branch of the East African Rift System and contains a 1.2 km-wide summit crater with a lava lake that has been active since at least 1971. Volcanism has been characterized by strong and frequent thermal anomalies, incandescence, gas-and-steam emissions, and seismicity. This report summarizes activity during December 2019 through May 2020 using information from monthly reports by the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) and satellite data.

In the December 2019 monthly report, OVG stated that the level of the lava lake had increased. This level of the lava lake was maintained for the duration of the reporting period, according to later OVG monthly reports. Seismicity increased starting in November 2019 and was detected in the NE part of the crater, but it decreased by mid-April 2020. SO2 emissions increased in January 2020 to roughly 7,000 tons/day but decreased again near the end of the month. OVG reported that SO2 emissions rose again in February to roughly 8,500 tons/day before declining to about 6,000 tons/day. Unlike in the previous report (BGVN 44:12), incandescence was visible during the day in the active lava lake and activity at the small eruptive cone within the 1.2-km-wide summit crater has since increased, consisting of incandescence and some lava fountaining (figure 72). A field survey was conducted on 3-4 March where an OVG team observed active lava fountains and ejecta that produced Pele’s hair from the small eruptive cone (figure 73). During this survey, OVG reported that the level of the lava lake had reached the second terrace, which was formed on 17 January 2002 and represents remnants of the lava lake at different eruption stages. There, the open surface lava lake was observed; gas-and-steam emissions accompanied both the active lava lake and the small eruptive cone (figures 72 and 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Webcam image of Nyiragongo in February 2020 showing an open lava lake surface and incandescence from the active crater cone within the 1.2 km-wide summit crater visible during the day, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions. Courtesy of OVG (Rapport OVG February 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Webcam image of Nyiragongo on 4 March 2020 showing an open lava lake surface and incandescence from the active crater cone within the 1.2 km-wide summit crater visible during the day, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions. Courtesy of OVG (Rapport OVG Mars 2020).

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data continued to show frequent strong thermal anomalies within 5 km of the summit crater through May 2020 (figure 74). Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported multiple thermal hotspots almost daily within the summit crater between December 2019 and May 2020. These thermal signatures were also observed in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery within the summit crater (figure 75).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Thermal anomalies at Nyiragongo from 27 July through May 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were frequent and strong. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) showed ongoing thermal activity (bright yellow-orange) in the summit crater at Nyiragongo during January through April 2020. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. The steep slopes of a stratovolcano contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks, which is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundated portions of the major city of Goma in January 2002.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kavachi (Solomon Islands) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kavachi

Solomon Islands

8.991°S, 157.979°E; summit elev. -20 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Discolored water plumes seen using satellite imagery in 2018 and 2020

Kavachi is a submarine volcano located in the Solomon Islands south of Gatokae and Vangunu islands. Volcanism is frequently active, but rarely observed. The most recent eruptions took place during 2014, which consisted of an ash eruption, and during 2016, which included phreatomagmatic explosions (BGVN 42:03). This reporting period covers December 2016-April 2020 primarily using satellite data.

Activity at Kavachi is often only observed through satellite images, and frequently consists of discolored submarine plumes for which the cause is uncertain. On 1 January 2018 a slight yellow discoloration in the water is seen extending to the E from a specific point (figure 20). Similar faint plumes were observed on 16 January, 25 February, 2 March, 26 April, 6 May, and 25 June 2018. No similar water discoloration was noted during 2019, though clouds may have obscured views.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Satellite images from Sentinel-2 revealed intermittent faint water discoloration (yellow) at Kavachi during the first half of 2018, as seen here on 1 January (top left), 25 February (top right), 26 April (bottom left), and 25 June (bottom right). Images with “Natural color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity resumed in 2020, showing more discolored water in satellite imagery. The first instance occurred on 16 March, where a distinct plume extended from a specific point to the SE. On 25 April a satellite image showed a larger discolored plume in the water that spread over about 30 km2, encompassing the area around Kavachi (figure 21). Another image on 30 April showed a thin ribbon of discolored water extending about 50 km W of the vent.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Sentinel-2 satellite images of a discolored plume (yellow) at Kavachi beginning on 16 March (top left) with a significant large plume on 25 April (right), which remained until 30 April (bottom left). Images with “Natural color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Named for a sea-god of the Gatokae and Vangunu peoples, Kavachi is one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Vangunu Island. Sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), this shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier eruptions. The roughly conical edifice rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the SE. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the ephemeral islands.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kuchinoerabujima

Japan

30.443°N, 130.217°E; summit elev. 657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption and ash plumes begin on 11 January 2020 and continue through April 2020

Kuchinoerabujima encompasses a group of young stratovolcanoes located in the northern Ryukyu Islands. All historical eruptions have originated from the Shindake cone, with the exception of a lava flow that originated from the S flank of the Furudake cone. The most recent previous eruptive period took place during October 2018-February 2019 and primarily consisted of weak explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall. The current eruption began on 11 January 2020 after nearly a year of dominantly gas-and-steam emissions. Volcanism for this reporting period from March 2019 to April 2020 included explosions, ash plumes, SO2 emissions, and ashfall. The primary source of information for this report comes from monthly and annual reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and advisories from the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Activity has been limited to Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater.

Volcanism at Kuchinoerabujima was relatively low during March through December 2019, according to JMA. During this time, SO2 emissions ranged from 100 to 1,000 tons/day. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequently observed throughout the entire reporting period, rising to a maximum height of 1.1 km above the crater on 13 December 2019. Satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 showed gas-and-steam and occasional ash emissions rising from the Shindake crater throughout the reporting period (figure 7). Though JMA reported thermal anomalies occurring on 29 January and continuing through late April 2020, Sentinel-2 imagery shows the first thermal signature appearing on 26 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showed gas-and-steam and ash emissions rising from Kuchinoerabujima. Some ash deposits can be seen on 6 February 2020 (top right). A thermal anomaly appeared on 26 April 2020 (bottom right). Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

An eruption on 11 January 2020 at 1505 ejected material 300 m from the crater and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater rim, extending E, according to JMA. The eruption continued through 12 January until 0730. The resulting ash plumes rose 400 m above the crater, drifting SW while the SO2 emissions measured 1,300 tons/day. Ashfall was reported on Yakushima Island (15 km E). Minor eruptive activity was reported during 17-20 January which produced gray-white plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater. On 23 January, seismicity increased, and an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km altitude, according to a Tokyo VAAC report, resulting in ashfall 2 km NE of the crater. A small explosion was detected on 24 January, followed by an increase in the number of earthquakes during 25-26 January (65-71 earthquakes per day were registered). Another small eruptive event detected on 27 January at 0148 was accompanied by a volcanic tremor and a change in tilt data. During the month of January, some inflation was detected at the base on the volcano and a total of 347 earthquakes were recorded. The SO2 emissions ranged from 200-1,600 tons/day.

An eruption on 1 February 2020 produced an eruption column that rose less than 1 km altitude and extended SE and SW (figure 8), according to the Tokyo VAAC report. On 3 February, an eruption from the Shindake crater at 0521 produced an ash plume that rose 7 km above the crater and ejected material as far as 600 m away. As a result, a pyroclastic flow formed, traveling 900-1,500 m SW. The previous pyroclastic flow that was recorded occurred on 29 January 2019. Ashfall was confirmed in the N part of Yakushima Island with a large amount in Miyanoura (32 km ESE) and southern Tanegashima. The SO2 emissions measured 1,700 tons/day during this event.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Webcam images from the Honmura west surveillance camera of an ash plume rising from Kuchinoerabujima on 1 February 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Weekly bulletin report 509, February 2020).

Intermittent small eruptive events occurred during 5-9 February; field observations showed a large amount of ashfall on the SE flank which included lapilli that measured up to 2 cm in diameter. Additionally, thermal images showed 5-km-long pyroclastic flow deposits on the SW flank. An eruption on 9 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km altitude, drifting SE. On 13 February a small eruption was detected in the Shindake crater at 1211, producing gray-white plumes that rose 300 m above the crater, drifting NE. Small eruptive events also occurred during 20-21 February, resulting in gas-and-steam emissions that rose 200 m above the crater. During the month of February, some horizontal extension was observed since January 2020 using GNSS data. The total number of earthquakes during this month drastically increased to 1225 compared to January. The SO2 emissions ranged from 300-1,700 tons/day.

By 2 March 2020, seismicity decreased, and activity declined. Gas-and-steam emissions continued infrequently for the duration of the reporting period. The SO2 emissions during March ranged from 700-2,100 tons/day, the latter of which occurred on 15 March. Seismicity increased again on 27 March. During 5-8 April 2020, small eruptive events were detected, generating ash plumes that rose 900 m above the crater (figure 9). The SO2 emissions on 6 April reached 3,200 tons/day, the maximum measurement for this reporting period. These small eruptive events continued from 13-20 and 23-25 April within the Shindake crater, producing gray-white plumes that rose 300-800 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Webcam images from the Honmura Nishi (top) and Honmura west (bottom) surveillance cameras of ash plumes rising from Kuchinoerabujima on 6 March and 5 April 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Weekly bulletin report 509, March and April 2020).

Geologic Background. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km W of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shindake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furudake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shindake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Soputan (Indonesia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Soputan

Indonesia

1.112°N, 124.737°E; summit elev. 1785 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor ash emissions during 23 March and 2 April 2020

Soputan is a stratovolcano located in the northern arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. Previous eruptive periods were characterized by ash explosions, lava flows, and Strombolian eruptions. The most recent eruption occurred during October-December 2018, which consisted mostly of ash plumes and some summit incandescence (BGVN 44:01). This report updates information for January 2019-April 2020 characterized by two ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions. The primary source of information come from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Activity during January 2019-April 2020 was relatively low; three faint thermal anomalies were observed at the summit at Soputan in satellite imagery for a total of three days on 2 and 4 January, and 1 October 2019 (figure 17). The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) based on analysis of MODIS data detected 12 distal hotspots and six low-power hotspots within 5 km of the summit during August to early October 2019. A single distal thermal hotspot was detected in early March 2020. In March, activity primarily consisted of white to gray gas-and-steam plumes that rose 20-100 m above the crater, according to PVMBG. The Darwin VAAC issued a notice on 23 March 2020 that reported an ash plume rose to 4.3 km altitude; minor ash emissions had been visible in a webcam image the previous day (figure 18). A second notice was issued on 2 April, where an ash plume was observed rising 2.1 km altitude and drifting W.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected a total of three thermal hotspots (bright yellow-orange) at the summit of Soputan on 2 and 4 January and 1 October 2019. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Minor ash emissions were seen rising from Soputan on 22 March 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Geologic Background. The Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano is located SW of Riendengan-Sempu, which some workers have included with Soputan and Manimporok (3.5 km ESE) as a volcanic complex. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Heard (Australia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptive activity including a lava flow during October 2019-April 2020

Heard Island is located on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean and contains Big Ben, a snow-covered stratovolcano with intermittent volcanism reported since 1910. Due to its remote location, visual observations are rare; therefore, thermal anomalies and hotspots detected by satellite-based instruments are the primary source of information. This report updates activity from October 2019 to April 2020.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed three prominent periods of strong thermal anomaly activity during this reporting period: late October 2019, December 2019, and the end of April 2020 (figure 41). These thermal anomalies were relatively strong and occurred within 5 km of the summit. Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported a total of six thermal hotspots during 28 October, 1 November 2019, and 26 April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Thermal anomalies at Heard from 29 April 2019 through April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were strong and frequent in late October, during December 2019, and at the end of April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Six thermal satellite images ranging from late October 2019 to late March showed evidence of active lava at the summit (figure 42). These images show hot material, possibly a lava flow, extending SW from the summit; a hotspot also remained at the summit. Cloud cover was pervasive during the majority of this reporting period, especially in April 2020, though gas-and-steam emissions were visible on 25 April through the clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Thermal satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben showing strong thermal signatures representing a lava flow in the SW direction from 28 October to 17 December 2019. These thermal anomalies are located NE from Mawson Peak. A faint thermal anomaly is also captured on 26 March 2020. Satellite images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 25, Number 07 (July 2000)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Apoyo (Nicaragua)

Tectonic seismicity between Apoyo and Masaya in July 2000

Arenal (Costa Rica)

Larger-than-average pyroclastic flow engulfs three people on 23 August

Fournaise, Piton de la (France)

Eruptions in February, March, June, and July 2000

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Forceful ash emissions on 5 and 9 April rise 1-2 km

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

An increase in activity at Southern Crater 3-4 June

Masaya (Nicaragua)

Summary of activity; nearby M 5.4 earthquake at 1 km focal depth on 6 July

Miyakejima (Japan)

Robust, multifaceted eruptions from new summit crater

Obituary Notices (Unknown)

Deaths of two volcanologists (Asep Mukti and Wildan) at Semeru

Popocatepetl (Mexico)

Ash plumes, minor ashfalls, and mudflows during 15 June-22 August

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Two periods of increased summit explosive activity in June

Semeru (Indonesia)

Ongoing eruptive activity; 27 July explosion causes injuries and two fatalities

Tungurahua (Ecuador)

January-July volcanism possibly decreased; lava fountains and many lahars

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Vapor emissions during May and June; moderate seismicity in June

Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand)

New crater formed on 27 July during the largest eruption in about 20 years



Apoyo (Nicaragua) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Apoyo

Nicaragua

11.92°N, 86.03°W; summit elev. 600 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tectonic seismicity between Apoyo and Masaya in July 2000

[The following was originally included within the Masaya report, not as a stand-alone report about Apoyo.]

July 2000 seismicity near Masaya and Laguna de Apoyo. During July 2000 there were over 300 earthquakes near Laguna de Apoyo (Apoyo volcano) and Masaya. The earthquakes, determined to be of tectonic rather than volcanic origin, caused surficial damage at both volcanoes.

At 1329 on 6 July a small M 2 earthquake occurred near the N rim of Laguna de Apoyo that was followed at 1330 by a M 5.4 earthquake (figure 1). It was located ~32 km SE of Managua, at 11.96°N, 86.02°E, with a focal depth less than 1 km (figure 2). The earthquake was felt in most of Nicaragua and was most strongly felt in the cities of Managua (Modified Mercalli V-VI) and Masaya (VI), and in the region near Laguna de Apoyo (maximum intensity of VII or VIII). The earthquake caused numerous landslides down the volcano's crater walls and surface faulting was observed. In towns located in the epicentral zone, trees and electric lines fell and many houses were partially or totally destroyed. About 70 people were injured and four children were killed by collapsing walls or roofs of homes. At Masaya volcano, ~8 km from the epicenter, there were minor collapses of Santiago crater's walls. No change in degassing was observed at the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Seismogram showing the M 2 and M 5.4 earthquakes near the Masaya volcano station on 6 July 2000. Courtesy of INETER.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Epicenters near Masaya for the M 5.4 earthquake on 6 July, and the M 4.8 earthquake on 25 July 2000 (stars). The aftershocks from these earthquakes are also shown (small circles). Courtesy of INETER.

Immediately after the earthquake there were many smaller, shallow earthquakes in a zone that includes the area between Masaya, Laguna de Apoyo, and W of Granada (figure 2). In the epicentral zone property was destroyed, cracks opened in the ground, landslides occurred, and trees fell. Several landslides occurred at the edges and steep walls of Laguna de Apoyo. A large number of earthquakes continued until 10 July (figure 3 and table 1). The number of earthquakes then diminished until 1554 on 25 July when a M 4.8 earthquake took place, initiating a series of smaller earthquakes that lasted until about 27 July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Graph showing the number of earthquakes in the Masaya region between 4 and 30 July 2000. Courtesy of INETER.

Table 1. A summary of earthquakes in vicinity of Masaya and Laguna de Apoyo in early July 2000. Courtesy of INETER.

Date Time Number of daily earthquakes Maximum magnitude
07 Jul 2000 1330 180 5.2
08 Jul 2000 1100 70 3.8
09 Jul 2000 1200 81 3.6
10 Jul 2000 1800 27 3.1
11 Jul 2000 1800 6 3.3
13 Jul 2000 1800 16 2.8

The July earthquakes were the most destructive seismic events since the 1972 Managua earthquake. The epicentral zone of the July 2000 earthquakes correlates with the same active zones of past earthquakes, which are caused by fault movement between the Cocos and Caribbean plates.

Geologic Background. The scenic 7-km-wide, lake-filled Apoyo caldera is a large silicic volcanic center immediately SE of Masaya caldera. The surface of Laguna de Apoyo lies only 78 m above sea level; the steep caldera walls rise about 100 m to the eastern rim and up to 500 m to the western rim. An early shield volcano constructed of basaltic-to-andesitic lava flows and small rhyodacitic lava domes collapsed following two major dacitic explosive eruptions. The caldera-forming eruptions have been radiocarbon dated between about 21,000-25,000 years before present. Post-caldera ring-fracture eruptions of uncertain age produced lava flows below the scalloped caldera rim. The slightly arcuate, N-S-trending La Joya fracture system that cuts the eastern flank of the caldera only 2 km east of the caldera rim is a younger regional fissure system structurally unrelated to Apoyo caldera.

Information Contacts: Wilfried Strauch and Virginia Tenorio, Dirección General de Geofísica, Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado 1761, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/).


Arenal (Costa Rica) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Larger-than-average pyroclastic flow engulfs three people on 23 August

During January to July 2000 Arenal's outbursts generally remained low but included frequent pyroclastic explosions, gas emissions, and avalanches. In late August explosions spawned a pyroclastic flow that injured three people several kilometers from the crater; two later died. Three days later a small airplane crashed into the volcano.

In January through parts of June crater C continued its usual activities, consisting of a constant gas emission, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional incandescent avalanches. Crater D exhibited fumarolic activity. The lava continued to flow variously toward the NNE, E, SE flanks. The NE and SE flank were continually affected by acid rain and pyroclastic material that contributed to the destruction of the vegetation on these flanks, resulting in major erosion that created small avalanches on the rivers Calle de Arenas, Manolo, Guillermina, and Agua Caliente.

The EDM network (established along the subradial lines) continued to show an average annual contraction of 7-10 ppm. The dry inclinometers ("dry tilt") showed variations in the radial component, deflation at ~5 µrad per year.

During the last half of April and throughout May eruptive activity increased, but few ash columns rose to ~500 m over crater C. The columns of ash were carried by the predominating winds toward the NW and SE flank causing both acid rain and ash fall. In May a narrow channel of lava began to flow toward the NNE flank. It later widened into a fan burning vegetation on the N and NE flanks.

From April to May the seismometer detected an increase in both number of eruptions and the hours of tremor. On 16 May two MR 3 earthquakes were recorded and located on the flanks of the volcano at 2 and 5 km from the summit. These earthquakes were reported to be felt in La Fortuna, 6.5 km NE of the volcano.

Eruptive activity remained low in June; few eruption clouds rose more than 500 m over crater C. In July crater C continued with the emission of gases, lava flows, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional pyroclastic flows. The eruptive activity increased in July with respect to June, although the number of eruptions, their intensity, and the quantity of pyroclastic material ejected remained low.

In August Arenal became more active and underwent a series of explosions. One began at 0945 on 23 August; mutiple pyroclastic flows came down the volcano's NE side (figure 89) as a series of pulses. Pulses occurred at 0955, 0956, and 0958. The most important pulse occurred at 1001 and continued for six minutes. Two more pulses followed at 1008 and 1012. For the next two hours activity returned to normal, but at 1323 a new series of explosions began. At 1336 a pyroclastic flow began and lasted for ten minutes. Various pulses descended the NNE flank. Normal low-level activity resumed 19 hours after the afternoon explosions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. A map of Arenal and vicinity showing the distribution of deposits from the 23 August pyroclastic flows (N-directed swath of dark-gray color). The light gray shows the lava field formed by past eruptions. Courtesy of Rafael Barquero (OSIVAM).

News reports. One of the pyroclastic flows on 23 August engulfed a Costa Rican tour guide and two tourists from the United States. OVSICORI-UNA stated that the victims were burnt by the front of the flow ~2.3 km from the crater. According to a local volcanologist, the flow was traveling at 80 km/hour at that point.

The three victims were sent to San José to be treated for their burns and injuries. On the night of 23 August the tour guide died in the hospital. An 8-year-old girl from Massachusetts died on 6 September as a result of her burns.

The National Emergency Commission (NEC) ordered evacuations of the tourist centers of Los Lagos, the Tabacón hot springs and resort, Hotel Montaña del Fuego, Arenal Lodge, and other areas. The NEC and Red Cross workers evacuated 600 tourists and residents and closed the route around the volcano to Tilarán. On 24 August the volcano returned to its normal behavior. The 23 August explosive eruptions were believed to be the strongest since the deadly 1968 eruption.

On 26 August a ten-passenger airplane crashed into the NE flank ~200 m below the summit. All of the occupants died. The cause of the crash is unknown at this point and no further details are available.

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica; Oficina de Sismología y Vulcanología del Arenal y Miravalles (OSIVAM), Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Apartado 10032-1000, San José, Costa Rica; The Tico Times (URL: http://www.ticotimes.net/); La Nacion (URL: http://www.nacion.co.cr/).


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions in February, March, June, and July 2000

During 14 February to 4 March 2000 an eruption occurred at Piton de la Fournaise that was briefly mentioned in a previous report (BGVN 25:01) and is discussed here in more detail. After 4 March through May, there was no volcanic activity and seismicity was low with 1-2 events per month. On 23 June volcanism recommenced with an eruption that lasted more than a month.

Eruption of 14 February 2000. Three and a half months after its previous eruption (BGVN 24:09), Piton de la Fournaise erupted on 14 February. Throughout January, seismicity was well above normal levels until the beginning of February when a relative lull in seismicity lasted for two weeks (figure 50). At 2314 on 13 February a seismic crisis began that lasted 64 minutes. A total of 261 earthquakes occurred with magnitudes up to 1.9. The deepest events were localized at sea level, just below Dolomieu summit crater (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Seismic events at Piton de la Fournaise during December 1999- February 2000 shown as a series of five day averages. Heightened activity occurred through January, and a relative lull in activity occurred two weeks prior to the eruption on 14 February. Seismic information was not available for the beginning of the eruption (February 14-24). Courtesy of OVPDLF.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Map of the N flank of Piton de la Fournaise showing the lava flows from the 14 February 2000 eruption (black), fissure vents (white lines within the flow), and the major features associated with the flow. Note Dolomieu summit crater at lower edge of the map. Courtesy of OVPDLF.

On 13 February, three minutes after the beginning of the seismic crisis, the first significant variations in deformation were recorded at 2317 and 2320, on radial and tangential components, respectively, by the "Dolomieu Sud" tiltmeter station. After initial deformation was observed, tiltmeter and extensometer stations at "Soufriere," "Bory," "Tunnel Catherine," and "Flanc Est" (figure 52) registered variations, with up to 270 µrad recorded for the "Soufriere tiltmeter" radial component. The intrusion of magma caused inflation under the summit crater. The inflation center started S of Dolomieu summit crater, migrated below Dolomieu, and then traveled to the N flank of the volcano where several vents opened (figure 53). At 0018 on 14 February, tremors registered at all of the seismic stations marking the beginning of the eruption.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Map showing the location of radon, deformation, magnetic, and seismic stations on Piton de la Fournaise in February 2000. Courtesy of OVPDLF.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. During the 14 February 2000 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise the center of inflation migrated. The incenter of inflation was calculated on 5-minute intervals and plotted on this sketch map. The center of inflation was estimted based on the shift of deformation vectors over time. Courtesy of OVPDLF.

Inclement weather produced by cylone Eline passing 200 km N of Reunion inhibited visual observations for several days. After that, scientists found that several en echelon fissures were localized on the N flank starting at 2,490 m elevation (white lines within black lava flows, figure 53). An aa flow inundated the "Puy Mi-Côte" crater, passed to the W and E of the crater, and continued in the direction of "Piton Partage." Both vents were inactive at the time of observation. Eruptive activity was concentrated on a vent 300 m E of Puy Mi-Côte, where stable 20- to 30-m-high fountains were observed from a new crater, whose rim grew to 20 m high at that time. A second, much smaller crater was active about 100 m above the main crater. A large aa lava flow and meter-sized blocks descended in the direction of "Piton Kapor" (site of the 1998 eruption), then joined the first lava flow and followed the "rempart Fouqué" to the E. This lava flow terminated about 4 km away at 1,950 m altitude near "Nez Coupé de Saint Rose." Beginning on 24 February a large number of small pahoehoe lava flows were observed. For several hours on 4 March a large number of gas-piston events were observed and then at 1800 tremor stopped, marking the end of the eruption.

Retrospective analysis revealed that the initial aa lava flow represented most of the erupted material. The lava was particularly irregular with scoria that ranged in size from tens of centimeters to meter-sized blocks. Pahoehoe flows from the 24 February phase of the eruption partly covered the aa lava that was emitted earlier. The entire lava flow covered an area of about 1.3 x 106 m2 and comprised a total volume of about 4 x 106 m3 of aphyric basalt. The main new crater was called "Piton Célimène" (figure 53).

Eruption of 23 June 2000. Beginning in June, long-term deformation was observed at several stations near the volcano. Since the beginning of the month up to 0.1 mm of inflation took place at the "Soufrière" extensometer (figure 52). Starting on 12 June clear inflation of up to 70 µrad was observed at the "Dolomieu Sud" tiltmeter. After 20 June inflation of up to 20 µrad was observed at the "Château Fort" tiltmeter. The Château Fort extensometer showed variations in opening, shear, and vertical movement components.

Seismicity increased during 9-14 June with twelve deep earthquakes ~6 km below the W flank. During 15-21 June seismicity drastically increased with 2, 2, 4, 10, 29, 69, and 101 earthquakes recorded on successive days (figure 54). All of these earthquakes occurred below Dolomieu summit crater, with focal depths between sea level and 1 km above sea level. They had magnitudes up to 1.8 that increased with the number of earthquakes recorded. During the same time period, five deep earthquakes also occurred.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. The number of daily seismic events recorded at two seismic stations at Piton de la Fournaise during 1 June through 6 July 2000. Courtesy of OVPDLF.

During 0600-0640 on 22 June, following 50 seismic events, there was a small seismic crisis that consisted of 36 low-energy seismic events. For 36 hours after the seismic crisis only very low-energy earthquakes occurred. At 1650 on 23 June another seismic crisis took place (figure 54). It consisted of about 300 earthquakes, including some greater than M 2 and possibly as high as M 2.5. Some of the earthquakes were recorded at the seismic station in Cilaos, more than 30 km from the volcano.

During the seismic crisis one shallow earthquake was centered under the E flank of the volcano. Around this time the observatory's tiltmeter network showed uplift of the central part of the volcano to over 200 µrad. The inferred effect of an intrusion was first localized under the summit region, then shifted to the SE. At 1800 eruption tremor began, and tremor localization suggested the eruption site was on the SE flank between "Signal de l' Enclose" and "Château Fort" craters between 1.9 and 2.2 km elevation. Figure 55 shows these named locations and the actual fissure vent and extent of lava flows.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Map and image composite of the 23 June 2000 lava flows on the E flank of Piton de la Fournaise. Courtesy of OVPDLF.

According to the observatory staff, the 23 June eruption began with the formation of a short-lived, 500-m-long, SE-trending fissure on the SE flank at an elevation of ~2,100 m (figure 55). A second, 200-m-long, ESE trending vent also formed on the SE flank at ~1,800 m. About eight lava fountains initially rose up to 50 m above the second vent. In addition, a 300-m-long aa lava flow traveled down the "Grandes Pentes" to an elevation of 580 m. About two days after the eruption began, the intensity of the lava fountains decreased, and the crater rim reached a height of 10-15 m.

Within 24 hours after the onset of the eruption, tremor rapidly decreased to less than 10% of the initial value. Unlike typical eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise, seismicity under the central crater continued for the first five days of the eruption. During 24-28 June there were 26, 22, 17, 17 and six seismic events, respectively, up to M 2.5. Similar seismic events occurred during eruptions in 1986, 1988, and 1998; in two cases they preceded the formation of new vents. However, no new vents formed during 24-28 June. After 29 June no seismic events were recorded, and starting on 27 June there was an increase in tremors that remained around initial levels and lasted three weeks. Throughout most of the eruption there was a lava lake in the eruption crater and several meter-sized lava flows emerged at its base reaching up to 300-400 m below the crater. Lava samples were collected during the eruption, and a lava temperature of 1,160°C was measured several times using a thermocouple.

On 30 July the eruption stopped after 37 days of activity. The initial flow was entirely aa lava, while the later outspreading lava flows were aa and pahoehoe lava. The entire lava flow covered an area of ~3 x 102 m2 and comprised a total volume of ~1 x 107 m3. The final crater was 26 m high and was named "Piton Pârvédi."

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: Thomas Staudacher, Nicolas Villeneuve, Jean Louis Cheminée, Kei Aki, Jean Battaglia, Philippe Catherine, Valérie Ferrazzini, and Philippe Kowalski, Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers, 14 RN3 - Km 27, 97418 La Plaine des Cafres, Réunion, France (URL: http://www.ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/observatoire-volcanologique-piton-de-fournaise).


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Forceful ash emissions on 5 and 9 April rise 1-2 km

This report covers April through June 2000. Activity remained at a low level in April. From visual observation reports received only up to 9 April, Crater 2 periodically gently released moderate to thick ash clouds. However, on 5 and 9 April, the ash clouds were released more forcefully and with rumbling sounds. These ash clouds rose 1-2 km above the summit before being blown SE. Crater 3 released light white vapor throughout the month.

Visual observations were next reported after 16 June. Crater 2 produced thick, white ash clouds in moderate volume. On 23 and 24 June, these clouds were accompanied by blue vapor. On 16 and 18 June, rumbling noises were heard. Crater 3 was inactive in June with the exception of a weak trail of thin white vapor escaping on 16 June.

The seismograph remained non-operational throughout the entire reporting period.

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower E flank of the extinct Talawe volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, D. Lolok, K. Mulina, and F. Taranu, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


An increase in activity at Southern Crater 3-4 June

This report covers April-June 2000. Inflation that began in January 2000 (BGVN 25:03) peaked in early April. By mid-April the water-tube tiltmeter 4 km SW of the summit detected a 2.5 µrad decrease in tilt. By the end of April the tilt had recovered 1.5 µrad. Emissions from both the summit craters, Main and Southern, consisted of gentle releases of light to moderate volumes of white vapor. Seismicity remained low with the number of events ranging from 500 to 1,200 events a day. Seismic amplitude measurements were steady at background levels.

During May, Manam continued to produce varying amounts of white vapor from both craters. Rabaul Volcanic Observatory (RVO) characterized the seismicity as normal. Tiltmeter readings showed no particular trend.

Throughout June, Main Crater released light to moderate volumes of white vapor. However, during 3-4 June, Southern crater increased in activity.

At 1235 on 3 June, an explosive eruption produced thick, dark ash clouds and produced fine-ash and scoria deposits at Yassa village, W of the summit. The ash clouds reached an altitude of 1-1.2 km. The initial explosion was followed by light to moderate release of ash. At 0004 on 4 June, booming sounds lasting 1-2 minutes were accompanied by the ejection of glowing lava fragments. These fragments fell in the SW valley and had free fall times (FFT) of 5-10 s. Some weak to low fluctuating night time glows were visible during the intervals between lava fragment ejections. Prior to and after the events of 3-4 June, Southern crater produced light amounts of white vapor.

Although there were no water-tiltmeter readings after 19 June, the values taken 4 km S of the crater showed an inflation of 10 µrad from 1-19 June. Since December 1999, there has been an overall inflation of 16 µrad. There were no seismic readings during 1-10 June. Low-level seismicity the remainder of the month had counts ranging from 600-1,360 a day. Seismic amplitude measurements were relatively steady at normal background levels.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These valleys channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most observed eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, D. Lolok, K. Mulina, and F. Taranu, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.


Masaya (Nicaragua) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.985°N, 86.165°W; summit elev. 594 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Summary of activity; nearby M 5.4 earthquake at 1 km focal depth on 6 July

Since the last report on Masaya, of continued degassing and marked gravity decreases (BGVN 24:04), there have been sporadic reports about its activity, which are summarized below prior to discussion of a nearby M 5.4 earthquake on 6 July 2000.

Reports of ash-and-steam emissions. Between November 1999 and January 2000 there were several reports from the Washington VAAC of ash-and-steam emissions from Masaya. On 22 November 1999 the VAAC reported that GOES-8 imagery suggested that Masaya may have awakened. Satellite imagery showed activity at or very near Masaya, including a plume of ash or "smoke" moving to the WSW, and a hotspot that was visible for over two hours. At about 1600 the imagery suggested that an explosion may have occurred and by 1615 the resultant plume was at ~800 m (near Masaya's summit), and had been blown WSW.

On 22 December 1999 the Washington VAAC issued an ash advisory stating that a continuous low-level plume was being emitted from Masaya. Volcanic activity was confirmed by INETER who noted that seismic activity was consistent with ash emissions. The cloud was ~2 km in altitude and was blown to the WSW.

On 18 January 2000 the VAAC reported that GOES-8 imagery through 0845 detected a low-level thin ash plume from Masaya's summit. The plume reached an altitude of ~900 m, was blown to the SW, and rapidly dissipated.

Seismic activity during April 1999-March 2000. Seismic activity at the volcano remained low with eight microearthquakes registered for the month. The RSAM (seismic tremor) stayed at ~30 units. During the first two weeks of April the RSAM signal was not obtained due to technical problems in the seismic power station. On 23 April two explosions were detected by RSAM, which were confirmed by observers at the Masaya Volcano National Park. In that case, RSAM began to show a small increase until 0800, and an hour later the two explosions occurred.

May 1999: The number of microearthquakes was 21 for the month. The RSAM stayed at ~24 units. June: The number of microearthquakes was 18 for the month. The RSAM stayed at ~24 units. August: The number of microearthquakes was 47 for the month. The RSAM remained at ~40 units. Constant gas emissions occurred. September: The number of microearthquakes was 87 for the month. The RSAM stayed constant at ~40 units. Constant gas emissions occurred. October: The number of microearthquakes was 22 for the month. The RSAM stayed constant at ~20 units. Constant gas emissions occurred. November: There were 49 microearthquakes for the month. The RSAM stayed constant. Constant gas emissions occurred. December: Twenty one earthquakes were registered for the month. The RSAM stayed constant.

January 2000: Eleven earthquakes were registered for the month. The RSAM stayed constant. At 1145 on 6 January an explosion occurred in Santiago crater. February: Six microearthquakes and the RSAM remained constant. March: There were three microearthquakes for the month. The RSAM was at a similar level as the previous month.

July 2000 seismicity near Masaya and Laguna de Apoyo. During July 2000 there were over 300 earthquakes near Laguna de Apoyo (Apoyo volcano) and Masaya. The earthquakes, determined to be of tectonic rather than volcanic origin, caused surficial damage at both volcanoes.

At 1329 on 6 July a small M 2 earthquake occurred near the N rim of Laguna de Apoyo that was followed at 1330 by a M 5.4 earthquake (figure 10). It was located ~32 km SE of Managua, at 11.96°N, 86.02°E, with a focal depth less than 1 km (figure 11). The earthquake was felt in most of Nicaragua and was most strongly felt in the cities of Managua (Modified Mercalli V-VI) and Masaya (VI), and in the region near Laguna de Apoyo (maximum intensity of VII or VIII). The earthquake caused numerous landslides down the volcano's crater walls and surface faulting was observed. In towns located in the epicentral zone, trees and electric lines fell and many houses were partially or totally destroyed. About 70 people were injured and four children were killed by collapsing walls or roofs of homes. At Masaya volcano, ~8 km from the epicenter, there were minor collapses of Santiago crater's walls. No change in degassing was observed at the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Seismogram showing the M 2 and M 5.4 earthquakes near the Masaya volcano station on 6 July 2000. Courtesy of INETER.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Epicenters near Masaya for the M 5.4 earthquake on 6 July, and the M 4.8 earthquake on 25 July 2000 (stars). The aftershocks from these earthquakes are also shown (small circles). Courtesy of INETER.

Immediately after the earthquake there were many smaller, shallow earthquakes in a zone that includes the area between Masaya, Laguna de Apoyo, and W of Granada (figure 11). In the epicentral zone property was destroyed, cracks opened in the ground, landslides occurred, and trees fell. Several landslides occurred at the edges and steep walls of Laguna de Apoyo. A large number of earthquakes continued until 10 July (figure 12 and table 2). The number of earthquakes then diminished until 1554 on 25 July when a M 4.8 earthquake took place, initiating a series of smaller earthquakes that lasted until about 27 July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Graph showing the number of earthquakes in the Masaya region between 4 and 30 July 2000. Courtesy of INETER.

Table 2. A summary of earthquakes in vicinity of Masaya and Laguna de Apoyo in early July 2000. Courtesy of INETER.

Date Time Number of daily earthquakes Maximum magnitude
07 Jul 2000 1330 180 5.2
08 Jul 2000 1100 70 3.8
09 Jul 2000 1200 81 3.6
10 Jul 2000 1800 27 3.1
11 Jul 2000 1800 6 3.3
13 Jul 2000 1800 16 2.8

The July earthquakes were the most destructive seismic events since the 1972 Managua earthquake. The epicentral zone of the July 2000 earthquakes correlates with the same active zones of past earthquakes, which are caused by fault movement between the Cocos and Caribbean plates.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras caldera and is itself a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The Nindirí and Masaya cones, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6,500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and there is a lake at the far eastern end. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals have caused health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Wilfried Strauch and Virginia Tenorio, Dirección General de Geofísica, Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado 1761, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); Washington VAAC, Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS E/SP23, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/).


Miyakejima (Japan) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Miyakejima

Japan

34.094°N, 139.526°E; summit elev. 775 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Robust, multifaceted eruptions from new summit crater

This report covers the period 8 July-31 August 2000, an interval marked by strong outbursts, spectacular plumes, pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, and a remarkable series of concentric crater collapses that followed the initial crater collapse on 8 July 2000 (figures 6 and 7). Striking ash-column photos, some marked with azimuthal angles and calculated plume heights, appear on Japanese-language websites (see below).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. An oblique aerial view of Miyake-jima's pre-eruption summit; the sketched-in curve indicates the area of the collapse on 8 July 2000. That area is sub-circular in plan view (figure 7) and has a diameter of ~ 0.9 km. View is looking NNE. Courtesy of Tokyo Metropolitan Islands Promotion Corporation.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Map of Miyake-jima's active summit crater documenting the crater's expansion during July and August 2000. The margins were drawn from aerial photos taken on the specified dates. The progression was thought to be closely linked with summit deflation; this deflation had been detected since the end of June and accelerated on 8 July. Large dots indicate the locations of a series of small migrating vents seen in the crater during 10-26 August. From the website of K. F. Fujita.

Continuous deflation at the summit had been recorded since the end of June. However, on 8 July the deflation accelerated. Following 4 days of earthquake swarms under the summit, at 1841 on 8 July, a small, phreatic explosion sent a cloud to 800 m above the summit (BGVN 25:07). This explosion lasted several minutes. At the same time, a large pit crater formed with a diameter of ~800-1,000 m and a depth of 100-200 m. A small amount of ash was ejected but was not comparable to the volume of the depression. Red ash and cinder deposits from this eruption were estimated to amount to less than 1 x 106 m3. The volume of collapse was estimated at 50 x 106 m3. No scoriae or any other juvenile material was found. The rapid deflation is thought to have formed as the result of "drain-back" of magma that had intruded near the surface. This appears to have been the catalyst for the explosion.

After the 8 July explosion, tiltmeters recorded periods of sudden inflation. Inflations were preceded and accompanied by long-period earthquakes located less than 2 km below the surface. The intervals of inflation and earthquakes were followed by continued steady deflation. This cycle repeated itself approximately every 12 hours from the 8 July eruption to 23 July.

Following a series of foreshocks, at 1601 on 1 July a Mb 6.1 earthquake struck near Kozu-shima Island, NW of Miyake-jima. This was followed on 14 July by a M 5.3 earthquake off the coast of Miyake-jima. At about 0400, shortly after the earthquake, a phreatic eruption occurred. Thick layers of ash were deposited on the N and E parts of the islands. This eruption continued until about 1300 on 15 July. Photographs taken by Asahi News Network (ANN) on the afternoon of 14 July showed that the 8 July crater had expanded to a diameter of 1,000 m and a depth of 400 m. Observers looking at the bottom of the 8 July crater saw small phreatic explosions yielding plumes with convoluted and scrolled shapes (reminiscent of cock's tails); these originated from a new pit crater that was ~100 m in diameter. The volume of ash from this eruption was estimated to be less than 10 x 106 m3. The volume of collapse was estimated at 200 x 106 m3.

Measurements in early August showed that the collapsed crater had enlarged to a diameter of 1.4 km and a depth of 450 m. According to The Japan Times, an eruption on 10 August produced a plume that rose 3 km above the summit and deposited ash over the NE section of the island. Yukio Hayakawa reported that small pyroclastic flows accompanied this event. After 10 August, phreatic explosions occurred intermittently. Figure 7 shows the progressive expansion of the crater associated with the deflation. GPS measurements made at four stations around the summit indicated continued summit deflation, including during the explosion on 18 August.

At 1700 on 18 August, a large phreatic eruption occurred. This was the largest eruption since activity began on 26 June 2000. Yukio Hayakawa reported small pyroclastic flows. According to articles by the Associated Press and Reuters, white clouds rising to 8 km above the summit were encountered by a commercial airline pilot who was in route from Guam to Narita airport in Tokyo. The plane, which was flying over the island of Miyake shortly after the eruption, later landed safely at Narita. Aviation contacts later revealed that while in flight a commercial airliner encountered airborne ash and underwent a dual-engine flame-out, but managed to land safely. The airliner sustained ~$4 million (US dollars) in damage.

Ash fall was reported to be heaviest on the western part of the island, but ash in the NW sector accumulated up to 15 cm thick as far as 3 km from the crater (figure 8). Ballistics, which included basaltic bombs, were ejected at the end of the eruption and were deposited in a uniform, radial pattern around the crater (figure 9). On the W slope of the volcano, 2-m-diameter ballistics destroyed roofs of cowsheds and formed craters in the meadows. To the SE, there were reports of broken car windows and cinders 5 cm in diameter at the airport. It is uncertain whether these ballistics were juvenile material.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Isopach map of ash-fall deposits from Miyake-jima's eruption on 18 August 2000. Courtesy of Joint University Research Group, Geological Survey of Japan.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Isopleth map of ballistics from Miyake-jima's eruption on 18 August 2000. Courtesy of Joint University Research Group, Geological Survey of Japan.

Although several lower plume-height observations and estimates were made, for example by aviators, one based on a photograph of the actively rising ash column indicated that the 18 August plume rose to at least 15 km. Laser radar (lidar) provided additional constraints on the height of airborne volcanic aerosols at distance from the volcano, detecting them on 23 August at 16 and 17.5 km altitude. More details follow.

For the 18 August eruption, lidar data collected by Takashi Shibata established these values at Nagoya, Japan (35°N, 137°E, on S Honshu Island, 290 km SE of the volcano) around 2100 on 23 August: backscatter ratio at 532 nm, 1.1; depolarization ratio at 532 nm, 5%; plume height, 16 km; and plume width, 100 km.

On 23 August the lidar instrument run by Motowo Fujiwara and Kouichi Shiraishi in Fukuoka (33.5°N, 130.4°E, on NW Kyushu Island, 850 km W of the volcano) detected a thin aerosol layer. Their measurement took place over an interval that began at 0013 and extended over the next hour and a half. They detected relatively strong scattering in the lower stratosphere and found these values: peak backscatter ratio at 532 nm, 1.20-1.25; depolarization ratio at 532 nm, 8-15%; layer height, 17.5 km; and layer width, 1 km. The cited height corresponds to the peak (strongest effect) of the layer; this altitude was ~1.7 km above the tropopause observed by Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory at 2100 on 22 August. Fujiwara and Shiraishi suggested aerosols might have come from Miyake-jima, specifically its eruption at 1702 on 18 August. The Meteorological Observatory reported that during the period from 18-21 August the wind direction around the layer height (17-18 km) changed from ENE to SSE (i.e., basically easterly) and its speed changed from 3 to 7 m/s. These easterly winds further suggested that the lidar-detected aerosol layer originated from a Miyake-jima eruption.

Observations made on 20 August by Osamu Oshima of the University of Tokyo revealed 3 small cones with open pits inside the summit crater, multiple mudflows from the crater pits onto the crater floor, and step faults that crossed new ash layers. He interpreted the step faults to indicate continued subsistence of the crater floor.

The Tokyo VAAC reported three small eruptions at Miyake-jima on 28 August. The eruption clouds reached respective heights of about 5.8, 3.8, and 5 km. On 29 August at 0430, Miyake-jima erupted vigorously again; according to the Eruption Committee this was the second-largest outburst of the recent eruptive episode (the most vigorous being the 18 August eruption). There were two pyroclastic flows, one to the NE that extended 5 km to the sea, and one to the SW that extended for 3 km. The pyroclastic flows contained large amounts of HCl, unlike those of 18 August. The eruption was theorized to be the result of either the collapse of an unstable hydrothermal system or contact between magma and meteoric water inside the volcano. Photos of the pyroclastic flows appeared on the internet (see references).

According to an article by the Associated Press and the Japanese news agency Asahi Shimbun, on 29 August all students, teachers, and school officials on Miyake-jima were evacuated to Tokyo, and all remaining residents of the island were ordered to evacuate. Residents who had not yet left the island as of 31 August were being housed in shelters due to the threat of mudslides produced by thick ash and rain.

Geologic Background. The circular, 8-km-wide island of Miyakejima forms a low-angle stratovolcano that rises about 1,100 m from the sea floor in the northern Izu Islands about 200 km SSW of Tokyo. The basaltic volcano is truncated by small summit calderas, one of which, 3.5 km wide, was formed during a major eruption about 2,500 years ago. Parasitic craters and vents, including maars near the coast and radially oriented fissure vents, dot the flanks of the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have occurred since 1085 CE at vents ranging from the summit to below sea level, causing much damage on this small populated island. After a three-century-long hiatus ending in 1469, activity has been dominated by flank fissure eruptions sometimes accompanied by minor summit eruptions. A 1.6-km-wide summit caldera was slowly formed by subsidence during an eruption in 2000; by October of that year the crater floor had dropped to only 230 m above sea level.

Information Contacts: Miyake-jima Meterological Observatory and Volcanological Division; Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); Akihiko Tomiya, Geological Survey of Japan, 1-1-3 Higashi, Ibaraki, Tsukuba 305, Japan (URL: https://www.gsj.jp/); Setsuya Nakada, Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html); Takashi Shibata, STEL, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan; Yukio Hayakawa, Faculty of Education, Gunma University, Aramaki, Maebashi 371, Japan (URL: http://www.hayakawayukio.jp/); Motowo Fujiwara and Kouichi Shiraishi, Department of Earth System Science, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonann-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan; U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA (URL: http://www.usgs.gov); The Japan Times, 5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023 (URL: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/); Asahi Shimbun (URL: http://www.asahi.com/english/english.html); Associated Press; Reuters.


Obituary Notices (Unknown) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Obituary Notices

Unknown

Unknown, Unknown; summit elev. m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Deaths of two volcanologists (Asep Mukti and Wildan) at Semeru

An explosion at Semeru on 27 July 2000 took the lives of two dedicated Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) staff members, Wildan and Mukti. Asep Wildan was born in Bandung and a graduate of the physics department at the Institute of Technology Bandung. He worked with VSI since 1993, most recently as a geophysicist in VSI's Eastern Java section where he investigated volcano seismology at Semeru and other volcanoes in East Java and Bali. He is survived by his wife and young daughter.

Mukti was born in the city of Banyuwangi on the eastern tip of Java. A high-school graduate, he served with VSI since 1990 in the capacity of volcano observer and was posted at Semeru. He is survived by his mother. Efforts are underway to work with VSI to provide economic assistance for the families of Wildan and Mukti.

Asep Wildan and Mukti made important contributions to VSI's volcano research and monitoring programs, and both had, in the past, generously provided vital assistance to international researchers working at Semeru. They will be greatly missed by their many Indonesian and international friends and colleagues.

Geologic Background. Obituary notices for volcanologists are sometimes written when scientists are killed during an eruption or have had a special relationship with the Global Volcanism Program.

Information Contacts:


Popocatepetl (Mexico) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Popocatepetl

Mexico

19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes, minor ashfalls, and mudflows during 15 June-22 August

This report covers the period form 15 June to 22 August 2000. The highest ash column in this period rose to over 5 km above the summit.

Throughout most of the reporting period, activity remained stable with periodic exhalations of small amplitude and duration. However, two small mudflows were reported: one on 23 June and the other on 24 June. According to CENAPRED, the mudflow on 24 June did not reach any human settlements. No information was available concerning the 23 June mudflow.

On 3 July, two small exhalations generated ash clouds that reached 1 and 2.5 km above the summit and ash fell over the volcano's SW sector. On 4 July, ash from a small exhalation fell in Tetela, a town ~15 km SW of the crater. On 14 July, the volcano erupted and produced an ash cloud that reached 1.6 km in height. According to the Associated Press (AP), the ash from this eruption was blown N and did not significantly impact any populated regions surrounding the volcano.

On 4 August, two closely spaced explosive eruptions occurred. The first at 1251, a moderately large exhalation, lasted 2 minutes. The second one occurred at 1255 and lasted 1.5 minutes. The resulting ash cloud rose to greater than 5 km above the volcano. Ash reportedly fell in nearby communities (Atlautla, San Juan Tehuixtitlan, San Pedro Nexapa, Amecameca, and Tenango).

At 0910 on 10 August, Popocatépetl erupted again. Ash reached to 3.5 km above the volcano. The ash clouds traveled to the W. A second eruption was visible in GOES 8 imagery. It was expected that nearby Mexican states would be coated with a thin layer of ash. At 19:15 on 23 August, a moderate exhalation produced ashfall in the nearby communities of San Pedro Nexapa and Amecameca (~12 km NW and ~16 km NW of the summit, respectively). Throughout the rest of the reporting period there were exhalations of low intensity and short duration that mainly involved gas with small amounts of ash.

Several volcano-tectonic earthquakes, ranging in magnitude from 1.7 to 2.3, occurred during the month of July. The first of these was on 2 July. It was followed by earthquakes on 6, 8, 9, 11, 15, and 23 of July. Three volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred on 20 July, all under M 2.5. On 1 August, three more tectonic earthquakes were recorded, M 1.9 - 2.7. Other earthquakes occurred on 5 and 10 August; both were less than M 2.

Popocatépetl's volcanic hazard level remained at yellow. CENAPRED recommended that all visitors remain 7 km or more from the crater.

Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.

Information Contacts: The National Center of the Prevention of Disasters (CENAPRED) (URL: https://www.gob.mx/cenapred/); Discovery.com (URL: http://www.discovery.com); Washington VAAC (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/); Volcano World (URL: http://volcano.oregonstate.edu).


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Two periods of increased summit explosive activity in June

This report covers the period April-June 2000. During mid-April, the inflationary trend that began in February 2000 tapered off (BGVN 25:03). However, the realtime GPS system, along with electronic and water tilt data, continued to indicate a long-term inflation trend.

Emissions from the 1941 vent were characterized by thin, white vapor throughout the months of April and May. The 1995 vent was free of vapor emissions except for gentle puffs of grey ash-clouds on 5, 14-16, and 28-30 April, and 5 and 30 May. During April, these ash clouds rose several hundred meters above the summit before being blown to the W, NW, and SW. Towards the end of May, the general haze produced began to contain a weak ash component and there was a strong smell of SO2.

In April, a single high-frequency earthquake was recorded and located NE of the caldera wall. Low-frequency earthquakes continued to occur throughout April and were related to the eruptive activity associated with Tavurvur (figure 35). The number of these earthquakes fluctuated within background levels. There was a significant decrease in the number of trigger counts from 78 in February and 90 in March to 28 in April. The number rose again in May to 64. However, it should be noted that these trigger counts include only events that trigger two or more stations. The count that includes non-triggered events (seismic events that do not trigger more than one station) is much higher. On 15 and 30 April, bands of sub-continuous, 2-3 hour long, non-harmonic tremor were recorded.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Map of Rabaul caldera showing locations of volcanic vents, selected towns, and features (modified from Almond and McKee, 1982).

For most of May, seismic activity was low. The exception was a ~M 4.8 earthquake that occurred at 1649 on 10 May and was centered 30 km NE of Rabaul. This produced several aftershocks; a total of 95 high-frequency triggered events were recorded on this date. Because of the proximity of these events to the established 'NE earthquake zone,' which is associated with ongoing eruptive activity, there was an expectation that higher levels of summit activity would occur at Tavurvur.

In June, 13 high-frequency events were recorded. Most originated NE of the Rabaul caldera. The S-P interval for these events was 1-4 seconds. Earthquakes occurring in this region have apparently been associated with the ongoing eruptive activity that began on 28 November 1995. A total of 185 low-frequency triggered events were recorded in June. Most of these events were related to explosions during two episodes of ashfall, one on 5 June and the other on 28 June. In addition, quasi-monochromatic volcanic tremor with durations ranging from a few minutes to a few hours were recorded during these periods. An increase in low- frequency non-triggered events was noted before each of the two episodes.

The 5 and 28 June episodes were characterized by moderate ashfall that emanated from Tavurvur. The first episode began on 5 June with a Vulcanian eruption that deposited lithic blocks beyond the crater rim. Through 8 June there was moderate-to-heavy ashfall. On 6 June at 1150 a loud explosion occurred at the 1941 vent. This was followed by increased explosive activity until the afternoon of 7 June when explosions occurred at 30-minute intervals. The explosion clouds contained moderate amounts of ash and rose to about 1.0-1.5 km above the summit. These ash clouds were blown such that they deposited ash towards the N, NE, and NW where Rabaul Town is located. By 8 June, the explosions had subsided to occasional emissions of light-to-moderate white vapor. For the following two weeks, the areas to the N, NE, and NW were continuosly blanketed in a thin fog of white vapor from Tavurvur.

At 0527(?) on 28 June, another explosion from the 1941 vent triggered the second period of light-to-moderate ashfall. The explosion was followed immediately by a dark grey ash cloud that rose to 1.5 km above the summit before being blown to the N and NW. Over the next two days, further ash clouds were produced that attained heights of several hundred meters. Discrete explosions, occurring at long intervals, marked the end of this period of activity. The last explosion occurred on 30 June.

Beginning in early May, electronic and wet-tilt measurements showed a downward tilt with a total deflation of ~9.0 µrad throughout May and June. However, an inflation of 4.0 µrad was recorded before the activity of 5-8 June and 5.5 µrad was recorded before the 27-30 June activity.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera forms a sheltered harbor once utilized by New Britain's largest city Rabaul prior to the 1994 eruption, which forced the abandonment of the city. Tavurvur and Vulcan are two eruption centers within the Rabaul caldera complex. These volcanoes have had virtually simultaneous eruptions in 1878, 1937, and 1994.

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: Ima Itikarai, David Lolok, Herman Patia, and Steve Saunders, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.


Semeru (Indonesia) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing eruptive activity; 27 July explosion causes injuries and two fatalities

Semeru has been undergoing nearly constant eruptive activity since 1967. Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reports through mid-September 1999 (BGVN 24:09) and earlier described seismicity (including seismically detected pyroclastic flows) and ongoing eruptive outbursts. Accessible Darwin VAAC reports since 3 June 1998 help to characterize the long-term eruptive patterns (table 3). VSI reports are not available for September 1999 through January 2000.

Table 3. A summary of aviation reports (Volcanic Ash Advisories) describing Semeru's plumes during 3 June 1998-21 August 2000. The first two columns describe the time and date when a report was issued. Time entries with commas signify that multiple reports were generated with similar comments. Where available, the time of the observations appear with the comment. Dash marks indicate lack of mention in report. Note that for plume heights, Semeru's summit lies at 3,676 m above sea level. Information sources include air reports (for example, routed via airlines, AIREPS), pilot reports (PIREPS), Notice to Airmen (NOTAM), satellite data, and reports from ground observations. Source data was provided by the Darwin VAAC.

Date Time (GMT) Information Sources Plume altitude (km) Satellite confirmed ash (Y/N) Clouds (Y/N) Comment
03 Jun 1998 0525 AIREP -- N -- Volcanic activity observed S of Surabaya, cloud moving S.
11 Jul 1998 0635 AIREP 6.1 -- -- Small volcanic plume.
31 Aug 1998 0635 AIREP 6.1 -- -- Small ash plume.
01 Sep 1998 1500 AIREP 7.6 N -- Volcanic activity observed at 1037.
02 Sep 1998 0800 AIREP 5.2 N -- Volcanic activity observed at 0551.
19 Apr 1999 1228 AIREP 7.6 N -- Eruption observed at 1003.
13 Jun 1999 1003 AIREP 6.1 N -- Plume tops seen.
09 Jul 1999 0942 NOTAM 6.1 N -- Report of ash cloud.
16 Jul 1999 1226 AIREP 4.6 Y -- Eruption reported at 0905. Weak ash plume apparent on satellite imagery extending 16.7 km WSW at 0936; no ash apparent on subsequent lower resolution imagery at 1030 and 1130.
16 Jul 1999 1817 AIREP -- N -- Satellite imagery shows no further evidence of ash cloud at 1732.
05 Aug 1999 0451 AIREP 6.1 N -- Reported plume at 0350; satellite imagery at 0232 showed no evidence of ash cloud.
05 Aug 1999 0538 AIREP 6.1 N Y Follow-up to plume (reported above).
23 Aug 1999 0304 NOTAM 4.6 (top) N N Volcanic ash drifting SW; satellite image at 0132 and last 3 hourly images (no plume visible).
13 Jun 2000 1144 AIREP 7.6 N -- Ash plume.
13 Jun 2000 1211 AIREP 7.6 N -- Ash plume.
23 Jun 2000 1228 AIREP 4.6 N -- Ash plume at 0445.
16 Jul 2000 1128 AIREP 7.6 N -- Ash cloud at 0335.
18 Jul 2000 0946 AIREP 9.2 N -- Ash cloud 0600.
18 Jul 2000 1536, 2129 AIREP -- N -- Ash cloud follow-up but cloud appears to have dissipated.
19 Jul 2000 0044 NOAA 9.2 Y -- Satellite imagery at 2115 and 2330; ash extending 56 km WSW bearing 257° from Mt. Semeru, plume width not more than 11 km; winds in area suggest height of ash above 5.5 km.
19 Jul 2000 0652, 1245, 1837 GMS-5 satellite and Meteorological & Geophysical Agency of Indonesia 4.6-9.2 -- -- Apparently undergoing a phase of enhanced activity; ground based reports over last month have given plume heights of 4.6 km; no ash clouds observed by satellite since 0030.
20 Jul 2000 0019 GMS-5 satellite and Meteorological & Geophysical Agency of Indonesia -- N -- Latest imagery at 2333 on 19 July.
19 Aug 2000 0653, 0812 PIREP 10.7 N Y Possible smoke plume at 0438; scattered cloud in area.
20 Aug 2000 0944 AIREP 7.3 Y N Smoke plume at 0427; satellite imagery mostly clear of cloud shows a weak plume extending SSE 56-74 km.
21 Aug 2000 0938 -- -- N -- Satellite imagery lacks clear plume at 0830.

Activity during February-July 2000. Explosive activity during February 2000 included ash emissions, numerous rockfalls, and a few deep A-type earthquakes (table 4). Plumes of thick white ash were seen to rise up to 400 m above the summit on many occasions. Persistent haze or cloudy weather prevented direct observation throughout most of the month. At night during the week of 8-14 February observers noted a 60-m-high flame. Generally, explosions and rockfalls dominated recorded seismicity.

Table 4. Summary of seismicity at Semeru, 31 January-29 August 2000. * Six days of data, through 15 July. Courtesy of VSI.

Dates Deep (A-type) Shallow (B-type) Tectonic Explosion Avalanche Tremor Pyroclastic Flows
31 Jan-07 Feb 2000 2 3 6 142 49 4 --
08 Feb-14 Feb 2000 2 -- 9 390 5 31 --
15 Feb-21 Feb 2000 8 -- 3 327 9 0 --
22 Feb-27 Feb 2000 1 -- 4 548 11 -- --
29 Feb-07 Mar 2000 "Seismic activity was relatively similar to last week... dominated by explosion and avalanche earthquakes."
07 Mar-13 Mar 2000 19 5 5 628 38 -- 1
14 Mar-20 Mar 2000 3 -- 15 530 18 -- --
21 Mar-27 Mar 2000 5 4 8 733 26 -- --
28 Mar-03 Apr 2000 5 4 8 733 26 16 --
04 Apr-10 Apr 2000 8 -- 7 737 45 56 1
11 Apr-17 Apr 2000 1 -- 3 805 50 18 --
18 Apr-24 Apr 2000 -- 1 4 678 45 48 --
25 Apr-01 May 2000 2 -- 4 703 31 17 3
02 May-08 May 2000 -- 13 3 770 46 -- 5
09 May-16 May 2000 -- -- 2 535 15 -- 4
17 May-23 May 2000 7 3 1 705 95 -- 3
24 May-30 May 2000 No data available.
31 May-05 Jun 2000 No data available.
06 Jun-12 Jun 2000 No data available.
13 Jun-19 Jun 2000 -- -- 7 557 25 7 2
20 Jun-26 Jun 2000 1 1 4 709 56 4 --
27 Jun-02 Jul 2000 -- 1 6 600 86 15 6
03 Jul-09 Jul 2000 1 -- 6 717 36 9 8
10 Jul-15 Jul 2000* -- 1 6 557 27 6 8
17 Jul-23 Jul 2000 No data available.
24 Jul-30 Jul 2000 14 4 18 542 60 -- 7
31 Jul-07 Aug 2000 -- -- -- 657 64 -- 5
08 Aug-14 Aug 2000 -- -- -- 584 43 -- 2
15 Aug-21 Aug 2000 -- -- -- 420 17 -- 0
22 Aug-29 Aug 2000 23 1 21 542 27 -- 3

Explosions and lava avalanches continued in March. Clouds and haze often obscured the volcano, but sometimes thick white emissions appeared above the summit to a maximum height of 500 m. Visual activity and seismicity appeared to increase in late March-early April.

During 4-10 April explosions and lava avalanches were still continuing and became stronger. Seismicity also increased significantly; tremor earthquakes took place 56 times, with maximum amplitudes of 3-15 mm. One pyroclastic flow traveled 1,500 m down the Besuk Kembar river. Many observations in clear conditions showed that the ash cloud was thick and white, rising 400-600 m above the summit. Emissions continued the following week, and explosions increased. "Red flames" sometimes appeared at the summit during night observations. Similar activity continued throughout April. The number of pyroclastic flows increased in late April, and continued at a typical rate of 2-7 per week for the next few months (table 4). On 30 April at 0743, from a location 15 km NNW of Semeru, a pyroclastic flow was observed travelling 800 m down the SSW flank.

Ashfall occurred at the Semeru Volcano Observatory during the week of 2-8 May, when five pyroclastic flows were recorded. Seismicity decreased again, but "red flame" was still seen at night and plumes rose as high as 600 m through 23 May.

Explosive activity was continuing in the second half of June; observers noted white-gray plumes ~600 m above the summit. Pyroclastic flows that reached maximum distances of ~2.5-3 km were reported on 1-2, 4, 10, and 15 July.

Observations on 2 May 2000. John Seach and Geoff Mackley made observations during a 3-hour summit stay on 2 May 2000. During the climb from Ranu Pani village in the N, ash deposits were observed to cover vegetation at a distance of 10 km from the volcano. The bottom third of the cone was vegetated, and zones of mass-wasting had sliced away 20- m-wide sections of forest. The top two-thirds of the cone consisted of ash, cinders, and blocks up to 1.5 m in diameter. There were areas of deep erosion and the risk of rockfalls posed a hazard to climbers.

The summit area (Mahameru) lay covered by ash and baseball-sized blocks with a density of 50/m2. A 20-m-wide, 60-m-deep, W-sloping valley separated Mahameru from the active Jonggring Seloko crater, but they are joined by a ridge. The highest N rim of the crater was approximately 30 m below the summit peak. A 2-m-diameter block was located 15 m below the summit on the wall of the valley.

Between 0725 and 1010, 13 eruptive events were observed. During this interval the N rim of Jonggring could not be approached because of the intermittent rain of blocks falling outside the crater and into the valley 50 m from the crater. Two vents produced short-lived Vulcanian eruptions with variable timing and size. Eruptions commenced with degassing, explosions, or the sound of breaking rock, followed by falling bombs and brown ash emission. The explosions were relatively quiet and not accompanied by groundshaking. Brown ash clouds rose to 600 m above the vent and drifted SE. The plume detached from the summit before the next eruption began. Steam emission occurred between eruptions.

Observations on 14 July 2000. Volcanologists on an International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) field trip in east Java observed eruptions of Semeru from an observation point on the N rim of the Sand Sea caldera at Bromo (figure 10). Eruption plumes became visible just before sunrise. Gray ash-and-steam plumes rose a few hundred meters and drifted out over the ocean. Multiple plumes from earlier eruptions were visible downwind. Eruptions lasted up to 2 minutes, and occurred at intervals of between 5 and 30 minutes during the approximately 2 hours of observations. One explosion event was quickly followed by another explosion, apparently from a second location within the crater. Plumes were frequently seen during the next two days from other points around the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Photograph taken just after sunrise on 14 July 2000 showing an ash eruption from Semeru (upper right) and a steam plume rising from Bromo (lower left). The cone in the lower right is Batok, another young cone within the Sand Sea caldera of the Bromo-Tengger volcanic complex. Note the extensive ash cover on the upper part of Semeru. View is towards the S. Courtesy of Ed Venzke, Smithsonian Institution.

Explosion on 27 July 2000. At approximately 0706 on the morning of 27 July an explosion resulted in two deaths and injuries to five other volcanologists near the NE rim of the active summit crater Jonggring Seloko (see map in BGVN 17:10). The group consisted of a five-member Semeru evaluation team of the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), four local porters, and foreign scientists who had attended the IAVCEI conference in Bali the previous week. The fatalities and injuries were caused by impacts and burns from ballistic clasts. These originated from the second of two closely spaced explosions from separate vents that ejected material out to a few hundred meters. Both fatalities were VSI staff members: Asep Wildan was the team leader, and Mukti was a volcano observer from the Semeru Volcano Observatory. Those injured included Suparno, a VSI volcano observer from the Semeru Volcano Observatory, Amit Mushkin from the Hebrew University in Israel, Mike Ramsey from the University of Pittsburgh, and Lee Siebert and Paul Kimberly from the Smithsonian Institution. Kimberly sustained the most serious injuries among the five survivors, including a broken hand, broken arm, and 3rd-degree burns. Following surgeries in Singapore and burn treatments in the United States, Kimberly was released from the hospital in early September.

Continuing activity through August. Visual observations were hindered by bad weather the first week of August. Activity generally decreased through 22 August. White to light-brown ash clouds rising to about 600 m in height were frequently seen during this period. Seismicity increased again in late August, and on 25 and 27 August three pyroclastic flows were recorded. Thin white-gray ash plumes rose ~600 m.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); John Seach, P.O. Box 16, Chatsworth Island, NSW 2469, Australia; Ed Venzke, Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20560-0119, USA.


Tungurahua (Ecuador) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Tungurahua

Ecuador

1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


January-July volcanism possibly decreased; lava fountains and many lahars

During January-July 2000 Tungurahua volcano experienced continuous but relatively mild activity with occasional lava fountaining. There were periods (hours to days) of relative calm during June and July.

The volcano continues to generate a variety of seismic events, most events being the long-period (LP) type. Two episodes of volcano-tectonic (VT) events were observed; one between late January and early March, and one less intense event between early May and mid-June. Epicenters for these events were across the top of the volcano's cone with focal depths at 3-13 km. Hybrid events, whose waveforms consist of a short, higher-frequency onset followed by lower-frequency, larger-amplitude signals, were most abundant in January and February (~50 events/week), partially coinciding with the greater VT activity. Subsequently these events diminished to 1-2 events/week, except for a brief swarm in early April.

Events of classical LP waveform were frequent, varying from ~400 events/week in January, ~600 in February, ~400 in March, ~600 in April, ~500 in May, and ~400 in June. A sharp increase to ~950 events/week was observed in July. Some of the LP events (3.7-4.0 Hz) were located tentatively at depths of 7-10 km below the crater. However, the great majority of LP events (1.5-3.3 Hz) were 3-7 km deep. They were often associated with explosion clouds or forceful emissions of ash-and-steam within 1-3 seconds of the seismic onset, suggesting a high-level origin.

Explosions, recognized principally by their impulsive onset, were more frequent during January and February (~80-90 events/week), but in subsequent months dropped to ~20-30 events/week, with many accompanied by a sonic boom. Reduced displacement values for the explosions typically were 5-10 cm2, and occasionally 12-18 cm2.

Low-frequency tremor with spectral frequencies between 0.5-1.6 Hz, but monochromatic at times, were observed in April and May, but only sporadically in June and July. During the period from the 2nd week of April through the 2nd week of May, the low-frequency episode coincided with lava fountaining in the summit crater. The fountains, comprised of the continuous ejection of incandescent material 100-500 m into the air, lasted hours; sustained roaring and surf-like noises heard 12 km away.

The constant glow of incandescent material in the crater, which was observed frequently in late 1999, was seen only occasionally during August, possibly due to unfavorable weather conditions. Better viewing conditions in late June and July confirmed that incandescent lava still remained in the crater or immediately below it.

The emissions have consisted of a permanent, grayish-white to light-gray column of steam with varying amounts of fine-grained ash that commonly rise less than 1 km above the crater. Explosions or strong emissions have consisted of blocks being thrown hundreds of meters into the air and by the formation of Vulcanian-like eruption clouds that are medium-to-dark gray in color and sometimes with a mushroom shape. The clouds have reached as high as 5 km above the summit. Primarily, easterly winds have carried the very fine ash to the W and WSW, but occasionally anywhere in the azimuthal arc between NW and SW. Both national and international flights reported the ash plume. The ash deposits were several centimeters thick on the lower W flank of the cone, but only several millimeters in the agriculturally important lands farther W.

Ballistic blocks were vesicular, black, glassy andesite containing phenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, augite, and hypersthene, in a glassy matrix with 10-20% microlites. More recent samples had fewer olivines and larger augites. Chemical analyses of these blocks as well as collected ash gave the following typical values: SiO2 ~58.5%, K2O ~1.72%, MgO ~3.9%, Ni ~33 ppm, and Cr ~65 ppm.

COSPEC monitoring since November was hindered by heavy cloud cover. Following the consistently high SO2 flux values of 6,000-8,000 metric tons/day (t/d) during September-October 1999, values decreased to an average of 3,000-4,000 t/d in November-December 1999. Values then rose to ~8,000 t/d in January and subsequently dropped to an average of ~1,000-2,000 t/d in June and July 2000. An exception to this trend was an increase to ~4,000 t/d observed in April-May, 2000, which coincided with the lava fountaining episode. In general, higher SO2 values seem to be associated with greater tremor activity.

Monthly water analyses of hot springs at both the N and S bases of the edifice have not shown any variation in temperature, pH, conductivity, nor in the concentrations of SO4, Cl-, Na+, CO3--, Ca++, Mg++, and K+, since chemical monitoring began in 1992 and since the activity on Tungurahua began in July 1999.

Lahars coincided with the rainy season and became frequent in October and November 1999; they rapidly cut the main highway at every stream crossing along the western half of the cone (the area of greatest ash fall). Occasional rains from December to June generated flows of debris. The main highway to Baños and to the Amazon Basin was frequently blocked for hours due to lahar deposits.

In general, the activity appeared to be subsiding. However, during the 1916-18 eruptive period the volcano experienced 1.5 years of little activity between major eruptions. An orange alert is still in effect. In the past, Tungurahua typically generated both Merapi- and St. Vincent-like nuées ardentes. The W sector of Baños (17,000 inhabitants) lies at the mouth of a canyon that starts near the summit of the volcano, 9 km away and 3,000 m above the town.

Following the evacuation of Baños on 17 October 1999, the town remained abandoned until late December (BGVN 25:01). As of August 2000, about 80% of the population had returned and tourism has re-established itself.

Geologic Background. Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater, accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

Information Contacts: Geophysical Institute (Instituto Geofísico), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Apartado 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador.


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vapor emissions during May and June; moderate seismicity in June

This report covers the period from April to June 2000. There were no unusual reports from Ulawun in April. Throughout May, moderate to thick white vapor was emitted. Emissions in June consisted of thin white vapor. However, on 5 and 7 June, the emissions were thick white vapor. Seismic activity for June was at a moderate level.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, D. Lolok, K. Mulina, and F. Taranu, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.


Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) — July 2000 Citation iconCite this Report

Whakaari/White Island

New Zealand

37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 294 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New crater formed on 27 July during the largest eruption in about 20 years

This report covers June and July 2000. On 18 April 2000, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (IGNS) increased the alert level from 1 to 2 (level 5 being the most severe) following minor eruptive activity that began on 7 March 2000 and included elevated seismicity and higher than normal SO2 gas flux (BGVN 25:03).

The IGNS reported that for the week ending 16 June 2000, the active MH vent continued to emit an ash plume. This plume sometimes extended as far as 60 km downwind and deposited ash as far as 15 km away. Up to several centimeters of ash were deposited on White Island. Until 16 June, seismic activity was significantly less than in May.

Field observations on 12 July indicated little change in activity since April. Furthermore, no direct relationship between seismic activity during this time and the eruptive activity could be determined. The ash continued to be vented to an altitude of 800-1,000 m. By 19 July, strong NE winds had periodically blown the ash plume towards the mainland, resulting in minor ash deposition there. Ashfall at Turango airport led to landing and departure restrictions. Air traffic was also disrupted around the Bay of Plenty.

On 22 July IGNS staff noticed an increase in activity compared to previous observations. A yellowish-brown gas and an ash plume extending to a height of 1500 m were blown to the E and SE. This continued to disrupt air traffic and deposit ash on the mainland. In fact, the IGNS staff were unable to land due to ash accumulation at the landing site. However, they noted that yellowish-brown ash now covered the island with thicknesses ranging from several mm to several cm. They saw no evidence of ballistic bombs or evidence that the eruptive style had changed from the previous months. However, they did note that the height of the MH vent had decreased from its previous location above the acid lake to a height level with the lake.

On Thursday 27 July between 1700 and 2200, a period of strong seismic activity was recorded. Visual and satellite observations were not possible due to poor weather conditions. A tour operator arriving at the island the morning of 28 July, confirmed that there had been an eruption. IGNS staff arrived 29 July and discovered that a large explosive eruption formed a new crater 120 x 150 m wide in the site formerly occupied by a warm acidic lake in the 1978-90 Crater Complex. The eruption deposited as much as 30 cm of ash and pyroclastic material, including juvenile pumice blocks, over the eastern part of the island. This was the largest eruption at White Island in about 20 years; deposits from this eruption were found in areas frequently visited by tourists. The IGNS advised all visitors that similar eruptions pose serious risks to anyone on the island.

Observations on 31 July found the MH vent, which had enlarged to ~50 m, spewing a dark ash cloud while a reddish-brown ash cloud rose from the new 27 July vent. The plumes combined and rose as high as 1-1.2 km above the vents. After this event, activity returned to the level typical since April: minor eruptions that produced plumes of gas, steam, and volcanic ash.

Geologic Background. The uninhabited Whakaari/White Island is the 2 x 2.4 km emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes. The SE side of the crater is open at sea level, with the recent activity centered about 1 km from the shore close to the rear crater wall. Volckner Rocks, sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NW. Descriptions of volcanism since 1826 have included intermittent moderate phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and Strombolian eruptions; activity there also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries caused rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project. Explosive activity in December 2019 took place while tourists were present, resulting in many fatalities. The official government name Whakaari/White Island is a combination of the full Maori name of Te Puia o Whakaari ("The Dramatic Volcano") and White Island (referencing the constant steam plume) given by Captain James Cook in 1769.

Information Contacts: Brent Alloway, Brad Scott, and Steven Sherburn, Wairakei Research Center, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (IGNS), Private Bag 2000, Wairakei, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports