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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) Eruption and ash plumes begin on 11 January 2020 and continue through April 2020

Soputan (Indonesia) Minor ash emissions during 23 March and 2 April 2020

Heard (Australia) Eruptive activity including a lava flow during October 2019-April 2020

Kikai (Japan) Ash explosion on 29 April 2020

Fuego (Guatemala) Ongoing ash explosions, block avalanches, and intermittent lava flows

Ebeko (Russia) Frequent moderate explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall continue, December 2019-May 2020

Piton de la Fournaise (France) Fissure eruptions in February and April 2020 included lava fountains and flows

Sabancaya (Peru) Daily explosions with ash emissions, large SO2 flux, ongoing thermal anomalies, December 2019-May 2020

Sheveluch (Russia) Lava dome growth and thermal anomalies continue through April 2020, but few ash explosions

Dukono (Indonesia) Numerous ash explosions continue through March 2020

Etna (Italy) Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continue, October 2019-March 2020

Merapi (Indonesia) Explosions produced ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows during October 2019-March 2020



Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kuchinoerabujima

Japan

30.443°N, 130.217°E; summit elev. 657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption and ash plumes begin on 11 January 2020 and continue through April 2020

Kuchinoerabujima encompasses a group of young stratovolcanoes located in the northern Ryukyu Islands. All historical eruptions have originated from the Shindake cone, with the exception of a lava flow that originated from the S flank of the Furudake cone. The most recent previous eruptive period took place during October 2018-February 2019 and primarily consisted of weak explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall. The current eruption began on 11 January 2020 after nearly a year of dominantly gas-and-steam emissions. Volcanism for this reporting period from March 2019 to April 2020 included explosions, ash plumes, SO2 emissions, and ashfall. The primary source of information for this report comes from monthly and annual reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and advisories from the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Activity has been limited to Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater.

Volcanism at Kuchinoerabujima was relatively low during March through December 2019, according to JMA. During this time, SO2 emissions ranged from 100 to 1,000 tons/day. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequently observed throughout the entire reporting period, rising to a maximum height of 1.1 km above the crater on 13 December 2019. Satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 showed gas-and-steam and occasional ash emissions rising from the Shindake crater throughout the reporting period (figure 7). Though JMA reported thermal anomalies occurring on 29 January and continuing through late April 2020, Sentinel-2 imagery shows the first thermal signature appearing on 26 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showed gas-and-steam and ash emissions rising from Kuchinoerabujima. Some ash deposits can be seen on 6 February 2020 (top right). A thermal anomaly appeared on 26 April 2020 (bottom right). Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

An eruption on 11 January 2020 at 1505 ejected material 300 m from the crater and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater rim, extending E, according to JMA. The eruption continued through 12 January until 0730. The resulting ash plumes rose 400 m above the crater, drifting SW while the SO2 emissions measured 1,300 tons/day. Ashfall was reported on Yakushima Island (15 km E). Minor eruptive activity was reported during 17-20 January which produced gray-white plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater. On 23 January, seismicity increased, and an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km altitude, according to a Tokyo VAAC report, resulting in ashfall 2 km NE of the crater. A small explosion was detected on 24 January, followed by an increase in the number of earthquakes during 25-26 January (65-71 earthquakes per day were registered). Another small eruptive event detected on 27 January at 0148 was accompanied by a volcanic tremor and a change in tilt data. During the month of January, some inflation was detected at the base on the volcano and a total of 347 earthquakes were recorded. The SO2 emissions ranged from 200-1,600 tons/day.

An eruption on 1 February 2020 produced an eruption column that rose less than 1 km altitude and extended SE and SW (figure 8), according to the Tokyo VAAC report. On 3 February, an eruption from the Shindake crater at 0521 produced an ash plume that rose 7 km above the crater and ejected material as far as 600 m away. As a result, a pyroclastic flow formed, traveling 900-1,500 m SW. The previous pyroclastic flow that was recorded occurred on 29 January 2019. Ashfall was confirmed in the N part of Yakushima Island with a large amount in Miyanoura (32 km ESE) and southern Tanegashima. The SO2 emissions measured 1,700 tons/day during this event.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Webcam images from the Honmura west surveillance camera of an ash plume rising from Kuchinoerabujima on 1 February 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Weekly bulletin report 509, February 2020).

Intermittent small eruptive events occurred during 5-9 February; field observations showed a large amount of ashfall on the SE flank which included lapilli that measured up to 2 cm in diameter. Additionally, thermal images showed 5-km-long pyroclastic flow deposits on the SW flank. An eruption on 9 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km altitude, drifting SE. On 13 February a small eruption was detected in the Shindake crater at 1211, producing gray-white plumes that rose 300 m above the crater, drifting NE. Small eruptive events also occurred during 20-21 February, resulting in gas-and-steam emissions that rose 200 m above the crater. During the month of February, some horizontal extension was observed since January 2020 using GNSS data. The total number of earthquakes during this month drastically increased to 1225 compared to January. The SO2 emissions ranged from 300-1,700 tons/day.

By 2 March 2020, seismicity decreased, and activity declined. Gas-and-steam emissions continued infrequently for the duration of the reporting period. The SO2 emissions during March ranged from 700-2,100 tons/day, the latter of which occurred on 15 March. Seismicity increased again on 27 March. During 5-8 April 2020, small eruptive events were detected, generating ash plumes that rose 900 m above the crater (figure 9). The SO2 emissions on 6 April reached 3,200 tons/day, the maximum measurement for this reporting period. These small eruptive events continued from 13-20 and 23-25 April within the Shindake crater, producing gray-white plumes that rose 300-800 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Webcam images from the Honmura Nishi (top) and Honmura west (bottom) surveillance cameras of ash plumes rising from Kuchinoerabujima on 6 March and 5 April 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Weekly bulletin report 509, March and April 2020).

Geologic Background. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km W of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shindake, formed after the NW side of Furudake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shindake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furudake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shindake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Soputan (Indonesia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Soputan

Indonesia

1.112°N, 124.737°E; summit elev. 1785 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor ash emissions during 23 March and 2 April 2020

Soputan is a stratovolcano located in the northern arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. Previous eruptive periods were characterized by ash explosions, lava flows, and Strombolian eruptions. The most recent eruption occurred during October-December 2018, which consisted mostly of ash plumes and some summit incandescence (BGVN 44:01). This report updates information for January 2019-April 2020 characterized by two ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions. The primary source of information come from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Activity during January 2019-April 2020 was relatively low; three faint thermal anomalies were observed at the summit at Soputan in satellite imagery for a total of three days on 2 and 4 January, and 1 October 2019 (figure 17). The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) based on analysis of MODIS data detected 12 distal hotspots and six low-power hotspots within 5 km of the summit during August to early October 2019. A single distal thermal hotspot was detected in early March 2020. In March, activity primarily consisted of white to gray gas-and-steam plumes that rose 20-100 m above the crater, according to PVMBG. The Darwin VAAC issued a notice on 23 March 2020 that reported an ash plume rose to 4.3 km altitude; minor ash emissions had been visible in a webcam image the previous day (figure 18). A second notice was issued on 2 April, where an ash plume was observed rising 2.1 km altitude and drifting W.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected a total of three thermal hotspots (bright yellow-orange) at the summit of Soputan on 2 and 4 January and 1 October 2019. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Minor ash emissions were seen rising from Soputan on 22 March 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Geologic Background. The Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano is located SW of Riendengan-Sempu, which some workers have included with Soputan and Manimporok (3.5 km ESE) as a volcanic complex. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Heard (Australia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptive activity including a lava flow during October 2019-April 2020

Heard Island is located on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean and contains Big Ben, a snow-covered stratovolcano with intermittent volcanism reported since 1910. Due to its remote location, visual observations are rare; therefore, thermal anomalies and hotspots detected by satellite-based instruments are the primary source of information. This report updates activity from October 2019 to April 2020.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed three prominent periods of strong thermal anomaly activity during this reporting period: late October 2019, December 2019, and the end of April 2020 (figure 41). These thermal anomalies were relatively strong and occurred within 5 km of the summit. Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported a total of six thermal hotspots during 28 October, 1 November 2019, and 26 April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Thermal anomalies at Heard from 29 April 2019 through April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were strong and frequent in late October, during December 2019, and at the end of April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Six thermal satellite images ranging from late October 2019 to late March showed evidence of active lava at the summit (figure 42). These images show hot material, possibly a lava flow, extending SW from the summit; a hotspot also remained at the summit. Cloud cover was pervasive during the majority of this reporting period, especially in April 2020, though gas-and-steam emissions were visible on 25 April through the clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Thermal satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben showing strong thermal signatures representing a lava flow in the SW direction from 28 October to 17 December 2019. These thermal anomalies are located NE from Mawson Peak. A faint thermal anomaly is also captured on 26 March 2020. Satellite images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kikai (Japan) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kikai

Japan

30.793°N, 130.305°E; summit elev. 704 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash explosion on 29 April 2020

The Kikai caldera is located at the N end of Japan’s Ryukyu Islands and has been recently characterized by intermittent ash emissions and limited ashfall in nearby communities. On Satsuma Iwo Jima island, the larger subaerial fragment of the Kikai caldera, there was a single explosion with gas-and-steam and ash emissions on 2 November 2019, accompanied by nighttime incandescence (BGVN 45:02). This report covers volcanism from January 2020 through April 2020 with a single-day eruption occurring on 29 April based on reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).

Since the last one-day eruption on 2 November 2019, volcanism at Kikai has been relatively low and primarily consisted of 107-170 earthquakes per month and intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions rising up to 1.3 km above the crater summit. Intermittent weak hotspots were observed at night in the summit in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery and webcams, according to JMA (figures 14 and 15).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Weak thermal hotspots (bright yellow-orange) were observed on 7 January (top) and 6 April 2020 (bottom) at Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai). Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Incandescence at night on 10 January 2020 was observed at Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai) in the Iodake crater with the Iwanogami webcam. Courtesy of JMA (An explanation of volcanic activity at Satsuma Iwo Jima, January 2nd year of Reiwa [2020]).

Weak incandescence continued in April 2020. JMA reported SO2 measurements during April were 400-2000 tons/day. A brief eruption in the Iodake crater on 29 April 2020 at 0609 generated a gray-white ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater (figure 16). No ashfall or ejecta was observed after the eruption on 29 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. The Iwanogami webcam captured a brief gray-white ash and steam plume rising above the Iodake crater rim on Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai) on 29 April 2020 at 0609 local time. The plume rose 1 km above the crater summit. Courtesy of JMA (An explanation of volcanic activity at Satsuma Iwo Jima, April 2nd year of Reiwa [2020]).

Geologic Background. Kikai is a mostly submerged, 19-km-wide caldera near the northern end of the Ryukyu Islands south of Kyushu. It was the source of one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions about 6,300 years ago when rhyolitic pyroclastic flows traveled across the sea for a total distance of 100 km to southern Kyushu, and ashfall reached the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. The eruption devastated southern and central Kyushu, which remained uninhabited for several centuries. Post-caldera eruptions formed Iodake lava dome and Inamuradake scoria cone, as well as submarine lava domes. Historical eruptions have occurred at or near Satsuma-Iojima (also known as Tokara-Iojima), a small 3 x 6 km island forming part of the NW caldera rim. Showa-Iojima lava dome (also known as Iojima-Shinto), a small island 2 km E of Tokara-Iojima, was formed during submarine eruptions in 1934 and 1935. Mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during the past few decades from Iodake, a rhyolitic lava dome at the eastern end of Tokara-Iojima.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Fuego (Guatemala) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing ash explosions, block avalanches, and intermittent lava flows

Fuego is a stratovolcano in Guatemala that has been erupting since 2002 with historical eruptions that date back to 1531. Volcanism is characterized by major ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and lahars. The previous report (BGVN 44:10) detailed activity that included multiple ash explosions, ash plumes, ashfall, active lava flows, and block avalanches. This report covers this continuing activity from October 2019 through March 2020 and consists of ash plumes, ashfall, incandescent ejecta, block avalanches, and lava flows. The primary source of information comes from the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Summary of activity October 2019-March 2020. Daily activity persisted throughout October 2019-March 2020 (table 20) with multiple ash explosions recorded every hour, ash plumes that rose to a maximum of 4.8 km altitude each month drifting in multiple directions, incandescent ejecta reaching a 500 m above the crater resulting in block avalanches traveling down multiple drainages, and ashfall affecting communities in multiple directions. The highest rate of explosions occurred on 7 November with up to 25 per hour. Dominantly white fumaroles occurred frequently throughout this reporting period, rising to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and drifting in multiple directions. Intermittent lava flows that reached a maximum length of 1.2 km were observed each month in the Seca (Santa Teresa) and Ceniza drainages (figure 128), but rarely in the Trinidad drainage. Thermal activity increased slightly in frequency and strength in late October and remained relatively consistent through mid-March as seen in the MIROVA analysis of MODIS satellite data (figure 129).

Table 20. Activity summary by month for Fuego with information compiled from INSIVUMEH daily reports.

Month Ash plume heights (km) Ash plume distance (km) and direction Drainages affected by avalanche blocks Villages reporting ashfall
Oct 2019 4.3-4.8 km 10-25 km, W-SW-S-NW Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, El Jute, Honda, and Las Lajas Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Porvenir, Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, San Andrés Osuna, Sangre de Cristo, and San Pedro Yepocapa
Nov 2019 4.0-4.8 km 10-20 km, W-SW-S-NW Seca, Taniluyá, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, and Ceniza Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa
Dec 2019 4.2-4.8 km 10-25 km, W-SW-S-SE-N-NE Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, and Las Lajas Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimaché I and II, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna
Jan 2020 4.3-4.8 km 10-25 km, W-SW-S-N-NE-E Seca, Ceniza, Taniluyá, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas Morelia, Santa Sofía, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimaché I and II, El Porvenir, Finca Palo Verde, Rodeo, La Rochela, Alotenango, El Zapote, Trinidad, La Reina, Ceilán
Feb 2020 4.3-4.8 km 8-25 km, W-SW-S-SE-E-NE-N-NW Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, La Rochela, El Zapote, and San Andrés Osuna Panimache I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Rodeo, La Reina, Alotenango, Yucales, Siquinalá, Santa Lucia, El Porvenir, Finca Los Tarros, La Soledad, Buena Vista, La Cruz, Pajales, San Miguel Dueñas, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Escobar, San Pedro las Huertas, Antigua, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna
Mar 2020 4.3-4.8 km 10-23 km, W-SW-S-SE-N-NW Seca, Ceniza, Trinidad, Taniluyá, Las Lajas, Honda, La Rochela, El Zapote, San Andrés Osuna, Morelia, Panimache, and Santa Sofia San Andrés Osuna, La Rochela, El Rodeo, Chuchu, Panimache I and II, Santa Sofia, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, La Cruz, San Pedro Yepocapa, La Conchita, La Soledad, Alotenango, Aldea la Cruz, Acatenango, Ceilan, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Trinidad, Seca, and Honda
Figure (see Caption) Figure 128. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Fuego between 21 November 2019 and 20 March 2020 showing lava flows (bright yellow-orange) traveling generally S and W from the crater summit. An ash plume can also be seen on 21 November 2019, accompanying the lava flow. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 129. Thermal activity at Fuego increased in frequency and strength (log radiative power) in late October 2019 and remained relatively consistent through February 2020. In early March, there is a small decrease in thermal power, followed by a short pulse of activity and another decline. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during October-December 2019. Activity in October 2019 consisted of 6-20 ash explosions per hour; ash plumes rose to 4.8 km altitude, drifting up to 25 km in multiple directions, resulting in ashfall in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela and San Andrés Osuna. The Washington VAAC issued multiple aviation advisories for a total of nine days in October. Continuous white gas-and-steam plumes reached 4.1-4.4 km altitude drifting generally W. Weak SO2 emissions were infrequently observed in satellite imagery during October and January 2020 (figure 130) Incandescent ejecta was frequently observed rising 200-400 m above the summit, which generated block avalanches that traveled down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute, Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. During 3-7 October lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages, carrying tree branches, tree trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter. During 6-8 and 13 October, active lava flows traveled up to 200 m down the Seca drainage.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 130. Weak SO2 emissions were observed rising from Fuego using the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Top left: 17 October 2019. Top right: 17 November 2019. Bottom left: 20 January 2020. Bottom right: 22 January 2020. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

During November 2019, the rate of explosions increased to 5-25 per hour, the latter of which occurred on 7 November. The explosions resulted in ash plumes that rose 4-4.8 km altitude, drifting 10-20 km in the W direction. Ashfall was observed in Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Multiple Washington VAAC notices were issued for 11 days in November. Continuous white gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 4.5 km altitude drifting generally W. Incandescent ejecta rose 100-500 m above the crater, generating block avalanches in Seca, Taniluyá, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, and Ceniza drainages. Lava flows were observed for a majority of the month into early December measuring 100-900 m long in the Seca and Ceniza drainages.

The number of explosions in December 2019 decreased compared to November, recording 8-19 per hour with incandescent ejecta rising 100-400 m above the crater. The explosions generated block avalanches that traveled in the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, and Las Lajas drainages throughout the month. Ash plumes continued to rise above the summit crater to 4.8 km drifting up to 25 km in multiple directions. The Washington VAAC issued multiple daily notices almost daily in December. A continuous lava flow observed during 6-15, 21-22, 24, and 26 November through 9 December measured 100-800 m long in the Seca and Ceniza drainages.

Activity during January-March 2020. Incandescent Strombolian explosions continued daily during January 2020, ejecting material up to 100-500 m above the crater. Ash plumes continued to rise to a maximum altitude of 4.8 km, resulting in ashfall in all directions affecting Morelia, Santa Sofía, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimaché I and II, El Porvenir, Finca Palo Verde, Rodeo, La Rochela, Alotenango, El Zapote, Trinidad, La Reina, and Ceilán. The Washington VAAC issued multiple notices for a total of 12 days during January. Block avalanches resulting from the Strombolian explosions traveled down the Seca, Ceniza, Taniluyá, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas drainages. An active lava flow in the Ceniza drainage measured 150-600 m long during 6-10 January.

During February 2020, INSIVUMEH reported a range of 4-16 explosions per hour, accompanied by incandescent material that rose 100-500 m above the crater (figure 131). Block avalanches traveled in the Santa Teresa, Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, La Rochela, El Zapote, and San Andrés Osuna drainages. Ash emissions from the explosions continued to rise 4.8 km altitude, drifting in multiple directions as far as 25 km and resulting in ashfall in the communities of Panimache I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Rodeo, La Reina, Alotenango, Yucales, Siquinalá, Santa Lucia, El Porvenir, Finca Los Tarros, La Soledad, Buena Vista, La Cruz, Pajales, San Miguel Dueñas, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Escobar, San Pedro las Huertas, Antigua, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna. Washington VAAC notices were issued almost daily during the month. Lava flows were active in the Ceniza drainage during 13-20, 23-24, and 26-27 February measuring as long as 1.2 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 131. Incandescent ejecta rose several hundred meters above the crater of Fuego on 6 February 2020, resulting in block avalanches down multiple drainages. Courtesy of Crelosa.

Daily explosions and incandescent ejecta continued through March 2020, with 8-17 explosions per hour that rose up to 500 m above the crater. Block avalanches from the explosions were observed in the Seca, Ceniza, Trinidad, Taniluyá, Las Lajas, Honda, Santa Teresa, La Rochela, El Zapote, San Andrés Osuna, Morelia, Panimache, and Santa Sofia drainages. Accompanying ash plumes rose 4.8 km altitude, drifting in multiple directions mostly to the W as far as 23 km and resulting in ashfall in San Andrés Osuna, La Rochela, El Rodeo, Chuchu, Panimache I and II, Santa Sofia, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, La Cruz, San Pedro Yepocapa, La Conchita, La Soledad, Alotenango, Aldea la Cruz, Acatenango, Ceilan, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Trinidad, Seca, and Honda. Multiple Washington VAAC notices were issued for a total of 15 days during March. Active lava flows were observed from 16-21 March in the Trinidad and Ceniza drainages measuring 400-1,200 m long and were accompanied by weak to moderate explosions. By 23 March, active lava flows were no longer observed.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Crelosa, 3ra. avenida. 8-66, Zona 14. Colonia El Campo, Guatemala Ciudad de Guatemala (URL: http://crelosa.com/, post at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1P4kWqxU2m0&feature=youtu.be).


Ebeko (Russia) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent moderate explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall continue, December 2019-May 2020

The current moderate explosive eruption of Ebeko has been ongoing since October 2016, with frequent ash explosions that have reached altitudes of 1.3-6 km (BGVN 42:08, 43:03, 43:06, 43:12, 44:12). Ashfall is common in Severo-Kurilsk, a town of about 2,500 residents 7 km ESE, where the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) monitor the volcano. During the reporting period, December 2019-May 2020, the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

During December 2019-May 2020, frequent explosions generated ash plumes that reached altitudes of 1.5-4.6 km (table 9); reports of ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk were common. Ash explosions in late April caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk during 25-30 April (figure 24), and the plume drifted 180 km SE on the 29th. There was also a higher level of activity during the second half of May (figure 25), when plumes drifted up to 80 km downwind.

Table 9. Summary of activity at Ebeko, December 2019-May 2020. S-K is Severo-Kurilsk (7 km ESE of the volcano). TA is thermal anomaly in satellite images. In the plume distance column, only plumes that drifted more than 10 km are indicated. Dates based on UTC times. Data courtesy of KVERT.

Date Plume Altitude (km) Plume Distance Plume Directions Other Observations
30 Nov-05 Dec 2019 3 -- NE, E Intermittent explosions.
06-13 Dec 2019 4 -- E Explosions all week. Ashfall in S-K on 10-12 Dec.
15-17 Dec 2019 3 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 16-17 Dec.
22-24 Dec 2019 3 -- NE Explosions.
01-02 Jan 2020 3 30 km N N Explosions. TA over dome on 1 Jan.
03, 05, 09 Jan 2020 2.9 -- NE, SE Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 8 Jan.
11, 13-14 Jan 2020 3 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K.
19-20 Jan 2020 3 -- E Ashfall in S-K on 19 Jan.
24-31 Jan 2020 4 -- E Explosions.
01-07 Feb 2020 3 -- E, S Explosions all week.
12-13 Feb 2020 1.5 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K.
18-19 Feb 2020 2.3 -- SE Explosions.
21, 25, 27 Feb 2020 2.9 -- S, SE, NE Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 22 Feb.
01-02, 05 Mar 2020 2 -- S, E Explosions.
08 Mar 2020 2.5 -- NE Explosions.
13, 17 Mar 2020 2.5 -- NE, SE Bursts of gas, steam, and small amount of ash.
24-25 Mar 2020 2.5 -- NE, W Explosions.
29 Mar-02 Apr 2020 2.2 -- NE, E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 1 Apr. TA on 30-31 Mar.
04-05, 09 Apr 2020 1.5 -- NE Explosions. TA on 5 Apr.
13 Apr 2020 2.5 -- SE Explosions.
18, 20 Apr 2020 -- -- -- TA on 18, 20 Apr.
24 Apr-01 May 2020 3.5 180 km SE on 29 Apr E, SE Explosions all week. Ashfall in S-K on 25-30 Apr.
01-08 May 2020 2.6 -- E Explosions all week. Ashfall in S-K on 3-5 May. TA on 3 May.
08-15 May 2020 4 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 8-12 May. TA during 12-14 May.
14-15, 19-21 May 2020 3.6 80 km SW, S, SE during 14, 20-21 May -- Explosions. TA on same days.
22-29 May 2020 4.6 60 km SE E, SE Explosions all week. Ashfall in S-K on 22, 24 May.
29-31 May 2020 4.5 -- E, S Explosions. TA on 30 May.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Photo of ash explosion at Ebeko at 2110 UTC on 28 April 2020, as viewed from Severo-Kurilsk. Courtesy of KVERT (L. Kotenko).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Satellite image of Ebeko from Sentinel-2 on 27 May 2020, showing a plume drifting SE. Image using natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fissure eruptions in February and April 2020 included lava fountains and flows

Piton de la Fournaise is a massive basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean. Recent volcanism is characterized by multiple fissure eruptions, lava fountains, and lava flows (BGVN 44:11). The activity during this reporting period of November 2019-April 2020 is consistent with the previous eruption, including lava fountaining and lava flows. Information for this report comes from the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) and various satellite data.

Activity during November 2019-January 2020 was relatively low; no eruptive events were detected, according to OVPF. Edifice deformation resumed during the last week in December and continued through January. Seismicity significantly increased in early January, registering 258 shallow earthquakes from 1-16 January. During 17-31 January, the seismicity declined, averaging one earthquake per day.

Two eruptive events took place during February-April 2020. OVPF reported that the first occurred from 10 to 16 February on the E and SE flanks of the Dolomieu Crater. The second took place during 2-6 April. Both eruptive events began with a sharp increase in seismicity accompanied by edifice inflation, followed by a fissure eruption that resulted in lava fountains and lava flows (figure 193). MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed the two eruptive events occurring during February-April 2020 (figure 194). Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported 72 thermal signatures proximal to the summit crater from 12 February to 6 April. Both of these eruptive events were accompanied by SO2 emissions that were detected by the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI instrument (figures 195 and 196).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 193. Location maps of the lava flows on the E flank at Piton de la Fournaise on 10-16 February 2020 (left) and 2-6 April 2020 (right) as derived from SAR satellite data. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP, OPGC, LMV (Monthly bulletins of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, February and April 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 194. Two significant eruptive events at Piton de la Fournaise took place during February-April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 195. Images of the SO2 emissions during the February 2020 eruptive event at Piton de la Fournaise detected by the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI satellite. Top left: 10 February 2020. Top right: 11 February 2020. Bottom left: 13 February 2020. Bottom right: 14 February 2020. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 196. Images of the SO2 emissions during the April 2020 eruptive event at Piton de la Fournaise detected by the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI satellite. Left: 4 April 2020. Middle: 5 April 2020. Right: 6 April 2020. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

On 10 February 2020 a seismic swarm was detected at 1027, followed by rapid deformation. At 1050, volcanic tremors were recorded, signaling the start of the eruption. Several fissures opened on the E flank of the Dolomieu Crater between the crater rim and at 2,000 m elevation, as observed by an overflight during 1300 and 1330. These fissures were at least 1 km long and produced lava fountains that rose up to 10 m high. Lava flows were also observed traveling E and S to 1,700 m elevation by 1315 (figures 197 and 198). The farthest flow traveled E to an elevation of 1,400 m. Satellite data from HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) was used to estimate the peak lava flow rate on 11 February at 10 m3/s. By 13 February only one lava flow that was traveling E below the Marco Crater remained active. OVPF also reported the formation of a cone, measuring 30 m tall, surrounded by three additional vents that produced lava fountains up to 15 m high. On 15 February the volcanic tremors began to decrease at 1400; by 16 February at 1412 the tremors stopped, indicating the end of the eruptive event.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 197. Photo of a lava flow and degassing at Piton de la Fournaise on 10 February 2020. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 198. Photos of the lava flows at Piton de la Fournaise taken during the February 2020 eruption by Richard Bouchet courtesy of AFP News Service.

Volcanism during the month of March 2020 consisted of low seismicity, including 21 shallow volcanic tremors and near the end of the month, edifice inflation was detected. A second eruptive event began on 2 April 2020, starting with an increase in seismicity during 0815-0851. Much of this seismicity was located on the SE part of the Dolomieu Crater. A fissure opened on the E flank, consistent with the fissures that were active during the February 2020 event. Seismicity continued to increase in intensity through 6 April located dominantly in the SE part of the Dolomieu Crater. An overflight on 5 April at 1030 showed lava fountains rising more than 50 m high accompanied by gas-and-steam plumes rising to 3-3.5 km altitude (figures 199 and 200). A lava flow advanced to an elevation of 360 m, roughly 2 km from the RN2 national road (figure 199). A significant amount of Pele’s hair and clusters of fine volcanic products were produced during the more intense phase of the eruption (5-6 April) and deposited at distances more than 10 km from the eruptive site (figure 201). It was also during this period that the SO2 emissions peaked (figure 196). The eruption stopped at 1330 after a sharp decrease in volcanic tremors.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 199. Photos of a lava flow (left) and lava fountains (right) at Piton de la Fournaise during the April 2020 eruption. Left: photo taken on 2 April 2020 at 1500. Right: photo taken on 5 April 2020 at 1030. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, April 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 200. Photo of the lava fountains erupting from Piton de la Fournaise on 4 April 2020. Photo taken by Richard Bouchet courtesy of Geo Magazine via Jeannie Curtis.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 201. Photos of Pele’s hair deposited due to the April 2020 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise. Samples collected near the Gîte du volcan on 7 April 2020 (left) and a cluster of Pele’s hair found near the Foc-Foc car park on 9 April 2020 (right). Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, April 2020).

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 14 route nationale 3, 27 ème km, 97418 La Plaine des Cafres, La Réunion, France (URL: http://www.ipgp.fr/fr); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); GEO Magazine (AFP story at URL: https://www.geo.fr/environnement/la-reunion-fin-deruption-au-piton-de-la-fournaise-200397); AFP (URL: https://twitter.com/AFP/status/1227140765106622464, Twitter: @AFP, https://twitter.com/AFP); Jeannie Curtis (Twitter: @VolcanoJeannie, https://twitter.com/VolcanoJeannie).


Sabancaya (Peru) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions with ash emissions, large SO2 flux, ongoing thermal anomalies, December 2019-May 2020

Although tephrochronology has dated activity at Sabancaya back several thousand years, renewed activity that began in 1986 was the first recorded in over 200 years. Intermittent activity since then has produced significant ashfall deposits, seismic unrest, and fumarolic emissions. A new period of explosive activity that began in November 2016 has been characterized by pulses of ash emissions with some plumes exceeding 10 km altitude, thermal anomalies, and significant SO2 plumes. Ash emissions and high levels of SO2 continued each week during December 2019-May 2020. The Observatorio Vulcanologico INGEMMET (OVI) reports weekly on numbers of daily explosions, ash plume heights and directions of drift, seismicity, and other activity. The Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issued three or four daily reports of ongoing ash emissions at Sabancaya throughout the period.

The dome inside the summit crater continued to grow throughout this period, along with nearly constant ash, gas, and steam emissions; the average number of daily explosions ranged from 4 to 29. Ash and gas plume heights rose 1,800-3,800 m above the summit crater, and multiple communities around the volcano reported ashfall every month (table 6). Sulfur dioxide emissions were notably high and recorded daily with the TROPOMI satellite instrument (figure 75). Thermal activity declined during December 2019 from levels earlier in the year but remained steady and increased in both frequency and intensity during April and May 2020 (figure 76). Infrared satellite images indicated that the primary heat source throughout the period was from the dome inside the summit crater (figure 77).

Table 6. Persistent activity at Sabancaya during December 2019-May 2020 included multiple daily explosions with ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the summit and drifted in many directions; this resulted in ashfall in communities within 30 km of the volcano. Satellite instruments recorded SO2 emissions daily. Data courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET.

Month Avg. Daily Explosions by week Max plume Heights (m above crater) Plume drift (km) and direction Communities reporting ashfall Min Days with SO2 over 2 DU
Dec 2019 16, 13, 5, 5 2,600-3,800 20-30 NW Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Achoma, Coporaque, Yanque, Chivay, Huambo, Cabanaconde 27
Jan 2020 10, 8, 11, 14, 4 1,800-3,400 30 km W, NW, SE, S Chivay, Yanque, Achoma 29
Feb 2020 8, 11, 20, 19 2,000-2,200 30 km SE, E, NE, W Huambo 29
Mar 2020 14, 22, 29, 18 2,000-3,000 30 km NE, W, NW, SW Madrigal, Lari, Pinchollo 30
Apr 2020 12, 12, 16, 13, 8 2,000-3,000 30 km SE, NW, E, S Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque, Achoma 27
May 2020 15, 14, 6, 16 1,800-2,400 30 km SW, SE, E, NE, W Chivay, Achoma, Maca, Lari, Madrigal, Pinchollo 27
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sulfur dioxide anomalies were captured daily from Sabancaya during December 2019-May 2020 by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Some of the largest SO2 plumes are shown here with dates listed in the information at the top of each image. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Thermal activity at Sabancaya declined during December 2019 from levels earlier in the year but remained steady and increased slightly in frequency and intensity during April and May 2020, according to the MIROVA graph of Log Radiative Power from 23 June 2019 through May 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Sabancaya confirmed the frequent ash emissions and ongoing thermal activity from the dome inside the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020. Top row (left to right): On 6 December 2019 a large plume of steam and ash drifted N from the summit. On 16 December 2019 a thermal anomaly encircled the dome inside the summit caldera while gas and possible ash drifted NW. On 14 April 2020 a very similar pattern persisted inside the crater. Bottom row (left to right): On 19 April an ash plume was clearly visible above dense cloud cover. On 24 May the infrared glow around the dome remained strong; a diffuse plume drifted W. A large plume of ash and steam drifted SE from the summit on 29 May. Infrared images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a), other images use Natural Color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The average number of daily explosions during December 2019 decreased from a high of 16 the first week of the month to a low of five during the last week. Six pyroclastic flows occurred on 10 December (figure 78). Tremors were associated with gas-and-ash emissions for most of the month. Ashfall was reported in Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Achoma, Coporaque, Yanque, and Chivay during the first week of the month, and in Huambo and Cabanaconde during the second week (figure 79). Inflation of the volcano was measured throughout the month. SO2 flux was measured by OVI as ranging from 2,500 to 4,300 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Multiple daily explosions at Sabancaya produced ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the summit. Left image is from 5 December and right image is from 11 December 2019. Note pyroclastic flows to the right of the crater on 11 December. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-49-2019/INGEMMET Semana del 2 al 8 de diciembre de 2019 and RSSAB-50-2019/INGEMMET Semana del 9 al 15 de diciembre de 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Communities to the N and W of Sabancaya recorded ashfall from the volcano the first week of December and also every month during December 2019-May 2020. The red zone is the area where access is prohibited (about a 12-km radius from the crater). Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-22-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 25 al 31 de mayo del 2020).

During January and February 2020 the number of daily explosions averaged 4-20. Ash plumes rose as high as 3.4 km above the summit (figure 80) and drifted up to 30 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Chivay, Yanque, and Achoma on 8 January, and in Huambo on 25 February. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from a low of 1,200 t/d on 29 February to a high of 8,200 t/d on 28 January. Inflation of the edifice was measured during January; deformation changed to deflation in early February but then returned to inflation by the end of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Ash plumes rose from Sabancaya every day during January and February 2020. Left: 11 January. Right: 28 February. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-02-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 06 al 12 de enero del 2020 and RSSAB-09-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 24 de febrero al 01 de marzo del 2020).

Explosions continued during March and April 2020, averaging 8-29 per day. Explosions appeared to come from multiple vents on 11 March (figure 81). Ash plumes rose 3 km above the summit during the first week of March and again the first week of April; they were lower during the other weeks. Ashfall was reported in Madrigal, Lari, and Pinchollo on 27 March and 5 April. On 17 April ashfall was reported in Maca, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque, and Achoma. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from 1,900 t/d on 5 March to 10,700 t/d on 30 March. Inflation at depth continued throughout March and April with 10 +/- 4 mm recorded between 21 and 26 April. Similar activity continued during May 2020; explosions averaged 6-16 per day (figure 82). Ashfall was reported on 6 May in Chivay, Achoma, Maca, Lari, Madrigal, and Pinchollo; heavy ashfall was reported in Achoma on 12 May. Additional ashfall was reported in Achoma, Maca, Madrigal, and Lari on 23 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Explosions at Sabancaya on 11 March 2020 appeared to originate simultaneously from two different vents (left). The plume on 12 April was measured at about 2,500 m above the summit. Courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-11-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 9 al 15 de marzo del 2020 and RSSAB-15-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 6 al 12 de abril del 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Explosions dense with ash continued during May 2020 at Sabancaya. On 11 and 29 May 2020 ash plumes rose from the summit and drifted as far as 30 km before dissipating. Courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya , RSSAB-20-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 11 al 17 de mayo del 2020 and RSSAB-22-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 25 al 31 de mayo del 2020).

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Volcanologico del INGEMMET (Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico), Barrio Magisterial Nro. 2 B-16 Umacollo - Yanahuara Arequipa, Peru (URL: http://ovi.ingemmet.gob.pe); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sheveluch (Russia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome growth and thermal anomalies continue through April 2020, but few ash explosions

The eruption at Sheveluch has continued for more than 20 years, with strong explosions that have produced ash plumes, lava dome growth, hot avalanches, numerous thermal anomalies, and strong fumarolic activity (BGVN 44:05). During this time, there have been periods of greater or lesser activity. The most recent period of increased activity began in December 2018 and continued through October 2019 (BGVN 44:11). This report covers activity between November 2019 to April 2020, a period during which activity waned. The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) and Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

During the reporting period, KVERT noted that lava dome growth continued, accompanied by incandescence of the dome blocks and hot avalanches. Strong fumarolic activity was also present (figure 53). However, the overall eruption intensity waned. Ash plumes sometimes rose to 10 km altitude and drifted downwind over 600 km (table 14). The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), except for 3 November when it was raised briefly to Red (the highest level).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Fumarolic activity of Sheveluch’s lava dome on 24 January 2020. Photo by Y. Demyanchuk; courtesy of KVERT.

Table 14. Explosions and ash plumes at Sheveluch during November 2019-April 2020. Dates and times are UTC, not local. Data courtesy of KVERT and the Tokyo VAAC.

Dates Plume Altitude (km) Drift Distance and Direction Remarks
01-08 Nov 2019 -- 640 km NW 3 November: ACC raised to Red from 0546-0718 UTC before returning to Orange.
08-15 Nov 2019 9-10 1,300 km ESE
17-27 Dec 2019 6.0-6.5 25 km E Explosions at about 23:50 UTC on 21 Dec.
20-27 Mar 2020 -- 45 km N 25 March: Gas-and-steam plume containing some ash.
03-10 Apr 2020 10 km 526 km SE 8 April: Strong explosion at 1910 UTC.
17-24 Apr 2020 -- 140 km NE Re-suspended ash plume.

KVERT reported thermal anomalies over the volcano every day, except for 25-26 January, when clouds obscured observations. During the reporting period, thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm recorded hotspots on 10 days in November, 13 days in December, nine days in January, eight days in both February and March, and five days in April. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected numerous hotspots every month, almost all of which were of moderate radiative power (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Thermal anomalies at Sheveluch continued at elevated levels during November 2019-April 2020, as seen on this MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph for July 2019-April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

High sulfur dioxide levels were occasionally recorded just above or in the close vicinity of Sheveluch by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, but very little drift was observed.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Dukono (Indonesia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Numerous ash explosions continue through March 2020

The ongoing eruption at Dukono is characterized by frequent explosions that send ash plumes to about 1.5-3 km altitude (0.3-1.8 km above the summit), although a few have risen higher. This type of typical activity (figure 13) continued through at least March 2020. The ash plume data below (table 21) were primarily provided by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). During the reporting period of October 2019-March 2020, the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Table 21. Monthly summary of reported ash plumes from Dukono for October 2019-March 2020. The direction of drift for the ash plume through each month was highly variable; notable plume drift each month was only indicated in the table if at least two weekly reports were consistent. Data courtesy of the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG.

Month Plume Altitude (km) Notable Plume Drift
Oct 2019 1.8-3 Multiple
Nov 2019 1.8-2.3 E, SE, NE
Dec 2019 1.8-2.1 E, SE
Jan 2020 1.8-2.1 E, SE, SW, S
Feb 2020 2.1-2.4 S, SW
Mar 2020 1.5-2.3 Multiple
Figure (see Caption) Figure 13.Satellite image of Dukono from Sentinel-2 on 12 November 2019, showing an ash plume drifting E. Image uses natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the reporting period, high levels of sulfur dioxide were only recorded above or near the volcano during 30-31 October and 4 November 2019. High levels were recorded by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on 30 October 2019, in a plume drifting E. The next day high levels were also recorded by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite on 31 October (figure 14) and 4 November 2019, in plumes drifting SE and NE, respectively.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Sulfur dioxide emission on 31 October 2019 drifting E, probably from Dukono, as recorded by the TROPOMI instrument aboard the Sentinel-5P satellite. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Etna (Italy) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continue, October 2019-March 2020

Mount Etna is a stratovolcano located on the island of Sicily, Italy, with historical eruptions that date back 3,500 years. The most recent eruptive period began in September 2013 and has continued through March 2020. Activity is characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava flows, and ash plumes that commonly occur from the summit area, including the Northeast Crater (NEC), the Voragine-Bocca Nuova (or Central) complex (VOR-BN), the Southeast Crater (SEC, formed in 1978), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC, formed in 2011). The newest crater, referred to as the "cono della sella" (saddle cone), emerged during early 2017 in the area between SEC and NSEC. This reporting period covers information from October 2019 through March 2020 and includes frequent explosions and ash plumes. The primary source of information comes from the Osservatorio Etneo (OE), part of the Catania Branch of Italy's Istituo Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica (INGV).

Summary of activity during October 2019-March 2020. Strombolian activity and gas-and-steam and ash emissions were frequently observed at Etna throughout the entire reporting period, according to INGV and Toulouse VAAC notices. Activity was largely located within the main cone (Voragine-Bocca Nuova complex), the Northeast Crater (NEC), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 1, 17, and 19 October, ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km. Due to constant Strombolian explosions, ground observations showed that a scoria cone located on the floor of the VOR Crater had begun to grow in late November and again in late January 2020. A lava flow was first detected on 6 December at the base of the scoria cone in the VOR Crater, which traveled toward the adjacent BN Crater. Additional lava flows were observed intermittently throughout the reporting period in the same crater. On 13 March, another small scoria cone had formed in the main VOR-BN complex due to Strombolian explosions.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows multiple episodes of thermal activity varying in power from 22 June 2019 to March 2020 (figure 286). The power and frequency of these thermal anomalies significantly decreased between August to mid-September. The pulse of activity in mid-September reflected a lava flow from the VOR Crater (BGVN 44:10). By late October through November, thermal anomalies were relatively weaker and less frequent. The next pulse in thermal activity reflected in the MIROVA graph occurred in early December, followed by another shortly after in early January, both of which were due to new lava flows from the VOR Crater. After 9 January the thermal anomalies remained frequent and strong; active lava flows continued through March accompanied by Strombolian explosions, gas-and-steam, SO2, and ash emissions. The most recent distinct pulse in thermal activity was seen in mid-March; on 13 March, another lava flow formed, accompanied by an increase in seismicity. This lava flow, like the previous ones, also originated in the VOR Crater and traveled W toward the BN Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 286. Multiple episodes of varying activity at Etna from 22 June 2019 through March 2020 were reflected in the MIROVA thermal energy data (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during October-December 2019. During October 2019, VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) notices issued by INGV reported ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km on 1, 17, and 19 October. Strombolian explosions occurred frequently. Explosions were detected primarily in the VOR-BN Craters, ejecting coarse pyroclastic material that fell back into the crater area and occasionally rising above the crater rim. Ash emissions rose from the VOR-BN and NEC while intense gas-and-steam emissions were observed in the NSEC (figure 287). Between 10-12 and 14-20 October fine ashfall was observed in Pedara, Mascalucia, Nicolosi, San Giovanni La Punta, and Catania. In addition to these ash emissions, the explosive Strombolian activity contributed to significant SO2 plumes that drifted in different directions (figure 288).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 287. Webcam images of ash emissions from the NE Crater at Etna from the a) CUAD (Catania) webcam on 10 October 2019; b) Milo webcam on 11 October 2019; c) Milo webcam on 12 October 2019; d) M.te Cagliato webcam on 13 October 2019. Courtesy of INGV (Report 42/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 07/10/2019 - 13/10/2019, data emissione 15/10/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 288. Strombolian activity at Etna contributed to significant SO2 plumes that drifted in multiple directions during the intermittent explosions in October 2019. Top left: 1 October 2019. Top right: 2 October 2019. Middle left: 15 October 2019. Middle right: 18 October 2019. Bottom left: 13 November 2019. Bottom right: 1 December 2019. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

The INGV weekly bulletin covering activity between 25 October and 1 November 2019 reported that Strombolian explosions occurred at intervals of 5-10 minutes from within the VOR-BN and NEC, ejecting incandescent material above the crater rim, accompanied by modest ash emissions. In addition, gas-and-steam emissions were observed from all the summit craters. Field observations showed the cone in the crater floor of VOR that began to grow in mid-September 2019 had continued to grow throughout the month. During the week of 4-10 November, Strombolian activity within the Bocca Nuova Crater was accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. The explosions in the VOR Crater occasionally ejected incandescent ejecta above the crater rim (figures 289 and 290). For the remainder of the month Strombolian explosions continued in the VOR-BN and NEC, producing sporadic ash emissions. Isolated and discontinuous explosions in the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) also produced fine ash, though gas-and-steam emissions still dominated the activity at this crater. Additionally, the explosions from these summit craters were frequently accompanied by strong SO2 emissions that drifted in different directions as discrete plumes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 289. Photo of Strombolian activity and crater incandescence in the Voragine Crater at Etna on 15 November 2019. Photo by B. Behncke, taken by Tremestieri Etneo. Courtesy of INGV (Report 47/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 11/11/2019 - 17/11/2019, data emissione 19/11/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 290. Webcam images of summit crater activity during 26-29 November and 1 December 2019 at Etna. a) image recorded by the high-resolution camera on Montagnola (EMOV); b) and c) webcam images taken from Tremestieri Etneo on the southern slope of Etna showing summit incandescence; d) image recorded by the thermal camera on Montagnola (EMOT) showing summit incandescence at the NSEC. Courtesy of INGV (Report 49/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/11/2019 - 01/12/2019, data emissione 03/12/2019).

Frequent Strombolian explosions continued through December 2019 within the VOR-BN, NEC, and NSEC Craters with sporadic ash emissions observed in the VOR-BN and NEC. On 6 December, Strombolian explosions increased in the NSEC; webcam images showed incandescent pyroclastic material ejected above the crater rim. On the morning of 6 December a lava flow was observed from the base of the scoria cone in the VOR Crater that traveled toward the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater. INGV reported that a new vent opened on the side of the saddle cone (NSEC) on 11 December and produced explosions until 14 December.

Activity during January-March 2020. On 9 January 2020 an aerial flight organized by RAI Linea Bianca and the state police showed the VOR Crater continuing to produce lava that was flowing over the crater rim into the BN Crater with some explosive activity in the scoria cone. Explosive Strombolian activity produced strong and distinct SO2 plumes (figure 291) and ash emissions through March, according to the weekly INGV reports, VONA notices, and satellite imagery. Several ash emissions during 21-22 January rose from the vent that opened on 11 December. According to INGV’s weekly bulletin for 21-26 January, the scoria cone in the VOR crater produced Strombolian explosions that increased in frequency and contributed to rapid cone growth, particularly the N part of the cone. Lava traveled down the S flank of the cone and into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater, filling the E crater (BN-2) (figure 292). The NEC had discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic, diffuse ash emissions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 291. Distinct SO2 plumes drifting in multiple directions from Etna were visible in satellite imagery as Strombolian activity continued through March 2020. Top left: 21 January 2020. Top right: 2 February 2020. Bottom left: 10 March 2020. Bottom right: 19 March 2020. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 292. a) A map of the lava field at Etna showing cooled flows (yellow) and active flows (red). The base of the scoria cone is outlined in black while the crater rim is outlined in red. b) Thermal image of the Bocca Nuova and Voragine Craters. The bright orange is the warmest temperature measure in the flow. Courtesy of INGV, photos by Laboratorio di Cartografia FlyeEye Team (Report 10/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/02/2020 - 01/03/2020, data emissione 03/03/2020).

Strombolian explosions continued into February 2020, accompanied by ash emissions and lava flows from the previous months (figure 293). During 17-23 February, INGV reported that some subsidence was observed in the central portion of the Bocca Nuova Crater. During 24 February to 1 March, the Strombolian explosions ejected lava from the VOR Crater up to 150-200 m above the vent as bombs fell on the W edge of the VOR crater rim (figure 294). Lava flows continued to move into the W part of the Bocca Nuova Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 293. Webcam images of A) Strombolian activity and B) effusive activity fed by the scoria cone grown inside the VOR Crater at Etna taken on 1 February 2020. C) Thermal image of the lava field produced by the VOR Crater taken by L. Lodato on 3 February (bottom left). Image of BN-1 taken by F. Ciancitto on 3 February in the summit area (bottom right). Courtesy of INGV; Report 06/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 27/01/2020 - 02/02/2020, data emissione 04/02/2020 (top) and Report 07/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 03/02/2020 - 09/02/2020, data emissione 11/02/2020 (bottom).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 294. Photos of the VOR intra-crater scoria cone at Etna: a) Strombolian activity resumed on 25 February 2020 from the SW edge of BN taken by B. Behncke; b) weak Strombolian activity from the vent at the base N of the cone on 29 February 2020 from the W edge of VOR taken by V. Greco; c) old vent present at the base N of the cone, taken on 17 February 2020 from the E edge of VOR taken by B. Behncke; d) view of the flank of the cone, taken on 24 February 2020 from the W edge of VOR taken by F. Ciancitto. Courtesy of INGV (Report 10/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/02/2020 - 01/03/2020, data emissione 03/03/2020).

During 9-15 March 2020 Strombolian activity was detected in the VOR Crater while discontinuous ash emissions rose from the NEC and NSEC. Bombs were found in the N saddle between the VOR and NSEC craters. On 9 March, a small scoria cone that had formed in the Bocca Nuova Crater and was ejecting bombs and lava tens of meters above the S crater rim. The lava flow from the VOR Crater was no longer advancing. A third scoria cone had formed on 13 March NE in the main VOR-BN complex due to the Strombolian explosions on 29 February. Another lava flow formed on 13 March, accompanied by an increase in seismicity. The weekly report for 16-22 March reported Strombolian activity detected in the VOR Crater and gas-and-steam and rare ash emissions observed in the NEC and NSEC (figure 295). Explosions in the Bocca Nuova Crater ejected spatter and bombs 100 m high.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 295. Map of the summit crater area of Etna showing the active vents and lava flows during 16-22 March 2020. Black hatch marks indicate the crater rims: BN = Bocca Nuova, with NW BN-1 and SE BN-2; VOR = Voragine; NEC = North East Crater; SEC = South East Crater; NSEC = New South East Crater. Red circles indicate areas with ash emissions and/or Strombolian activity, yellow circles indicate steam and/or gas emissions only. The base is modified from a 2014 DEM created by Laboratorio di Aerogeofisica-Sezione Roma 2. Courtesy of INGV (Report 13/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 16/03/2020 - 22/03/2020, data emissione 24/03/2020).

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/it/); Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Météo-France, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse cedex, France (URL: http://www.meteo.fr/aeroweb/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Boris Behncke, Sonia Calvari, and Marco Neri, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: https://twitter.com/etnaboris, Image at https://twitter.com/etnaboris/status/1183640328760414209/photo/1).


Merapi (Indonesia) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions produced ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows during October 2019-March 2020

Merapi is a highly active stratovolcano located in Indonesia, just north of the city of Yogyakarta. The current eruption episode began in May 2018 and was characterized by phreatic explosions, ash plumes, block avalanches, and a newly active lava dome at the summit. This reporting period updates information from October 2019-March 2020 that includes explosions, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes, and ashfall. The primary reporting source of activity comes from Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG, the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG) and Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM).

Some ongoing lava dome growth continued in October 2019 in the NE-SW direction measuring 100 m in length, 30 m in width, and 20 m in depth. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequent, reaching a maximum height of 700 m above the crater on 31 October. An explosion at 1631 on 14 October removed the NE-SW trending section of the lava dome and produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater and extended SW for about 2 km (figures 90 and 91). The plume resulted in ashfall as far as 25 km to the SW. According to a Darwin VAAC notice, a thermal hotspot was detected in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. A pyroclastic flow associated with the eruption traveled down the SW flank in the Gendol drainage. During 14-20 October lava flows from the crater generated block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km SW, according to BPPTKG.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. An ash plume rising 3 km above Merapi on 14 October 2019.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Webcam image of an ash plume rising above Merapi at 1733 on 14 October 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG via Jaime S. Sincioco.

At 0621 on 9 November 2019, an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W. Ashfall was observed in the W region as far as 15 km from the summit in Wonolelo and Sawangan in Magelang Regency, as well as Tlogolele and Selo in Boyolali Regency. An associated pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the Gendol drainage on the SE flank. On 12 November aerial drone photographs were used to measure the volume of the lava dome, which was 407,000 m3. On 17 November, an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater, resulting in ashfall as far as 15 km W from the summit in the Dukun District, Magelang Regency (figure 92). A pyroclastic flow accompanying the eruption traveled 1 km down the SE flank in the Gendol drainage. By 30 November low-frequency earthquakes and CO2 gas emissions had increased.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. An ash plume rising 1 km above Merapi on 17 November 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Volcanism was relatively low from 18 November 2019 through 12 February 2020, characterized primarily by gas-and-steam emissions and intermittent volcanic earthquakes. On 4 January a pyroclastic flow was recorded by the seismic network at 2036, but it wasn’t observed due to weather conditions. On 13 February an explosion was detected at 0516, which ejected incandescent material within a 1-km radius from the summit (figure 93). Ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater and drifted NW, resulting in ashfall within 10 km, primarily S of the summit; lightning was also seen in the plume. Ash was observed in Hargobinangun, Glagaharjo, and Kepuharjo. On 19 February aerial drone photographs were used to measure the change in the lava dome after the eruption; the volume of the lava had decreased, measuring 291,000 m3.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Webcam image of an ash plume rising from Merapi at 0516 on 13 February 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia and PVMBG.

An explosion on 3 March at 0522 produced an ash plume that rose 6 km above the crater (figure 94), resulting in ashfall within 10 km of the summit, primarily to the NE in the Musuk and Cepogo Boyolali sub-districts and Mriyan Village, Boyolali (3 km from the summit). A pyroclastic flow accompanied this eruption, traveling down the SSE flank less than 2 km. Explosions continued to be detected on 25 and 27-28 March, resulting in ash plumes. The eruption on 27 March at 0530 produced an ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater, causing ashfall as far as 20 km to the W in the Mungkid subdistrict, Magelang Regency, and Banyubiru Village, Dukun District, Magelang Regency. An associated pyroclastic flow descended the SSE flank, traveling as far as 2 km. The ash plume from the 28 March eruption rose 2 km above the crater, causing ashfall within 5 km from the summit in the Krinjing subdistrict primarily to the W (figure 94).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Images of ash plumes rising from Merapi during 3 March (left) and 28 March 2020 (right). Images courtesy of BPPTKG (left) and PVMBG (right).

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BNPB_Indonesia); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Jamie S. Sincioco, Phillipines (Twitter: @jaimessincioco, Image at https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1227966075519635456/photo/1).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 36, Number 03 (March 2011)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Barren Island (India)

Lava takes new path to shore by 30 March 2009; ongoing (2011) thermal alerts

Bulusan (Philippines)

Earthquakes and explosions during 6 November 2010-early March 2011

Colima (Mexico)

Dome growth continues in 2010-2011; eroding, ~55-m-long lobe

Dukono (Indonesia)

Intermittent weak ash plumes persist through 4 April 2011

Lunayyir, Harrat (Saudi Arabia)

2009 seismic swarm, deformation, and 8 km surface rupture

Sinabung (Indonesia)

Decreased activity following August-September 2010 eruption

Tengger Caldera (Indonesia)

Ongoing emissions, 2004-2011

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Modest eruptions included ash plumes to 4 km through February 2011



Barren Island (India) — March 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Barren Island

India

12.278°N, 93.858°E; summit elev. 354 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava takes new path to shore by 30 March 2009; ongoing (2011) thermal alerts

Sheth and others (2009) and reports of the Geological Survey of India (e.g., GSI, 2009) present many new field observations about Barren Island's volcanism, particularly during the years 2005-2009. Although historically lava had flowed out of the caldera towards the W, Sheth and others (2009) noted that by 30 March 2009 a new channelized 'a'a lava flow had overtaken the N caldera wall. The escaping lava had arrived at the sea along the island's NNW coast and began to form a delta there.

Barren Island is a young and growing mafic, island-arc volcano in the Andaman Sea (figure 15). It produced its first historically recorded eruption in 1787 and a series of eruptions followed in later years, including pulsating activity in the past few decades. Our last report on Barren Island (BGVN 35:01) reported occasional ash plumes and decreasing thermal alerts through January 2010. When searched in mid-April 2011, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center reported on Barren Island plumes as late as April 2010, with an unconfirmed pilot report in July 2010. A search of MODVOLC-based satellite thermal alerts found they extended through 2010 and into 2011.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Map showing the location of Barren Island as part the N-trending volcanic arc extending between Burma (Myanmar) and Sumatra, Indonesia. Taken from Sheth and others (2009).

2009 visit. At the end of their paper, Sheth and others (2009) inserted a 'note added in proof' describing an ongoing eruption witnessed first hand on 30 March 2009. We present that note here (with minor omissions, and broken into several paragraphs).

"We would like to report a confirmed, ongoing, lava eruption on Barren Island. The first four authors of this paper and Neeraj Awasthi visited Barren Island yet again, on 30th March 2009, on board the Indian Coast Guard vessel the ICGS Bhikaiji Cama (Captain: Commandant M. Bhatia). The volcano's central cinder cone was continuously emitting dark ash clouds every few seconds from its central crater (reminiscent of the activity in 2007 . . .), and these clouds were expanding and getting deflected towards the S. The pre-existing valley between the cinder cone and the northern caldera wall has been filled up by deposition of new ash in the past year, which has enabled the new, active lava flow to completely abandon the westerly route (taken by all historic and recent lava flows) and to reach the sea over the northern caldera wall.

"This [active] lava flow is not ensuing from the summit crater, but apparently from an intermediate elevation on the cinder cone, though details were hard to distinguish given the distance of the ship from the island. The new, channelized lava flow is currently descending at a steep angle over the northern caldera wall's outer cliff face, and into the sea. Incandescent lava is seen at a few places in it, particularly in the dark. A sizeable steam plume is currently rising from the sea where this new lava flow is entering the sea. The new lava flow has built a structure resembling an alluvial fan along the shore.

"We were able to reach this fan by using a Gemini (inflatable rubber boat) from the ship, carefully circumventing the steam plume and through seawater which was very hot (an estimated ~60-70°C). We could also collect lava samples from the southern edge of this "fan", which are typical clinkery as basalt in hand specimen. A full account of this eruption with photographs and petrological study of the rock will be attempted separately. An interesting possibility is that, were this activity to continue, the new embryonic lava delta will grow thicker and laterally, and merge with the existing lava delta on the western side of the volcano.... In summary, Barren Island is evidently a very active volcano, meriting close study."

References. GSI, 2009, The Barren Island Volcano, Explosive Strombolian type eruption observed during January 2009; Geological Survey of India — Kolkata; Jan 2009 URL: http://www.portal.gsi.gov.in/gsiImages/information/N_BarrenJan09Note.pdf).

Sheth, HC, Ray, JS, Bhutani, R, Kumar, A, and Smitha, RS, 2009, Volcanology and Eruptive Styles of Barren Island: An Active Mafic Stratovolcano in the Andaman Sea, NE Indian Ocean, Bull Volcanol (Apr 2009) 71:1021-1039, DOI: 10.1007/s00445-009-0280-z.

Geologic Background. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). It is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the west, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. Historical eruptions have changed the morphology of the pyroclastic cone in the center of the caldera, and lava flows that fill much of the caldera floor have reached the sea along the western coast.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Bulusan (Philippines) — March 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Bulusan

Philippines

12.769°N, 124.056°E; summit elev. 1535 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Earthquakes and explosions during 6 November 2010-early March 2011

The current report describes activity at Bulusan during 2008 through early March 2011, an interval punctuated by seismic signals indicative of explosions and occasional cases where ash fell up to 70 km away. During 2007, there were explosions, ash and steam plumes, and some ground inflation (BGVN 33:02).

Quiet during 2008 through October 2010. According to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), seismic events were infrequent after the middle of 2008 through 2009. In addition, ground deformation surveys in 2009 showed deflation of the volcanic edifice. These observations were indicative of a decline in the overall activity of the volcano. Thus, the Alert Level was lowered from 1 to 0 (out of 5) on 15 May 2009. Maps appear below (figures 8 and 9).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Index map of Bulusan, a large stratovolcano located on the S portion of Luzon Island (Philippines). Courtesy of PHIVOLCS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Map showing monitoring network at Bulusan. Equipment includes seismic instruments (4 stations), EDM surveying instruments and reflectors, and benchmarks for precise leveling traverses (N and S flanks of volcano). Courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

Quiet ends in November 2010. A volcanic, explosion-type earthquake occurred on 6 November 2010 coincident with a steam-and-ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater. Trace amounts of ashfall were reported in multiple areas 6-10 km NW. The Alert Level was raised from 0 to 1, and PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the permanent danger zone, defined as a 4-km radius around the volcano.

After 6 November and during late 2010 to early 2011, Bullusan experienced a number of earthquakes (table 5), and steam was often observed rising from the crater and known thermal vents, especially after an explosion. However, cloud cover frequently obscured the summit area. The Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) occasionally reported the presence of ash plumes (table 6).

Table 5. Earthquakes at Bulusan recorded by the seismic network between 1 November 2010-8 March 2011. Based on reports from PHIVOLCS.

Date Number of earthquakes Type of earthquake
06 Nov 2010 1 Explosion-type
10-11 Nov 2010 18 Volcanic-tectonic
12 Nov 2010 4 Volcanic-tectonic
21 Nov 2010 1 Explosion-type
26 Nov 2010 1 Explosion-type
01-06 Dec 2010 Detected Volcanic
08-12 Dec 2010 40544 Volcanic
13 Dec 2010 7 Volcanic
23 Dec 2010 1 Explosion-type
30-31 Dec 2010 8 Volcanic-tectonic
04-10 Jan 2011 2-8 daily Volcanic
11-17 Jan 2011 Up to 2 daily Volcanic
18-19 Jan 2011 11 Volcanic
20-27 Jan 2011 Up to 5 daily Volcanic
29-30 Jan Up to 5 daily Volcanic
17-20 Feb 2011 Up to 3 daily Volcanic
21-22 Feb 2011 16 Volcanic
24 Feb-01 Mar 2011 Up to 5 daily Volcanic
02-08 Mar 2011 Up to 4 daily Volcanic

Table 6. Volcanic ash emissions from Bulusan during 6 November 2010-26 March 2011. Based on reports from the Tokyo VAAC. The line indicated by "x" refers to an ash plume that was reported to authorities but not identifiable on imagery.

Date Altitude (km) Plume direction
06 Nov 2010 2.4 SW
08 Nov 2010 2.4 --
09 Nov 2010 2.7 SW
12 Nov 2010 2.4 --
21 Nov 2010 3.7 SW
24 Nov 2010 2.7 SW
25 Nov 2010 2.1 --
16 Dec 2010 2.1 SW
23 Dec 2010 2.1 S
24 Dec 2010 2.1 SW
29 Dec 2010 x --
30 Dec 2010 x --
05 Jan 2011 x --
06 Jan 2011 x --
07 Jan 2011 x --
14 Jan 2011 x --
04 Feb 2011 x --
21 Feb< 2011/td>3.7 -4.9W
22 Feb 2011 x --
24 Feb x --
26 Feb 2011 x --
27 Feb 2011 x --
28 Feb 2011 x --
03 Mar 2011 x --
04 Mar 2011 x --
18 Mar 2011 x --
20 Mar 2011 x --
25 Mar 2011 x --
26 Mar 2011 x --

On 7 November, PHIVOLCS noted that seismic activity had increased during the previous 24 hours. A phreatic explosion on 8 November produced a brownish-to-light-gray plume that rose 700 m above the crater. Several neighborhoods to the NW, W, and WSW reported ashfall. Steam rose from the crater after the explosion. On 9 November two consecutive ash explosions, accompanied by rumbling sounds, produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted SW. Ashfall up to 2 mm thick was reported in areas to the SW and WNW.

On 11 November 2010, white steam plumes rose 150 m above the crater and drifted ENE. An aerial survey noted that recent explosions resulted in the joining of two of the 2006-2007 craters into one. PHIVOLCS scientists also found that deposits from an explosion on 9 November did not contain juvenile material. On 12 November an ash explosion produced an ash-and-steam plume that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted SW. Multiple neighborhoods to the W and SW reported light ashfall. During 12-14 November, some steaming from the crater was observed. An explosion late at night on 15 November was followed by ashfall in nearby neighborhoods.

An explosion earthquake on 21 November 2010 was coincident with rumbling sounds and an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater. Ashfall up to 3 mm thick was reported in multiple areas. According to news reports (Philippine Daily Inquirer), about 500 families evacuated and some local roads were impassable.

On 24 November 2010, PHIVOLCS reported that an explosion, recorded for almost six minutes by seismographs, produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater, drifted SW, and dissipated. Ashfall was not observed outside of the permanent danger zone, defined as a 4-km radius from the summit, suggesting that ashfall was confined to the upper flanks. On 26 November, an explosion-type earthquake was recorded.

On 17 December 2010, PHIVOLCS reported that an explosion, recorded for about 3 minutes by seismographs, produced an ash-and-steam plume that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Another explosion on 23 December followed tremor that lasted for almost 31 minutes. A grayish steam-and-ash plume rose to about 500 m above the crater rim and drifted S-SW.

Seismic activity continued into 2011 with volcanic earthquakes, frequent steam emissions, and an occasional explosion. Tokyo VAAC reported ash plumes from Bulusan, although cloud cover frequently obscured the summit area.

An explosion on 18 January 2011 was accompanied by a rumbling sound audible in Monbon, a barangay (neighborhood) in the municipality of Irosin, 6 km to the SW. Trace amounts of ashfall were observed in Monbon. A deformation survey conducted during 25-29 January showed slight deflation relative to a December 2010 survey.

An explosion on 21 February 2011 produced a gray ash plume that rose ~3 km above the crater and drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were heard up to 10 km away in the town of Juban (NW). The event was recorded by the seismic network as an explosion-type earthquake lasting for about 19 minutes. Field investigations confirmed ash deposits in the towns of Irosin (up to 5 mm) 8 km SSW, and Bulan (up to 3 mm) 22 km SW. Traces of ashfall were also reported in the municipalities of Juban and Magallanes (24 km WNW), and in Masbate City, Masbate (70 km SW). According to news articles (Xinhua), about 2,000 people evacuated.

There were 13 lahar-related seismic signals detected during 27-28 February 2011. Continuous heavy rain caused small lahars on the flanks and in river channels, including the Cogon and Monbon rivers to the SW. A map showing the susceptible lahar areas appeared in BGVN 32:04.

Based on notices from the Manila airport and satellite image observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes were detected occasionally during and after the explosion of 6 November 2010.

Table 6 denotes the substantial ash plumes reported by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) through 26 March 2011.

During the reporting period, there were no thermal alerts derived from the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology Thermal Alerts System (MODVOLC).

Geologic Background. Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. It lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century.

Information Contacts: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), University of the Philippines Campus, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (URL: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/); Southern Luzon Bureau; Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Philippine Daily Inquirer (URL: http://www.inquirer.net/); Xinhua (URL: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english2010/).


Colima (Mexico) — March 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dome growth continues in 2010-2011; eroding, ~55-m-long lobe

The Observatorio Vulcanologico de la Universidad de Colima (Colima Volcanological Observatory) reported that during 2010-2011, lava extrusion at Colima continued at the dome that was first recognized in February 2007. The slow growth of a small lobe of lava within the W sector of the crater of the volcano commenced during February 2010 (BGVN 35:05), and this process continued through March 2011. The rate of growth of this lobe was ~0.1 m3/s, and was accompanied by numerous rockfalls and small explosions (figures 97 and 98). Explosions often remained in the range of 3 to 15 per day during January 2009 through March 2011. As previously noted (BGVN 35:05), rockfalls suddenly became very common in February 2010. The rockfalls reached a maximum of over 60 per day, and through March 2011 they remained in the range of 15 to 42 per day (figure 97).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Variations in the daily number of small explosions and rockfalls at Colima during the year of 2009 through March 2011 based on the observations of the seismic network RESCO (seismic station EZV4, 1.7 km from Colima's crater). Courtesy of Colima Volcano Observatory.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Low-resolution images characterizing behavior at Colima during the year 2010 into March 2011, where small explosions at the summit dome were soon followed by rockfalls. Both photos taken by the web camera at station Nevado, located at elevation 4 km on the neighboring peak (Nevado de Colima) 6 km N of the active dome and crater. Courtesy of Colima Volcano Observatory.

The active lobe's width was ~10-15 m; its length was ~50-60 m. Loss of material from the lobe's distal end generated frequent rockfalls. According to a report from the Observatory, " . . . extrusive activity of the volcano has changed from endogenic [i.e., intrusion within the dome], observed during 2007-2009, to exogenic [i.e., extrusion to the dome's surface or margin] with the development of the new lava lobe." Figure 99 illustrates this change in the eruptive process (endogenic in the upper frame, switching to exogenic).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. Photos of the Colima's crater zone taken (top to bottom) on 25 November 2009, 24 February 2010, and 11 March 2011. All three are views from the volcano's W side. The photos document a new lava lobe (24 February 2010) and its development to 11 March 2011. Courtesy of Civil Protection of the State of Jalisco.

Satellite image, January 2011. A natural-color satellite image of Colima was acquired 22 January 2011 (figure 100). The perspective of the image (straight down) flattens the appearance of the classic steep-sided stratovolcano, according to the image's NASA Earth Observatory analysts. Similarly, they noted that the image's relatively low resolution (10 m per pixel) falsely gives a smooth appearance to what are actually very rough-surfaced block lava flows.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. This natural-color satellite image of Colima was acquired on 22 January 2011 by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on Earth Observing-1 (EO-1). N is to the top. The region titled 'flank-collapse rim' represents the topographic margin of an ancient collapse (see text). Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

The image in figure 100 shows evidence of four types of volcanic activity: lava dome growth, explosive eruptions, flank collapse, and lava flows. The active lava dome nearly fills Colima's summit crater. The top of the dome is higher than the crater rim, and material occasionally tumbles down the volcano's W and S slopes. A light colored plume, probably dust from rockfalls off the dome, extends to the E (right) of the summit. Colima's summit crater developed during a 1913 explosive eruption that removed 100 m off the summit.

To the N of Colima's summit is a rim ('flank-collapse rim') of a 5-km-wide caldera, formed about 4,300 years ago in a massive flank collapse, similar to the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Modern Colima volcano rises near the center of this caldera. Recent lava flows (erupted since 1961), cover the upper slopes of the volcano. Older lava flows (erupted in the 1800s and earlier) are covered in green vegetation.

MODVOLC. The MODVOLC satellite thermal alerts system showed thermal alerts of 4 pixels at 0845 UTC on 29 December 2010 and 2 pixels at 0520 UTC on 20 January 2011, confirming recent hot material at and near the dome. Press reports also noted incandescent lava flows. The alerts mentioned above were the only significant ones measured since 2005, when major explosions occurred (BGVN 30:06 and 31:03).

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the high point of the complex) on the north and the historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of late-Pleistocene cinder cones is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, producing thick debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions have destroyed the summit (most recently in 1913) and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico de la Universidad de Colima (Colima Volcanological Observatory), Calle Manuel Payno, 209 Colima, Col., 28045 Mexico (URL: http://www.ucol.mex/volc/); NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Dukono (Indonesia) — March 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent weak ash plumes persist through 4 April 2011

Dukono has generated intermittent minor ash plumes since before July 2008 (BGVN 33:08, 33:11, 35:04). The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) has provided satellite surveillance. Table 11 extends the table of ash plumes presented in BGVN 35:04 through 4 April 2011.

Table 11. Ash plumes reported from Dukono between 30 May 2010 and 4 April 2011, based on data from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre. Each date or date range represents at least one plume.

Date (UTC) Plume Altitude Plume Direction Plume Distance
02 Jun 2010 2.4 km NW 110 km
07 Jun 2010 3 km W 110 km
09-10 Jun 2010 -- W 130 km
18-20 Jun 2010 2.4 km W 120 km
23-24 Jun 2010 2.4 km W 120-225 km
29 Jun 2010 2.4 km W 120-225 km
30 Jun-02 Jul 2010 2.4 km W, NW 90-225 km
06 Jul 2010 2.4 km W, NW 90-225 km
07 Jul 2010 2.4 km N, NW 35-75 km
09-10 Jul 2010 2.4 km N, NW 35-75 km
24 Jul 2010 3 km W 110 km
31 Jul 2010 3 km W 90 km
03 Aug 2010 3 km NNE 130 km
12-22 Aug 2010 3 km W, NW, SW 25-225 km
25-29 Aug 2010 2.1-3 km W, NE 35-110 km
01-02 Sep 2010 2.4 km W, NW 95 km
06-11 Sep 2010 2.4 W, NW, SW 35-95 km
14-18 Sep 2010 2.4 km W, NW, SW 35-260 km
20-25 Sep 2010 2.4 km W, NW 35-260 km
01-04 Oct 2010 2.4 km W, NW 55-205 km
06-07 Oct 2010 2.4 km W 75-110 km
01-02 Nov 2010 3 km NW, SW 45-75 km
23-27 Nov 2010 2.4 km W 75-130 km
03-05 Dec 2010 3 km W 55-110 km
21 Dec 2010 2.7 km NW 55 km
05-07 Jan 2011 2.4-3.7 km W 65-130 km
11 Feb 2011 2.4 km N 75 km
16-17 Feb 2011 3 km W, SW 150-185 km
11-12 Mar 2011 2.1 km SW 110-165 km
18-19 Mar 2011 2.1 km N, NW, NE 37-75 km
04 Apr 2011 2.4 km E 185 km

During the reporting period (1 June 2010- 4 April 2011), there were four thermal alerts derived from the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology Thermal Alerts System (MODVOLC). They were on 1 and 10 September and 6 and 20 November 2010.

Arnold Binas uploaded photos and video showing Dukono ongoing ash emissions during late January 2010 (Binas, 2010, 2011). The video takes the form of an excursion from an adjacent settlement, approach to the volcano, and finally some shots taken at the crater rim. In addition, he posted several still photos of Dukono on Flickr (Binas, 2010). The photo titled "Inside the Dukono crater" noted frequent pulses of ash rising from the crater and his 6 hours on the crater rim led to only one partial view into the crater interior.

References. Binas, A., 2011, Halmahera ? Dukono Volcano 2010, YouTube (URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqMax2hqxMo).

Binas, A., 2010, Indonesian volcanoes 2010, hshdude photostream, Flickr (URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hshdude/sets/72157623718033396).

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Arnold Binas (aka, hshdude), Australia.


Harrat Lunayyir (Saudi Arabia) — March 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Harrat Lunayyir

Saudi Arabia

25.17°N, 37.75°E; summit elev. 1370 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


2009 seismic swarm, deformation, and 8 km surface rupture

An intense seismic swarm coupled with surface deformation spurred the evacuation of over 30,000 residents, led to an 8 km long surface rupture, and was consistent with the injection of a shallow dike that never reached the surface. Between April and June 2009 more than 30,000 earthquakes occurred beneath one of the lava fields of Saudi Arabia adjacent the N-central portion of the Red Sea and centered inland ~50 km ENE from the port city of Umm Lajj (figure 1). The field is known as Harrat Lunayyir (the words harrat and haarrat indicate a volcanic field, named and unnamed, respectively). Ultimately a narrow, 8 km long surface rupture developed and the seismicity declined. The event was interpreted as due to a shallow intrusion that did not reach the surface. Table 1 at the end of this report gives an overview of the crisis, which included evacuations.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Index map (at upper right focused on the Red Sea) and the main map showing numerous named volcanic fields (harrats) in Saudi Arabia, including Lunayyir. The cities of Umm Lajj and Al Ays are discussed in text. Original map taken from SGS (2011).

This report is based on Pallister and others (2010) as well as a report from scientists from the USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) and the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The government of Saudi Arabia evacuated more than 30,000 people from the town of Al Ays on the SE margin of the volcanic field, due to fears that further larger earthquakes could occur or that there could be a volcanic eruption (figures 2 and 3). In response to this situation, SGS increased their presence in the region and installed a permanent telemetered seismic network of seven broadband seismometers in the area to better monitor the seismicity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. The town of Al Ays is shown. About 30,000 people were evacuated from the area due to the earthquake swarm. Previous lava flows of the Harrat Lunayyir volcanic field cover much of the back and central portions of the photo beyond the town. Photograph courtesy of John Pallister (VDAP).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Areal view of cinder cones found at Harrat Lunayyir. Photograph courtesy of Pallister.

A punctuated earthquake swarm began at Harrat Lunayyir in April 2009, with a peak on 19 May when 19 earthquakes of M 4 or greater occurred. The largest of those earthquakes was variably assessed as M 5.4 (SGS) and M 5.7 (USGS National Earthquake Information Center). It struck at 1735 UTC (2035 local time). The earthquake caused minor damage to structures in the town of Al Ays (40 km SE of the epicenter).

Surface rupture. In the northern central part of the lava field the initial surface rupture extended 3 km, trended NW, and appeared during the week preceding 19 May (when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M 4). Associated with the M 5.4 earthquake on 19 May, the rupture lengthened to 8 km. The rupture had local vertical offsets of more than 1 meter and was several meters deep (figures 4 and 5). Event rates decreased dramatically on 20 May and maintained a relatively constant level, except for a few increases in event rate lasting 24 hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. The 8-km-long surface rupture that opened on 19 May 2009 seen here cutting across soft sediments in the Harrat Lunayyir region. Taken from SGS (2011).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Wendy McCausland (USGS-VDAP seismologist) consults with Hani Zahran (Director of Earthquake and Volcanoes Center, Saudi Geological Survey) at the site of the 8 km long surface rupture that opened during the 19 May 2009 earthquake at Lunayyir. Photograph courtesy of John Pallister.

Combining seismic with InSAR and modeling. Results from InSAR data and geodetic modeling were consistent with the timing of the seismic swarm. InSAR data showed that 75% of the deformation occurred during 8-27 May 2009, and 20% occurred during 27 May to 17 June (figure 6). Interferograms from May and June showed a broad area of deformation of about 2,000 km2, which is indicative of dyke intrusion. Envisat interferograms showed about 40 cm of uplift and over 1 m of E-W extension.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. For Lunayyir, plots of real-time seismic amplitude (RSAM) for 10-min intervals showing peak seismic energy releases for the vertical component of broadband seismic stations UMGS and LNYS (45 km WSE and 29 km SE from the epicenter of the M 5.4 earthquake on 19 May). The lower graph shows daily counts of very long frequency earthquakes recorded at both stations. InSAR-detected deformation periods are indicated by shading (yellow on colored versions) Taken from Pallister and others (2010).

Earthquakes suggestive of volcanism. Initially, scientists were unsure if the earthquakes were tectonic or volcanic in origin. On 12 June two members of a VDAP team deployed to Saudia Arabia at the request of the SGS to provide technical assistance. The VDAP and SGS teams determined that the earthquake pattern was that of a volcanic earthquake swarm. It was characterized by several ten's of thousands of small (under M 3) earthquakes during 24 April-31 July 2009, in a pattern of seismicity that waxed and waned. Earthquakes occurred of both varying magnitude and lacking tectonic mainshock-aftershock sequences. RSAM (real-time seismic-amplitude measurement) data showed that energy increased dramatically on 29 April, peaking on 19 May with the previously mentioned largest (M 5.4) event.

Other common volcanic-swarm characteristics included a high rate of occurrence of small compared to large events, and shallow event locations clustered beneath the lava field at around 5-10 km in depth. The event types included those of high-frequency (13-28 Hz), very low-frequency (less than 1 Hz), and high-frequency tremor. The latter contained embedded spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes (13-28 Hz).

An unusual aspect of the swarm was that both low- and very low-frequency earthquakes occurred, events that are usually associated with movements of fluids (magma, water or gas) and Strombolian explosions, but in this case both gas emissions and explosions were absent.

The VDAP and SGS teams concluded that there were three key lines of evidence that the earthquakes were volcanic. First, the earthquakes were occurring in a volcanically active area. Second, deformation was measured and interpreted to indicate a shallow dyke intrusion. Third, the types of earthquakes that occurred were characteristic of volcano-related seismicity.

The volcanic risk was relatively low due to the small population living near Harrat Lunayyir. On 19 June the team made a forecast that there was a moderate probability of a basaltic eruption and a low probability of additional large earthquakes of M 5 or greater occurring within the following 2 months. The forecast was based on the maximum magnitudes of earthquakes that typically accompany eruptions at other volcanoes, on the proportion of eruptions following multiple intrusions at dozens of volcanoes studied by VDAP, and on initial models of the InSAR anomaly. The team determined that the seismic swarm had ended by August 2009 when there was a decline in seismic activity and InSAR-detected deformation. After the forecast and after the buildings in Al Ays had been assessed for damage, evacuees were permitted to return to their homes.

Table 1. Chronology summarizing the 2009 Lunayyir earthquake swarm, surface rupture, and hazards response.

Date Observations and actions taken
Apr 2009 Earthquakes began
~20 Apr 2009 Evacuation started at Al Ays
29 Apr 2009 Earthquake energy increased
~12-19 May 2009 3-km-long surface rupture opened
19 May 2009 M 5.4-5.7 earthquake; surface rupture grew to 8 km long
20 May 2009 Earthquake energy decreased dramatically
Aug 2009 Earthquakes ceased
Aug 2009 Evacuees returned to Al Ays

References. Pallister, J.S., McCausland, W.A., Jonsson, S., Lu, Z., Zahran, H.M., Hadidy, S.E., Aburukbah, A., Stewart, I.C.F., Lundgren, P.R., White, R.A., and Moufti, M.R.H., 2010, Broad Accommodation of Rift-Related Extension Recorded by Dyke Intrusion in Saudi Arabia. Nature Geoscience, 26 September 2010, pp. 1-8.

SGS, 2011, Volcanism in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) (URL: http://www.sgs.org.sa/English/NaturalHazards/Pages/Volcanoes.aspx).

Geologic Background. Harrat Lunayyir is a basaltic volcanic field in NW Saudi Arabia, east of the Red Sea port of Umm Lajj. It contains about 50 volcanic cones that were constructed over Precambrian crystalline rocks along a N-S axis. Harrat Lunayyir is one of the smallest of the Holocene lava fields of Saudi Arabia, but individual flow lobes radiate long distances from the center of the Harrat, and flows reached the Red Sea in two places. Lava flows are basaltic to basanitic in composition, and the Holocene flows are alkali olivine basalts. One of the cones may have erupted around the 10th century CE or earlier. A seismic swarm in May 2009 was interpreted to be consistent with intrusion of an 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels.

Information Contacts: John Pallister, US Geological Survey-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program, 1300 SE Cardinal Court, Building 10, Suite 100, Vancouver, WA 98683-9589, USA (URL: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vdap/); Hani M. Zahran, National Centre for Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Saudi Geological Survey (SGS), P.O. Box: 54141, Jeddah, 21514 Saudi Arabia (URL: http://www.sgs.org.sa/English/NaturalHazards/Pages/Earthquakes.aspx).


Sinabung (Indonesia) — March 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Sinabung

Indonesia

3.17°N, 98.392°E; summit elev. 2460 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Decreased activity following August-September 2010 eruption

Sinabung, which sits 80 km NNW of Toba caldera, produced its first confirmed historical eruption in August 2010 (BGVN 35:07). We present clarifications on our previous report, some seismic data from the interval 2-4 September 2010 that included large local tectonic earthquakes, episodes of continuous volcanic tremor, and the return of calm after mid-September 2010.

Clarifications. Kus Hendratno (of the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) provided additional information about the first figure in our last Sinabung report (BGVN 35:07), which we had captioned as undated.

The upper photo, taken from the SW, showed the second eruption on 3 September (in the evening) and shows a plume he considered to be deflected down the E flank by strong winds blowing down-slope. The lower photo was taken on 30 August from the NE. Hedratno did not know the date that the eruption ended.

In addition, we described the 27 August 2010 eruption as the "first Holocene eruption" in BGVN 35:07. There was an unconfirmed historical eruption in 1881, and there may yet emerge evidence for other Holocene eruptions. Thus, we now prefer to refer to the 27 August eruption as the first confirmed historical eruption.

Additional information about 2-4 September 2010 activity. Table 2 presents some basic data on 2 to 4 September seismicity. These data are but a portion of a 4 September report by Agus Budianto (head of a geophysical team that responded to the crisis). The seismic data reflect both the presence of volcanic earthquakes, earthquakes interpreted as associated with emissions, far tectonic earthquakes, and tremor. The latter continued in all but one 6-hour time slot on the table, and in two cases, 1800-2400 on the 3rd and 0000-0600 on the 4th, tremor reached dominant amplitudes of 50 mm.

Table 2. Details about seismicity observed at Sinabung during 2-4 September 2010. Terminology as follows: "12@3-63 mm" refers to 12 earthquakes with amplitudes of 3-63 mm; "5-15 s," to duration times. Courtesy of Agus Budianto (affiliation listed in Information contacts).

Date Time Volcanic earthquakes Shallow volcanic earthquakes Emission earthquake Tremor amplitudes
02 Sep 2010 0000-0600 12 at 3-63 mm; 5-15 s; S & P 0.5-4 s 7 at 3.5-10 mm; 3.5-6 s 2 at 2-6 mm; 48-53 s --
02 Sep 2010 0600-1200 12 at 6-44 mm; 4.5-16 s; S&P 1-4 s -- 6 at 2-4 mm; 5-11 s Continous (3 mm)
02 Sep 2010 1200-1800 5 at 9-75 mm; 5-11 s; S&P, 0.5-4s -- -- Continous (3 mm)
02 Sep 2010 1800-2400 -- -- -- Continous
 
03 Sep 2010 0000-0600 -- -- -- Continous
03 Sep 2010 0600-1200 -- -- -- Continous
03 Sep 2010 1200-1800 -- -- -- Continous
03 Sep 2010 1800-2400 21 at 10-30 mm; 10-30 s; S&P 0.5-1.5 s -- -- Continous
 
04 Sep 2010 0000-0600 2 at 21.5-25 mm;14-15 s; S&P 2.5-3 1 at 18.5 mm; 5 s -- Continous
04 Sep 2010 0600- 1200 6 at 9-100 mm; 10-32.5 s; S&P 1.5-2 4 at 2.5 mm; 7.5-9.5 s -- Continous (7 mm)
04 Sep 2010 1200-1800 1 at 50mm; 17 s;S&P 1.5s -- -- Continous (8 mm)

During 2-4 September, fog often obscured the view. An eruption at 0438 on 3 September was accompanied by a roaring sounds and vibrations that were felt up to 8 km SE. A thick black plume erupted up to 3 km above the crater and drifted E. An eruption on the same day during the hours 1759 to 1801 also caused a roaring sound and weak vibrations that were felt up to 8 km away.

Visual observations showed several periods of the eruption; early in the eruption, a black plume soared as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted E. Then, a plume that appeared "clotted" moved approximately 2 km down the E slopes, with most of the ash falling on the E slope. Finally, a plume rose vertically and took the shape of a mushroom.

Electronic distance measurements after the eruption at 1759 on 3 September 2010 showed deflation (up to 4.5 mm).

On 4 September, the weather was clear, and a thick white plume was visible reaching up to 50 m above the crater and drifting as far as 100 m down the E slope.

Activity during mid- to late-September 2010. CVGHM reported a few noteworthy eruptions, emissions, and changes occurred after early September. During 8-11 September observers saw white-to-gray plumes rising 30-100 m above the crater and generally drifting E. Deformation measurements during 8-14 September showed a slow rate of inflation. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and the CVGHM web camera, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 and 14 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km altitude.

During 15 September-21 September 2010, based on information from CVGHM and views through a web camera, the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes rising to an altitude of 4.3 km and drifting W. CVGHM reported a slow rate of inflation during 15-18 September followed by deflation during 19-21 September. Fog mostly prevented visual observations. On 20 September diffuse white plumes rose 30 m above the crater and drifted NE.

On 22 September a white plume rose as high as 100 m above the crater. The decrease in activity based on visual observations, seismicity, deformation, and SO2 concentration prompted CVGHM to lower the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 23 September, where it remained through at least mid-March 2011.

Geologic Background. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical andesitic-to-dacitic edifice is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. The youngest deposit is a SE-flank pyroclastic flow 14C dated by Hendrasto et al. (2012) at 740-880 CE. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.

Information Contacts: Kus Hendratno, Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://vsi.esdm.go.id/); Camera URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/aktivitas_merapi.php?page=aktivitas-merapi&subpage=kamera-g-sinabung); Agus Budianto, Kementerian Energi Dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Republik Indonesia, Badan Geologi, Jalan Diponegoro No. 57 Bandung 40122 Indonesia.


Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) — March 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Tengger Caldera

Indonesia

7.942°S, 112.95°E; summit elev. 2329 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing emissions, 2004-2011

Tengger Caldera contains the frequently erupting Bromo cone, which has repeatedly erupted since about the year 1590. Under normal conditions, Bromo emits a white, sparse-to- dense vapor reaching heights of 75-150 m above the rim, with an acrid smell of sulphur. Our last report noted the eruption on 8 June 2004 (BGVN 29:07); small plumes and seismic signals suggestive of emissions continued through the previous reporting interval, which ended 18 July 2004. According to a December 2010 report from the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), during 1994, 1996, 2000, and 2004, Bromo's eruptions ejected glowing lava that fell in the vicinity of the crater. The countryside around Bromo is not densely populated, since it lies within the Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park, but the volcano is a popular tourist destination.

On 16 August 2004, due to a decrease in seismic and volcanic activity at Tengger, the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) decreased the Alert Level from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

The next report we received on Tengger was from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), which noted that a small plume was visible on a satellite image on 14 July 2006. No ash was detected.

On 1 September 2006, CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Tengger to 2 due to heightened activity and a strong smell of sulfur. On 9 September, the Alert Level was raised to 3 due to an increase in tremor, but lowered to 2 on 18 September due to decreased activity.

According to CVGHM, during 18-25 June 2007, diffuse but ash-free plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km. Nineteen tectonic earthquakes, one local-tectonic earthquake, and continuous tremor with a maximum amplitude of 0.5-1 mm was noted between 11 June-1 July 2007.

No further reports were received until November 2010, when seismicity increased. Volcanic tremor was first detected on 8 November. According to volcanologist and photographer Richard Roscoe (Photovolcanica), tremor became almost continuous by 22 November along with degassing. CVGHM noted that the heights of gas-and-steam plumes increased during the month, from 75 m above the crater during 1-7 November to 100-250 m above the crater during 8-23 November. The Alert Level was raised to 3 on 23 November. Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 3-km-radius of the active crater. Later that night, seismic activity increased, and a white-to-gray plume rose 200-300 m above the crater. The Alert Level was raised to 4. The tourist areas surrounding the volcano was closed.

Bromo erupted on 26 November 2010, triggering the first significant ash emission, according to Richard Roscoe. He noted that the output of ash was high at several stages during the eruption, which led to significant damage to vegetation in downwind areas. According to the Darwin VAAC, on that day the cloud tops reached 13.7 km and volcanic ash was thought to be "entrained into deep convective clouds."

During 27-29 November satellite imagery showed ash plumes drifting 55-165 km at an altitude of 4.3 km. According to a news article (Agence France-Presse), Malang city's domestic airport, 25 km W, closed on 29 November due to ash. Cloud cover prevented observations during 29-30 November.

On 6 December, CVGHM reported that seismicity at Bromo had declined since 30 November, and deformation measurements showed deflation. White-to-gray plumes rose 200-300 m above the crater rim and drifted N. The Alert Level was lowered to 3. Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

CVGHM reported that during 8-19 December gray-to-brown plumes from Bromo rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted E, NE, and N. Tremors continued with a maximum amplitude of 17-32 mm. On 19 December, explosions produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was heavy around the crater and was reported in areas as far away as the Juanda Airport (70 km NNW) in Surabaya. The ash damaged agricultural land, affected trees and river valleys, and disrupted the transportation infrastructure. According to the Darwin VAAC, a possible ash plume from Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 6.1 km on 20 December and drifted about 95 km S.

CVGHM noted that between 19-23 December, tremor continued with a maximum amplitude of 5-30 mm, and 17 eruptive earthquakes occurred with a maximum amplitude of 40 mm and a duration of about 17 to167 seconds each. Tiltmeter deformation measurements showed slight inflation (5 microradians) from 25 November to 14 December; from 15 December through at least February 2011, both its radial and tangential components remained relatively stable. Similarly, measurements of deformation using EDM from 25 November to 20 December 2010 showed relative stability.

According to CVGHM, during 20-25 December, gray-to-brown plumes rose 800-1,200 m above the crater and drifted N and NE. Ejected material fell back around the crater. On 25 December, ash and occasional lapilli fell at the Bromo observation post, about 2 km away. The ashfall was about 20 cm thick. A news report (Reuters) indicated that some flights were cancelled on 20 December between Australia and Bali due to ash, but the emitting volcano was not identified. CVGHM noted that the ash had damaged agricultural land and trees on the slopes and in river valleys, and had paralyzed transportation in the Cemoro Lawang area. Heavy rain during this time raised concern for potential lahars and landslides.

During 24-25 December, tremor continued with a maximum amplitude of 15-40 mm. Two eruptive earthquakes were noted, with a maximum amplitude of 40 mm and a duration of 25 seconds.

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km and drifted 150 km NE. Another ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km on 30 December and drifted about 95 km to the E.

CVGHM reported that during 22-23 January 2011, continuous tremor occurred (maximum amplitude 15-38 mm) and gray-to-brown plumes from Bromo rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted E. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m above the crater and landed as far as 500 m away. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km and drifted more than 220 km E. The VAAC report noted that CVGHM had confirmed the eruption and observers had sensed elevated sulfur-dioxide gas in the area.

According to news reports (The West Australian, Sydney Morning Herald), ash plumes from Bromo disrupted flights between Australia (Perth, Sydney, Darwin) and Bali during 27-28 January. An ash plume on 28 January rose to an altitude of 5.5 km and drifted 370 km E and SE. Another ash plume on 29 January rose to an altitude of 3.7 km and drifted 93 km E. During 29-31 January, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km and drifted 55 km NW.

CVGHM reported that on 5 February volcanic bombs ejected from Bromo were found 1.2-1.4 km from the crater rim. During 5-9 February and 17-18 February, gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted E and ENE, causing ashfall in nearby villages. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater and landed as far as 500 m away. Roaring and booming noises were noted. Ash fell at the Bromo observation post, and in nearby villages, including Ngadirejo (10 km WNW), Sukapura (14 km NE), and Sumber (18 km E). High-amplitude seismicity and volcanic tremor were detected. During 5-9 February, the maximum amplitude of the tremor was 17-40 mm.

Based on pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km and drifted W. On 11 February satellite imagery showed an ash plume drifting 37 km SE at an altitude of 3 km. Additional ash plumes on 12 February rose to altitudes of 3-7.9 km and drifted 37-167 km NW and SE.

On 10 March 2011, according to CVGHM, ash fell in areas to the E and NE, including in the Probolinggo district (35 km NE). During 18-20 March, 22-25 March, and 29 March-4 April 2011, gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted in multiple directions. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m above the crater and landed up to 500 m away. Roaring and booming noises were also noted. According to the Darwin VAAC, during 18-20 March, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted 27-150 km NW, SW, and S. Ash plumes on 27-28 March rose to an altitude of 4.3 km and drifted 55 km NE.

According to Richard Roscoe, activity in mid-March 2011 could be distinguished into largely Strombolian phases accompanied by little ash and variable levels of degassing, and phases during which significant amounts of ash were released. (Roscoe, 2011). Strombolian phases were sometimes accompanied by powerful shockwaves, often after short periods (10-30 seconds) of complete calm, presumably signifying blockage of the vent causing pressure buildup. (Roscoe, 2011).

Photo gallery. Several sets of photos from mid-March 2011 documented substantial ash plumes and multiple incandescent bombs escaping Bromo's crater, in many cases Strombolian eruptions with bombs falling on the upper flanks. Some of the 30-second night exposures had streaks documenting more than 10 bombs.

Richard Roscoe presented an album that also contained considerable text, including references (Roscoe, 2011).

A second set of photos was taken in March 2011 by Indonesian travel consultant Aris Yanto (Yanto, 2011). It shows the eruption in a wide variety of conditions from locations near and at distance from the vent (showing many plumes in profile).

References. Roscoe, R, 2011, Bromo Volcano (Tengger Caldera), Photovolcanoica, 86 photographs (URL: http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Bromo/Bromo.html).

Yanto, A, 2011, Mt. Bromo on 17-20 [March], 2011; Aris Yanto's gallery, Picasa Web Albums, 40 photos, 640 x 361 pixels (URL: https://picasaweb.google.com/ndesoadventure/MTBromoOn17202011).

Geologic Background. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Agence France-Presse (URL: http://www.afp.com/afpcom/en/); The Sydney Morning Herald (URL: http://www.smh.com.au/); The West Australian (URL: http://au.news.yahoo.com/thewest/); Reuters (URL: http://www.reuters.com/); Richard Roscoe, Photovolcanica (URL: http://www.photovolcanica.com/).


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — March 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Modest eruptions included ash plumes to 4 km through February 2011

This report discusses volcanism and seismicity at Ulawun between early 2010 through February 2011, a period when the volcano (figure 14) discharged several ash plumes to as high as 3-4 km altitude. In one case, ash plumes were seen in satellite imagery drifting for almost 200 km. Our previous reporting noted steam plumes and increased seismicity in February 2010 (BGVN 35:02), which followed a multi-year interval of comparative quiet (BGVN 33:03 and 34:10).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. (Upper left) Index map showing Ulawun's location on New Britain Island to N of Australia. (Main map) Map of New Britain island and adjacent regions showing the epicenter of the Mw 7.3 earthquake of 18 July 2010. A more detailed map of the area appeared in a report on Likuranga volcano (BGVN 31:10). Main map specified as a 1985 edition (but authorship not found); provided by the University of Texas Library (ww.lib.utexas.edu).

As an overview of this report, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) noted that during May 2010, the volcano produced occasional gray plumes, incandescence, audible noises, and increased seismicity. Accordingly, RVO recommended that the hazard status be set at Stage 1 Alert (in their 4-stage alert system), where it stayed through the rest of the reporting interval. Large regional earthquakes took place in June and July 2010 (figure 14).

Activity during May-July 2010. During 1-21 May, RVO reported variable amounts of white vapor; during late May to July, emissions were darker in color, with some specific examples highlighted below. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported ash plumes during 22-25 May that drifted 35-130 km at an altitude of 3 km. During late May through late June, RVO reported that white to gray plumes rose up to 1 km high and at times ashfall occurred. RVO noted gray plumes on 22, 25, and 29 May. People on the S part of New Britain observed fluctuating incandescence on 28-29 May.

Very fine ashfall was reported on 30 May in areas to the SSW, S, and SSE. It was again reported on 3 and 8 June, ~10 km NW (in Ulamona). During 9-25 June, fine ashfall was reported almost daily on the NW, SW, and sometimes W flanks.

Between late May and early July, low roaring or rumbling noises often were reported. Fluctuating incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 28-29 May, 6-10 June, 13 June, and 16-25 June.

On 18 and 19 June, seismicity increased to a high level and was dominated by volcanic tremor. The next day, seismicity declined to a moderate level and continued to do so after 26 June.

According to the Darwin VAAC, during 1-5 July ash plumes drifted 55-195 km at an altitude of 3 km. RVO reported that, at times during late June and July, white-to-gray plumes rose up to 500 m above the volcano. During 27 June-9 July fine ash fell in areas to Ulawun's SW, W, and NW.

During 5-8 July RVO noted a slight increase in seismicity (above moderate levels), which included tremor. During 16-21 July, volcanic tremors continued, but overall seismicity declined slightly. Seismic amplitude (RSAM) values remained moderate.

RVO reported that on 23-24 July ash plumes were observed.

Large regional earthquakes. RVO reported that several large earthquakes occurred during June and July (table 4). The largest of those were the adjacent 18 July earthquakes, a foreshock of Mw 6.9 and a mainshock of Mw 7.3. The latter, which was destructive, was the largest in about a decade. The Provincial Disaster Office reported significant building damage near the epicenter and in the town of Kimbe (65 km NW of the mainshock's epicenter, figure 14). The mainshock's epicenter was also ~45 km S of Pago volcano and 134 km SW of Ulawun. Many damaged houses had been constructed of bush materials, but some houses also included modern building materials. At least one death was reported. Numerous aftershocks followed the main Mw 7.3 shock.

Table 4. Large regional earthquakes near Ulawun that occurred on the days 2, 3, and 24 June and 18 July 2010. Courtesy of RVO.

Date Time (local) Mw Type Depth (km) Location and comments
02 Jun 2010 1929 5.8 Regional earthquake 80 Offshore near Kandrian
03 Jun 2010 1715 -- High-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquake -- Felt by island residents with Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity up to IV
24 Jun 2010 1532 6.2 Tectonic earthquake 70-80 In central New Britain centered~30-40 km SSE of Bialla town (70-80 km). MM Intensity of ~IV at Rabaul Town
18 Jul 2010 2304 6.9 Foreshock 42 Both earthquakes occurred on the S side of West New Britain Province near Gasmata. Residents felt them very strongly near the epicenter and in Kimbe area.
18 Jul 2010 2335 7.3 Mainshock 35 --

Highlights of behavior, August 2010 through February 2011. During 6-24 August, white and gray-to-brown plumes rose no more than 300 m above Ulawun, and fine ash fell on the NW and W flanks. Seismicity decreased compared to previous weeks.

During 26 November 2010, based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km and drifted 55 km NE.

RVO reported that mild activity continued during 1 January through at least 28 February 2011, characterized by brown-to-gray ash plumes that rose less than 500 m. These produced fine ashfall to the SE. Sulfur dioxide plumes drifted SE on 5 and 31 January. During 23-26 February, gray ash plumes occasionally drifted NE, SW, and NW.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea; Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports