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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Sabancaya (Peru) Daily explosions with ash emissions, large SO2 flux, ongoing thermal anomalies, December 2019-May 2020

Sheveluch (Russia) Lava dome growth and thermal anomalies continue through April 2020, but few ash explosions

Dukono (Indonesia) Numerous ash explosions continue through March 2020

Etna (Italy) Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continue, October 2019-March 2020

Merapi (Indonesia) Explosions produced ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows during October 2019-March 2020

Erta Ale (Ethiopia) Continued lava flow outbreaks and thermal anomalies during November 2019 to early April 2020

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) Weak phreatic explosions during August 2019-March 2020; ash and lahars reported in late January

Manam (Papua New Guinea) Minor explosive activity, continued thermal activity, and SO2 emissions, October 2019-March 2020.

Stromboli (Italy) Strombolian activity continues at both summit crater areas, September-December 2019

Semeru (Indonesia) Ash plumes and thermal anomalies continue during September 2019-February 2020

Popocatepetl (Mexico) Dome growth and destruction continues along with ash emissions and ejecta, September 2019-February 2020

Santa Maria (Guatemala) Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continue, September 2019-February 2020



Sabancaya (Peru) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions with ash emissions, large SO2 flux, ongoing thermal anomalies, December 2019-May 2020

Although tephrochronology has dated activity at Sabancaya back several thousand years, renewed activity that began in 1986 was the first recorded in over 200 years. Intermittent activity since then has produced significant ashfall deposits, seismic unrest, and fumarolic emissions. A new period of explosive activity that began in November 2016 has been characterized by pulses of ash emissions with some plumes exceeding 10 km altitude, thermal anomalies, and significant SO2 plumes. Ash emissions and high levels of SO2 continued each week during December 2019-May 2020. The Observatorio Vulcanologico INGEMMET (OVI) reports weekly on numbers of daily explosions, ash plume heights and directions of drift, seismicity, and other activity. The Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issued three or four daily reports of ongoing ash emissions at Sabancaya throughout the period.

The dome inside the summit crater continued to grow throughout this period, along with nearly constant ash, gas, and steam emissions; the average number of daily explosions ranged from 4 to 29. Ash and gas plume heights rose 1,800-3,800 m above the summit crater, and multiple communities around the volcano reported ashfall every month (table 6). Sulfur dioxide emissions were notably high and recorded daily with the TROPOMI satellite instrument (figure 75). Thermal activity declined during December 2019 from levels earlier in the year but remained steady and increased in both frequency and intensity during April and May 2020 (figure 76). Infrared satellite images indicated that the primary heat source throughout the period was from the dome inside the summit crater (figure 77).

Table 6. Persistent activity at Sabancaya during December 2019-May 2020 included multiple daily explosions with ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the summit and drifted in many directions; this resulted in ashfall in communities within 30 km of the volcano. Satellite instruments recorded SO2 emissions daily. Data courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET.

Month Avg. Daily Explosions by week Max plume Heights (m above crater) Plume drift (km) and direction Communities reporting ashfall Min Days with SO2 over 2 DU
Dec 2019 16, 13, 5, 5 2,600-3,800 20-30 NW Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Achoma, Coporaque, Yanque, Chivay, Huambo, Cabanaconde 27
Jan 2020 10, 8, 11, 14, 4 1,800-3,400 30 km W, NW, SE, S Chivay, Yanque, Achoma 29
Feb 2020 8, 11, 20, 19 2,000-2,200 30 km SE, E, NE, W Huambo 29
Mar 2020 14, 22, 29, 18 2,000-3,000 30 km NE, W, NW, SW Madrigal, Lari, Pinchollo 30
Apr 2020 12, 12, 16, 13, 8 2,000-3,000 30 km SE, NW, E, S Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque, Achoma 27
May 2020 15, 14, 6, 16 1,800-2,400 30 km SW, SE, E, NE, W Chivay, Achoma, Maca, Lari, Madrigal, Pinchollo 27
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sulfur dioxide anomalies were captured daily from Sabancaya during December 2019-May 2020 by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Some of the largest SO2 plumes are shown here with dates listed in the information at the top of each image. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Thermal activity at Sabancaya declined during December 2019 from levels earlier in the year but remained steady and increased slightly in frequency and intensity during April and May 2020, according to the MIROVA graph of Log Radiative Power from 23 June 2019 through May 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Sabancaya confirmed the frequent ash emissions and ongoing thermal activity from the dome inside the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020. Top row (left to right): On 6 December 2019 a large plume of steam and ash drifted N from the summit. On 16 December 2019 a thermal anomaly encircled the dome inside the summit caldera while gas and possible ash drifted NW. On 14 April 2020 a very similar pattern persisted inside the crater. Bottom row (left to right): On 19 April an ash plume was clearly visible above dense cloud cover. On 24 May the infrared glow around the dome remained strong; a diffuse plume drifted W. A large plume of ash and steam drifted SE from the summit on 29 May. Infrared images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a), other images use Natural Color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The average number of daily explosions during December 2019 decreased from a high of 16 the first week of the month to a low of five during the last week. Six pyroclastic flows occurred on 10 December (figure 78). Tremors were associated with gas-and-ash emissions for most of the month. Ashfall was reported in Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Achoma, Coporaque, Yanque, and Chivay during the first week of the month, and in Huambo and Cabanaconde during the second week (figure 79). Inflation of the volcano was measured throughout the month. SO2 flux was measured by OVI as ranging from 2,500 to 4,300 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Multiple daily explosions at Sabancaya produced ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the summit. Left image is from 5 December and right image is from 11 December 2019. Note pyroclastic flows to the right of the crater on 11 December. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-49-2019/INGEMMET Semana del 2 al 8 de diciembre de 2019 and RSSAB-50-2019/INGEMMET Semana del 9 al 15 de diciembre de 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Communities to the N and W of Sabancaya recorded ashfall from the volcano the first week of December and also every month during December 2019-May 2020. The red zone is the area where access is prohibited (about a 12-km radius from the crater). Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-22-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 25 al 31 de mayo del 2020).

During January and February 2020 the number of daily explosions averaged 4-20. Ash plumes rose as high as 3.4 km above the summit (figure 80) and drifted up to 30 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Chivay, Yanque, and Achoma on 8 January, and in Huambo on 25 February. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from a low of 1,200 t/d on 29 February to a high of 8,200 t/d on 28 January. Inflation of the edifice was measured during January; deformation changed to deflation in early February but then returned to inflation by the end of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Ash plumes rose from Sabancaya every day during January and February 2020. Left: 11 January. Right: 28 February. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-02-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 06 al 12 de enero del 2020 and RSSAB-09-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 24 de febrero al 01 de marzo del 2020).

Explosions continued during March and April 2020, averaging 8-29 per day. Explosions appeared to come from multiple vents on 11 March (figure 81). Ash plumes rose 3 km above the summit during the first week of March and again the first week of April; they were lower during the other weeks. Ashfall was reported in Madrigal, Lari, and Pinchollo on 27 March and 5 April. On 17 April ashfall was reported in Maca, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque, and Achoma. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from 1,900 t/d on 5 March to 10,700 t/d on 30 March. Inflation at depth continued throughout March and April with 10 +/- 4 mm recorded between 21 and 26 April. Similar activity continued during May 2020; explosions averaged 6-16 per day (figure 82). Ashfall was reported on 6 May in Chivay, Achoma, Maca, Lari, Madrigal, and Pinchollo; heavy ashfall was reported in Achoma on 12 May. Additional ashfall was reported in Achoma, Maca, Madrigal, and Lari on 23 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Explosions at Sabancaya on 11 March 2020 appeared to originate simultaneously from two different vents (left). The plume on 12 April was measured at about 2,500 m above the summit. Courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-11-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 9 al 15 de marzo del 2020 and RSSAB-15-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 6 al 12 de abril del 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Explosions dense with ash continued during May 2020 at Sabancaya. On 11 and 29 May 2020 ash plumes rose from the summit and drifted as far as 30 km before dissipating. Courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya , RSSAB-20-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 11 al 17 de mayo del 2020 and RSSAB-22-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 25 al 31 de mayo del 2020).

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Volcanologico del INGEMMET (Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico), Barrio Magisterial Nro. 2 B-16 Umacollo - Yanahuara Arequipa, Peru (URL: http://ovi.ingemmet.gob.pe); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sheveluch (Russia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome growth and thermal anomalies continue through April 2020, but few ash explosions

The eruption at Sheveluch has continued for more than 20 years, with strong explosions that have produced ash plumes, lava dome growth, hot avalanches, numerous thermal anomalies, and strong fumarolic activity (BGVN 44:05). During this time, there have been periods of greater or lesser activity. The most recent period of increased activity began in December 2018 and continued through October 2019 (BGVN 44:11). This report covers activity between November 2019 to April 2020, a period during which activity waned. The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) and Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

During the reporting period, KVERT noted that lava dome growth continued, accompanied by incandescence of the dome blocks and hot avalanches. Strong fumarolic activity was also present (figure 53). However, the overall eruption intensity waned. Ash plumes sometimes rose to 10 km altitude and drifted downwind over 600 km (table 14). The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), except for 3 November when it was raised briefly to Red (the highest level).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Fumarolic activity of Sheveluch’s lava dome on 24 January 2020. Photo by Y. Demyanchuk; courtesy of KVERT.

Table 14. Explosions and ash plumes at Sheveluch during November 2019-April 2020. Dates and times are UTC, not local. Data courtesy of KVERT and the Tokyo VAAC.

Dates Plume Altitude (km) Drift Distance and Direction Remarks
01-08 Nov 2019 -- 640 km NW 3 November: ACC raised to Red from 0546-0718 UTC before returning to Orange.
08-15 Nov 2019 9-10 1,300 km ESE
17-27 Dec 2019 6.0-6.5 25 km E Explosions at about 23:50 UTC on 21 Dec.
20-27 Mar 2020 -- 45 km N 25 March: Gas-and-steam plume containing some ash.
03-10 Apr 2020 10 km 526 km SE 8 April: Strong explosion at 1910 UTC.
17-24 Apr 2020 -- 140 km NE Re-suspended ash plume.

KVERT reported thermal anomalies over the volcano every day, except for 25-26 January, when clouds obscured observations. During the reporting period, thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm recorded hotspots on 10 days in November, 13 days in December, nine days in January, eight days in both February and March, and five days in April. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected numerous hotspots every month, almost all of which were of moderate radiative power (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Thermal anomalies at Sheveluch continued at elevated levels during November 2019-April 2020, as seen on this MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph for July 2019-April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

High sulfur dioxide levels were occasionally recorded just above or in the close vicinity of Sheveluch by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, but very little drift was observed.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Dukono (Indonesia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Numerous ash explosions continue through March 2020

The ongoing eruption at Dukono is characterized by frequent explosions that send ash plumes to about 1.5-3 km altitude (0.3-1.8 km above the summit), although a few have risen higher. This type of typical activity (figure 13) continued through at least March 2020. The ash plume data below (table 21) were primarily provided by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). During the reporting period of October 2019-March 2020, the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Table 21. Monthly summary of reported ash plumes from Dukono for October 2019-March 2020. The direction of drift for the ash plume through each month was highly variable; notable plume drift each month was only indicated in the table if at least two weekly reports were consistent. Data courtesy of the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG.

Month Plume Altitude (km) Notable Plume Drift
Oct 2019 1.8-3 Multiple
Nov 2019 1.8-2.3 E, SE, NE
Dec 2019 1.8-2.1 E, SE
Jan 2020 1.8-2.1 E, SE, SW, S
Feb 2020 2.1-2.4 S, SW
Mar 2020 1.5-2.3 Multiple
Figure (see Caption) Figure 13.Satellite image of Dukono from Sentinel-2 on 12 November 2019, showing an ash plume drifting E. Image uses natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the reporting period, high levels of sulfur dioxide were only recorded above or near the volcano during 30-31 October and 4 November 2019. High levels were recorded by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on 30 October 2019, in a plume drifting E. The next day high levels were also recorded by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite on 31 October (figure 14) and 4 November 2019, in plumes drifting SE and NE, respectively.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Sulfur dioxide emission on 31 October 2019 drifting E, probably from Dukono, as recorded by the TROPOMI instrument aboard the Sentinel-5P satellite. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Etna (Italy) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continue, October 2019-March 2020

Mount Etna is a stratovolcano located on the island of Sicily, Italy, with historical eruptions that date back 3,500 years. The most recent eruptive period began in September 2013 and has continued through March 2020. Activity is characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava flows, and ash plumes that commonly occur from the summit area, including the Northeast Crater (NEC), the Voragine-Bocca Nuova (or Central) complex (VOR-BN), the Southeast Crater (SEC, formed in 1978), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC, formed in 2011). The newest crater, referred to as the "cono della sella" (saddle cone), emerged during early 2017 in the area between SEC and NSEC. This reporting period covers information from October 2019 through March 2020 and includes frequent explosions and ash plumes. The primary source of information comes from the Osservatorio Etneo (OE), part of the Catania Branch of Italy's Istituo Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica (INGV).

Summary of activity during October 2019-March 2020. Strombolian activity and gas-and-steam and ash emissions were frequently observed at Etna throughout the entire reporting period, according to INGV and Toulouse VAAC notices. Activity was largely located within the main cone (Voragine-Bocca Nuova complex), the Northeast Crater (NEC), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 1, 17, and 19 October, ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km. Due to constant Strombolian explosions, ground observations showed that a scoria cone located on the floor of the VOR Crater had begun to grow in late November and again in late January 2020. A lava flow was first detected on 6 December at the base of the scoria cone in the VOR Crater, which traveled toward the adjacent BN Crater. Additional lava flows were observed intermittently throughout the reporting period in the same crater. On 13 March, another small scoria cone had formed in the main VOR-BN complex due to Strombolian explosions.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows multiple episodes of thermal activity varying in power from 22 June 2019 to March 2020 (figure 286). The power and frequency of these thermal anomalies significantly decreased between August to mid-September. The pulse of activity in mid-September reflected a lava flow from the VOR Crater (BGVN 44:10). By late October through November, thermal anomalies were relatively weaker and less frequent. The next pulse in thermal activity reflected in the MIROVA graph occurred in early December, followed by another shortly after in early January, both of which were due to new lava flows from the VOR Crater. After 9 January the thermal anomalies remained frequent and strong; active lava flows continued through March accompanied by Strombolian explosions, gas-and-steam, SO2, and ash emissions. The most recent distinct pulse in thermal activity was seen in mid-March; on 13 March, another lava flow formed, accompanied by an increase in seismicity. This lava flow, like the previous ones, also originated in the VOR Crater and traveled W toward the BN Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 286. Multiple episodes of varying activity at Etna from 22 June 2019 through March 2020 were reflected in the MIROVA thermal energy data (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during October-December 2019. During October 2019, VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) notices issued by INGV reported ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km on 1, 17, and 19 October. Strombolian explosions occurred frequently. Explosions were detected primarily in the VOR-BN Craters, ejecting coarse pyroclastic material that fell back into the crater area and occasionally rising above the crater rim. Ash emissions rose from the VOR-BN and NEC while intense gas-and-steam emissions were observed in the NSEC (figure 287). Between 10-12 and 14-20 October fine ashfall was observed in Pedara, Mascalucia, Nicolosi, San Giovanni La Punta, and Catania. In addition to these ash emissions, the explosive Strombolian activity contributed to significant SO2 plumes that drifted in different directions (figure 288).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 287. Webcam images of ash emissions from the NE Crater at Etna from the a) CUAD (Catania) webcam on 10 October 2019; b) Milo webcam on 11 October 2019; c) Milo webcam on 12 October 2019; d) M.te Cagliato webcam on 13 October 2019. Courtesy of INGV (Report 42/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 07/10/2019 - 13/10/2019, data emissione 15/10/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 288. Strombolian activity at Etna contributed to significant SO2 plumes that drifted in multiple directions during the intermittent explosions in October 2019. Top left: 1 October 2019. Top right: 2 October 2019. Middle left: 15 October 2019. Middle right: 18 October 2019. Bottom left: 13 November 2019. Bottom right: 1 December 2019. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

The INGV weekly bulletin covering activity between 25 October and 1 November 2019 reported that Strombolian explosions occurred at intervals of 5-10 minutes from within the VOR-BN and NEC, ejecting incandescent material above the crater rim, accompanied by modest ash emissions. In addition, gas-and-steam emissions were observed from all the summit craters. Field observations showed the cone in the crater floor of VOR that began to grow in mid-September 2019 had continued to grow throughout the month. During the week of 4-10 November, Strombolian activity within the Bocca Nuova Crater was accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. The explosions in the VOR Crater occasionally ejected incandescent ejecta above the crater rim (figures 289 and 290). For the remainder of the month Strombolian explosions continued in the VOR-BN and NEC, producing sporadic ash emissions. Isolated and discontinuous explosions in the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) also produced fine ash, though gas-and-steam emissions still dominated the activity at this crater. Additionally, the explosions from these summit craters were frequently accompanied by strong SO2 emissions that drifted in different directions as discrete plumes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 289. Photo of Strombolian activity and crater incandescence in the Voragine Crater at Etna on 15 November 2019. Photo by B. Behncke, taken by Tremestieri Etneo. Courtesy of INGV (Report 47/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 11/11/2019 - 17/11/2019, data emissione 19/11/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 290. Webcam images of summit crater activity during 26-29 November and 1 December 2019 at Etna. a) image recorded by the high-resolution camera on Montagnola (EMOV); b) and c) webcam images taken from Tremestieri Etneo on the southern slope of Etna showing summit incandescence; d) image recorded by the thermal camera on Montagnola (EMOT) showing summit incandescence at the NSEC. Courtesy of INGV (Report 49/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/11/2019 - 01/12/2019, data emissione 03/12/2019).

Frequent Strombolian explosions continued through December 2019 within the VOR-BN, NEC, and NSEC Craters with sporadic ash emissions observed in the VOR-BN and NEC. On 6 December, Strombolian explosions increased in the NSEC; webcam images showed incandescent pyroclastic material ejected above the crater rim. On the morning of 6 December a lava flow was observed from the base of the scoria cone in the VOR Crater that traveled toward the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater. INGV reported that a new vent opened on the side of the saddle cone (NSEC) on 11 December and produced explosions until 14 December.

Activity during January-March 2020. On 9 January 2020 an aerial flight organized by RAI Linea Bianca and the state police showed the VOR Crater continuing to produce lava that was flowing over the crater rim into the BN Crater with some explosive activity in the scoria cone. Explosive Strombolian activity produced strong and distinct SO2 plumes (figure 291) and ash emissions through March, according to the weekly INGV reports, VONA notices, and satellite imagery. Several ash emissions during 21-22 January rose from the vent that opened on 11 December. According to INGV’s weekly bulletin for 21-26 January, the scoria cone in the VOR crater produced Strombolian explosions that increased in frequency and contributed to rapid cone growth, particularly the N part of the cone. Lava traveled down the S flank of the cone and into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater, filling the E crater (BN-2) (figure 292). The NEC had discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic, diffuse ash emissions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 291. Distinct SO2 plumes drifting in multiple directions from Etna were visible in satellite imagery as Strombolian activity continued through March 2020. Top left: 21 January 2020. Top right: 2 February 2020. Bottom left: 10 March 2020. Bottom right: 19 March 2020. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 292. a) A map of the lava field at Etna showing cooled flows (yellow) and active flows (red). The base of the scoria cone is outlined in black while the crater rim is outlined in red. b) Thermal image of the Bocca Nuova and Voragine Craters. The bright orange is the warmest temperature measure in the flow. Courtesy of INGV, photos by Laboratorio di Cartografia FlyeEye Team (Report 10/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/02/2020 - 01/03/2020, data emissione 03/03/2020).

Strombolian explosions continued into February 2020, accompanied by ash emissions and lava flows from the previous months (figure 293). During 17-23 February, INGV reported that some subsidence was observed in the central portion of the Bocca Nuova Crater. During 24 February to 1 March, the Strombolian explosions ejected lava from the VOR Crater up to 150-200 m above the vent as bombs fell on the W edge of the VOR crater rim (figure 294). Lava flows continued to move into the W part of the Bocca Nuova Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 293. Webcam images of A) Strombolian activity and B) effusive activity fed by the scoria cone grown inside the VOR Crater at Etna taken on 1 February 2020. C) Thermal image of the lava field produced by the VOR Crater taken by L. Lodato on 3 February (bottom left). Image of BN-1 taken by F. Ciancitto on 3 February in the summit area (bottom right). Courtesy of INGV; Report 06/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 27/01/2020 - 02/02/2020, data emissione 04/02/2020 (top) and Report 07/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 03/02/2020 - 09/02/2020, data emissione 11/02/2020 (bottom).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 294. Photos of the VOR intra-crater scoria cone at Etna: a) Strombolian activity resumed on 25 February 2020 from the SW edge of BN taken by B. Behncke; b) weak Strombolian activity from the vent at the base N of the cone on 29 February 2020 from the W edge of VOR taken by V. Greco; c) old vent present at the base N of the cone, taken on 17 February 2020 from the E edge of VOR taken by B. Behncke; d) view of the flank of the cone, taken on 24 February 2020 from the W edge of VOR taken by F. Ciancitto. Courtesy of INGV (Report 10/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/02/2020 - 01/03/2020, data emissione 03/03/2020).

During 9-15 March 2020 Strombolian activity was detected in the VOR Crater while discontinuous ash emissions rose from the NEC and NSEC. Bombs were found in the N saddle between the VOR and NSEC craters. On 9 March, a small scoria cone that had formed in the Bocca Nuova Crater and was ejecting bombs and lava tens of meters above the S crater rim. The lava flow from the VOR Crater was no longer advancing. A third scoria cone had formed on 13 March NE in the main VOR-BN complex due to the Strombolian explosions on 29 February. Another lava flow formed on 13 March, accompanied by an increase in seismicity. The weekly report for 16-22 March reported Strombolian activity detected in the VOR Crater and gas-and-steam and rare ash emissions observed in the NEC and NSEC (figure 295). Explosions in the Bocca Nuova Crater ejected spatter and bombs 100 m high.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 295. Map of the summit crater area of Etna showing the active vents and lava flows during 16-22 March 2020. Black hatch marks indicate the crater rims: BN = Bocca Nuova, with NW BN-1 and SE BN-2; VOR = Voragine; NEC = North East Crater; SEC = South East Crater; NSEC = New South East Crater. Red circles indicate areas with ash emissions and/or Strombolian activity, yellow circles indicate steam and/or gas emissions only. The base is modified from a 2014 DEM created by Laboratorio di Aerogeofisica-Sezione Roma 2. Courtesy of INGV (Report 13/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 16/03/2020 - 22/03/2020, data emissione 24/03/2020).

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/it/); Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Météo-France, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse cedex, France (URL: http://www.meteo.fr/aeroweb/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Boris Behncke, Sonia Calvari, and Marco Neri, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: https://twitter.com/etnaboris, Image at https://twitter.com/etnaboris/status/1183640328760414209/photo/1).


Merapi (Indonesia) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions produced ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows during October 2019-March 2020

Merapi is a highly active stratovolcano located in Indonesia, just north of the city of Yogyakarta. The current eruption episode began in May 2018 and was characterized by phreatic explosions, ash plumes, block avalanches, and a newly active lava dome at the summit. This reporting period updates information from October 2019-March 2020 that includes explosions, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes, and ashfall. The primary reporting source of activity comes from Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG, the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG) and Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM).

Some ongoing lava dome growth continued in October 2019 in the NE-SW direction measuring 100 m in length, 30 m in width, and 20 m in depth. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequent, reaching a maximum height of 700 m above the crater on 31 October. An explosion at 1631 on 14 October removed the NE-SW trending section of the lava dome and produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater and extended SW for about 2 km (figures 90 and 91). The plume resulted in ashfall as far as 25 km to the SW. According to a Darwin VAAC notice, a thermal hotspot was detected in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. A pyroclastic flow associated with the eruption traveled down the SW flank in the Gendol drainage. During 14-20 October lava flows from the crater generated block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km SW, according to BPPTKG.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. An ash plume rising 3 km above Merapi on 14 October 2019.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Webcam image of an ash plume rising above Merapi at 1733 on 14 October 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG via Jaime S. Sincioco.

At 0621 on 9 November 2019, an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W. Ashfall was observed in the W region as far as 15 km from the summit in Wonolelo and Sawangan in Magelang Regency, as well as Tlogolele and Selo in Boyolali Regency. An associated pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the Gendol drainage on the SE flank. On 12 November aerial drone photographs were used to measure the volume of the lava dome, which was 407,000 m3. On 17 November, an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater, resulting in ashfall as far as 15 km W from the summit in the Dukun District, Magelang Regency (figure 92). A pyroclastic flow accompanying the eruption traveled 1 km down the SE flank in the Gendol drainage. By 30 November low-frequency earthquakes and CO2 gas emissions had increased.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. An ash plume rising 1 km above Merapi on 17 November 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Volcanism was relatively low from 18 November 2019 through 12 February 2020, characterized primarily by gas-and-steam emissions and intermittent volcanic earthquakes. On 4 January a pyroclastic flow was recorded by the seismic network at 2036, but it wasn’t observed due to weather conditions. On 13 February an explosion was detected at 0516, which ejected incandescent material within a 1-km radius from the summit (figure 93). Ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater and drifted NW, resulting in ashfall within 10 km, primarily S of the summit; lightning was also seen in the plume. Ash was observed in Hargobinangun, Glagaharjo, and Kepuharjo. On 19 February aerial drone photographs were used to measure the change in the lava dome after the eruption; the volume of the lava had decreased, measuring 291,000 m3.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Webcam image of an ash plume rising from Merapi at 0516 on 13 February 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia and PVMBG.

An explosion on 3 March at 0522 produced an ash plume that rose 6 km above the crater (figure 94), resulting in ashfall within 10 km of the summit, primarily to the NE in the Musuk and Cepogo Boyolali sub-districts and Mriyan Village, Boyolali (3 km from the summit). A pyroclastic flow accompanied this eruption, traveling down the SSE flank less than 2 km. Explosions continued to be detected on 25 and 27-28 March, resulting in ash plumes. The eruption on 27 March at 0530 produced an ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater, causing ashfall as far as 20 km to the W in the Mungkid subdistrict, Magelang Regency, and Banyubiru Village, Dukun District, Magelang Regency. An associated pyroclastic flow descended the SSE flank, traveling as far as 2 km. The ash plume from the 28 March eruption rose 2 km above the crater, causing ashfall within 5 km from the summit in the Krinjing subdistrict primarily to the W (figure 94).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Images of ash plumes rising from Merapi during 3 March (left) and 28 March 2020 (right). Images courtesy of BPPTKG (left) and PVMBG (right).

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BNPB_Indonesia); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Jamie S. Sincioco, Phillipines (Twitter: @jaimessincioco, Image at https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1227966075519635456/photo/1).


Erta Ale (Ethiopia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Erta Ale

Ethiopia

13.6°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued lava flow outbreaks and thermal anomalies during November 2019 to early April 2020

Erta Ale is a shield volcano located in Ethiopia and contains multiple active pit craters in the summit and southeastern caldera. Volcanism has been characterized by lava flows and large lava flow fields since 2017. Surficial lava flow activity continued within the southeastern caldera during November 2019 until early April 2020; source information was primarily from various satellite data.

The number of days that thermal anomalies were detected using MODIS data in MODVOLC and NASA VIIRS satellite data was notably higher in November and December 2019 (figure 96); the number of thermal anomalies in the Sentinel-2 thermal imagery was substantially lower due to the presence of cloud cover. Across all satellite data, thermal anomalies were identified for 29 days in November, followed by 30 days in December. After December 2019, the number of days thermal anomalies were detected decreased; hotspots were detected for 17 days in January 2020 and 20 days in February. By March, these thermal anomalies became rare until activity ceased. Thermal anomalies were identified during 1-4 March, with weak anomalies seen again during 26 March-8 April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Graph comparing the number of thermal alerts using calendar dates using MODVOLC, NASA VIIRS, and Sentinel-2 satellite data for Erta Ale during November 2019-March 2020. Data courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, NASA Worldview using the “Fire and Thermal Anomalies” layer, and Sentinel Hub Playground.

MIROVA (Middle Infrared Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed frequent strong thermal anomalies from 18 April through December 2019 (figure 97). Between early August 2019 and March 2020, these thermal signatures were detected at distances less than 5 km from the summit. In late December the thermal intensity dropped slightly before again increasing, while at the same time moving slightly closer to the summit. Thermal anomalies then became more intermittent and steadily decreased in power over the next two months.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Two time-series plots of thermal anomalies from Erta Ale from 18 April 2019 through 18 April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system. The top plot (A) shows that the thermal anomalies were consistently strong (measured in log radiative power) and occurred frequently until early January 2020 when both the power and frequency visibly declined. The lower plot (B) shows these anomalies as a function of distance from the summit, including a sudden decrease in distance (measured in kilometers) in early August 2019, reflecting a change in the location of the lava flow outbreak. A smaller distance change can be identified at the end of December 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Unlike the obvious distal breakouts to the NE seen previously (BGVN 44:04 and 44:11), infrared satellite imagery during November-December 2019 showed only a small area with a thermal anomaly near the NE edge of the Southeast Caldera (figure 98). A thermal alert was seen at that location using the MODVOLC system on 28 December, but the next day it had been replaced by an anomaly about 1.5 km WSW near the N edge of the Southeast Caldera where the recent flank eruption episode had been centered between January 2017 and January 2018 (BGVN 43:04). The thermal anomaly that was detected in the summit caldera was no longer visible after 9 January 2020, based on Sentinel-2 imagery. The exact location of lava flows shifted within the same general area during January and February 2020 and was last detected by Sentinel-2 on 4 March. After about two weeks without detectable thermal activity, weak unlocated anomalies were seen in VIIRS data on 26 March and in MODIS data on the MIROVA system four times between 26 March and 8 April. No further anomalies were noted through the rest of April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Erta Ale volcanism between November 2019 and March 2020 showing small lava flow outbreaks (bright yellow-orange) just NE of the southeastern calderas. A thermal anomaly can be seen in the summit crater on 15 November and very faintly on 20 December 2019. Imagery on 19 January 2020 showed a small thermal anomaly near the N edge of the Southeast Caldera where the recent flank eruption episode had been centered between January 2017 and January 2018. The last weak thermal hotspot was detected on 4 March (bottom right). Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide edifice rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the N flank.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak phreatic explosions during August 2019-March 2020; ash and lahars reported in late January

Rincón de la Vieja is a remote volcanic complex in Costa Rica containing an acid lake that has regularly generated weak phreatic explosions since 2011 (BGVN 44:08). The most recent eruptive period occurred during late March-early June 2019, primarily consisting of small phreatic explosions, minor deposits on the N crater rim, and gas-and-steam emissions. The report period of August 2019-March 2020 was characterized by similar activity, including small phreatic explosions, gas-and-steam plumes, ash and lake sediment ejecta, and volcanic tremors. The most significant activity during this time occurred on 30 January, where a phreatic explosion ejected ash and lake sediment above the crater rim, resulting in a pyroclastic flow which gradually turned into a lahar. Information for this reporting period of August 2019-March 2020 comes from the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) using weekly bulletins.

According to OVSICORI-UNA, a small hydrothermal eruption was recorded on 1 August 2019. The seismicity was low with a few long period (LP) earthquakes around 1 August and intermittent background tremor. No explosions or emissions were reported through 11 September; seismicity remained low with an occasional LP earthquake and discontinuous tremor. The summit’s extension that has been recorded since the beginning of June stopped, and no significant deformation was observed in August.

Starting again in September 2019 and continuing intermittently through the reporting period, some deformation was observed at the base of the volcano as well as near the summit, according to OVSICORI-UNA. On 12 September an eruption occurred that was followed by volcanic tremors that continued through 15 September. In addition to these tremors, vigorous sustained gas-and-steam plumes were observed. The 16 September weekly bulletin did not describe any ejecta produced as a result of this event.

During 1-3 October small phreatic eruptions were accompanied by volcanic tremors that had decreased by 5 October. In November, volcanism and seismicity were relatively low and stable; few LP earthquakes were reported. This period of low activity remained through December. At the end of November, horizontal extension was observed at the summit, which continued through the first half of January.

Small phreatic eruptions were recorded on 2, 28, and 29 January 2020, with an increase in seismicity occurring on 27 January. On 30 January at 1213 a phreatic explosion produced a gas column that rose 1,500-2,000 m above the crater, with ash and lake sediment ejected up to 100 m above the crater. A news article posted by the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) noted that this explosion generated pyroclastic flows that traveled down the N flank for more than 2 km from the crater. As the pyroclastic flows moved through tributary channels, lahars were generated in the Pénjamo river, Zanjonuda gorge, and Azufrosa, traveling N for 4-10 km and passing through Buenos Aires de Upala (figure 29). Seismicity after this event decreased, though there were still some intermittent tremors.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Photo of a lahar generated from the 30 January 2020 eruption at Rincon de la Vieja. Photo taken by Mauricio Gutiérrez, courtesy of UCR.

On 17, 24, and 25 February and 11, 17, 19, 21, and 23 March, small phreatic eruptions were detected, according to OVSICORI-UNA. Geodetic measurements observed deformation consisting of horizontal extension and inflation near the summit in February-March. By the week of 30 March, the weekly bulletin reported 2-3 small eruptions accompanied by volcanic tremors occurred daily during most days of the week. None of these eruptions produced solid ejecta, pyroclastic flows, or lahars, according to the weekly OVSICORI-UNA bulletins during February-March 2020.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/, https://www.facebook.com/OVSICORI/); Luis Enrique Brenes Portuguéz, University of Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio Brenes, San José, San Pedro, Costa Rica (URL: https://www.ucr.ac.cr/noticias/2020/01/30/actividad-del-volcan-rincon-de-la-vieja-es-normal-segun-experto.html).


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor explosive activity, continued thermal activity, and SO2 emissions, October 2019-March 2020.

Manam is a basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano that lies 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea; it has a 400-year history of recorded evidence for recurring low-level ash plumes, occasional Strombolian activity, lava flows, pyroclastic avalanches, and large ash plumes from Main and South, the two active summit craters. The current eruption, ongoing since June 2014, produced multiple large explosive eruptions during January-September 2019, including two 15-km-high ash plumes in January, repeated SO2 plumes each month, and another 15.2 km-high ash plume in June that resulted in ashfall and evacuations of several thousand people (BGVN 44:10).

This report covers continued activity during October 2019 through March 2020. Information about Manam is primarily provided by Papua New Guinea's Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), part of the Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM). This information is supplemented with aviation alerts from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). MODIS thermal anomaly satellite data is recorded by the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC thermal alert recording system, and the Italian MIROVA project; sulfur dioxide monitoring is done by instruments on satellites managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Satellite imagery provided by the Sentinel Hub Playground is also a valuable resource for information about this remote location.

A few modest explosions with ash emissions were reported in early October and early November 2019, and then not again until late March 2020. Although there was little explosive activity during the period, thermal anomalies were recorded intermittently, with low to moderate activity almost every month, as seen in the MODIS data from MIROVA (figure 71) and also in satellite imagery. Sulfur dioxide emissions persisted throughout the period producing emissions greater than 2.0 Dobson Units that were recorded in satellite data 3-13 days each month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. MIROVA thermal anomaly data for Manam from 17 June 2019 through March 2020 indicate continued low and moderate level thermal activity each month from August 2019 through February 2020, after a period of increased activity in June and early July 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume in visible satellite imagery moving NW at 3.1 km altitude on 2 October 2019. Weak ash emissions were observed drifting N for the next two days along with an IR anomaly at the summit. RVO reported incandescence at night during the first week of October. Visitors to the summit on 18 October 2019 recorded steam and fumarolic activity at both of the summit craters (figure 72) and recent avalanche debris on the steep slopes (figure 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Steam and fumarolic activity rose from Main crater at Manam on 18 October 2019 in this view to the south from a ridge north of the crater. Google Earth inset of summit shows location of photograph. Courtesy of Vulkanologische Gesellschaft and Claudio Jung, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Volcanic debris covered an avalanche chute on the NE flank of Manam when visited by hikers on 18 October 2019. Courtesy of Vulkanologische Gesellschaft and Claudio Jung, used with permission.

On 2 November, a single large explosion at 1330 local time produced a thick, dark ash plume that rose about 1,000 m above the summit and drifted NW. A shockwave from the explosion was felt at the Bogia Government station located 40 km SE on the mainland about 1 minute later. RVO reported an increase in seismicity on 6 November about 90 minutes before the start of a new eruption from the Main Crater which occurred between 1600 and 1630; it produced light to dark gray ash clouds that rose about 1,000 m above the summit and drifted NW. Incandescent ejecta was visible at the start of the explosion and continued with intermittent strong pulses after dark, reaching peak intensity around 1900. Activity ended by 2200 that evening. The Darwin VAAC reported a discrete emission observed in satellite imagery on 8 November that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted WNW, although ground observers confirmed that no eruption took place; emissions were only steam and gas. There were no further reports of explosive activity until the Darwin VAAC reported an ash emission in visible satellite imagery on 20 March 2020 that rose to 3.1 km altitude and drifted E for a few hours before dissipating.

Although explosive activity was minimal during the period, SO2 emissions, and evidence for continued thermal activity were recorded by satellite instruments each month. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite captured evidence each month of SO2 emissions exceeding two Dobson Units (figure 74). The most SO2 activity occurred during October 2019, with 13 days of signatures over 2.0 DU. There were six days of elevated SO2 each month in November and December, and five days in January 2020. During February and March, activity was less, with smaller SO2 plumes recording more than 2.0 DU on three days each month. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery recorded thermal anomalies at least once from one or both of the summit craters each month between October 2019 and March 2020 (figure 75).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. SO2 emissions at Manam exceeded 2 Dobson Units multiple days each month between October 2019 and March 2020. On 3 October 2019 (top left) emissions were also measured from Ulawun located 700 km E on New Britain island. On 30 November 2019 (top middle), in addition to a plume drifting N from Manam, a small SO2 plume was detected at Bagana on Bougainville Island, 1150 km E. The plume from Manam on 2 December 2019 drifted ESE (top right). On 26 January 2020 the plume drifted over 300 km E (bottom left). The plumes measured on 29 February and 4 March 2020 (bottom middle and right) only drifted a few tens of kilometers before dissipating. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8a) showed thermal anomalies at one or both of Manam’s summit craters each month during October 2019-March 2020. On 17 October 2019 (top left) a bright anomaly and weak gas plume drifted NW from South crater, while a dense steam plume and weak anomaly were present at Main crater. On 25 January 2020 (top right) the gas and steam from the two craters were drifting E; the weaker Main crater thermal anomaly is just visible at the edge of the clouds. A clear image on 5 March 2020 (bottom left) shows weak plumes and distinct thermal anomalies from both craters; on 20 March (bottom right) the anomalies are still visible through dense cloud cover that may include steam from the crater vents as well. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Vulkanologische Gesellschaft (URL: https://twitter.com/vulkanologen/status/1194228532219727874, https://twitter.com/vulkanologen/status/1193788836679225344); Claudio Jung, (URL: https://www.facebook.com/claudio.jung.1/posts/10220075272173895, https://www.instagram.com/jung.claudio/).


Stromboli (Italy) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity continues at both summit crater areas, September-December 2019

Near-constant fountains of lava at Stromboli have served as a natural beacon in the Tyrrhenian Sea for at least 2,000 years. Eruptive activity at the summit consistently occurs from multiple vents at both a north crater area (N area) and a southern crater group (CS area) on the Terrazza Craterica at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a large scarp that runs from the summit down the NW side of the volcano-island (figure 168). Periodic lava flows emerge from the vents and flow down the scarp, sometimes reaching the sea; occasional large explosions produce ash plumes and pyroclastic flows. Thermal and visual cameras that monitor activity at the vents are located on the nearby Pizzo Sopra La Fossa, above the Terrazza Craterica, and at multiple locations on the flanks of the volcano. Detailed information for Stromboli is provided by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) as well as other satellite sources of data; September-December 2019 is covered in this report.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 168. This shaded relief map of Stromboli’s crater area was created from images acquired by drone on 9 July 2019 (In collaboration with GEOMAR drone group, Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany). Inset shows Stromboli Island, the black rectangle indicates the area of the larger image, the black curved and the red hatched lines indicate, respectively, the morphological escarpment and the crater edges. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 50/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 02/12/2019 - 08/12/2019, data emissione 10/12/2019).

Activity was very consistent throughout the period of September-December 2019. Explosion rates ranged from 2-36 per hour and were of low to medium-high intensity, producing material that rose from less than 80 to over 150 m above the vents on occasion (table 7). The Strombolian activity in both crater areas often sent ejecta outside the crater rim onto the Terrazza Craterica, and also down the Sciara del Fuoco towards the coast. After the explosions of early July and late August, thermal activity decreased to more moderate levels that persisted throughout the period as seen in the MIROVA Log Radiative Power data (figure 169). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery supported descriptions of the constant glow at the summit, revealing incandescence at both summit areas, each showing repeating bursts of activity throughout the period (figure 170).

Table 7. Monthly summary of activity levels at Stromboli, September-December 2019. Low-intensity activity indicates ejecta rising less than 80 m, medium-intensity is ejecta rising less than 150 m, and high-intensity is ejecta rising over 200 m above the vent. Data courtesy of INGV.

Month Activity
Sep 2019 Explosion rates varied from 11-36 events per hour and were of low- to medium intensity (producing 80-120 m high ejecta). Lapilli and bombs were typical from the N area, and coarse and finer-grained tephra (lapilli and ash) were most common in the CS area. The Strombolian activity in both crater areas often sent ejecta outside the crater rim onto the terrace, and also down the Sciara del Fuoco towards the coast.
Oct 2019 Typical Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosions rates varied from 2-21 events per hour. Low intensity activity was common in the N area (ejecta less than 80 m high) and low to moderate intensity activity was typical in the CS area, with a few explosions rising over 150 m high. Lapilli and bombs were typical from the N area, and coarse and finer-grained tephra (lapilli and ash) were most common in the CS area. Some of the explosions sent ejecta down the Sciara del Fuoco.
Nov 2019 Typical Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosion rates varied from 11-23 events per hour with ejecta rising usually 80-150 m above the vents. Occasional explosions rose 250 m high. In the N area, explosions were generally low intensity with coarse material (lapilli and bombs). In many explosions, ejecta covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, and some blocks rolled for a few hundred meters before stopping. In the CS area, coarse material was mixed with fine and some explosions sent ejecta onto the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco.
Dec 2019 Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosion rates varied from 12-26 per hour. In the N area, explosion intensity was mainly medium-low (less than 150 m) with coarse ejecta while in the CS area it was usually medium-high (more than 150 m) with both coarse and fine ejecta. In many explosions, debris covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, and some blocks rolled for a few hundred meters before stopping. Spattering activity was noted in the southern vents of the N area.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 169. Thermal activity at Stromboli was high during July-August 2019, when two major explosions occurred. Activity continued at more moderate levels through December 2019 as seen in the MIROVA graph of Log Radiative Power from 8 June through December 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 170. Stromboli reliably produced strong thermal signals from both of the summit vents throughout September-December 2019 and has done so since long before Sentinel-2 satellite imagery was able to detect it. Image dates are (top, l to r) 5 September, 15 October, 20 October, (bottom l to r) 14 November, 14 December 2019, and 3 January 2020. Sentinel-2 imagery uses Atmospheric penetration rendering with bands 12, 11, and 8A, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

After a major explosion with a pyroclastic flow on 28 August 2019, followed by lava flows that reached the ocean in the following days (BGVN 44:09), activity diminished in early September to levels more typically seen in recent times. This included Strombolian activity from vents in both the N and CS areas that sent ejecta typically 80-150 m high. Ejecta from the N area generally consisted of lapilli and bombs, while the material from the CS area was often finer grained with significant amounts of lapilli and ash. The number of explosive events remained high in September, frequently reaching 25-30 events per hour. The ejecta periodically landed outside the craters on the Terrazza Craterica and even traveled partway down the Sciara del Fuoco. An inspection on 7 September by INGV revealed four eruptive vents in the N crater area and five in the S crater area (figure 171). The most active vents in the N area were N1 with mostly ash emissions and N2 with Strombolian explosions rich in incandescent coarse material that sometimes rose well above 150 m in height. In the S area, S1 and S2 produced jets of lava that often reached 100 m high. A small cone was observed around N2, having grown after the 28 August explosion. Between 11 and 13 September aerial surveys with drones produced detailed visual and thermal imagery of the summit (figure 172).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 171. Video of the Stromboli summit taken with a thermal camera on 7 September 2019 from the Pizzo sopra la Fossa revealed four active vents in the N area and five active vents in the S area. Images prepared by Piergiorgio Scarlato, courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 37.2/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 10/09/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 172. An aerial drone survey on 11 September 2019 at Stromboli produced a detailed view of the N and CS vent areas (left) and thermal images taken by a drone survey on 13 September (right) showed elevated temperatures down the Sciara del Fuoco in addition to the vents in the N and CS areas. Images by E. De Beni and M. Cantarero, courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 37.5/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 13/09/2019).

Strombolian activity from the N crater on 28 September and 1 October 2019 produced blocks and debris that rolled down the Sciara del Fuoco and reached the ocean (figure 173). Explosive activity from the CS crater area sometimes produced ejecta over 150 m high (figure 174). A survey on 26 November revealed that a layer of ash 5-10 cm thick had covered the bombs and blocks that were deposited on the Pizzo Sopra la Fossa during the explosions of 3 July and 28 August (figure 175). On the morning of 27 December a lava flow emerged from the CS area and traveled a few hundred meters down the Sciara del Fuoco. The frequency of explosive events remained relatively constant from September through December 2019 after decreasing from higher levels during July and August (figure 176).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 173. Strombolian activity from vents in the N crater area of Stromboli produced ejecta that traveled all the way to the bottom of the Sciara del Fuoco and entered the ocean. Top images taken 28 September 2019 from the 290 m elevation viewpoint by Rosanna Corsaro. Bottom images captured on 1 October from the webcam at 400 m elevation. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 39.0/2019 and Rep. No. 40.3, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 29/09/2019 and 02/10/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 174. Ejecta from Strombolian activity at the CS crater area of Stromboli rose over 150 m on multiple occasions. The webcam located at the 400 m elevation site captured this view of activity on 8 November 2019. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 45.5/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 08/11/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 175. The Pizzo Sopra la Fossa area at Stromboli was covered with large blocks and pyroclastic debris on 6 September 2019, a week after the major explosion of 28 August (top). By 26 November, 5-10 cm of finer ash covered the surface; the restored webcam can be seen at the far right edge of the Pizzo (bottom). Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 49/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/11/2019 - 01/12/2019, data emissione 03/12/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 176. The average hourly frequency of explosive events at Stromboli captured by surveillance cameras from 1 June 2019 through 5 January 2020 remained generally constant after the high levels seen during July and August. The Total value (blue) is the sum of the average daily hourly frequency of all explosive events produced by active vents.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy, (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/en/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Semeru (Indonesia) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes and thermal anomalies continue during September 2019-February 2020

Semeru is a stratovolcano located in East Java, Indonesia containing an active Jonggring-Seloko vent at the Mahameru summit. Common activity has consisted of ash plumes, pyroclastic flows and avalanches, and lava flows that travel down the SE flank. This report updates volcanism from September 2019 to February 2020 using primary information from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

The dominant activity at Semeru for this reporting period consists of ash plumes, which were frequently reported by the Darwin VAAC. An eruption on 10 September 2019 produced an ash plume rising 4 km altitude drifting WNW, as seen in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. Ash plumes continued to rise during 13-14 September. During the month of October the Darwin VAAC reported at least six ash plumes on 13, 14, 17-18, and 29-30 October rising to a maximum altitude of 4.6 km and moving primarily S and SW. Activity in November and December was relatively low, dominated mostly by strong and frequent thermal anomalies.

Volcanism increased in January 2020 starting with an eruption on 17 and 18 January that sent a gray ash plume up to 4.6 km altitude (figure 38). Eruptions continued from 20 to 26 January, producing ash plumes that rose up to 500 m above the crater that drifted in different directions. For the duration of the month and into February, ash plumes occurred intermittently. On 26 February, incandescent ejecta was ejected up to 50 m and traveled as far as 1000 m. Small sulfur dioxide emissions were detected in the Sentinel 5P/TROPOMI instrument during 25-27 February (figure 39). Lava flows during 27-29 February extended 200-1,000 m down the SE flank; gas-and-steam and SO2 emissions accompanied the flows. There were 15 shallow volcanic earthquakes detected on 29 February in addition to ash emissions rising 4.3 km altitude drifting ESE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Ash plumes rising from the summit of Semeru on 17 (left) and 18 (right) January 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia and via Ø.L. Andersen's Twitter feed (left).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Small SO2 plumes from Semeru were detected by the Sentinel 5P/TROPOMI instrument during 25 (left) and 26 (right) February 2020. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed relatively weak and intermittent thermal anomalies occurring during May to August 2019 (figure 40). The frequency and power of these thermal anomalies significantly increased during September to mid-December 2019 with a few hotspots occurring at distances greater than 5 km from the summit. These farther thermal anomalies to the N and NE of the volcano do not appear to be caused by volcanic activity. There was a brief break in activity during mid-December to mid-January 2020 before renewed activity was detected in early February 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Thermal anomalies were relatively weak at Semeru during 30 April 2019-August 2019, but significantly increased in power and frequency during September to early December 2019. There was a break in activity from mid-December through mid-January 2020 with renewed thermal anomalies around February 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The MODVOLC algorithm detected 25 thermal hotspots during this reporting period, which took place during 25 September, 18 and 21 October 2019, 29 January, and 11, 14, 16, and 23 February 2020. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery shows intermittent hotspots dominantly in the summit crater throughout this reporting period (figure 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected intermittent thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) at the summit of Semeru, which included some lava flows in late January to early February 2020. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com).


Popocatepetl (Mexico) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Popocatepetl

Mexico

19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dome growth and destruction continues along with ash emissions and ejecta, September 2019-February 2020

Frequent historical eruptions have been reported from Mexico's Popocatépetl going back to the 14th century. Activity increased in the mid-1990s after about 50 years of quiescence, and the current eruption, ongoing since January 2005, has included numerous episodes of lava-dome growth and destruction within the 500-m-wide summit caldera. Multiple emissions of steam and gas occur daily, rising generally 1-3 km above the summit at about 5,400 m elevation; many contain small amounts of ash. Larger, more explosive events with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta landing on the flanks occur frequently. Activity through August 2019 was typical of the ongoing eruption with near-constant emissions of water vapor, gas, and minor ash, as well as multiple explosions with ash plumes and incandescent blocks scattered on the flanks (BGVN 44:09). This report covers similar activity from September 2019 through February 2020. Information comes from daily reports provided by México's Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED); ash plumes are reported by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Satellite visible and thermal imagery and SO2 data also provide helpful observations of activity.

Activity summary. Activity at Popocatépetl during September 2019-February 2020 continued at the high levels that have been ongoing for many years, characterized by hundreds of daily low-intensity emissions that included steam, gas, and small amounts of ash, and periods with multiple daily minor and moderate explosions that produce kilometer-plus-high ash plumes (figure 140). The Washington VAAC issued multiple daily volcanic ash advisories with plume altitudes around 6 km for many, although some were reported as high as 8.2 km. Hundreds of minutes of daily tremor activity often produced ash emissions as well. Incandescent ejecta landed 500-1,000 m from the summit frequently. The MIROVA thermal anomaly data showed near-constant moderate to high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 141).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 140. Emissions continued at a high rate from Popocatépetl throughout September 2019-February 2020. Daily low-intensity emissions numbered usually in the hundreds (blue, left axis), while less frequent minor (orange) and moderate (green) explosions, plotted on the right axis, occurred intermittently through November 2019, and increased again during February 2020. Data was compiled from CENAPRED daily reports.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 141. MIROVA log radiative power thermal data for Popocatépetl from 1 May 2019 through February 2020 showed a constant output of moderate energy the entire time. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured with satellite instruments many days of each month from September 2019 thru February 2020. The intensity and drift directions varied significantly; some plumes remained detectable hundreds of kilometers from the volcano (figure 142). Plumes were detected almost daily in September, and on most days in October. They were measured at lower levels but often during November, and after pulses in early and late December only small plumes were visible during January 2020. Intermittent larger pulses returned in February. Dome growth and destruction in the summit crater continued throughout the period. A small dome was observed inside the summit crater in late September. Dome 85, 210-m-wide, was observed inside the summit crater in early November. Satellite imagery captured evidence of dome growth and ash emissions throughout the period (figure 143).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 142. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Popocatépetl were frequent from September 2019 through February 2020. Plumes drifted SW on 7 September (top left), 30 October (top middle), and 21 February (bottom right). SO2 drifted N and NW on 26 November (top right). On 2 December (bottom left) a long plume of sulfur dioxide hundreds of kilometers long drifted SW over the Pacific Ocean while the drift direction changed to NW closer to the volcano. The SO2 plumes measured in January (bottom center) were generally smaller than during the other months covered in this report. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 143. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Popocatépetl during November 2019-February 2020 provided evidence for ongoing dome growth and explosions with ash emissions. Top left: a ring of incandescence inside the summit crater on 8 November 2019 was indicative of the growth of dome 85 observed by CENAPRED. Top middle: incandescence on 8 December inside the summit crater was typical of that observed many times during the period. Top right: a dense, narrow ash plume drifted N from the summit on 17 January 2020. Bottom left: Snow cover made ashfall on 6 February easily visible on the E flank. On 11 February, the summit crater was incandescent and nearly all the snow was covered with ash. Bottom right: a strong thermal anomaly and ash emission were captured on 21 February. Bottom left and top right images use Natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); other images use Atmospheric penetration rendering to show infrared signal (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during September-November 2019. On 1 September 2019 minor ashfall was reported in the communities of Atlautla, Ozumba, Juchitepec, and Tenango del Aire in the State of Mexico. The ash plumes rose less than 2 km above the summit and incandescent ejecta traveled less than 100 m from the summit crater. Twenty-two minor and three moderate explosions were recorded on 4-5 September along with minor ashfall in Juchitepec, Tenango del Aire, Tepetlixpa, and Atlautla. During a flyover on 5 September, officials did not observe a dome within the crater, and the dimensions remained the same as during the previous visit (350 m in diameter and 150 m deep) (figure 144). Ashfall was reported in Tlalmanalco and Amecameca on 6 September. The following day incandescent ejecta was visible on the flanks near the summit and ashfall was reported in Amecameca, Ayapango, and Tenango del Aire. The five moderate explosions on 8 September produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the summit, and incandescent ejecta on the flanks. Explosions on 10 September sent ejecta 500 m from the crater. Eight explosions during 20-21 September produced ejecta that traveled up to 1.5 km down the flanks (figure 145). During an overflight on 27 September specialists from the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED ) of the National Coordination of Civil Protection and researchers from the Institute of Geophysics of UNAM observed a new dome 30 m in diameter; the overall crater had not changed size since the overflight in early September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 144. CENAPRED carried out overflights of Popocatépetl on 5 (left) and 27 September (right) 2019; the crater did not change in size, but a new dome 30 m in diameter was visible on 27 September. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Sobrevuelo al volcán Popocatépetl, 05 y 27 de septiembre).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 145. Ash plumes at Popocatépetl on 19 (left) and 20 (right) September 2019 rose over a kilometer above the summit before dissipating. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 19 y 20 de septiembre).

Fourteen explosions were reported on 2 October 2019. The last one produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and sent incandescent ejecta down the E slope (figure 146). Ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Atlautla Ozumba, Ayapango and Ecatzingo in the State of Mexico. Explosions on 3 and 4 October also produced ash plumes that rose between 1 and 2 km above the summit and sent ejecta onto the flanks. Additional incandescent ejecta was reported on 6, 7, 15, and 19 October. The communities of Amecameca, Tenango del Aire, Tlalmanalco, Cocotitlán, Temamatla, and Tláhuac reported ashfall on 10 October; Amecameca reported more ashfall on 12 October. On 22 October slight ashfall appeared in Amecameca, Tenango del Aire, Tlalmanalco, Ayapango, Temamatla, and Atlautla.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 146. Incandescent ejecta at Popocatépetl traveled down the E slope on 2 October 2019 (left); an ash plume two days later rose 2 km above the summit (right). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 2 y 4 de octubre).

During 2-3 November 2019 there was 780 minutes of tremor reported in four different episodes. The seismicity was accompanied by ash emissions that drifted W and NW and produced ashfall in numerous communities, including Amecameca, Juchitepec, Ozumba, Tepetlixpa, and Atlautla in the State of México, in Ayapango and Cuautla in the State of Morelos, and in the municipalities of Tlahuac, Tlalpan, and Xochimilco in Mexico City. A moderate explosion on 4 November sent incandescent ejecta 2 km down the slopes and produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NW. Minor ashfall was reported in Tlalmanalco, Amecameca, and Tenango del Aire, State of Mexico. Similar ash plumes from explosions occurred the following day. Scientists from CENAPRED and the Institute of Geophysics of UNAM observed dome number 85 during an overflight on 5 November 2019. It had a diameter of 210 m and was 80 m thick, with an irregular surface (figure 147). Multiple explosions on 6 and 7 November produced incandescent ejecta; a moderate explosion late on 11 November produced ejecta that traveled 1.5 km from the summit and produced an ash plume 2 km high (figure 148). A lengthy period of constant ash emission that drifted E was reported on 18 November. A moderate explosion on 28 November sent incandescent fragments 1.5 km down the slopes and ash one km above the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 147. A new dome was visible inside the summit crater at Popocatépetl during an overflight on 5 November 2019. It had a diameter of 210 m and was 80 m thick. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Sobrevuelo al volcán Popocatépetl, 05 de noviembre).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 148. Ash emissions and explosions with incandescent ejecta continued at Popocatépetl during November 2019. The ash plume on 1 November changed drift direction sharply a few hundred meters above the summit (left). Incandescent ejecta traveled 1.5 km down the flanks on 11 November (right). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 1 y 12 de noviembre).

Activity during December 2019-February 2020. Throughout December 2019 weak emissions of steam and gas were reported daily, sometimes with minor amounts of ash, and minor explosions were only reported on 21 and 27 December. On 21 December two new high-resolution webcams were installed around Popocatépetl, one 5 km from the crater at the Tlamacas station, and the second in San Juan Tianguismanalco, 20 km away. Ash emissions and incandescent ejecta 800 m from the summit were observed on 25 December (figure 149). Incandescence at night was reported during 27-29 December.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 149. Incandescent ejecta moved 800 m down the flanks of Popocatépetl during explosions on 25 December 2019 (left); weak emissions of steam, gas, and minor ash were visible on 27 December and throughout the month. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 25 y 27 de diciembre).

Continuous emissions of water vapor and gas with low ash content were typical daily during January 2020. A moderate explosion on 9 January produced an ash plume that rose 3 km from the summit and drifted NE. In addition, incandescent ejecta traveled 1 km from the crater rim. A minor explosion on 21 January produced a 1.5-km-high plume with low ash content and incandescent ejecta that fell near the crater (figure 150). The first of two explosions late on 27 January produced ejecta that traveled 500 m and a 1-km-high ash plume. Constant incandescence was observed overnight on 29-30 January.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 150. Although fewer explosions were recorded at Popocatépetl during January 2020, activity continued. An ash plume on 19 January rose over a kilometer above the summit (top left). A minor explosion on 21 January produced a 1.5-km-high plume with low ash content and incandescent ejecta that fell near the crater (top right). Smaller emissions with steam, gas, and ash were typical many days, including on 22 (bottom left) and 31 (bottom right) January 2019. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 19, 21, 22 y 31 de enero).

A moderate explosion on 5 February 2020 produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NNE. Explosions on 10 and 13 February sent ejecta 500 m down the flanks (figure 151). During an overflight on 18 February scientists noted that the internal crater maintained a diameter of 350 m and its approximate depth was 100-150 m; the crater was covered by tephra. For most of the second half of February the volcano had a continuous emission of gases with minor amounts of ash. In addition, multiple explosions produced ash plumes that rose 400-1,200 m above the crater and drifted in several different directions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 151. Ash emissions and explosions continued at Popocatépetl during February 2020. Dense ash drifted near the snow-covered summit on 6 February (top left). Incandescent ejecta traveled 500 m down the flanks on 13 February (top right). Ash plumes billowed from the summit on 18 and 22 February (bottom row). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl, 6, 15, 18 y 22 de febrero).

Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.

Information Contacts: Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED), Av. Delfín Madrigal No.665. Coyoacan, México D.F. 04360, México (URL: http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/), Daily Report Archive http://www.cenapred.unam.mx:8080/reportesVolcanGobMX/BuscarReportesVolcan); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Santa Maria (Guatemala) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Santa Maria

Guatemala

14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continue, September 2019-February 2020

The dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex on the W flank of Guatemala's Santa María volcano has been growing and actively erupting since 1922. Ash explosions, pyroclastic, and lava flows have emerged from Caliente, the youngest of the four vents in the complex, for more than 40 years. A lava dome that appeared within the summit crater of Caliente in October 2016 has continued to grow, producing frequent block avalanches down the flanks. Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continued during September 2019-February 2020, the period covered in this report, with information primarily from Guatemala's INSIVUMEH (Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia e Hidrologia) and the Washington VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center).

Constant fumarolic activity with steam and gas persisted from the Caliente dome throughout September 2019-February 2020. Explosions occurred multiple times per day, producing ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.1-3.5 km and usually drifted a few kilometers before dissipating. Several lahars during September and October carried volcanic blocks, ash, and debris down major drainages. Periodic ashfall was reported in communities within 10 km of the volcano. An increase in thermal activity beginning in November (figure 101) resulted in an increased number of observations of incandescence visible at night from the summit of Caliente through February 2020. Block avalanches occurred daily on the flanks of the dome, often reaching the base, stirring up small clouds of ash that drifted downwind.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. The MIROVA project graph of thermal activity at Santa María from 12 May 2019 through February 2020 shows a gradual increase in thermal energy beginning in November 2019. This corresponds to an increase in the number of daily observations of incandescence at the summit of the Caliente dome during this period. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Constant steam and gas fumarolic activity rose from the Caliente dome, drifting W, usually rising to 2.8-3.0 km altitude during September 2019. Multiple daily explosions with ash plumes rising to 2.9-3.4 km altitude drifted W or SW over the communities of San Marcos, Loma Linda Palajunoj, and Monte Claro (figure 102). Constant block avalanches fell to the base of the cone on the NE and SE flanks. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery on 10 September at 3.1 km altitude drifting W. On 14 September another plume was spotted moving WSW at 4.6 km altitude which dissipated quickly; the webcam captured another plume on 16 September. Ashfall on 27 September reached about 1 km from the volcano; it reached 1.5 km on 29 September. Lahars descended the Rio Cabello de Ángel on 2 and 24 September (figure 102). They were about 15 m wide, and 1-3 m deep, carrying blocks 1-2 m in diameter.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. A lahar descended the Rio Cabello de Ángel at Santa Maria and flowed into the Rio Nima 1 on 24 September 2019. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 21 al 27 de septiembre de 2019).

Througout October 2019, degassing of steam with minor gases occurred from the Caliente summit, rising to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and generally drifting SW. Weak explosions took place 1-5 times per hour, producing ash plumes that rose to 3.2-3.5 km altitude. Ashfall was reported in Monte Claro on 2 October. Nearly constant block avalanches descended the SE and S flanks, disturbing recent layers of fine ash and producing local ash clouds. Moderate explosions on 11 October produced ash plumes that rose to 3.5 km altitude and drifted W and SW about 1.5 km towards Río San Isidro (figure 103). The following day additional plumes drifted a similar distance to the SE. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission visible in satellite imagery at 4.9 km altitude on 13 October drifting NNW. Ashfall was reported in Parcelamiento Monte Claro on 14 October. Some of the block avalanches observed on 14 October on the SE, S, and SW flanks were incandescent. Ash drifted 1.5 km W and SW on 17 October. Ashfall was reported near la finca Monte Claro on 25 and 28 October. A lahar descended the Río San Isidro, a tributary of the Río El Tambor on 7 October carrying blocks 1-2 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. It was about 16 m wide and 1-2 m deep. Additional lahars descended the rio Cabello de Angel on 23 and 24 October. They were about 15 m wide and 2 m deep, and carried ash and blocks 1-2 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. Daily ash plumes were reported from the Caliente cone at Santa María during October 2019, similar to these from 30 September (left) and 11 October 2019 (right). Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 28 de septiembre al 04 de octubre de 2019; Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 05 al 11 de octubre de 2019).

During November 2019, steam plumes rose to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and generally drifted E. There were 1-3 explosions per hour; the ash plumes produced rose to altitudes of 3.1-3.5 km and often drifted SW, resulting in ashfall around the volcanic complex. Block avalanches descended the S and SW flanks every day. On 4 November ashfall was reported in the fincas (ranches) of El Faro, Santa Marta, El Viejo Palmar, and Las Marías, and the odor of sulfur was reported 10 km S. Incandescence was observed at the Caliente dome during the night of 5-6 November. Ash fell again in El Viejo Palmar, fincas La Florida, El Faro, and Santa Marta (5-6 km SW) on 7 November. Sulfur odor was also reported 8-10 km S on 16, 19, and 22 November. Fine-grained ash fell on 18 November in Loma Linda and San Marcos Palajunoj. On 29 November strong block avalanches descended in the SW flank, stirring up reddish ash that had fallen on the flanks (figure 104). The ash drifted up to 20 km SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. Ash plumes rose from explosions multiple times per day at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito complex during November 2019, and block avalanches stirred up reddish clouds of ash that drifted for many kilometers. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH. Left, 11 November 2019, from Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 09 al 15 de noviembre de 2019. Right, 29 November 2019 from BOLETÍN VULCANOLÓGICO ESPECIAL BESTG# 106-2019, Guatemala 29 de noviembre de 2019, 10:50 horas (Hora Local).

White steam plumes rising to 2.9-3.0 km altitude drifted SE most days during December 2019. One to three explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose to 3.1-3.5 km altitude and drifted W and SW producing ashfall on the flanks. Several strong block avalanches sent material down the SW flank. Ash from the explosions drifted about 1.5 km SW on 3 and 7 December. The Washington VAAC reported a small ash emission that rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted WSW on 8 December, and another on 13 December that rose to 4.3 km altitude. Ashfall was reported up to 10 km S on 24 December. Incandescence was reported at the dome by INSIVUMEH eight times during the month, significantly more than during the recent previous months (figure 105).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Strong thermal anomalies were visible in Sentinel-2 imagery at the summit of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex on 19 December 2019. Image uses Atmospheric Penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during January 2020 was similar to that during previous months. White plumes of steam rose from the Caliente dome to altitudes of 2.7-3.0 km and drifted SE; one to three explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose to 3.2-3.4 km altitude and generally drifted about 1.5 km SW before dissipating. Frequent block avalanches on the SE flank caused smaller plumes that drifted SSW often over the ranches of San Marcos and Loma Linda Palajunoj. On 28 January ash plumes drifted W and SW over the communities of Calaguache, El Nuevo Palmar, and Las Marías. In addition to incandescence observed at the crater of Caliente dome at least nine times, thermal anomalies in satellite imagery were detected multiple times from the block avalanches on the S flank (figure 106).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Incandescence at the summit and in the block avalanches on the S flank of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex was visible in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 8 and 13 January 2020. Atmospheric penetration rendering images (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 4.6 km altitude drifting W on 3 February 2020. INSIVUMEH reported constant steam degassing that rose to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and drifted SW. In addition, 1-3 weak to moderate explosions per hour produced ash plumes to 3.1-3.5 km altitude that drifted about 1 km SW. Small amounts of ashfall around the volcano’s perimeter was common. The ash plumes on 5 February drifted NE over Santa María de Jesús. On 8 February the ash plumes drifted E and SE over the communities of Calaguache, El Nuevo Palmar, and Las Marías. Block avalanches on the S and SE flanks of Caliente dome continued, creating small ash clouds on the flank. Incandescence continued frequently at the crater and was also observed on the S flank in satellite imagery (figure 107).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 107. Incandescence at the summit and on the S flank of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex was frequent during February 2020, including on 2 (left) and 17 (right) February 2020 as seen in Sentinel-2 imagery. Atmostpheric Penetration rendering imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank, and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four vents, with activity progressing W towards the most recent, Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/ ); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 36, Number 04 (April 2011)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Arenal (Costa Rica)

Activity and seismicity decrease; new analysis of acid-rain

Endeavour Segment (Canada)

Acoustic imaging of ongoing hydrothermal venting

Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland)

Eruption ended in late 2010; sample of growing literature on the eruption

Irazu (Costa Rica)

Crater lake dries and regional acid-rain report

Machin (Colombia)

Seismic and non-eruptive unrest detected in 2004, 2008, 2009, and again in 2010

Poas (Costa Rica)

Photos of phreatic eruptions from acid lake; surrounding vegetation damaged by gases

Ranau (Indonesia)

Fish kill in April 2011 strikes hot-spring areas of intra-caldera lake

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica)

Fumarolically active but non-eruptive through January 2011

Sheveluch (Russia)

Ongoing dome growth into early 2011; and pyroclastic flows of 27 October 2010



Arenal (Costa Rica) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Activity and seismicity decrease; new analysis of acid-rain

Our previous report about Arenal discussed ongoing sporadic eruptive behavior, preliminary information about the 24 May 2010 dome collapse, and the higher frequency of rockfalls through September 2010 (BGVN 35:07). Since October 2010, volcanic activity at Arenal appears to be decreasing. Events like the explosion on 24 July 2010, discussed below (see figure 110) have become rare. Reports from Costa Rica's Volcanological and Seismological Observatory and National University (OVSICORI-UNA) include direct observations of summit activity, seismic analysis, and acid-rain data and provide the basis for this report covering the 24 May, 2010 event in addition to activity from October 2010 to May 2011.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. At 0538 on 24 July 2010 (local time) an ash explosion at Arenal was recorded seismically and its resulting cloud was photographed. In the lower left-hand corner is the seismic trace of the event, which began suddenly and saturated the record (seismic station VACR; OVSICORI-UNA). Courtesy of Phil Slosberg (OVSICORI-UNA).

Incandescent avalanche of 24 May 2010. Sudden activity down Arenal's SW flank on 24 May 2010 produced long, incandescent avalanches and pyroclastic flows, forcing the National Park to evacuate visitors on this day. No injuries or damage to infrastructure had been reported during Arenal's activity in May 2010. Previous pyroclastic events had also caused evacuations in June 2009, June 2008, and September 2007.

Beginning at noon on 24 May, incandescent avalanches descended from the summit dome. They affected a sector that has been subject to avalanches in the last 3 years (see figure 111). A field investigation by OVSICORI on 31 May found that material fell from the summit down to 1,200 m elevation and accumulating in a toe 400 m x 80 m. The majority of blocks surpassed 2 m in diameter. Deposits from the dome collapse were still hot when they arrived at the forest that borders Río Agua Caliente. The OVSICORI-UNA field report of 31 May 2010 contains photos and additional details. Several sections of the river scarp show signs of being struck and eroded by direct impact of the incandescent blocks that arrived with high speed. The dome that supplied the block-and-ash flows became visibly deflated but activity culminated through the week with the formation of a new dome toward the E side of the summit. The formation and destruction of domes at the top of Crater C is very common. These domes reach ten's of meters in size and frequently collapse violently, especially when they are destabilized at the crater rim.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 111. Changes in morphology at Arenal's Crater C are visible owing to the 24 May 2010 dome collapse. Located on the eastern side of the summit, the point of failure was attributed to the "Unstable area." Courtesy of E. Duarte (OVSICORI-UNA).

Decreasing activity. The number of explosive events peaked in February 2010, became regular up to October, but since mid-October they have become sporadic. No lava flows or night-time incandescence was observed on the flanks. Gas emission continued at the active Crater C and fumarolic activity was continuous at Crater D, the pre-1968 summit crater.

Acid-rain affected Arenal's flanks and the NE, E, and SE flanks showed a loss of vegetation. These conditions plus the high amounts of rainfall aggravated erosion on the steep slopes; rockfalls and landslides continued to occur in these valleys: Calle de Arenas, Manolo, Guillermina, and Río Agua Caliente. OVSICORI-UNA released a report on acid-rain measurements that began on 9 April 2003 and ended on 30 November 2010; data from four stations showed generally decreasing acidity with time (figure 112). The trend steadily increased from pH ~4 to ~4.5 for all stations. Although irregular spikes are recorded, the low outliers were generally less acidic with time.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 112. Variation of the pH (level of acidity) of rain-water collected from four stations on Arenal. Data points represent measurements from 9 April 2003 to 30 November 2010. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Waldo Taylor assessed seismic data from the local network. The 2010 mid-year ICE report discussed seismicity and the general trend shown in table 26. The large spike in seismic events from 2009 dropped off abruptly the following year.

Table 26. Earthquakes counted at Arenal during 2005-2010. Courtesy of ICE.

Year Number of earthquakes
2005 3
2006 12
2007 15
2008 47
2009 239
2010 56

Gerardo J. Soto discussed Arenal seismicity. "In general terms, the average magnitude increased from 2.0 in 2006 to 2.3 in 2010. The biggest was M 4.1 in 1 November 2009. Mean [focal] depth deepened from 5.5 km in 2006 to about 2 km in 2010. Most of them were between 2 and 5 km deep in 2009-2010, and down to 9 km deep in 2010.

"The number of [respective] earthquakes from September through December 2010 decreased monthly [in the sequence] 24, 12, 9, 3. Epicenters shifted from SE to NW quadrangle of the volcano through time.

"We preliminarily interpret this as a possible withdrawal of magma below the volcano, [on the basis of] focal mechanisms."

Secondary hazards. With Arenal's decrease in explosive activity, no ash collection has been possible this year (2011). A network of seven stations exists for regular sampling. The most effusive event occurred in 1968 when roughly 2 x 105 metric tons of ash fell on the flanks. Later, a hydroelectric project was completed in the 1970s and filled the basin below the volcano with 2.416 x 106 m3 of water (the maximum storage capacity), forming Lake Arenal. From 1992 to 1997, the annual sediment load into the lake contained 1.4% remobilized material from Arenal.

Future activity at Arenal within the next 100 years may include large eruptions with the potential to produce 10 million metric tons of volcanic sediments; within the next 200 years an extreme event could contribute 107 metric tons of volcaniclastics to Lake Arenal (Soto, 1998). The distribution of volcaniclastic sediments is largely controlled by the Río Agua Caliente, a drainage connecting tributaries from Arenal's southern flank. Roughly every 2-5 years there are relatively large debris flows along this river. As recently as the first week of May 2011, intense flooding damaged a bridge by severely undermining the concrete abutments (G.J. Soto, personal communication).

Satellite thermal alerts. Since 15 September 2010 there have been no MODVOLC satellite thermal alerts through February 2011.

References. Soto, G.J., 1998, Cálculo de ceniza eyectada por el Volcán Arenal y ceniza caída en el embalse durante el período 1992-1997; Informe OSV.98.05.ICE, 18 pp. (in Spanish)

OVSICORI-UNA, 2010, Cambios Morfológicos y Avalanchas Incandescentes del 24 de Mayo en el Volcán Arenal. (in Spanish) (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/vulcanologia/informeDeCampo/2010/InfcampAremayo10.pdf)

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: Phil Slosberg and Eliecer Duarte, Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/); Gerardo J. Soto, Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Apartado 10032-1000, San José, Costa Rica; Waldo Taylor, Sismológico y Vulcanológico de Arenal y Miravalles (OSIVAM), Oficina de Sismología y Vulcanología (OSV), Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Apartado 10032-1000, San José, Costa Rica.


Endeavour Segment (Canada) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Endeavour Segment

Canada

47.95°N, 129.1°W; summit elev. -2050 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Acoustic imaging of ongoing hydrothermal venting

The Grotto vent cluster contains an assemblage of black smoker vents that lie within the Main Endeavour Field on the northern Juan de Fuca ridge (Bemis, 2001; Rona and others, 2001, 2010a; Bobbitt, 2007) (figure 4). New imagery of submarine plume behavior and properties was achieved with a new acoustic system that extends underwater observational distances beyond those of light to image buoyant plumes of submarine black smokers in 3-dimensions and image areas of diffuse flow seeping from the sea floor in 2-dimensions (Rona, 2011; Rona and others, 2010a, 2010b, and 2011).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Map of Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge (grid system in meters), showing the location of the Grotto Vent at grid coordinates of about 6115 and 4920. Note scale-the entire Endeavour Field is only ~400 m long. According to Merle (2006) Grotto vent resides at 47.95°N latitude, 129.10°W longitude, and at a depth of ~2,196 m.

The Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) was installed in September 2010 (Light, 2011). Operations were initiated with in situ sensors in the NEPTUNE (North-East Pacific Time-Series Underwater Networked Experiments) Canada Program cabled observatory on the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, nearly 370 km (200 nautical miles) off British Columbia, Canada, in the NE Pacific Ocean (figures 5 and 6). NEPTUNE is a Canadian research facility designed for regional-scale underwater ocean investigations focusing on continuous monitoring of temperature, chemistry, biodiversity, and motion. This data will be broadcast via the Internet for scientists, students, educators and the public to collaborate and promote investigations into: underwater volcanic processes; earthquakes and tsunamis; minerals, metals, and hydrocarbons; ocean-atmosphere interactions; climate change; greenhouse gas cycling in the ocean; marine ecosystems; long-term changes in ocean productivity; marine mammals; fish stocks; pollution and toxic blooms. The public can gain a more in-depth understanding of the seafloor, while ocean scientists can run deep-water experiments from labs and universities anywhere around the world.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Map of NEPTUNE Canada Program's six submarine sites with multiple sensors connected to a high-speed optical cable linked with University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada. The Main Endeavour Field, labeled as Endeavor (in red), one of the instrumented sites, is ~350 km WSW from Port Alberni. Over the project's 25-year lifespan, Endeavor will collect data for underwater volcanic processes, seismicity, plate tectonics, hydrothermal vent systems, and deep sea ecosystems. Courtesy of NEPTUNE Canada (2011).

During a research cruise in September-October 2010, scientists from the University of Washington and Rutgers University connected COVIS to the NEPTUNE Canada cable system for the first time and initiated data acquisition on 29 September 2010. COVIS, equipped with a customized multibeam sonar, 400/200 kHz projectors, and a rotator system to orient acoustic transducers, was positioned to acquire acoustic data from a fixed site on the floor of the ridge's axial valley at a range of tens of meters from the Grotto vent cluster in the MEF (figure 6).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. COVIS acoustic image, oriented NE on the left to NW on the right, made at 0600 UTC on 11 October 2010, looking S at black smoker plumes and areas of diffuse flow draped over bathymetry of the Grotto vent cluster (Jackson and others, 2003) in the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. The image was made when tidal currents were minimal (e.g., near slack tide). The larger plume is from the N tower edifice at the NW end, and the smaller plumes are from the NE end of Grotto vent at the in-situ experiments. The legend (at the upper left) specifies isosurfaces of plume volume scattering strengths (in decibels per meter) related to particle content and temperature-density discontinuities. The vertical color bar (at the far right) gives normalized decorrelation of backscatter (0-1) due to diffuse flow from the sea floor at 0.8-sec lag. The plumes decrease in acoustic backscatter intensity as they mix with surrounding seawater with height (in meters) above vents. From Rona (2011).

The purpose of the COVIS experiment was to acoustically image, quantify, and monitor seafloor hydrothermal flow on time scales of hours (response to ocean tides) to weeks-months-years (response to volcanic and tectonic events); this advances our understanding of these interrelated processes. According to Rona and others (2003), net volume flux of a plume can be calculated by integrating the vertical flux through a plume cross-section, which can then be converted to heat and particle flux if coordinated with in-situ measurements of temperature and particle properties (concentration, size distribution, density). To achieve this, COVIS acquired acoustic data from a projector mounted on a tripod ~4 m above the seafloor at a fixed position. A computer controlled, 3- degrees-of-freedom (yaw, pitch, and roll), positioning system was used to point the sonar transducers providing a large coverage area at the site. Sonar data is collected at ranges of tens of meters from targets to make three types of measurements: 1) volume backscatter intensity from suspended particulate matter and temperature fluctuations in black smoker plumes which was used to reconstruct the size and shape of the buoyant portion of a plume; 2) Doppler phase shift which was used to obtain the flow rise velocity at various levels in a buoyant plume; 3) scintillation which was used to image the area of diffuse flow seeping from the seafloor.

References. Bemis, K.G., Rona, P.A., Jackson, D.R., Jones, C., Mitsuzawa, K., Palmer, D., Silver, D., and Gudlavalletti, R., 2001, Time-averaged images and quantifications of seafloor hydrothermal plumes from acoustic imaging data: a case study at Grotto Vent, Endeavour Segment Seafloor Observatory, Abstract OS21B-0446 presented at American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2001, San Francisco, CA, December.

Bobbitt, A., 2007, NeMO 2007 Cruise Report: Axial Volcano, Endeavour Segment, and Cobb Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, R/V Atlantis Cruise AT 15-21, August 3-20, 2007, Astoria, Oregon, to Astoria Oregon, Jason dives J2-286 to J2-295, unpublished report (URL: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/NeMO2007-cruise-report.pdf)

Jackson, D.R., Jones, C.D., Rona, P.A., and Bemis, K.G., 2003, A method for Doppler acoustic measurement of black smoker flow fields, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems (G3), v. 4, no. 11, p. 1095 (DOI: 10.1029/2003GC000509, 2003).

Light, R., Miller, V., Rona, P., and Bemis, K., 2010, Acoustic Instrumentation for Imaging and Quantifying Hydrothermal Flow in the NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Observatory at Main Endeavour Field (unpublished paper - URL: http://www.apl.washington.edu/projects/apl_presents/topics/covis/covis.php).

Light, R., Miller, V., Jackson, D.R., Rona, P.A., and Bemis, K.G., 2011, Cabled observatory vent imaging sonar (abstract of presentation), Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v. 129, no. 4, p. 2373.

Merle, S. (compiler), 2006, NeMO 2006 Cruise Report, NOAA Vents Program, Axial Volcano and the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, R/V THOMPSON Cruise TN-199, August 22 - September 7, 2006. Seattle WA to Seattle WA; ROPOS dives R1008 - R1014 (URL: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo2006/nemo06-crrpt-final.pdf).

NEPTUNE Canada, 2011, Transforming Ocean Science; Ocean Networks Canada. (URL: http://www.neptunecanada.ca/about-neptune-canada/neptune-canada-101/)

Rona, P.A., Bemis, K.G., Jackson, D.R., Jones, C.D., Mitsuzawa, K., Palmer, D.R., and Silver, D., 2001, Acoustic Imaging Time Series of Plume Behavior at Grotto Vent, Endeavour Observatory, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Abstract OS21B-0445 presented at American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2001, San Francisco, CA, December.

Rona, P.A., Jackson, D.J., Bemis, K.G., Jones, C.D., Mitsuzawa, K., Palmer, D.R., and Silver, D., 2003, A New Dimension in Investigation of Seafloor Hydrothermal Flows, Ridge 2000 Events, v. 1, no. 1, p. 26 (URL: http://ridge2000.bio.psu.edu).

Rona, P.A., Bemis, K.G., Jones, C., Jackson, D. R., Mitsuzawa, K, and Palmer, D. R., 2010a, Partitioning Between Plume and Diffuse Flow at the Grotto Vent Cluster, Main Endeavour Vent Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Past and Present, Abstract OS21C-1519 presented at American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, San Francisco, Calif., December.

Rona, P., Light, R., Miller, V., Jackson, D., Bemis, K., Jones, C., and KenneyM., 2010b, Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) Connected to NEPTUNE Canada Cabled Observatory (poster abstract), 2010 R2K (Ridge 2000) Community Meeting, Portland, OR, 29-31 October 2010 (URL: http://ridge2000.marine-geo.org/community-meeting/october-2010/2010-r2k-community-meeting).

Rona, P., 2011, Sonar images hydrothermal vents in seafloor observatory, EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 92, no., 20, p. 169-170.

Rona, P.A., Benis, K.G., Jones, C.D., and Jackson, D.R., 2011, Multibeam sonar observations of hydrothermal flows at the Main Endeavour Field (abstract of presentation), Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v. 129, no. 4, p. 2373.

Geologic Background. The Endeavour Segment (or Ridge) lies near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, west of the coast of Washington and SW of Vancouver Island. The northern end is offset to the east with respect to the West Valley Segment, which extends north to the triple junction with the Sovanco Fracture Zone and the Nootka Fault. The 90-km-long, NNE-SSW-trending segment lies at a depth of more than 2000 m and is the site of vigorous high-temperature hydrothermal vent systems that were first discovered by scientists in 1981. Five major vent fields that include sulfide chimneys and black smoker vents, first seen from the submersible vehicle Alvin in 1984, are spaced at about 2-km intervals in a 1-km-wide axial valley at the center of the ridge. Preliminary uranium-series dates of Holocene age were obtained on basaltic lava flows, and other younger "zero-age" flows were sampled. Seismic swarms were detected in 1991 and 2005.

Information Contacts: Peter Rona, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ; NEPTUNE Canada (URL: http://www.oceannetworks.ca/).


Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Eyjafjallajokull

Iceland

63.633°N, 19.633°W; summit elev. 1651 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption ended in late 2010; sample of growing literature on the eruption

Gudmundsson and others (2010a) noted that the last day of sustained activity at Eyjafjallajökull took place on 22 May 2010. By 23 June 2010, the Iceland Meteorological Office (IMO) and the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences (IES) ceased issuing regular status reports. In addition to discussing the eruption and its final stages, this report also cites a small sample of abstracts and papers from the numerous conferences, sessions, and publications that have thus far emerged on the eruption.

The eruption's initial phase, 20 March-12 April 2010, occurred at Fimmvörðuháls, a spot on the E flanks of Eyjafjallajökull (figure 16, and "F" and "E" on figure 17). Venting at Fimmvörðuháls took place on an exposed ridge cropping out in a region with extensive glaciers to the E and W. Eruptions began in the initially ice-capped summit crater of Eyjafjallajökull on 14 April 2010 (BGVN 35:03 and 35:04). After melting overlying portions of the icecap, the summit crater then emitted clouds of fine-grained ash that remained suspended in the atmosphere for long distances. The ash blew both over the Atlantic and for considerable intervals passed directly over Europe, halting flights of most commercial aircraft for nearly a week in a controversial shutdown with economic impacts in the billions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Index map showing Iceland, some major plate-tectonic features and generalized spreading directions, and the location of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. Note proximity of Eyjafjallajökull to Katla and to the volcanoes of the Vestmann island area (Vestmannaeyjar), Surtsey and Heimaey. Courtesy of USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. A shaded-relief map showing Eyjafjallajökull (E), and 9 km to its E, the flank vent Fimmvörðuháls (F). Stars indicate 2010 eruptive sites (map scale at top left). Glaciers cover extensive portions of both Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes (light pattern). During 14-29 April 2010 many earthquakes struck with epicenters along the N-S axis of Eyjafjallajökull (black dots). The map includes a small slice of the Atlantic ocean along the lower left-hand margin. Two of four geodetic (GPS) stations are shown (STE2 and THEY). Revised from a map by Sigmundsson and others (2010).

In terms of satellite thermal data on the overall eruption, the MODVOLC system measured extensive (multi-pixel) daily alerts during 21 March-21 May 2010, but the alerts became absent thereafter.

Venting at Fimmvörðuháls. At a 15-19 September 2010 conference on the eruption, Höskuldsson and others (2010a) characterized the course of events during the 20 March to 12 April basaltic Fimmvörðuháls flank eruption at Eyjafjallajökull as follows: "At the beginning the eruption featured as many as 15 lava fountains with maximum height of 150 m. On March 24 only four vents were active with fountains reaching to heights of 100 m. On March 31 and April 1 the activity was characterized by relatively weak fountaining through a forcefully stirring pool of lava. The vents were surrounded by 60-80 m high ramparts and the level of lava stood at approximately 40 m. This high stand led to opening of a new fissure trending northwest from the central segment of the original fissure. As activity on the new fissure intensified, the discharge from the original fissure declined and stopped on April 7.

"The intensity of the lava fountains varied significantly on the time scale of hours and was strongly influenced the level of the lava pond in the vents, producing narrow, gas-charged, piston-like fountains during periods of low lava levels, but spray-like fountains when the lava level was high . . ..

"The eruption produced a fountain-fed lava flow field with an area of about 1.3 km2. Initially (20-25 March), the lava advanced towards northeast, but on March 26 the lava began advancing to the west and northwest, especially after April 1 when the activity became concentrated on the new fissure. The flow field morphology is dominantly 'a'a, but domains of pahoehoe and slabby pahoehoe are present, particularly in the western sector of the flow field. The advance of the lava from the vents was episodic; when the lava stood high the lava surged out of the vents, but at low stand there was a lull in the advance. The lava discharged from the vents through open channels as well as internal pathways. The open channels were the most visible part of the transport system, feeding lava to active 'a'a flow fronts and producing spectacular lava falls when cascading into deep gullies just north of the vents. The role of internal pathways was much less noticeable, yet an important contribution to the overall growth of the flow field as it fed significant surface breakouts emerging on the surface of what otherwise looked like stagnant lava. When activity stopped on April 12 the fissure had issued about 0.025 km3 of magma, giving a mean discharge of 13 m3/s."

Summit eruption. The second eruption occurred within the initially ice-covered caldera of Eyjafjallajökull. Opening of the ice cover and explosivity into the atmosphere was amplified by magma-ice interaction that produced a fine ash capable of suspension in the atmosphere for prolonged periods.

Höskuldsson and others (2010b) described the eruption at Eyjafjallajökull's summit (beginning 14 April 2010) as consisting of three phases (table 2). They also stated that at the summit the "Total amount of tephra produced in the eruption is about 0.11 km3 and that of lava 0.025 km3 DRE [dense-rock equivalent]. Average discharge rate in the eruption was about 40 m3/s DRE or about 4 times that of Fimmvörðuháls eruption."

Table 2. Three phases of the eruption at Eyjafjallajökull volcano's summit beginning 14 April 2010 as summarized and condensed by Höskuldsson and others (2010b).

Dates Phase Description of Activity
14 Apr-17 Apr 2010 I Plumes often under 6 km but up to ~9 km altitude.
18 Apr-04 May 2010 II High tremor with lava flows; generally weak and ash-poor plumes. Pulsating activity with small discrete explosions every few seconds. Tephra grains had fluidal shapes suggesting magmatic fragmentation and decreased viscosity of erupting magma. Plumes on 28th to 7 km altitude.
05 May-22 May 2010 III Plumes up to 5 km altitude.

The summit area was still steaming and geothermally active, and the eruption channel was still very hot in October 2010 (figure 18). Investigators expected that cooling to ambient temperatures would take a few years . As noted below, during June 2010, hot lava could still be seen in cracks in the cooled rock on Fimmvörðuháls, and inside craters, but that was not the case at the ice-engulfed summit caldera.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. The summit crater complex of Eyjafjallajökull taken after the first winter snow, as seen from the air at 0810 on 9 October 2010. The scene helps explain the high degree of water and ice interaction with the erupting lavas. Snow had melted from numerous ash and lava-covered surfaces (black areas). Although portions of the crater emitted steam, evidence of substantial ongoing lava emissions were absent at this point in time. Photo courtesy of Ólafur Sigurjónsson, IMO.

According to Gudmundsson and others (2010b) the summit eruption produced 0.1-0.2 km3 (dense rock equivalent) of tephra. IES reported that by 11 June 2010 a lake about 300 m in diameter had formed in the large summit crater, and by 23 June water was slowly accumulating in the crater because ice was no longer in contact with hot material.

Intrusion triggering. Sigmundsson and others (2010) noted that the 2010 eruptions came after 18 years of intermittent volcanic unrest. The deformation associated with the eruptions was unusual because it did not relate to pressure changes within a single source. Deformation was rapid before the flank eruption (0.5 mm per day after 4 March 2010), but negligible during it.

During the summit eruption (beginning 14 April 2010) gradual contraction of a source, distinct from the pre-eruptive inflation sources, was evident from geodetic data. Thus, clear signals of volcanic unrest may occur over years to weeks, indicating reawakening of such volcanoes, whereas immediate short-term eruption precursors may be subtle and difficult to detect.

Figure 19 shows a cross-sectional model of the shallow crust by Sigmundsson and others (2010) based deformation and seismic analyses of the 2010 event. A previous issue of the Bulletin (BGVN 35:03) contained an alternate model by Paul Einarsson.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Schematic E-W cross-section across the Eyjafjallajökull summit area, with deformation sources plotted at their best-fit depth (vertical exaggeration of 2). Gray shaded background indicates source-depth uncertainties (95% confidence interval), which overlap. Courtesy of Sigmundsson and others (2010).

Processed satellite image. Vincent J. Realmuto created two composite figures generated from the MODIS-Terra satellite data acquired 15 April 2010 at 1135 UTC (figure 20). Outlined in black in each image are Iceland on the upper left side (W), Faroe Islands in the center, Scotland and N Ireland in the lower center, and part of the Scandinavian peninsula on the right side (E). An ash plume can be seen in each image extending from Iceland SW toward Europe. The left-hand image is the true-color RGB (red-green-blue) composite and the right-hand image is a false-color composite; in the right-hand rendition the ash plume appears red and the ice-rich clouds appear blue. The right-hand image puts obvious emphasis on the ash plume and shows it streaming and more or less intact for several hundreds of kilometers E of Iceland.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Graphics generated from the MODIS-Terra satellite data acquired 15 April 2010 at 1135 UTC. The left-hand graphic is a true-color RGB (red-green-blue) composite, and the right-hand image is a false-color composite of Bands 32, 31, and 29 (12, 11, and 8.5 um, respectively) displayed in red, green, and blue, respectively. These data were processed with the decorrelation stretch (D-stretch), a technique for enhancing spectral contrast based on principal components analysis. In this rendition the ash plume appears red and the ice-rich clouds appear blue. The D-stretch was based on scene statistics and was intended to be a quick method for discriminating material that may be volcanic in origin. Courtesy of Vincent J. Realmuto, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

Conference field trip. Following The Atlantic Conference on Eyjafjallajökull and Aviation in Iceland, 15-16 September 2010 (discussed below), a field trip brought scientists to accessible areas on the volcano, including the flank vent on Fimmvörðuháls ridge where the eruption began. John and Liudmila Eichelberger provided some photographs from this trip (figure 21). The same base map appeared in BGVN 35:03, with the key and other data. The horseshoe shape of the lava distribution in this figure is the feature imaged by an ASTER satellite thermal signature as active lava flows on 19 April 2010 in BGVN 35:03.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. (Central panel) Map showing fissures at Fimmvörðuháls (thin red lines) and the distribution of new scoria and lava deposited at various points in time (shaded areas) during 21 March-7 April 2010. Marked arrows on the map give locations of labeled photos (A-E) taken 18 September 2010. (A) Fresh lava (darker) seen looking N. In the distance appear fresh black lava flows, some portions of which formed the lava falls down the valley walls. (B) View showing the elongate ridge as seen from the upslope perspective (people in the distance for scale). (C, looking down) Glowing lava (~1.5 m long and ~0.3 m wide) at the bottom of a fissure. This photo was taken with a flash, otherwise the fissure walls would have been very dark. (D) The fracture indicated on the map as it appeared near the rim of the ridge of newly erupted lava. (E) The same fracture seen in D from another perspective. Courtesy of John and Ludmilla Eichelberger.

More on conferences and publications. Recently, several conferences have been held and many publications have been issued relevant to the eruption. What follows is a mere sample of the available resources, many of which emphasized plume research. At the American Geophysical Union (AGU) 2010 Fall Meeting, several sessions focused on the 2010 eruption (eg., Carn and others, 2010; see References for the link to abstracts volume).

The Workshop on Ash Dispersal Forecast and Civil Aviation held in Geneva, 18-20 October 2010, addressed the characteristics and range of application of different volcanic ash transport and dispersal models (VATDM), identifying the needs of the modeling community, investigating new data acquisition strategies, and discussing how to improve communication between the volcanology community and operational agencies (eg., Bonadonna and others, 2011).

The Cities on Volcanoes conference (COV-6; Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, 31 May-4 June 2010) included both papers (eg. Fischer and others, 2010) and a forum on the "Assessment of volcanic ash threat: learning and considerations from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption."

In addition, several other papers relevant to the eruption were presented during this meeting, as well as at the Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) in Seattle, WA, in January 2011, and at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) 2011 General Assembly in Vienna, Austria.

The journal Atmospheric Chemisrty and Physics published multiple issues with a section entitled "Atmospheric implications of the volcanic eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland 2010." These and other papers discussed various means of plume detection, and in some cases, sampling, including on the ground, in ultralight aircraft, and on satellites; models of plume dispersion were evaluated (Flentje and others, 2010; Emeis and others, 2011; Vogel and others, 2011; Fischer and others, 2010).

According to Loughlin (2010), scientists from the British Geological Survey found large ash particles from the eruption in the United Kingdom. Most of the very small ash particles in volcanic plumes fell as clusters of particles known as aggregates. The aggregation could have resulted from a number of mechanisms, including electrostatic attraction, particle collisions, condensation of liquid films and secondary mineralization. The process of aggregation effectively removed very small particles from the plume and was therefore one variable on how long ash particles stay in the atmosphere. Ripley (2010) and Chivers (2010) published articles on the U.K. Met Office's tracking and prediction of movements of volcanic ash based on observations from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption.

Gislason and others (2011) reported on analyses of two sets of fresh, comparatively dry ash samples that fell in Iceland and were collected rapidly on 15 and 27 April, during more and less explosive phases, respectively. Both sets of samples were kept dry and analyzed swiftly to minimize issues with hydration and alteration, particularly to salts on the ash surfaces. The ash was dominantly glass of andesitic composition (57-58% SiO2). They found the ash particles especially sharp and abrasive over their entire size range, from submillimeter to tens of nanometers.

References. Bonadonna, C., Folch, A., and Loughlin, S., 2011, Future Developments in Modeling and Monitoring of Volcanic Ash Clouds, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), v. 92, no. 10; pp. 85-86, DOI: 10.1029/2011EO100008 (URL: http://www.agu.org/pub/eos/).

Carn, S.A., Karlsdottir, S., and Prata, F., 2010, The 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajokull: A Landmark Event for Volcanic Cloud Hazards I, II, and III, Abstracts V41E, V53F, and V54C presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA, 13-17 December 2010 (URL: http://www.agu.org/meetings/fm10/program/index.php).

Chivers, H., 2010, Dark Cloud: VAAC and predicting the movement of volcanic ash, Meterological Technology International, June 2010, pp. 62-65.

Emeis, S., Forkel, R., Junkermann, W., Schäfer, K., Flentje, H., Gilge, S., Fricke, W., Wiegner, M., Freudenthaler, V., Groß, S., Ries, L., Meinhardt, F., Birmili, W., Münkel, C., Obleitner, F., and Suppan, P., 2011, Measurement and simulation of the 16/17 April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash layer dispersion in the northern Alpine region, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 11, pp. 2689-2701.

Fischer, C., van Haren, G., Pohl, T., Vogel, A., and Weber, K., 2010, Airborne in-situ measurements of the volcanic ash dust plume over a part of Germany caused by the volcano eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) by means of an optical particle counter and a light

sport aircraft, Abstract, Session 1.3, p. 229, Cities on Volcanoes 6 Conference (URL: http://www.citiesonvolcanoes6.com/ver.php).

Flentje, H., Claude, H., Elste, T., Gilge, S., Köhler, U., Plass-Dülmer, C., Steinbrecht, W., Thomas, W., Werner, A., and Fricke W., 2010, The Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 - detection of volcanic plume using in-situ measurements, ozone sondes and lidar-ceilometer profiles, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 10, pp. 10085-10092, DOI: 10.5194.

Gasteiger, J., Groß, S., Freudenthaler, V., and Wiegner, M., 2011, Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 11, pp. 2209-2223.

Gislason, S.R., Hassenkam, T., Nedel, S., Bovet, N., Eiriksdottir, E.S., Alfredsson, H.A., Hem, C.P., Balogh, Z.I., Dideriksen, K., Oskarsson, N., Sigfusson, B., Larsen, G., and Stipp, S.L.S., 2011, Characterization of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108, no. 18, p. 7303-7312.

Gudmundsson, M. T., Pedersen, R., Vogfjörd, K., Thorbjarnardóttir, B., Jakobsdóttir, S., and Roberts, M.J., 2010a, Eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), v. 91, no. 21, p. 190, DOI: 10.1029/2010EO210002.

Gudmundsson, M.T., Thordarson, T., Hoskuldsson, A., Larsen, G., Jónsdóttir, I., Oddsson, B., Magnusson, E., Hognadottir, T., Sverrisdottir, G., Oskarsson, N., Thorsteinsson, T., Vogfjord, K., Bjornsson, H., Pedersen, G.N., Jakobsdottir, S., Hjaltadottir, S., Roberts, M.J., Gudmundsson, G.B., Zophoniasson, S., and Hoskuldsson, F., 2010b, The Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April-May 2010; course of events, ash generation and ash dispersal, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), V. 91, no. 21, Abstract V53F-01, 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 13-17 December (URL: http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin).

Heue, K.-P., Brenninkmeijer,C.A.M., Baker, A. K., Rauthe-Schöch, A., Walter, D., Wagner, T., Hörmann, C., Sihler, H., Dix, B., Frieß, U., Platt, U., Martinsson, B. G., van Velthoven, P.F.J., Zahn, A., and Ebinghaus, R., 2011, SO2 and BrO observation in the plume of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano 2010: CARIBIC and GOME-2 retrievals, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 11, pp. 2973-2989.

Höskuldsson, A., Magnusson, E., Guðmundsson, M.T., Sigmundsson, F., and Sigmarsson, O., 2010a, The 20 March to 12 April basaltic Fimmvörðuháls flank eruption at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland: Course of events, abstract of presentation in Program of the Eyjafjallajökull and Aviation Conference (15-16 September 2010) and associated Eyjafjallajökull Eruption Workshop (Hotel Hvolsvellir, 17-19 September 2010); (URL: http://en.keilir.net/keilir/conferences/eyjafjallajokull/volcanological-workshop).

Höskuldsson, Á., Larsen, G., Gudmundsson, M.T., Oddsson, B., Magnússon, E., Sigmarsson, O., Óskarsson, N., Jónsdóttir, I., Sigmundsson, F., Einarsson, P., Hreinsdóttir, S., Pedersen, R., Högnadóttir, Þ., Thordarson, T., Hayward, C., Hartley, M., Meara, R., Arason, Þ., Karlsdóttir, S., and Petersen, G.N., 2010b, The Eyjafjallajökull eruption April to May 2010: Magma fragmentation, plume and tephra transport, and course of events, abstract of presentation in Program of the Eyjafjallajökull and Aviation Conference (15-16 September 2010) and associated Eyjafjallajökull Eruption Workshop (17-19 September 2010); (URL: http://en.keilir.net/keilir/conferences/eyjafjallajokull/volcanological-workshop).

Laursen, L., 2010, Iceland eruptions fuel interest in volcanic gas monitoring, Science, v. 328, no. 5977, p. 410-411.

Loughlin, S., 2010, Modelling of Iceland volcanic ash particles, news item from British Geological Survey (URL: http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/highlights/IcelandAshParticles.html?src=sfb).

Ripley, T., 2010, Cloud Busting: How the UK is tracking the volcanic ash cloud, Meterological Technology International, June 2010, pp. 6-10.

Schumann, U., Weinzierl, B., Reitebuch, O., Schlager, H., Minikin, A., Forster, C., Baumann, R., Sailer, T., Graf, K., Mannstein, H., Voigt, C., Rahm, S., Simmet, R., Scheibe, M., Lichtenstern, M., Stock, P., Rüba, H., Schäuble, D., Tafferner, A., Rautenhaus, M., Gerz, T., Ziereis, H., Krautstrunk, M., Mallaun, C., Gayet, J.-F., Lieke, K., Kandler, K., Ebert, M., Weinbruch, S., Stohl, A., Gasteiger, J., Groß, S., Freudenthaler, V., Wiegner, M., Ansmann, A., Tesche, M., Olafsson, H., and Sturm, K., 2011, Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 11, pp. 2245-2279.

Sigmundsson, F., Hreinsdóttir, S., Hooper, A., Árnadóttir, T., Pedersen, R., Roberts, M.J., Óskarsson, N., Auriac, A., Decriem, J., Einarsson, P., Geirsson, H., Hensch, M., Ófeigsson, B.G., Sturkell, E., Sveinbjörnsson, H., and Feigl, K.L., 2010, Letter: Intrusion triggering of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption, Nature, v. 468, pp. 426-430.

Stohl, A., Prata, A.J., Eckhardt, S., Clarisse, L., Durant, A., Henne, S., Kristiansen, N.I., Minikin, A., Schumann, U., Seibert, P., Stebel, K., Thomas, H.E., Thorsteinsson, T., Tørseth, K., and Weinzierl, B., 2011, Determination of time- and height-resolved volcanic ash emissions and their use for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 11, pp. 4333-4351.

Vogel, A., Weber, K., Fischer, C., van Haren, G., Pohl, T., Grobety, B., and Meier, M., 2011, Airborne in-situ measurements of the Eyjafjallojökull ash plume with a small aircraft and optical particle spectrometers over north-western Germany - comparison between the aircraft measurements and the VAAC-model calculations, European Geophysical Union General Assembly, Geophysical Research Abstracts, v. 13, p. EGU2011-13253.

Geologic Background. Eyjafjallajökull (also known as Eyjafjöll) is located west of Katla volcano. It consists of an elongated ice-covered stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks, but are more prominent on the western side. Although the volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known. An intrusion beneath the S flank from July-December 1999 was accompanied by increased seismic activity. The last historical activity prior to an eruption in 2010 produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera during December 1821 to January 1823.

Information Contacts: Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, Askja , 101 Reykjavík (URL: http://www.earthice.hi.is/); Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) (URL: http://en.vedur.is/earthquakes-and-volcanism/articles/nr/1884); U.K. Meteorological Office (URL: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk); ármann Höskuldsson, Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, Askja , 101 Reykjavík (URL: http://www.earthice.hi.is); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sue C. Loughlin, The British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, Scotland, UK (URL: http://www.bgs.ac.uk/); Vincent J. Realmuto, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, M/S 183-501, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA; John Eichelberger, U.S. Geological Survey, Volcano Hazards Program, Reston, VA (URL: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/); Ludmilla Eichelberger, Global Volcanism Program, National Museum of Natural History, 10th and Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20560 USA; Iceland Review (URL: http://icelandreview.com/icelandreview/daily_news/).


Irazu (Costa Rica) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Irazu

Costa Rica

9.979°N, 83.852°W; summit elev. 3432 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Crater lake dries and regional acid-rain report

In April 2010 the lake within Irazú's crater dwindled to only a few centimeters depth and from May to August the lake was dry enough to allow plants to grow up to 10 cm high. Water began to accumulate in September 2010 but disappeared again during the following month. Since November 2010 water returned to the crater and as late as April 2011, a shallow turquoise-blue lake was maintained. Continuous monitoring of acid rain on Irazú's flanks reflected contributions from Turrialba. Often called Irazú's "twin volcano," Turrialba is less than 10 km to the ENE and during the past 4 years it has caused a region-wide increase in acid rain. Covering January 2004 through September 2007, the last Bulletin report on Irazú (BGVN 32:11) highlighted decreasing lake levels, fumarolic changes, and minor mass wasting on the crater walls during January 2004 to March 2007 (see table 8 for a summary of lake changes).

Table 8. Changing lake conditions based on observations of Irazú's crater. Double asterisks indicate times when the lake disappeared; "--" fills cells where no data is available; lake levels are reported qualitatively except for the 7 October to 12 March 2010 time interval when absolute values were measured. This summary is based on ICE data and OVSICORI Monthly Reports.

Date Lake level Temp. °C Water color Notes
** Apr 1990 Empty -- -- --
1991-1994 Stable -- green Infrequent Bubbles
08 Dec 1994 ~VEI 2 explosion from the NW outer flank fumarole~ -- -- --
1994-1996 Stable -- green Bubbles
May 2000 Decreasing 18 yellow-green Bubbles
Jan 2001 ~30 -- green Bubbles
08 Feb 2003 Stable 15 reddish Rockslide into lake
Jan-Dec 2004 Stable -- green Convection cells at edges
Jan-Nov 2005 Stable -- green Convection cells in center
Mar-Dec 2006 Stable -- increasingly yellow-green Convection cells in various locations
Mar-Sep 2007 Decreasing 145 light-green Convection cells at edges and center; bubbles
20 Sep 2007-Mar 2008 Decreasing 17 -- Bubbles
05 Mar 2008-07 Oct 2009 Decreasing 14 dark green Bubbles
07 Oct 2009-12 Mar 2010 1.4 m 16 dark-to-light green --
Apr 2010 Only few cm -- -- --
** May-Aug 2010 Empty -- -- Plants on crater floor
Sep 2010 Re-forming -- -- --
** Oct 2010 Empty -- -- --
Nov 2010-Jan 2011 Forming -- turquoise --
Feb-Apr 2011 Few meters -- turquoise-to-blue --

On 22 July 2010 a team of investigators from Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) descended to the dry crater floor. They documented changes in vegetation, fumaroles, and clay deposition on the crater floor. Photos taken during prior trips provided comparisons with previous conditions (figure 14). Rockfalls and minor mass wasting had been occurring regularly and the long runout of debris across the crater floor was visible during this investigation. Most of the debris fell from the E and SW walls. On the NE side of the dry crater a rocky area emitted low temperature (24°C) sulfur-smelling gases from three aligned vents. Higher temperatures (86°C) were measured from fumaroles on the N side of the crater but they appeared to be releasing gas with less energy than observed in the past years when bubbles were visible within the lake. Another interesting finding was a waterfall on the inside of the crater on the SW wall; this small waterfall did not have sufficient volume to pool on the crater floor and instead soaked directly into the surrounding clay.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Views taken from Irazú's S rim. (top) The crater on 24 April 2004 contained a turquoise lake. (bottom) A repeat photo taken on 22 July 2010 shows the lake had disappeared; the former lake level and the clay base on the crater floor are marked. Since November 2010 water had accumulated and as of April 2011, was several meters deep. Courtesy of Eliecer Duarte, OVSICORI-UNA.

The water level in Irazú's crater has been variable throughout time; the Bulletin recorded a dry crater during February 1977 and June 1987 (SEAN 12:07), and April 1990 (BGVN 15:04). Factors highlighted during the IAVCEI CVL-7 ("Commission of Volcanic Lakes" Costa Rica, 10-19 March 2010) included complex connections with Turrialba, seasonal effects, infiltration within the crater, and the role of mass wasting. The mechanism for the recent disappearance of the lake is still under investigation by OVSICORI-UNA and ICE investigators (Guillermo Alvarado, personal communication).

Erosion. Mass wasting had been an ongoing process for at least 10 years. Material is primarily shed from the E and SW walls and the lake contained islands of black and red material formed from the debris. In February 2003 a major rockslide into the lake caused the water color to change from green to shades of red. An analysis of seismicity during that month showed no correlation to these slope failures (BGVN 28:12). Cracks along the NW rim formed and widened since December 2007; these cracks caused blocks up to 3 x 20 m to fall from the rim in March 2008.

Local gas measurements. Since the large phreatic explosion in December 1994 (BGVN 19:12), the NW fumarole has been releasing low gas emissions regularly. Different temperature measurements recorded since June 2010 ranged between 90°C to 86°C. To monitor changes in sulfur dioxide output from Irazú, a network of three stations collected rain samples from sites along the volcano's flanks.

The pH data from September 2004 through July 2010 were plotted in the OVSICORI-UNA July 2010 monthly report. The results correlate pH changes to much larger degassing events occurring at Turrialba, a neighboring volcano that began major degassing in 2007. Only the "Borde Sur" station was sampling continuously but the other two stations reflected similar trends in acidity. Despite irregular fluctuations, a decreasing pH trend began in 2007. The lowest point of the trend was measured by "Borde Este" at approximately pH 3.25. Where there "Pacayas" station data began, the trend appeared to have stabilized between pH 3.25 and 4.75.

References. D. Rouwet, R.A. Mora-Amador, C.J. Ramírez-Umaña, G. González, Seepage of "aggressive" fluids reduce volcano flank stability: the Irazú and Turrialba case, Costa Rica, Abstract, CVL 7 Workshop Costa Rica, IAVCEI-Commission of Volcanic Lakes, March 2010.

Geologic Background. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

Information Contacts: E. Duarte, Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/); G. Alvarado and G.J. Soto, Oficina de Sismologia y Vulcanologia del Arenal y Miravalles (OSIVAM), Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Apartado 10032-1000, San Jose, Costa Rica.


Machin (Colombia) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Machin

Colombia

4.487°N, 75.389°W; summit elev. 2749 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic and non-eruptive unrest detected in 2004, 2008, 2009, and again in 2010

This is the first Bulletin report on Cerro Machín volcano, the site of seismic unrest for many years, most recently, 1992, 1999, 2002, 2004, 2008, 2009, and 2010. This activity did not lead to eruptions. Instrumental monitoring by INGEOMINAS began in 1987 and has determined Machín's background seismicity ranged from 1 to10 earthquakes/day, but during intervals of unrest, seismicity sometimes reached several hundred earthquakes per day.

This is a small but explosive volcano located at the S end of the Ruiz-Tolima massif, 185 km NNE of the Nevado del Huila volcano and 147 km WSW of Bogotá, the capital (figure 1). (Tolima volcano, not shown, lies ~22 km NNE of Machín.)

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Map of Colombia showing the location of the Machín volcano. Note the Departments (states) of Tolima (1) and Huila (2) are shaded regions. Courtesy of the IFRC and Relief Web.

Machín caldera contains three dacitic domes; the 3-km-wide caldera is breached to the S. According to Mendez and others (2002), there have been six eruptions within the past 10,000 years. In the same report, the authors noted geomorphological similarities between Machín and Pinatubo prior to its large 1991 eruption. The seismic events have drawn increased attention to Machín from the Volcanic and Seismological Observatory of Manizales, Colombia Institute of Geology and Mining (INGEOMINAS).

According to news articles published in mid-May 2004, INGEOMINAS reported that there had been an increase in seismicity at Machín in April. About 60 earthquakes were recorded daily (in comparison to the 1-10 earthquakes normally recorded); however, no surface changes were seen at that time at the volcano.

There was no further significant seismic activity until the first week of January 2008 when INGEOMINAS reported unusual seismicity at Machín during 6-8 January. Long-period earthquakes were detected S of the main lava dome. On 7 January, the volcano-tectonic seismic signals were occasionally felt and reported by nearby residents. The simultaneous occurrence of both types of seismic signals was unusual for Machín. Again, the activity diminished to the previous background levels until 9 November when INGEOMINAS reported a cluster of ~375 earthquakes, the majority of which were located towards the E sector and below the dome of the volcano with depths between 2.5 and 5 km. The earthquake activity occurred underneath the central and E parts of the lava dome complex in the summit caldera and fumarolic activity in the area increased. During 8-10 November 2008, Machín registered 1,210 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 9 of which were M 2.5. According to news articles, approximately 400-450 people evacuated to shelters or other safe areas. There were also reports of landslides that blocked a highway.

Table 1 and figure 2 detail the local villages in proximity to Machín.

Table 1. Villages in proximity to Machín and the respective distances from the caldera (approximate). Taken from web sources such as Google Earth.

Village/town Crater distance (km) Direction
El Rodeo 96 NNW
Santa Marte 15 NNE
Aguacaliente 23 SSW
Toche 62 NW
Cajamarca 8 SSW
Ibague 17 ESE
Salento 24 NW
Circasia 31 WNW
Calarca 30 W
Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. A regional map showing population centers and paved and unpaved roads. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

On 10 November the seismic activity of the volcano diminished to background conditions. On 17 December INGEOMINAS reported that a swarm of 98 earthquakes occurred at Machín SE of the lava domes at depths of 2-6 km. The largest earthquake was M 2.6 at a depth of ~4 km.

There were two significant seismic events at Machín during 2009. On 31 July there was in increase in seismic activity, which consisted of ~200 events. Initially the increase was gradual, however, during the last hour the activity increased abruptly and included an earthquake of M 2.7. This subsided to a background level until early December when INGEOMINAS detected 54 earthquakes, some M ~ 1.3. Authorities issued a "Yellow" alert (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity") for Machín. The Tolima Regional Emergency Committee conducted evacuation training with local communities as a precaution.

INGEOMINAS reported that on 24 July 2010 a seismic crisis at Machín was characterized by volcano-tectonic earthquakes. An M 2.6 earthquake was located S of the main lava dome at a depth of ~4 km. The next day an M 4.1 volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred 0.8 km S of the main dome at a depth of ~3.9 km. The Yellow alert remained in effect following the increase in registered seismic activity in the area. On 29 July the number of volcano-tectonic events again increased; the earthquakes were a maximum M 1.7 and between 3 and 4 km depth, S of the main dome.

On 17 September 2010, INGEOMINAS again reported increased seismicity. About 140 volcano-tectonic earthquakes as large as M 1.85 were located S and SW of the main lava dome at depths of 2-4 km. On 4 October there was an M 3.5 tectonic earthquake located 0.37 km S of the main dome at a depth of ~4.14 km. Residents near the volcano felt this earthquake. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.

On 3 December 2010 about 340 volcano-tectonic earthquakes with low magnitudes were located SW of the main lava dome, at an average depth of 4 km. The largest event, a M 3.7 earthquake located SW of the dome at a depth of about 3.5 km, was felt by local residents. On 31 December INGEOMINAS reported a period of increased seismicity. A total of 346 volcano-tectonic events no stronger than M 2.1 were located S and SW of the main lava dome.

On 1 January 2011 seismicity again increased, and at the time of the report, 367 events had been detected. The low-magnitude events were located S and SW of the main dome at depths between 2.5 and 4.5 km. The largest event, M 2.3, was located S of the dome at a depth of about 3.3 km and felt by residents near the volcano and in the municipality of Cajamarca, 8 km SSW. On 13 January an increased number of earthquakes were located to the W and SW of the main dome at depth of 2.5-3.5 km. The largest event registered M ~2.6 and was reported to have been felt by residents near the volcano.

Since 1989, INGEOMINAS noted a gradual increase in seismicity has been following the events closely in order to report any changes on the volcano's activities (figure 3). All the local emergency committees were activated in the area near Machín volcano in addition to the regional emergency committees in Tolima District.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Map showing potential hazards from hypothetical future activity at Machín. Thicknesses of potential ash fall to the W are shown (in cm) as modeled by computer-aided dispersion modeling (VAFTAD); PF stands for pyroclastic flow deposits. Adaped from INGEOMINAS (2007).

References. Méndez, RA; Cortés, GP; and Cepeda, H; [Calvache, ML, Project Chief], 2002, Evaluacíon de la Amenaza Volcánica Potencial del Cerro Machín (Departamento del Tolima, Colombia), Manizales, Sept. 2002, INGEOMINAS, 66 p. (in Spanish).

Méndez, RA, Cortés, GP, and Cepeda, H., 2007, Evaluacíon amenazas potencial de volcan Cerro Machín [Large map in Spanish taken from 2002 report of same name. Name in English, 'Evaluation of potenial hazards from volcan Cerro Machín'] Mapa Amenaza Volcán Machín, INGEOMINAS (URL: http://intranet.ingeominas.gov.co/manizales/images/5/55/MAPA_AMENAZA_VOLCAN_MACHIN.jpg)

Geologic Background. The small Cerro Machín stratovolcano lies at the southern end of the Ruiz-Tolima massif about 20 km WNW of the city of Ibagué. A 3-km-wide caldera is breached to the south and contains three forested dacitic lava domes. Voluminous pyroclastic flows traveled up to 40 km away during eruptions in the mid-to-late Holocene, perhaps associated with formation of the caldera. Late-Holocene eruptions produced dacitic block-and-ash flows that traveled through the breach in the caldera rim to the west and south. The latest known eruption of took place about 800 years ago.

Information Contacts: Instituto Colombiano de Geologia y Mineria (INGEOMINAS), Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales, Manizales, Colombia; Relief Web (URL: https://reliefweb.int/); International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) (URL: http://www.ifrc.org/); Caracol Radio; El Tiempo:Portafolio (URL: http://columbiareports.com).


Poas (Costa Rica) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Photos of phreatic eruptions from acid lake; surrounding vegetation damaged by gases

Occasional, typically minor phreatic eruptions occurred at Poás through at least early February 2011 (BGVN 35:12). They emerged from the active crater lake, Lago Caliente. The Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) illuminated intervals of phreatic eruptions and relations on the chemistry of Lago Caliente's waters over a period of more than 30 years (figure 94). This report includes photos of phreatic eruptions in 2009, 2010, and early 2011, and reviews events through March 2011.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Plots of the sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine concentrations, as well as the temperature, pH, and gas volumes in the Lago Caliente waters at Poás, with respect to time. The data on the time axis extends from early 1978 to late 2009. Arrows along the top indicate periods with frequent phreatic eruptions. Notice the low pH, often well below pH 1.5. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Volcanic gases and associated condensate and rainfall led to increasing areal extent and degree of damage to vegetation in nearby areas. In studying the Lago Caliente's waters, Martinez and others (2011) found in solution a variety of oxo-anions of sulfur called polythionates (SnO6-2, where n can be 20 or larger), which they found to vary in concentration from undetectable to 8,000 mg/L. They considered polythionates to be "highly relevant for monitoring purposes at Poás, in particular because they may signal impending phreatic eruptions."

More on the 25 December 2009 phreatic eruption. A previous report (BGVN 35:12) discussed a phreatic eruption on 25 December 2009 but some further comments are worth adding. As previously noted (BGVN 35:12), "Steam and lake water mixed with sediment and blocks were ejected 550-600 m above Laguna Caliente and fell in the vicinity of the lake, within the crater." No mention was previously made of a 24 December 2009 phreatic eruption discussed by OVSICORI-UNA. It took place in the morning at 0808 and all erupted material fell back in the crater.

Photos taken on 25 December 2009 and recently posted on the Picasa website have come to our attention. The four photos on figure 95 come from a set of nine taken from the S rim. The earliest of the set depict a very tranquil lake with steaming at or near the dome (not shown here). The next photo, taken 129 seconds after that tranquil scene, portrays the advancing eruption (figure 95a). The subsequent two photos (figure 95b and c) captured the interval closest to the peak of the eruptive vigor.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. Four sequential photos taken looking N at Poás of a phreatic eruption from the center of Lago Caliente on 25 December 2009. The time intervals between the four photos was as follows: photos (a) to (b), 5 sec; photos (b) to (c), 5 sec; and photos (c) to (d), 11 sec. Photo descriptions below: (a) The earliest available photo of the eruption cloud, which, based on the next photo in this set, was clearly still emerging energetically. It advanced with the leading portions of the plume chiefly dark. At the plume's base, white steam clouds mask the lake. (b and c) The shots taken closest to the maximum point of the eruption's thrust phase, with dark material still conspicuous. White tufts expanded and began to cap most of the advancing jets. The clouds engulfing the base of the plume now contain more discolored zones. (d) As the plume evolves and the vigorous exhalative part of the eruption ends or wanes, a steam-rich cloud envelops the eruption cloud. Note the gray-colored rain falling out of the plume. Taken from Cindy and JM's Gallery (undated) on the Picasa photo sharing website (see References and Information Contacts below).

An exact assessment of the photos is complicated by several factors. There were shifts in the focal length of the lens (documented in camera metadata found on the website). Also, in detail, the camera's time record indicated 0252 hrs, clearly incorrect for this daylight scene. That problem is reconciled by a photo featured in the OVSICORI-UNA report, which showed a plume photo by another photographer at a stage nearly identical to figure 95b and the text indicated the eruption occurred at 0952 hrs local time.

An email response from Cindy Doire provided these comments about witnessing the phreatic eruption.

"We arrived at the volcano early in the morning. We were one of the first to arrive that day. Our group and a few other tourists were looking at it and NOTHING was happening. The people finished looking and started leaving that spot. It was just about 4 of us still there, when suddenly the volcano started to erupt. There was NO warning at all. Even the rangers were surprised. At the beginning, white steam (gas?) shot up, then black rock and dirt started exploding out. I believe that everything that shot up, fell back into the crater . . . the gas could be smelled and was strong . . .."

In an email to GVP regarding the 25 December 2009 eruption, Eliecer Duarte commented: "It seems that this [25 December 2009] eruption opened a more permanent vent at the bottom of the lake. Since that event the frequency of phreatic ones increased and remained like this for [a] year and a half. We still have dozens of smaller ones daily.

More on crater degassing. Field visits during 2010 and 2011 allowed scientists to see the expanding effects of Poás volcanic gases on vegetation (figures 96 and 97). Dry conditions resulted in winds carrying the gases considerable distances from the volcano. The area most affected was an elongate zone downwind of the active crater and extending ~4 km SW. Figure 97 portrays transitional zones with intermediate effects.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. A commercial airline pilot and amateur photographer took this and other photos of Poás on 28 April 2010. The active crater and its discolored lake (Lago Caliente) reside at the right-hand side of this shot. It is part of an elongate zone of barren rock stretching ~4 km across the otherwise lushly vegetated landscape. As is typical, the plume's orientation on this day lies directly over the barren zone. From "Len" (undated), (see Reference below).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Oblique view highlighting the area to the S of Poás (note volcano's crater lakes, including the active "Lago Caliente") On color versions of this figure, the pink rhombuses show sites for collecting acid rain. Providencia is shown in the lower left. The crater lake at upper right, "Botos" is ~0.5 km across in the long direction but the scale on this image varies with distance towards the foreground. Courtesy E. Duarte, OVSICORI-UNA.

Starting just beyond the elongate zone of harsh effects, the areas of discolored vegetation had increased impact and areal extent. One such impacted area was a nature preserve called Providencia, which is seen in figure 97 to the left of Poás. Farther from the volcano lies Cerro Pelón (2.5 km distance and direction SW of the crater) , which also showed the effects of chemical burning from volcanic gases (figure 97).

In the past, activity centers have migrated within the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that, for at least the past year (ending March 2011), the points of degassing have been concentrated in the hot crater lake and dome (figure 98). The emanating steam and gases, often carried by wind, have affected areas up to several hundred meters around the crater (figures 96-98).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. The active crater at Poás, showing pronounced steam release both from fractures in the dome as well as from the lake's surface. Conditions like this (with more or less steam) often prevailed in recent times (including just a few seconds prior to the eruption sequence shown in figure 95). The crater lake (Lago Caliente) rests behind (N of) the dome and steam clouds. Courtesy E. Duarte, OVSICORI-UNA.

OVSICORI-UNA reported that through at least March 2011 small phreatic eruptions occurred daily at Lago Caliente. These eruptions sometimes only reached the lake's surface, but at other times reached a few meters above the lake, and occasionally, tens of meters above the lake. The majority of the erupted sediments fell back into the lake. The fine sediments sometimes remained suspended in the lake water and caused its gray color. The majority of eruptions occurred in the central part of the crater, with a few originating slightly more to the N or S of the center. Because of the phreatic activity and high temperature of the lake (57°C), strong evaporation occurred and plumes traveled long distances in the wind (figure 99).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. At Poás, a phreatic eruption at Lago Caliente reaching several meters high, in a manner typical of daily activity during recent months. View from the active crater's N side (opposite the viewpoint). Photo taken sometime in January 2011. Courtesy E. Duarte, OVSICORI-UNA.

A comparison of vegetation in the area between Cerro Pelón and Providencia (designated "F1" in figure 97) made during August 2010 to January 2011 found that most plant species were resistant at certain levels of acidification. However, when their tolerance thresholds were reached, the affected species decayed quickly and were sometimes unable to recover. Certain species, including eucalyptus, pine, alder, and cypress, were particularly sensitive to the volcanic gases. Minor effects from gases were observed on Cypress trees as far as 9 km SW of the emission source. OVSICORI-UNA reports contained several photos showing more details on the effects of acidic gases on vegetation. One of their later reports, from April 2011, discussed ongoing phreatic eruptions and dome temperature of 560°C.

References. Cindy and JM's Gallery, undated, "Poas volcano eruption, December 25th, 2009" [9 photos] Picassa (URL: https://picasaweb.google.com/cjmdoire); [includes camera-related metadata].

Len (Barfbag), undated, "Wednesday, April 28, 2010, Mt Poas, Costa Rica" ; in Viewsfrom the left seat, A look at the airline world ... ride along in the cockpit (URL: http://viewsfromtheleftseat.blogspot.com/2010/04/mt-poas-costa-rica.html)

Martínez, M., van Bergen, M.J., Fernández, E., and Takano, B., 2011, Polythionates monitoring at the acid crater lake of Poás Volcano, IAVCEI-COMMISSION OF VOLCANIC LAKES, CVL7 Workshop, Costa Rica, 10-19 March 2010, Online Abstracts volume (May 2011), p. 12 (URL: http://www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/cvl/)

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: E. Duarte and E. Fernández, Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/); Cindy Doire (address withheld by request).


Ranau (Indonesia) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Ranau

Indonesia

4.871°S, 103.925°E; summit elev. 1854 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fish kill in April 2011 strikes hot-spring areas of intra-caldera lake

This report on Ranau, a Pleistocene caldera that lies along the Great Sumatran fault, is based on accounts of fish kills, including one on 4 April 2011. The fish died near hot springs in Lake Ranau, a large caldera lake, and their deaths were attributed to seismically induced H2S releases by the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM). CVGHM reported the surface area of Lake Ranau to be ~127 km2, and noted that the Lake Ranau complex is geothermally active, with hot springs that emerge at the foot of Mount Seminung on the banks of Lake Ranau. In addition to the 2011 event, fish kills have been recorded in Lake Ranau (figure 1) for the past five decades (table 1).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photo of Lake Ranau with Mount Seminung in the background. Posted by blogger "masternewstoday" in May 2011.

Table 1. Previous fish kills in Lake Ranau reported during the past five decades. (Note that there is no mention of any correlation between seismicity and geochemical anomalies.) Courtesy of CVGHM.

Year Description
1962  Residents in Sende Simpang Village noted that the lake water became milky white in color and all of the fish died.
1993 One or more fish kills over 3 months.
1995 Small-scale fish kill accompanied by a rotten smell (presumably H2S).
1998 Large-scale fish kill occurred. According to the head of the village, the event began with turbulent water in Lake Ranau that lasted for approximately 30 minutes.

Reports stated that the 4 April 2011 fish kill was large in scale. According to the head of a nearby village, Sugih Sane, the event began with turbulent water in Lake Ranau that lasted for approximately 30 minutes. Local residents reported that the fish kill occurred during a relatively short time in portions of the lake surrounding hot springs. At the time of the incident, the water in the affected areas appeared milky white, and wind spread the smell of sulfur to surrounding areas.

Geochemistry. Scientists conducted field work near the three hot springs Kota Batu, Ujung, and Way Wahid during 16-19 April 2011. At that time they reported the following: No dead algae were found on the lake's surface. There was no smell of sulfur, the water was clear, and the water around the hot springs was bubbling and warm. * Dead fish were no longer present. The pH of the lake water was 7.74, and the temperature was 26.1°C. The water near the hot springs had a pH of 6.32-7.06, with a temperature of 47.8-62°C. The water of the river that empties into Lake Ranau (input) had a pH of 8.07-8.10, and the lake water discharge (output) had a pH of 7.86. The result of ambient gas examination showed no gases associated with magmatic gases, such as CH4, CO2, CO, and H2S, in the vicinity of the hot springs discharge. The degree to which the above measurements were anomalous was unstated.

Seismicity. Seismic data recorded during 16-20 April 2011 showed microearthquake activity around Lake Ranau. The earthquakes were located along a fault line oriented in the SE-NW direction along Lake Ranau, at depths of 0.6 and 10 km below the surface of the lake. The Berkelulusan location coincides with the location of the Kota Batu hot springs. Prior to the fish kill at Lake Ranau on 4 April, an M 5.1 earthquake was recorded on 29 March 2011 in Bengkulu, ~160 km W of Lake Ranau.

Cause of the fish kill. CVGHM concluded that, based on the results of the field work (location of dead fish near hot springs, sulfur smell carried by wind up to 3 km away, absence of dead algae, and changing color of the lake water to milky white during the event), the fish kill in Lake Ranau was caused by the release of H2S gas into the lake water, which caused imbalances in lake water chemistry. They said that hydrothermal gas was trapped over time and escaped to the surface after the pressure due to tectonic disturbances. CVGHM concluded that the M 5.1 earthquake in Bengkulu on 29 March 2011 led to increased pressure on the fault in the vicinity of Lake Ranau; then, H2S gas was released to the surface in the vicinity of the hot springs. According to CVGHM, the occurrence of microearthquakes is a result of the fault in the vicinity of Lake Ranau, and are neither dangerous nor destructive. However, CVGHM asked residents to report future fish kills to the local government.

Geologic Background. Ranau is an 8 x 13 km Pleistocene caldera partially filled by the crescent-shaped Lake Ranau. The caldera lies along the Great Sumatran Fault that extends the length of Sumatra. Incremental formation of the caldera culminated in the eruption of the voluminous Ranau Tuff about 0.55 million years ago. A morphologically young post-caldera stratovolcano, Gunung Semuning, was constructed within the SE side of the caldera to a height of more than 1,200 m above the lake surface. The volcano has not been mapped in sufficient detail to determine the age of its latest eruptions, although fish kills and sulfur smells in the late 19th and early 20th centuries may be related to volcanism.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://vsi.esdm.go.id/); Masternewstoday (URL: http://hot-breaking-news-masternewstoday.blogspot.com).


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarolically active but non-eruptive through January 2011

Low-frequency earthquakes and tremor were reported at Rincón de la Vieja during the first half of 2008 (BGVN 33:07). Since then, Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) had issued intermittent reports of activity through January 2011. Those reports are summarized in the following sections, with much of the discussion centered around fumaroles and behavior of the geothermally warmed lake in the active crater. Occasional, typically small phreatic eruptions had occurred here in past years, for example in the 1990s (eg., BGVN 21:02, 21:03, 22:01, and 23:03) but were absent in the current reporting interval (last half of 2008 through January 2011).

August 2008. OVSICORI-UNA reported that the level of the lake was at a high level, with a bluish color, generated convection cells with evaporation, and had sulfur particles visible on it's surface. Sulfur deposition and fumarolic activity continued along the SW wall.

March 2009. In mid-March 2009, scientists visited the S and SW flank, collected samples, and noted some temperatures of 75-78°C. Because the visit occurred during the dry season, most areas encountered were dry. The scientists examined an area of acidification to the W of Von Seebach crater, ~3 km SW of the active crater. Strong winds common in that direction sometimes carried volcanic gases. Consequently, most of this narrow expanse only contained patches of grassland and shrubs that barely covered the rocky surface.

October 2009. OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismographic station RIN3, located ~5 km SW of the main crater, registered volcano-tectonic events and tremor lasting for minutes.

Weak ongoing fumarolic activity during 2010 through January 2011. OVSICORI-UNA reported that the level of the crater lake remained high during 2010, with constant evaporation. Geochemical, seismic, and deformation data did not show significant changes in physico-chemical parameters during 2010. The changing color of the lake, from blue to gray, was attributed to intense rains and fumarolic activity in the crater.

Later reporting. Reports during 2010 through at least January 2011 described fumarolic activity along the S and SW walls of the crater, with sulfur deposition and moderate gas discharge. The lake remained a gray color, with sulfur particles in suspension. Figure 15 shows a photo taken in April of the crater looking at the SW wall with fumarolic activity along with sulfur deposition. In April 2010, OVSICORI-UNA reported that the temperature of the lake was 49°C. A fumarole sometimes seen active along the N flank had stopped discharging gas.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Photo of the active crater lake of Rincón de la Vieja on 29 April 2010 showing yellow sulfur deposits and fumarolic activity along the SW wall of the crater. This kind of activity was typical throughout the reporting interval (last half of 2008 through January 2011). Photo by E. Fernandez, OVSICORI-UNA.

OVSICORI-UNA reported that 2010 was unusual in that four domestic volcanoes were active: Arenal, Poás, Turrialba, and Rincón de la Vieja. Irazú was comparatively inactive (see separate report in this issue of the Bulletin).

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: E. Fernández, W. Sáenz, E. Duarte, M. Martínez, S. Miranda, F. Robichaud, T. Marino, M. Villegas, and J. Barquero, Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/).


Sheveluch (Russia) — April 2011 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing dome growth into early 2011; and pyroclastic flows of 27 October 2010

This report first describes activity seen at Shiveluch during December 2010-March 2011. Data from that interval included several ash plumes visible as they blew to over 100 km from the volcano. Thermal imagery analysis showed the character of the dome and the path of pyroclastic-flow deposits during that interval. After that, we provide a follow-up to the 27 October 2010 eruption (BGVN 35:11), adding some previously unmentioned details. That eruption destroyed the dome's SE sector and generated pyroclastic flows.

During December 2010-March 2011, KVERT reported that Shiveluch both underwent moderate seismicity and emitted bright thermal anomalies conspicuous in satellite imagery (figure 27). Details of significant explosions and ash plumes during that time appear on table 10. Figure 28 shows a photo with the distant skyline dominated by a long Shiveluch ash plume.

Table 10. An inexhaustive synopsis of significant plumes at Shiveluch visible on satellite imagery from December 2010 through 26 March 2011 (times and dates are UTC). Courtesy KVERT.

Date Comments
03 Dec 2010 Ash plumes drifted 322 km SE.
14 Dec 2010 Ash plume drifted 230 km NE, 2-km-long pyroclastic flow.
23-24 Dec 2010 Ash plumes rose to altitudes as high as 4.5 km
02 Jan 2011 Ash plumes rose to altitudes as high as 8 km and drifted 92 km S.
18 Jan 2011 Ash plumes rose to altitudes as high as 7 km and drifted W.
26 Jan 2011 Ash plume drifted 54 km S.
31 Jan-1 Feb, 4 Feb 2011 Ash plume drifted 120 km NE, E. Ash plumes rose 7.5 km
23-24 Feb 2011 Ash plumes altitudes below 6 km and drifted 220 km SE (figure 28).
26-27 Feb 2011 Ash plumes drifted over 140 km N.
10, 16 Mar 2011 Ash plumes drifted 312 km W, NW.
18-20 Mar 2011 Ash plumes drifted 373 km SE, N.
26 Mar 2011 Ash plumes drifted 57 km SE.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. Satellite thermal anomalies recorded at Shiveluch during December 2010-March 2011. Data from KB GS RAS, with cooperation from Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. A panoramic photo showing a long ash plume from Shiveluch, seen in the distant parts of the photo (volcano is on the left). Photo taken on 24 February 2011 from N slope of Kliuchevskoi volcano by Yuri Demyanchuk.

More on the 27 October 2010PFs. As previously reported, an explosive eruption on 27 October 2010 (BGVN 35:11) vented at the dome and destroyed its SE portion, generating pyroclastic flows laden with many fragments of dome material (figure 29). The associated eruptive plume extended more than 1,500 km from the volcano. The pyroclastic flows traveled SSE in a radial direction, as far as 20 km from the source.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Two images showing the lava dome of Shiveluch. Photo (a) was taken before the eruption, on 7 October 2010. Photo (b) was taken a few days after the eruption, on 2 November 2010 and discloses enormous losses to the mass of the dome toward the SE (free face). The large ash clouds from the dome document ongoing explosions, processes associated with continued rebuilding of the lava dome. Both photos courtesy of Yuri Demyanchuk.

Near the dome, visiting scientists found agglomerate deposits of fragmental dome material spread widely down the SE slope. The character of the deposits was similar to debris avalanches, since so much dome material suddenly traveled down slope. The pyroclastic flow deposits retraced numerous upslope tributaries along the Kabeku River. The deposits filled small valleys and other low-lying areas, leveling landscapes that had prior to the eruption been rough (figure 30).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. Photo showing the fresh pyroclastic flow deposits filling Bekesh river valley to the point where the valley had become nearly flat in transverse profile. In the background appears the steaming, Shiveluch with its recently broken lava dome. Photo taken 2 November 2010 by Alexander Ovsyannikov.

Figures 31a and b, satellite images, illustrate the trail of hot material descending to the S. They formed a large, complex, and widely distributed deposit following the recent collapse of the lava dome. A sub-circular area about ~4 km in diameter at about 9-14 km distance from the dome may reflect denser deposition (figure 31a). The images make clear that pyroclastic flow deposits descended yet farther, leaving dense, thermally radiant tracks over narrower valleys trending to the SE. The images are from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). Figure 31b shows the flow's heat signature as measured in thermal infrared energy. The white area at the lava dome was very hot, while the red areas on the edge of the flow were merely warmer than the surrounding snow.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. (a) False-color ASTER satellite image of Shiveluch showing the visible-wavelength information that discloses the remnants of the 27 October 2010 pyroclastic flow. Image taken 25 February 2011. (b) The hot pyroclastic flow appears in this ASTER image made using thermal infrared wave lengths. The white area at the lava dome is very hot, while the red areas on the edge of the flow are simply warmer than the surrounding snow. Image taken on 25 January 2011. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

Fieldwork in the distal area revealed that the most powerful pyroclastic flow went into the headwaters of two narrow valleys, then merged into a single stream down into the Kabeku Valley river almost to its confluence with the Bekesh river (5 km N of the Kluchi-Ust'-Kamchatsk road, figures 32 and 33).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Images (a) and (b) show Shiveluch deposits of pyroclastic flows in the Bekesh river valley. Note person in distance in center of photo for scale. Courtesy Yuri Demyanchuk and Alexander Manevich.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Results of pyroclastic surges, with small trees and shrubs knocked over and stripped of bark. Trees and shrubs showed signs of scorching up to 3-4 m high. Deposits of pyroclastic surges were found on the sides of the Bekesh river valley. Image taken 2 November 2010. Courtesy of Yuri Demyanchuk.

Water in the bed of the Bekesh river ran down the same path as thick pyroclastic flows and continued to be fed by melting snow on the upper slopes. Water also seeped through the loose pyroclastic flow deposit, resulting in large amounts of steam escaping at the surface in the form of fumaroles, degassing pipes, and zones of jetting emissions. This created the impression that the river water was boiling; on its surface rose a wall of steam (figure 34). Walking over the pyroclastic flow deposit was difficult and potentially dangerous, since the deposit's upper portion remained hot and gas saturated (figure 34b).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. At Shiveluch, fresh pyroclastic-flow deposits occurring on the Bekesh river. (a) Steam and gas pervade the atmosphere as the river makes its way across the fresh pyroclastic-flow deposits. (b) The still-hot deposits emitting abundant steam and gas. Photos courtesy of Yuri Demyanchuk.

Reference. Ovsyannikov, A., Manevich, A., 2010, Eruption Shiveluch in October 2010, Bulletin of Kamchatka Regional Association (Educational-Scientific Center); Earth Sciences (in Russian), IV&S FEB RAS, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 2010, vol. 2, no. 16, ISSN 1816-5532 (Online).

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute Volcanolohy and Seismology Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FED RAS), Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service, Russian Academy of Sciences (KB GS RAS) (URL: http://www.emsd.iks.ru/index-e.php). 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/); Y. Demyanchuk, A. Ovsyannikov, A. Manevich (IVS FED RAS); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports