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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Kavachi (Solomon Islands) Discolored water plumes observed in satellite imagery during early September 2020

Krakatau (Indonesia) Eruption ends in mid-April 2020, but intermittent thermal anomalies continue

Raung (Indonesia) Eruptions confirmed during 2012- 2013; lava fills inner crater in November 2014-August 2015

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Strombolian activity, gas-and-steam and ash plumes, and a lava flow during June-early July 2020

Fuego (Guatemala) Ongoing explosions, ash plumes, lava flows, and lahars during April-July 2020

Nishinoshima (Japan) Major June-July eruption of lava, ash, and sulfur dioxide; activity declines in August 2020

Turrialba (Costa Rica) New eruptive period on 18 June 2020 consisted of ash eruptions

Etna (Italy) Effusive activity in early April; frequent Strombolian explosions and ash emissions during April-July 2020

Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) Multiple lava flows within the summit crater; September 2019-August 2020

Yasur (Vanuatu) Ash and gas explosions continue through August 2020

Villarrica (Chile) Continued summit incandescence February-August 2020 with larger explosions in July and August

Stromboli (Italy) Strombolian activity continues at both summit craters during May-August 2020



Kavachi (Solomon Islands) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kavachi

Solomon Islands

8.991°S, 157.979°E; summit elev. -20 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Discolored water plumes observed in satellite imagery during early September 2020

Kavachi is an active submarine volcano in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Gatokae and Vangunu islands. Volcanism has been characterized by phreatomagmatic explosions that ejected steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. The previous report described discolored water plumes extending from a single point during early 2018 and April 2020 (BGVN 45:05); similar activity was recorded for this current reporting period covering May through September 2020 and primarily using satellite data.

Activity at Kavachi is most frequently observed through satellite images and typically consists of discolored submarine plumes. On 2 September 2020 a slight yellow discoloration in the water was observed extending E from a specific point (figure 22). Similar faint plumes continued to be recorded on 5, 7, 12, and 17 September, each of which seemed to be drifting generally E from a point source above the summit where previous activity has occurred. On 7 September the discolored plume was accompanied by white degassing and possibly agitated water on the surface at the origin point (figure 22).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Sentinel-2 satellite images of a discolored plume (light yellow) at Kavachi beginning on 2 September (top left) and continuing through 17 September 2020 (bottom right). The light blue circle on the 7 September image highlights the surface degassing and source of the discolored water plume. The white arrow on the bottom right image is pointing to the faint discolored plume. Images with “Natural color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Named for a sea-god of the Gatokae and Vangunu peoples, Kavachi is one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Vangunu Island. Sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), this shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier eruptions. The roughly conical edifice rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the SE. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the ephemeral islands.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption ends in mid-April 2020, but intermittent thermal anomalies continue

Krakatau, located in the Sunda Strait between Indonesia’s Java and Sumatra Islands, experienced a major caldera collapse around 535 CE, forming a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands. Presently, the caldera is underwater, except for three surrounding islands (Verlaten, Lang, and Rakata) and the active Anak Krakatau that was constructed within the 1883 caldera and has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. On 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338-m-high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami (BGVN 44:03). A larger explosion in December 2019 produced the beginnings of a new cone above the surface of crater lake (BGVN 45:02). The previous report (BGVN 45:06) described activity that included Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence. This report updates information from June through September 2020 using information primarily from Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and satellite data.

A VONA notice from PVMBG reported that the last eruptive event at Krakatau was reported on 17 April 2020, though the eruptive column was not observed. Activity after that was relatively low through September 2020, primarily intermittent diffuse white gas-and-steam emissions, according to PVMBG. No activity was reported during June-August, except for minor seismicity. During 11-13, 16, and 18 September, the CCTV Lava93 webcam showed intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions rising 25-50 m above the crater.

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) graph of MODIS thermal anomaly data showed intermittent hotspots within 5 km of the crater from May through September (figure 113). Some of these thermal hotspots were also detected in Suomi NPP/VIIRS sensor data. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed faint thermal anomalies in the crater during June; no thermal activity was detected after June (figure 114).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 113. Intermittent thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from 13 October 2019-September 2020 shown on a MIROVA Low Radiative Power graph. The power of the thermal anomalies decreased after activity in April but continued intermittently through September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 114. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing a faint thermal anomaly in the crater during 1 (left) and 11 (right) June 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Raung (Indonesia) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Raung

Indonesia

8.119°S, 114.056°E; summit elev. 3260 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions confirmed during 2012- 2013; lava fills inner crater in November 2014-August 2015

A massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java, Raung has over sixty recorded eruptions dating back to the late 16th Century. Explosions with ash plumes, Strombolian activity, and lava flows from a cinder cone within the 2-km-wide summit crater have been the most common activity. Visual reports of activity have often come from commercial airline flights that pass near the summit; Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) has installed webcams to monitor activity in recent years. An eruption in 2015 produced a large volume of lava within the summit crater and formed a new pyroclastic cone in the same location as the previous one. Confirmation and details of eruptions in 2012, 2013, and 2014-2015 are covered in this report with information provided by PVMBG, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), several sources of satellite data, and visitors to the volcano.

Newly available visual and satellite information confirm eruptions at Raung during October 2012-January 2013, June-July 2013, and extend the beginning of the 2015 eruption back to November 2014. The 2015 eruption was the largest in several decades; Strombolian activity was reported for many months and fresh lava flows covered the crater floor. Raung was quiet after the 2015 eruption ended in August of that year until July 2020.

Eruption during October 2012-January 2013. A MODVOLC thermal alert appeared inside the summit crater of Raung on 14 October 2012, followed by another four alerts on 16 October. Multiple daily alerts were reported on many days through 8 November, most within the main crater. Single alerts appeared on 29 November and 1 December 2012 (figure 9). PVMBG raised the Alert Level on 17 October from 1 to 2 due to increased seismicity and raised it further to Level 3 on 22 October. A local news report by Aris Yanto indicted that a minor Strombolian eruption occurred inside the crater on 19 October. Strombolian activity was also observed inside the inner crater on 5 November 2012 by visitors (figure 10); they reported loud rumbling sounds that could be heard up to 15 km from the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Thermal activity at Raung during October and November 2012 included multiple days of multi-pixel anomalies, with almost all activity concentrated within the summit crater. Strombolian activity was observed on 5 November. Image shows all pixels from 23 September-1 December 2012. Courtesy of MODVOLC.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Strombolian activity was observed inside the inner crater of Raung on 5 November 2012 by visitors. They reported loud rumbling sounds that could be heard up to 15 km from the crater. Photo by Galih, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

The Darwin VAAC issued an advisory of an eruption plume to 9.1 km altitude reported at 0237 UTC on 8 November 2012. In a second advisory about two hours later they noted that an ash plume was not visible in satellite imagery. A press article released by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) indicated that gray ash plumes were observed on 6 January 2013 that rose 300 m above the summit crater rim. Incandescence was observed around the crater and thundering explosions were heard by nearby residents.

Eruption during June-July 2013. Two MODVOLC thermal alerts were measured inside the summit crater on 29 June 2013. A photo taken on 21 July showed minor Strombolian activity at the inner crater (figure 11). A weak SO2 anomaly was detected in the vicinity of Raung by the OMI instrument on the Aura satellite on 27 July. Thermal alerts were recorded on 29 and 31 July. When Google Earth imageryrom 14 March 2011 created by Maxar Technologies is compared with imagery from 29 July 2013 captured by Landsat/Copernicus, dark tephra is filling the inner crater in the 2013 image; it was not present in 2011 (figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Strombolian activity was observed inside the inner crater at the summit of Raung on 21 July 2013. Photo by Agus Kurniawan, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Satellite imagery from Google Earth showing the eroded pyroclastic cone inside the summit crater of Raung on 14 March 2011 (left) and 29 July 2013 (right). Dark tephra deposits filling the inner crater in the 2013 image were not present in 2011. The crater of the pyroclastic cone is 200 m wide; N is to the top of the images. Courtesy of Google Earth.

Eruption during November 2014-August 2015. Information about this eruption was previously reported (BGVN 41:12), but additional details are provided here. Landsat-8 imagery from 28 October 2014 indicated clear skies and little activity within the summit crater. Local observers reported steam plumes beginning in mid-November (figure 13). MODVOLC thermal alerts within the summit crater were issued on 28 and 30 November, and then 15 alerts were issued on seven days in December. Thermal Landsat-8 imagery from cloudy days on 29 November and 15 December indicated an anomaly over the area of the pyroclastic cone inside the summit crater (figure 14).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Local observers reported steam plumes at Raung beginning in mid-November 2014; this one was photographed on 17 November 2014. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Satellite evidence of new eruptive activity at Raung first appeared on 29 November 2014. The true color-pansharpened Landsat-8 image of Raung from 28 October 2014 (left) shows the summit crater and an eroded pyroclastic cone with its own crater (the inner crater) with no apparent activity. Although dense meteoric clouds on 29 November (center) and 15 December 2014 (right) blocked true color imagery, thermal imagery indicated a thermal anomaly from the center of the pyroclastic cone on both dates. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

In January 2015 the MODVOLC system identified 25 thermal anomalies in MODIS data, with a peak of eight alerts on 8 January. Visitors to the summit crater on 6 January witnessed explosions from the inner crater approximately every 40 minutes that produced gas and small amounts of ash and tephra. They reported lava flowing continuously from the inner crater onto the larger crater floor, and incandescent activity was seen at night (figure 15). Landsat-8 images from 16 January showed a strong thermal anomaly covering an area of fresh lava (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Visitors to the summit crater of Raung on 6 January 2015 witnessed explosions from the inner crater approximately every 40 minutes that produced abundant gas and small amounts of ash and tephra. Lava was flowing continuously from the inner crater onto the larger crater floor, and incandescent activity was observed at night. Photos by Sofya Klimova, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. On a clear 16 January 2015, Landsat-8 satellite imagery revealed fresh lava flows NW of the pyroclastic cone within the summit crater at Raung. A strong thermal anomaly matches up with the dark material, suggesting that it flowed NW from within the pyroclastic cone. Left image is true color-pansharpened rendering, right image is thermal rendering. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Satellite images were obscured by meteoric clouds during February 2015, but PVMBG reported gray and brown plumes rising 300 m multiple times and incandescence and rumbling on 14 February. Visitors to the summit crater during the second half of February reported Strombolian activity with lava fountains from the inner crater, at times as frequently as every 15 minutes (figure 17). Loud explosions and rumbling were heard 10-15 km away. MODVOLC thermal alerts stopped on 25 February and did not reappear until late June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. A report issued on 25 February 2015 from visitors to the summit of Ruang noted large Strombolian explosions with incandescent ejecta and lava flowing across the crater floor. The fresh lava on the crater floor covered a noticeably larger area than that shown in early January (figure 15). Photo by Andi, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 2 in mid-March 2015. Weak thermal anomalies located inside and NW of the pyroclastic cone were present in satellite imagery on 21 March. PVMBG reported gray and brown emissions during March, April, and May rising as high as 300 m above the crater. Landsat imagery from 22 April showed a small emission inside the pyroclastic cone, and on 8 May showed a clearer view of the fresh black lava NW and SW of the pyroclastic cone (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Fresh lava was visible in Landsat-8 satellite imagery in April and May 2015 at Raung. A small emission was present inside the pyroclastic cone at the summit of Raung on 22 April 2015 (left). Fresh dark material is also evident in the SW quadrant of the summit crater that was not visible on 16 January 2015. A clear view on 8 May 2015 also shows the extent of the fresh black material around the pyroclastic cone (right). The summit crater is 2 km wide. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Nine MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared inside the summit crater on 21 June 2015 after no alerts since late February, suggesting an increase in activity. The Darwin VAAC issued the first ash advisory for 2015 on 24 June noting an aviation report of recent ash. The following day the Ujung Pandang Meteorological Weather Office (MWO) reported an ash emission drifting W at 3.7 km altitude. The same day, 25 June, Landsat-8 imagery clearly showed a new lava flow on the W side of the crater and a strong thermal anomaly. The thermal data showed a point source of heat widening SW from the center of the crater and a second point source of heat that appeared to be inside the pyroclastic cone. A small ash plume was visible over the cone (figure 19). Strombolian activity and ash plumes were reported by BNPB and PVMBG in the following days. On 26 June the Darwin VAAC noted the hotspot had remained visible in infrared imagery for several days. PVMBG reported an ash emission to 3 km altitude on 29 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. A new lava flow and strong thermal anomaly appeared inside the summit crater of Raung on 25 June 2015 in Landsat-8 imagery. The new flow was visible on the W side of the crater. The darker area extending SW from the rising ash plume is a shadow. The thermal data showed a point source of heat widening SW from the center of the crater and spreading out in the SW quadrant and a second point source of heat on the flank of the pyroclastic cone. Left image is True color-pansharpened rendering, and right image is thermal rendering. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity increased significantly during July 2015 (BGVN 41:12). Ash plumes rose as high as 6.7 km altitude and drifted hundreds of kilometers in multiple directions, forcing multiple shutdowns at airports on Bali and Lombok, as well as Banyuwangi and Jember in East Java. The Darwin VAAC issued 152 ash advisories during the month. Ashfall was reported up to 20 km W during July and 20-40 km SE during early August. Visitors to the summit in early July observed a new pyroclastic cone growing inside the inner crater from incandescent ejecta and dense ash emissions (figure 20). Landsat-8 imagery from 11 July showed a dense ash plume drifting SE, fresh black lava covering the 2-km-wide summit caldera floor, and a very strong thermal anomaly most intense at the center near the pyroclastic cone and cooler around the inner edges of the crater (figure 21). On 12 July, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a view of an ash-and-gas plume drifting hundreds of kilometers SE from Raung (figure 22).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. A new pyroclastic cone was growing inside the inner crater at the summit of Raung when photographed by Aris Yanto in early July 2015. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Landsat-8 imagery of Raung during July 2015 indicated dense ash emissions and a large thermal anomaly caused by fresh lava. On 11 July a dense ash plume drifted SE and a strong thermal anomaly was centered inside the summit crater. The 2-km-wide crater floor was covered with fresh lava (compare with 25 June image in figure 19). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. On 12 July 2015 the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a natural-color view of a plume of ash and volcanic gases drifting hundreds of kilometers SE from Raung. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

A satellite image on 20 July showed fresh incandescent lava covering the floor of the summit crater and a dense ash plume drifting N from the summit (figure 23). Incandescent ejecta emerged from two vents on the new pyroclastic cone inside the inner crater on 26 July (figure 24). On 27 July a dense ash plume was visible again in satellite imagery drifting NW and the hottest part of the thermal anomaly was in the SE quadrant of the crater (figure 25). Substantial SO2 plumes were recorded by the OMI instrument on the Aura satellite during July and early August 2015 (figure 26).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. A satellite image of the summit of Raung on 20 July 2015 showed fresh, incandescent lava covering the floor of the summit crater and a dense ash plume drifting N from the summit. Thermal activity on the NE flank was likely the result of incandescent ejecta from the crater causing a fire. Image created by DigitalGlobe, captured by WorldView3, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Incandescent ejecta emerged from two vents on the new pyroclastic cone growing inside the inner crater of Raung on 26 July 2015. Photo by Vianney Tricou, used with permission, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Landsat-8 imagery of Raung during July 2015 indicated dense ash emissions and large thermal anomalies from fresh lava. The 2-km-wide crater floor was fully covered with fresh lava by 11 July. On 27 July the dense ash plume was drifting NW and the highest heat was concentrated in the SE quadrant of the crater. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Substantial plumes of sulfur dioxide from Raung were measured by the OMI instrument on the AURA satellite during July and August 2015. The first plumes were measured in mid-June; they intensified during the second half of July and the first week of August, but had decreased by mid-August. Wind directions were highly variable throughout the period. The date is recorded above each image. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Page.

Significant ash emissions continued into early August 2015 with numerous flight cancellations. The Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes rising to 5.2 km altitude and extending as far as 750 km SE during the first two weeks in August (figure 27). Satellite imagery indicated a small ash plume drifting W from the center of the crater on 12 August and weak thermal anomalies along the E and S rim of the floor of the crater (figure 28). The summit crater was covered with fresh lava on 14 August when viewed by visitors, and ash emissions rose a few hundred meters above the crater rim from a vent in the SW side of the pyroclastic cone (figure 29). The visitors observed pulsating ash emissions rising from the SW vent on the large double-crater new cinder cone. The larger vent to the NE was almost entirely inactive except for two small, weakly effusive vents on its inner walls.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. A dense ash plume drifted many kilometers S from Raung on 2 August 2015 in this view from nearly 100 km W. Incandescence at the summit indicated ongoing activity from the major 2015 eruption. In the foreground is Lamongan volcano whose last known eruption occurred in 1898. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. Landsat-8 satellite imagery of Raung indicated a small ash plume drifting W from the center of the crater on 12 August 2015. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. The summit crater of Raung on 14 August 2015 was filled with fresh lava from an eruption that began in November 2014. Ash emissions from a vent in the side of the newly grown pyroclastic cone within the crater rose a few hundred meters above the crater rim. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

The lengthy sequence of multiple daily VAAC reports that began in late June ended on 16 August 2015 with reports becoming more intermittent and ash plume heights rising to only 3.7-3.9 km altitude. Multiple discontinuous eruptions to 3.9 km altitude were reported on 18 August. The plumes extended about 100 km NW. The last report of an ash plume was from an airline on 22 August noting a low-level plume 50 km NW. Two MODVOLC alerts were issued that day. By 28 August only a very small steam plume was present at the center of the crater; the southern half of the edge of the crater floor still had small thermal anomalies (figure 30). The last single MODVOLC thermal alerts were on 29 August and 7 September. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 24 August 2015, and further lowered to 1 on 20 October 2016.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. By 28 August 2015 only a very small steam plume was present at the center of the summit crater of Raung, and the southern half of the edge of the crater floor only had weak thermal anomalies from cooling lava. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The unvegetated summit is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the W flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and W, respectively.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/);Google Earth (URL: https://www.google.com/earth/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/, https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/86213/eruption-of-raung-volcano); Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); Aris Yanto (URL: https://www.exploredesa.com/2012/11/mount-raung-produce-of-vulcanic-ash-plume-and-continue-eruption/); DigitalGlobe (URL: https://www.maxar.com/, https://twitter.com/Maxar/status/875449111398547457); Øystein Lund Andersen (URL: https://twitter.com/OysteinVolcano/status/1194879946042142726, http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity, gas-and-steam and ash plumes, and a lava flow during June-early July 2020

Klyuchevskoy is a frequently active stratovolcano located in northern Kamchatka. Historical eruptions dating back 3,000 years have included more than 100 flank eruptions with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks. The previous report (BGVN 45:06) described ash plumes, nighttime incandescence, and Strombolian activity. Strombolian activity, ash plumes, and a strong lava flow continued. This report updates activity from June through August 2020 using weekly and daily reports from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAAC), and satellite data.

Moderate explosive-effusive activity continued in June 2020, with Strombolian explosions, frequent gas-and-steam emissions that contained some amount of ash, and an active lava flow. On 1 June a gas-and-steam plume containing some ash extended up to 465 km SE and E. The lava flow descended the SE flank down the Apakhonchich chute (figure 43). Occasionally, phreatic explosions accompanied the lava flow as it interacted with snow. Intermittent ash plumes, reported throughout the month by KVERT using video and satellite data and the Tokyo VAAC using HIMAWARI-8 imagery, rose to 5.5-6.7 km altitude and drifted in different directions up to 34 km from the volcano. On 12 and 30 June ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 6.7 km. On 19 June, 28-30 June, and 1-3 July some collapses were detected alongside the lava flow as it continued to advance down the SE flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Gray ash plumes (left) and a lava flow descending the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank, accompanied by a dark ash plume and Strombolian activity (right) were observed at the summit of Klyuchevskoy on 10 June 2020. Courtesy of E. Saphonova, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

During 1-3 July moderate Strombolian activity was observed, accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions containing ash and a continuous lava flow traveling down the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank. On 1 July a Tokyo VAAC advisory reported an ash plume rising to 6 km altitude and extending SE. On 3 July the activity sharply decreased. KVERT reported there was some residual heat leftover from the lava flow and Strombolian activity that continued to cool through at least 13 July; KVERT also reported frequent gas-and-steam emissions, which contained a small amount of ash through 5 July, rising from the summit crater (figure 44). The weekly KVERT report on 16 July stated that the eruption had ended on 3 July 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Fumarolic activity continued in the summit crater of Klyuchevskoy on 7 July 2020. Courtesy of KSRS ME, Russia, KVERT.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows frequent and strong thermal activity within 5 km of the summit crater from March through June followed by a sharp and sudden decline in early July (figures 45). A total of six weak thermal anomalies were detected between July and August. According to the MODVOLC thermal algorithm, a total of 111 thermal alerts were detected at or near the summit crater from 1 June to 1 July, a majority of which were due to the active lava flow on the SE flank and Strombolian explosions in the crater. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery frequently showed the active lava flow descending the SE flank as a strong thermal anomaly, sometimes even through weather clouds (figure 46). These thermal anomalies were also recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data on a MIROVA graph, showing a strong cluster during June to early July, followed by a sharp decrease and then a hiatus in activity (figure 47).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Thermal activity at Klyuchevskoy was frequent and strong during February through June 2020, according to the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). Activity sharply decreased during July through August with six low-power thermal anomalies. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show the strong and persistent lava flow (bright yellow-orange) originating from the summit crater at Klyuchevskoy from 1 June through 1 July 2020. The lava flow was active in the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Strong clusters of thermal anomalies were detected in the summit at Klyuchevskoy (red dots) during January through June 2020, as recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data (bands 12, 11, 8A). Activity sharply decreased during July through August with few low-power thermal anomalies. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Fuego (Guatemala) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing explosions, ash plumes, lava flows, and lahars during April-July 2020

Fuego, located in Guatemala, is a stratovolcano that has been erupting since 2002 with historical eruptions dating back to 1531. Volcanism is characterized by major ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and lahars. The previous report (BGVN 45:04) described recent activity that included multiple ash explosions, block avalanches, and intermittent lava flows. This report updates activity from April through July 2020 that consisted of daily explosions, ash plumes, block avalanches ashfall, intermittent lava flows, and lahars. The primary source of information comes from the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Summary of activity during April-July 2020. Daily activity throughout April-July 2020 was characterized by multiple hourly explosions, ash plumes that rose to a maximum of 4.9 km altitude, incandescent pulses that reached 600 m above the crater, block avalanches into multiple drainages, and ashfall affecting nearby communities (table 21). The highest rate of explosions occurred on 2 and 3 April and 2 May with up to 16 explosions per hour. White degassing occurred frequently during the reporting period, rising to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and drifting in multiple directions. Intermittent lava flows were observed each month in the Seca (Santa Teresa) and Ceniza drainages (figure 132); the number of flows decreased in June through July, which is represented in the MIROVA analysis of MODIS satellite data, where the strength and frequency of thermal activity slightly decreased (figure 133). Occasional lahars were detected descending several drainages on the W and SE flanks, sometimes carrying tree branches and large blocks up to 1 m in diameter.

Table 21. Activity summary by month for Fuego with information compiled from INSIVUMEH daily reports.

Month Number of explosions per hour Ash plume heights (km) Ash plume distance (km) and direction Drainages affected by block avalanches Villages reporting ashfall
Apr 2020 5-16 4.3-4.9 km 8-20 km E, NE, SE, W, NW, SW, S, N Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Trinidad, Seca, Honda, and Santa Teresa Morelia, Panimaché I and II, Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Las Cruces Quisache, La Rochela, Ceylan, and Osuna
May 2020 4-16 4.3-4.9 km 10-17 km S, SW, W, N, NE, E, SE Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, Seca, and Honda Panimaché I, La Rochela, Ceilán, Morelia, San Andrés Osuna, Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía, Seilán, San Pedro Yepocapa, Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Dueñas, and Antigua Guatemala
Jun 2020 3-15 4.2-4.9 km 10-25.9 km E, SE, S, N, NE, W, SW, NW Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa and Honda San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Yucales, Santa Emilia, Santa Sofía
Jul 2020 1-15 4-4.9 km 10-24 km W, NW, SW, S, NE Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Honda, Las Lajas, Seca, and Santa Teresa Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, and El Porvenir
Figure (see Caption) Figure 132. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Fuego between 9 April 2020 and 13 July 2020 showing lava flows (bright yellow-orange) traveling generally S and W from the summit crater. Some lava flows were accompanied by gas emissions (9 April, 9 May, and 24 May 2020). Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 133. Thermal activity at Fuego was persistent and strong from 16 September through late May 2020, according to the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). From early to mid-June activity seemed to stop briefly before resuming again at a lower rate. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during April-May 2020. Activity in April 2020 consisted of 5-16 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.9 km altitude and drifted 8-20 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Las Cruces Quisache (8 km NW), La Rochela, Ceylan, Osuna (12 km SW). The Washington VAAC issued multiple aviation advisories for a total of six days in April. Intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions reached 4.1-4.5 km altitude drifting in multiple directions. Incandescent ejecta was frequently observed rising 75-400 m above the crater; material ejected up to 600 m above the crater on 11 April. These constant explosions produced block avalanches that traveled down the Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Seca (W), Honda, and Santa Teresa (W) drainages. Effusive activity was reported on 6-13 and 15 April from the summit vent, traveling 150-800 m down the Ceniza drainage, accompanied by block avalanches in the front of the flow up to 1 km. Crater incandescence was also observed.

On 19-20 April a new lava flow descended the Ceniza drainage measuring 200-400 long, generating incandescent block avalanches at the front of the flow that moved up to 1 km. On 22 April lahars descended the Honda, Las Lajas, El Juté (SE), Trinidad, Ceniza, Taniluyá, Mineral, and Seca drainages and tributaries in Guacalate, Achiguate, and Pantaleón. During the evening of 23 April the rate of effusive activity increased; observatory staff observed a second lava flow in the Seca drainage was 170 m long and incandescent blocks from the flow traveled up to 600 m. Two lava flows in the Ceniza (130-400 m) and Seca (150-800 m) drainages continued from 23-28 April and had stopped by 30 April. On 30 April weak and moderate explosions produced ash plumes that rose 4.5-4.7 km altitude drifting S and SE, resulting in fine ashfall in Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofía (figure 134).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 134. Photo of a small ash plume rising from Fuego on 30 April 2020. Photo has been slightly color corrected. Courtesy of William Chigna, CONRED.

During May 2020, the rate of explosion remained similar, with 4-16 explosions per hour, which generated gray ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.9 km altitude and drifted 10-17 km generally W and E. Ashfall was observed in Panimaché I, La Rochela, Ceilán, Morelia, San Andrés Osuna, Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía, Seilán, San Pedro Yepocapa, Alotenango (8 km ENE), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). The Washington VAAC issued volcanic ash advisory notices on six days in May. White gas-and-steam emissions continued, rising 4-4.5 km altitude drifting in multiple directions. Incandescent ejecta rose 100-400 m above the crater, accompanied by some crater incandescence and block avalanches in the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, Seca, and Honda drainages that moved up to 1 km and sometimes reached vegetated areas.

During 8-11 May a new 400 m long lava flow was detected in the Ceniza drainage, accompanied by constant crater incandescence and block avalanches traveling up to 1 km, according to INSIVUMEH. On 8 and 17 May moderate to strong lahars descended the Santa Teresa and Mineral drainages on the W flank and on 21 May they descended the Las Lajas drainage on the E flank and the Ceniza drainage on the SW flank. During 20-24 May a 100-400 m long lava flow was reported in the Ceniza drainage alongside degassing and avalanches moving up to 1 km and during 25-26 May a 150 m long lava flow was reported in the Seca drainage.

Activity during June-July 2020. The rate of explosions in June 2020 decreased slightly to 3-15 per hour, generating gray ash plumes that rose 4.2-4.9 km altitude and drifted 10-26 km in multiple directions (figure 135). As a result, intermittent ashfall was reported in San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales (12 km SW), Santa Emilia, Santa Sofia, according to INSIVUMEH. VAAC advisories were published on eight days in June. Degassing persisted in the summit crater that rose 4.1-4.5 km altitude extending in different directions. Crater incandescence was observed occasionally, as well as incandescent pulses that rose 100-300 m above the crater. Block avalanches were observed descending the Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, and Honda drainages, which could sometimes carry blocks up to 1 km in diameter.

On 2 June at 1050 a weak to moderate lahar was observed in the Las Lajas drainage on the SE flank. On 5 June, more lahars were detected in the Seca and Mineral drainages on the W flanks. A new lava flow was detected on 12 June, traveling 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank, and accompanied by constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. The flow continued into 14 June, lengthening up to 300 m long. On 24 June weak and moderate explosions produced ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.7 km altitude drifting W and SW (figure 135). On 29 June at 1300 a weak lahar was reported in the Seca, Santa Teresa, and Mineral drainages on the W flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 135. Examples of small ash plumes at Fuego on 15 (left) and 24 (right) June 2020. Courtesy of William Chigna, CONRED.

Daily explosions and ash plumes continued through July 2020, with 1-15 explosions per hour and producing consistent ash plumes 4-4.9 km altitude drifting generally W for 10-24 km. These explosions resulted in block avalanches that descended the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Honda, Las Lajas, Seca, and Santa Teresa drainages. The number of white gas emissions decrease slightly compared to previous months and 4-4.4 km altitude. VAAC advisories were distributed on twenty different days in July. Incandescent ejecta was observed rising 100-350 m above the crater. Occasional ashfall was observed in Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, and El Porvenir, according to INSIVUMEH.

On 4 July in the early morning, a lava flow began in the Seca drainage, which also produced some fine ash particles that drifted W. The lava flow continued into 5 July, measuring 150 m long. On the same day, weak to moderate lahars traveled only 20 m, carrying tree branches and blocks measuring 30 cm to 1 m. On 14, 24, and 29 July more lahars were generated in the Las Lajas drainages on the former date and both the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on the two latter dates.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); William Chigna, CONRED (URL: https://twitter.com/william_chigna).


Nishinoshima (Japan) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nishinoshima

Japan

27.247°N, 140.874°E; summit elev. 25 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Major June-July eruption of lava, ash, and sulfur dioxide; activity declines in August 2020

Japan’s Nishinoshima volcano, located about 1,000 km S of Tokyo in the Ogasawara Arc, erupted above sea level in November 2013 after 40 years of dormancy. Activity lasted through November 2015 and returned during mid-2017, continuing the growth of the island with ash plumes, ejecta, and lava flows. A short eruptive event in July 2018 produced a small lava flow and vent on the side of the pyroclastic cone. The next eruption of ash plumes, incandescent ejecta, and lava flows began in early December 2019, resulting in significant growth of the island. This report covers the ongoing activity from March-August 2020 when activity decreased. Information is provided primarily from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) monthly reports and the Japan Coast Guard (JCG), which makes regular overflights to make observations.

Renewed eruptive activity that began on 5 December 2019 continued during March-August 2020 but appeared to wane by the end of August. Major lava flows covered all sides of the island, with higher levels of activity during late June and early July. Ash emissions increased significantly during June and produced dense black ash plumes that rose up to 6 km altitude in early July. Explosive activity produced lightning and incandescent jets that rose 200 m and large bombs that fell to the base of the pyroclastic cone. Lava flow activity diminished at the end of July. Ash emissions decreased throughout August and appeared to cease after 27 August 2020. The MIROVA plot clearly reflects the high levels of thermal activity between December 2019 and August 2020 (figure 80); this event was reported by JMA as the largest eruption recorded to date. Sulfur dioxide emissions were very high during late June through early August, producing emissions that drifted across much of the western Pacific region.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. The MIROVA plot of thermal activity at Nishinoshima from 14 October 2019 through August 2020 indicates the high levels between early December 2019 and late July 2020 that resulted from the eruption of numerous lava flows on all flanks of the pyroclastic cone, significantly enlarging the island. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) conducted overflights of Nishinoshima on 9 and 15 March 2020 (figure 81). During both visits they observed eruptive activity from the summit crater, including ash emissions that rose to an altitude of approximately 1,000 m and lava flowing down the N and SE flanks (figure 82). Large ejecta was scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone. The lava flowing north had reached the coast and was producing vigorous steam as it entered the water on 9 March; whitish gas emissions were visible on the N flank of the cone at the source of the lava flow (figure 83). On 9 March yellow-green discolored water was noted off the NE shore. The lava flow on the SE coast produced a small amount of steam at the ocean entry point and a strong signal in thermal imagery on 15 March (figure 84). Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued during 1-10, 17-24, and 27-30 March. Landsat-8 visual and thermal imagery on 30 March 2020 confirmed that thermal anomalies on the N and SE flanks of the volcano continued.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. The Japan Coast Guard conducted an overflight of Nishinoshima on 9 March 2020 and observed ash emissions rising 1,000 m above the summit and lava flowing into the ocean off the N flank of the island. Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard (JCG) and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Lava flows at Nishinoshima during February and March 2020 were concentrated on the N and SE flanks. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. The growth of the SE-flank flow decreased during March while the N-flank flow rate increased significantly. Left image shows changes between 14 and 28 February and right image shows the differences between 28 February and 13 March. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the Japan National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, March 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Vigorous steam emissions on the N flank of Nishinoshima on 9 March 2020 were caused by the active flow on the N flank. Whitish steam and gas midway up the flank indicated the outlet of the flow. Ash emissions rose from the summit crater and drifted E. Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Infrared imagery from 15 March 2020 at Nishinoshima showed the incandescent lava flow on the SE flank (foreground), blocks of ejecta scattered around the summit and flanks of the pyroclastic cone, and the active N-flank flow (left). Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard and JMA.

Ash emissions were not observed at Nishinoshima during JCG overflights on 6, 16, and 19 April 2020, but gas-and-steam emissions were noted from the summit crater, and a yellow discoloration interpreted by JMA to be sulfur precipitation was observed near the top of the pyroclastic cone. The summit crater was larger than during previous visits. Steam plumes seen each of those days on the N and NE coasts suggested active ocean entry of lava flows (figure 85). A lava flow was observed emerging from the E flank of the cone and entering the ocean on the E coast on 19 and 29 April (figure 86). During the overflight on 29 April observers noted lava flowing southward from a vent on the E flank of the pyroclastic cone. A narrow, brown, ash plume was visible on 29 April at the summit crater rising to an altitude of about 1,500 m. Thermal observations indicated continued flow activity throughout the month. Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded during 2-6, 10-11, 17-23, and 28-30 April. Significant growth of the pyroclastic cone occurred between early February and late April 2020 (figure 87).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Multiple entry points of lava flowed into the ocean producing jets of steam along the N flank of Nishinoshima on 6 April 2020. Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Lava flowed down the E flank of Nishinoshima from a vent below the summit on 19 April 2020. The ocean entry produced a vigorous steam plume (left). Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. The pyroclastic cone at Nishinoshima grew significantly in size between 4 February (left), 9 March (middle), and 19 April 2020 (right). View is to the E. Courtesy of JMA and JCG.

Infrared satellite imagery from 17 May 2020 showed a strong thermal anomaly at the summit and hot spots on the NW flank indicative of flows. Visible imagery confirmed emissions at the summit and steam plumes on the NW flank (figure 88). Gray ash plumes rose to about 1,800 m altitude on 18 May during the only overflight of the month made by the Japan Coast Guard. In addition, white gas emissions rose from around the summit area and large blocks of ejecta were scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone (figure 89). Steam from ocean-entry lava on the N flank was reduced from previous months, but a new flow moving NW into the ocean was generating a steam plume and a strong thermal signature. Multi-pixel thermal alerts were measured by the MODVOLC system on 1-3, 9-10, 13-15, 18, and 26-30 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been weak and intermittent from March through early May 2020 but became more persistent during the second half of May. Although modest in size, the plumes were detectible hundreds of kilometers away from the volcano (figure 90).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Landsat-8 satellite imagery of Nishinoshima from 17 May 2020 confirmed continued eruptive activity. Visible imagery showed emissions at the summit and steam plumes on the NW flank (left) and infrared imagery showed a strong thermal anomaly at the summit and anomalies on the NW flank indicative of lava flows (right). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Lava continued to enter the ocean at Nishinoshima during May 2020. A new lava flow on the NW flank produced a strong steam plume at an ocean entry (left) on 18 May 2020. In addition to a light gray plume of gas and ash, steaming blocks of ejecta were visible on the flanks of the pyroclastic cone. The strong thermal signature of the NW-flank flow in infrared imagery that same day showed multiple new lobes flowing to the ocean (right). Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Small but distinct SO2 emissions from Nishinoshima were recorded by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite during the second half of May 2020. The plumes drifted tens to hundreds of kilometers away from the volcano in multiple directions as the wind directions changed. Nishinoshima is about 1,000 kilometers S of Tokyo. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Activity increased significantly during June 2020. Satellite imagery from 2 June revealed two intense thermal anomalies at the summit indicating a new crater, and lava flows active on the NW and NE flanks, all showing gas or steam emissions (figure 91). Dense brown and gray ash emissions were observed rising from the summit crater during JCG overflights on 7 and 15 June (figure 92). Plumes reached at least 1,500 m altitude, and ejecta reached the base of the pyroclastic cone. Between 5 and 19 June the lava flow on the WNW coast slowed significantly, while the flows to the N and E became significantly more active (figure 93). The Tokyo VAAC reported the first ash plume since mid-February on 12 June rose to 2.1 km and drifted NE. On 14 June they reported an ash plume extending E at 2.7 km altitude. Dense emissions continued to drift N and E at 2.1-2.7 km altitude until the last week of the month. The JCG overflight on 19 June observed darker ash emissions than two weeks earlier that drifted at least 180 km NE (figure 94) and incandescent tephra that exploded from the enlarged summit area where three overlapping craters trending E-W had formed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Landsat-8 satellite imagery on 2 June 2020 confirmed ongoing activity at Nishinoshima. Lava produced ocean-entry steam on the NE coast; a weak plume on the NW coast suggested reduced activity in that area (left). In addition, a dense steam plume drifted E from the summit, while a fainter plume adjacent to it also drifted E. The infrared image (right) indicated two intense anomalies at the summit, and weaker anomalies from lava flows on the NW and NE flanks. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. Lava flows at Nishinoshima entered the ocean on the N and NE coasts (left) on 7 June 2020, and dense, gray ash emissions rose to at least 1,500 m altitude. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. The lava flow on the WNW coast of Nishinoshima slowed significantly in early June 2020, while the flows to the N and E covered large areas of those flanks between 5 and 19 June. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. Left image shows the differences between 22 May and 5 June and right image shows changes between 5 and 19 June. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, June 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Ash emissions and explosive activity at Nishinoshima increased significantly during the second half of June. Dense black ash rose to 2.4 km altitude and drifted at least 180 km to the NE on 19 June 2020. Vigorous white steam plumes rose from the ocean on the E flank where a lava flow entered the ocean. Courtesy of JCG.

The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted NE on 25 June. For the remainder of the month they rose to 2.7-3.9 km altitude and drifted N and NE. By the time of the JCG overflight on 29 June, the new crater that had opened on the SW flank had merged with the summit crater (figure 95). Dense black ash emissions rose to 3.4 km altitude and drifted NE, lava flowed down the SW flank into the ocean producing violent steam explosions, and incandescent tephra was scattered at least 200 m from the base of the pyroclastic cone from ongoing explosive activity (figure 96). Multiple layers of recent flow activity were visible along the SW coast (figure 97). Yellow-green discolored water encircled the entire island with a width of 1,000 m.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. The new crater on the SW flank of Nishinoshima had merged with the summit crater by 29 June 2020. Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Dense black ash emissions rose to 3.4 km altitude and drifted NE from the summit of Nishinoshima on 29 June 2020. Lava flowed down the SW flank into the ocean producing steam explosions, and incandescent tephra was scattered at least 200 m from the base of the pyroclastic cone from ongoing explosive activity at the summit (inset). Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Different textures of lava flows were visible along the SW flank of Nishinoshima on 29 June 2020. The active flow appeared dark brown and blocky, and produced steam explosions at the ocean entry site (right). Slightly older, brownish-red lava (center) still produced steam along the coastline. Courtesy of JCG.

MODVOLC thermal alerts reached their highest levels of the period during June 2020 with multi-pixel alerts recorded on most days of the month. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased steadily throughout June to the highest levels recorded for Nishinoshima; by the end of the month plumes of SO2 were drifting thousands of kilometers across the Pacific Ocean and being captured in complex atmospheric circulation currents (figure 98).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Sulfur dioxide emissions at Nishinoshima increased noticeably during the second half of June 2020 as measured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Atmospheric circulation currents produced long-lived plumes that drifted thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Nishinoshima is 1,000 km S of Tokyo. Courtesy of NASA Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

By early July 2020, satellite data indicated that the NE quadrant of the island was covered with ash, and a large amount of new lava had flowed down the SW flank, creating fans extending into the ocean (figure 99). The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions that rose to 3.7-4.9 km altitude and drifted N during 1-6 July. The altitude increased to 6.1 km during 8 and 9 July, and ranged from 4.6-6.1 km during 10-14 July while the drift direction changed to NE. The marine meteorological observation ship "Ryofu Maru" reported on 11 July that dense black ash was continuously erupting from the summit crater and drifting W at 1,700 m altitude or higher. They observed large volcanic blocks scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone, and ash falling from the drifting plume. During the night of 11 July incandescent lava and volcanic lightning rose to about 200 m above the crater rim (figure 100).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. By early July 2020, satellite data from Nishinoshima indicated that the NE quadrant of the island was covered with ash, and a large amount of new lava had flowed down the SW flank creating fans extending into the ocean. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. Left image shows differences between 5 and 19 June and the right image shows changes between 19 June and 3 July that included abundant ashfall on the NE flank. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, June 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. High levels of activity were observed at Nishinoshima by crew members aboard the marine meteorological observation ship "Ryofu Maru” on 11 July 2020. Abundant ash emissions filled the sky and tephra fell out of the ash cloud for several kilometers downwind (left, seen from 6 km NE). Incandescent explosions rose as much as 200 m into the night sky (right, seen from 4 km E). Courtesy of JMA.

During 16-26 July 2020 the Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions at 3.7-5.2 km altitude that drifted primarily N and NE. The vessel "Keifu Maru" passed Nishinoshima on 20 July and crewmembers observed continuing emissions from the summit of dense, black ash. JCG observed an ash plume rising to at least 2.7 km altitude during their overflight of 20 July. A large dome of fresh lava was visible on the SW flank of the island (figure 101). Lower ash emissions from 2.4-3.7 km altitude were reported by the Tokyo VAAC during 27-29 July, but the altitude increased to 5.5-5.8 km during the last two days of the month. During an overflight on 30 July by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, dark and light gray ash emissions rose to 3.0 km altitude, but no flowing lava or large bombs were observed. They also noted thick deposits of brownish-gray ash on the N side of the island (figure 102).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. JCG observed an ash plume at Nishinoshima rising to at least 2.7 km altitude during their overflight of 20 July 2020. A large dome of fresh lava was visible on the SW flank of the island. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. Ash emissions changed from dark to light gray on 30 July 2020 at Nishinoshima as seen during an overflight by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. Thick brownish-gray ash was deposited over the lava on the N side of the island. Courtesy of JMA (Information on volcanic activity in Nishinoshima, July 2020).

JMA reported a sharp decrease in the lava eruption rate during July with thermal anomalies decreasing significantly mid-month. Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded during the first half of the month but were reduced to two or three per day during the last third of July. Throughout July, SO2 emissions were the highest recorded in modern times for Nishinoshima. High levels of emissions were measured daily, producing streams with high concentrations of SO2 that were caught up in rotating wind currents and drifted thousands of kilometers across the Pacific Ocean (figure 103).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. Complex atmospheric wind patterns carried the largest SO2 plumes recorded from Nishinoshima thousands of kilometers around the western Pacific Ocean during July 2020. Nishinoshima is about 1,000 km S of Tokyo. Top and bottom left images both show 6 July but at different scales. Courtesy of NASA Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Thermal activity was greatly reduced during August 2020. Only one or two MODVOLC alerts were issued on 11, 18, 20, 21, 29, and 30 August, and no fresh lava flows were observed. The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions daily from 1-20 August. Plume heights were 4.9-5.8 km altitude during 1-4 August after which they dropped to 3.9 km altitude through 15 August. A brief pulse to 4.6 km altitude was recorded on 16 August, but then they dropped to 3.0 km or lower through the end of the month and became intermittent. The last ash emission was reported at 2.7 km altitude drifting W on 27 August.

No eruptive activity was observed during the Japan Coast Guard overflights on 19 and 23 August. High temperatures were measured on the inner wall of the summit crater on 19 August (figure 104). Steam plumes rose from the summit crater to about 2.5 km altitude during both visits (figure 105). Yellow-green discolored water was present on 23 August around the NW and SW coasts. No lava flows were observed, and infrared cameras did not measure any surface thermal anomalies outside of the crater. Very high levels of SO2 emissions were measured through 12 August when they began to noticeably decrease (figure 106). By the end of the month, only small amounts of SO2 were measured in satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. A strong thermal anomaly was still present inside the newly enlarged summit crater at Nishinoshima on 19 August 2020. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Only steam plumes were observed rising from the summit crater of Nishinoshima during the 23 August 2020 overflight by the Japan Coast Guard. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained very high at Nishinoshima until 12 August 2020 when they declined sharply. Circulating air currents carried SO2 thousands of kilometers around the western Pacific region. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Japan Coast Guard (JCG), Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, 3-1-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8932, Japan (URL: https://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/GIJUTSUKOKUSAI/kaiikiDB/kaiyo18-e1.htm); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency-Earth Observation Research Center (JAXA-EORC), 7-44-1 Jindaiji Higashi-machi, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8522, Japan (URL: http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Turrialba (Costa Rica) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Turrialba

Costa Rica

10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New eruptive period on 18 June 2020 consisted of ash eruptions

Turrialba is a stratovolcano located in Costa Rica that overlooks the city of Cartago. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2,200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Activity described in the previous report primarily included weak ash explosions and minor ash emissions (BGVN 44:11). This reporting period updates information from November 2019-August 2020; volcanism dominantly consists of ash emissions during June-August, based on information from daily and weekly reports by the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) and satellite data.

Volcanism during November 2019 through mid-June was relatively low, dominated by low SO2 emissions (100-300 tons/day) and typical low seismic tremors. A single explosion was recorded at 1850 on 7 December 2019, and two gas-and-steam plumes rose 800 m and 300 m above the crater on 25 and 27 December, respectively. An explosion was detected on 29 January 2020 but did not result in any ejecta. An overflight during the week of 10 February measured the depth of the crater (140 m); since the previous measurements made in February 2019 (220 m), the crater has filled with 80 m of debris due to frequent collapses of the NW and SE internal crater walls. Beginning around February and into at least early May 2020 the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity graph provided by the MIROVA system detected a small cluster of thermal anomalies (figure 52). Some of these anomalies were faintly registered in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery during 10 and 25 April, with a more distinct anomaly occurring on 15 May (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. A small cluster of thermal anomalies were detected in the summit area of Turrialba (red dots) during February-May 2020 as recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected minor gas-and-steam emissions (left) and a weak thermal anomaly (right) in the summit crater at Turrialba on 11 January and 15 May 2020, respectively. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 18 June activity increased, which marked the start of a new eruptive period that produced ash emissions rising 100 m above the crater rim at 1714, 1723, and 1818. The next morning, 19 June, two more events at 1023 and 1039 resulted in ash emissions rising 100 m above the crater. During 23-26 June small ash emissions continued to occur each day, rising no higher than 100 m above the crater. A series of small ash eruptions that rose 100 m above the crater occurred during 28 and 29 June; four events were recorded at 0821, 1348, 1739, and 2303 on 28 June and five more were recorded at 0107, 0232, 0306, 0412, and 0818 on 29 June. The two events at 0107 and 0412 were accompanied by ballistics ejected onto the N wall of the crater, according to OVSICORI-UNA.

Almost daily ash emissions continued during 1-7 July, rising less than 100 m above the crater; no ash emissions were observed on 3 July. On 6 July, gas-and-steam and ash emissions rose hundreds of meters above the crater at 0900, resulting in local ashfall. Passive gas-and-steam emissions with minor amounts of ash were occasionally visible during 9-10 July. On 14 July an eruptive pulse was observed, generating brief incandescence at 2328, which was likely associated with a small ash emission. Dilute ash emissions at 1028 on 16 July preceded an eruption at 1209 that resulted in an ash plume rising 200 m above the crater. Ash emissions of variable densities continued through 20 July rising as high as 200 m above the crater; on 20 July incandescence was observed on the W wall of the crater. An eruptive event at 0946 on 29 July produced an ash plume that rose 200-300 m above the crater rim. During 30-31 July a series of at least ten ash eruptions were detected, rising no higher than 200 m above the crater, each lasting less than ten minutes. Some incandescence was visible on the SW wall of the crater during this time.

On 1 August at 0746 an ash plume rose 500 m above the crater. During 4-5 August a total of 19 minor ash emissions occurred, accompanied by ash plumes that rose no higher than 200 m above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported on 21 August that the SW wall of the crater had fractured; some incandescence in the fracture zone had been observed the previous month. Two final eruptions were detected on 22 and 24 August at 1253 and 2023, respectively. The eruption on 24 August resulted in an ash plume that rose to a maximum height of 1 km above the crater.

Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/, https://www.facebook.com/OVSICORI/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Etna (Italy) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Effusive activity in early April; frequent Strombolian explosions and ash emissions during April-July 2020

Etna, located on the island of Sicily, Italy, is a stratovolcano that has had historical eruptions dating back 3,500 years. Its most recent eruptive period began in September 2013 and has continued through July 2020, characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava flows, and ash plumes. Activity has commonly originated from the summit areas, including the Northeast Crater (NEC), the Voragine-Bocca Nuova (or Central) complex (VOR-BN), the Southeast Crater (SEC, formed in 1978), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC, formed in 2011). The newest crater, referred to as the "cono della sella" (saddle cone), emerged during early 2017 in the area between SEC and NSEC. Volcanism during this reporting period from April through July 2020 includes frequent Strombolian explosions primarily in the Voragine and NSEC craters, ash emissions, some lava effusions, and gas-and-steam emissions. Information primarily comes from weekly reports by the Osservatorio Etneo (OE), part of the Catania Branch of Italy's Istituo Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica (INGV).

Summary of activity during April-July 2020. Degassing of variable intensity is typical activity from all summit vents at Etna during the reporting period. Intra-crater Strombolian explosions and ash emissions that rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km on 19 April primarily originated from the Voragine (VOR) and New Southeast Crater (NSEC) craters. At night, summit crater incandescence was occasionally visible in conjunction with explosions and degassing. During 18-19 April small lava flows were observed in the VOR and NSEC craters that descended toward the BN from the VOR Crater and the upper E and S flanks of the NSEC. On 19 April a significant eruptive event began with Strombolian explosions that gradually evolved into lava fountaining activity, ejecting hot material and spatter from the NSEC. Ash plumes that were produced during this event resulted in ashfall to the E of Etna. The flows had stopped by the end of April; activity during May consisted of Strombolian explosions in both the VOR and NSEC craters and intermittent ash plumes rising 4.5 km altitude. On 22 May Strombolian explosions in the NSEC produced multiple ash plumes, which resulted in ashfall to the S. INGV reported that the pit crater at the bottom of BN had widened and was accompanied by degassing. Explosions with intermittent ash emissions continued during June and July and were primarily focused in the VOR and NSEC craters; mild Strombolian activity in the SEC was reported in mid-July.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows multiple episodes of thermal activity throughout the reporting period (figure 296). In early April, the frequency and power of the thermal anomalies began to decrease through mid-June; in July, they had increased in power again but remained less frequent compared to activity in January through March. According to the MODVOLC thermal algorithm, a total of seven alerts were detected in the summit craters during 10 April (1), 17 April (1), 24 April (2), 10 July (1), 13 July (1), and 29 July (1) 2020. These thermal hotspots were typically registered during or after a Strombolian event. Frequent Strombolian activity contributed to distinct SO2 plumes that drifted in different directions (figure 297).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 296. Multiple episodes of varying thermal activity at Etna from 14 October 2019 through July 2020 were reflected in the MIROVA data (Log Radiative Power). In early April, the frequency and power of the thermal anomalies decreased through mid-June. In July, the thermal anomalies increased in power, but did not increase in frequency. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 297. Distinct SO2 plumes from Etna were detected on multiple days during April to July 2020 due to frequent Strombolian explosions, including, 24 April (top left), 9 May (top right), 25 June (bottom left), and 21 July (bottom right) 2020. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Activity during April-May 2020. During April, INGV reported Strombolian explosions that produced some ash emissions and intra-crater effusive activity within the Voragine Crater (VOR) and abundant degassing from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), Northeast Crater (NEC), and from two vents on the cono della sella (saddle cone) that were sometimes accompanied by a modest amount of ash (figure 298). At night, summit crater incandescence was observed in the cono della salla. The Strombolian activity in the VOR built intra-crater scoria cones while lava flows traveled down the S flank of the largest, main cone. On 18 April effusive activity from the main cone in the VOR Crater traveled 30 m toward the Bocca Nuova (BN) Crater; the pit crater at the bottom of the BN crater had widened compared to previous observations. A brief episode of Strombolian explosions that started around 0830 on 19 April in the NSEC gradually evolved into modest lava fountaining activity by 0915, rising to 3 km altitude and ejecting bombs up to 100 m (figure 299). A large spatter deposit was found 50 m from the vent and 3-4 small lava flows were descending the NSEC crater rim; two of these summit lava flows were observed at 1006, confined to the upper E and S flanks of the cone. Around 1030, one or two vents in the cono della sella produced a gas-and-steam and ash plume that rose 5 km altitude and drifted E, resulting in ashfall on the E flank of Etna in the Valle del Bove, as well as between the towns of Zafferana Etnea (10 km SE) and Linguaglossa (17 km NE). At night, flashes of incandescence were visible at the summit. By 1155, the lava fountaining had gradually slowed, stopping completely around 1300. The NEC continued to produce gas-and-steam emissions with some intra-crater explosive activity. During the week of 20-26 April, Strombolian activity in the VOR intra-crater scoria cone ejected pyroclastic material several hundred meters above the crater rim while the lava flows had significantly decreased, though continued to travel on the E flank of the main cone. Weak, intra-crater Strombolian activity with occasional ash emissions and nightly summit incandescence were observed in the NSEC (figure 300). By 30 April there were no longer any active lava flows; the entire flow field had begun cooling. The mass of the SO2 emissions varied in April from 5,000-15,000 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 298. Photos of Strombolian explosions at Etna in the Voragine Crater (top left), strong degassing at the Northeast Crater (NEC) (top right), and incandescent flashes and Strombolian activity in the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) seen from Tremestieri Etneo (bottom row) on 10 April 2020. Photos by Francesco Ciancitto (top row) and Boris Behncke (bottom row), courtesy of INGV.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 299. Strombolian activity at Etna’s “cono della sella” of the NSEC crater on 19 April 2020 included (a-b) lava fountaining that rose 3 km altitude, ejecting bomb-sized material and a spatter deposit captured by the Montagnola (EMOV) thermal camera. (c-d) An eruptive column and increased white gas-and-steam and ash emissions were captured by the Montagnola (EMOV) visible camera and (e-f) were also seen from Tremestieri Etneo captured by Boris Behncke. Courtesy of INGV (Report 17/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 13/04/2020 – 19/04/2020, data emissione 21/04/2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 300. Webcam images showing intra-crater explosive activity at Etna in the Voragine (VOR) and New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 24 April 2020 captured by the (a-b) Montagnola and (c) Monte Cagliato cameras. At night, summit incandescence was visible and accompanied by strong degassing. Courtesy of INGV (Report 18/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 20/04/2020 – 26/04/2020, data emissione 28/04/2020).

Strombolian explosions produced periodic ash emissions and ejected mild, discontinuous incandescent material in the VOR Crater; the coarse material was deposited onto the S flank of BN (figure 301). Pulsating degassing continued from the summit craters, some of which were accompanied by incandescent flashes at night. The Strombolian activity in the cono della sella occasionally produced reddish ash during 3-4 May. During 5 and 8 May, there was an increase in ash emissions at the NSEC that drifted SSE. A strong explosive event in the VOR Crater located E of the main cone produced a significant amount of ash and ejected coarse material, which included blocks and bombs measuring 15-20 cm, that fell on the W edge of the crater, as well as on the S terrace of the BN Crater (figure 302).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 301. Photos of Strombolian explosions and summit incandescence at Etna on 4 May (left) and during the night of 11-12 May. Photos by Gianni Pennisi (left) and Boris Behncke (right, seen from Tremestieri Etneo). Courtesy of INGV.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 302. A photo on 5 May (left) and thermal image on 8 May (right) of Strombolian explosions at Etna in the Voragine Crater accompanied by a dense, gray ash plume. Photo by Daniele Andronico. Courtesy of INGV (Report 20/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 04/05/2020 – 10/05/2020, data emissione 12/05/2020).

On 10 May degassing continued in the NSEC while Strombolian activity fluctuated in both the VOR and NSEC Craters, ejecting ballistics beyond the crater rim; in the latter, some of the blocks fell back in, accumulated on the edge, and rolled down the slopes (figure 303). During the week of 11-17 May, eruptive activity at the VOR Crater was the lowest observed since early March; there were 4-5 weak, low intensity pulses not accompanied by bombs or ashfall in the VOR Crater. Degassing continued in the BN Crater. The crater of the cono della sella had widened further N following collapses due to the Strombolian activity, which exposed the internal wall.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 303. Map of the summit craters of Etna showing the active vents, the area of cooled lava flows (light green), and the location of the widening pit crater in the Bocca Nuova (BN) Crater (light blue circle) updated on 9 May 2020. The base is modified from a 2014 DEM created by Laboratorio di Aerogeofisica-Sezione Roma 2. Black hatch marks indicate the crater rims: BN = Bocca Nuova, with NW BN-1 and SE BN-2; VOR = Voragine; NEC = North East Crater; SEC = South East Crater; NSEC = New South East Crater. Red circles indicate areas with ash emissions and/or Strombolian activity, yellow circles indicate steam and/or gas emissions only. Courtesy of INGV (Report 29/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 06/07/2020 – 12/07/2020, data emissione 14/07/2020).

On 18 May an ash plume from the NSEC rose 4.5 km altitude and drifted NE. Strombolian explosions on 22 May at the NSEC produced multiple ash plumes that rose 4.5 km altitude and drifted S and SW (figure 304), depositing a thin layer of ash on the S slope, and resulting in ashfall in Catania (27 km S). Explosions from the VOR Crater had ejected a deposit of large clasts (greater than 30 cm) on the NE flank, between the VOR Crater and NEC on 23 May. INGV reported that the pit crater in the BN continued to widen and degassing was observed in the NSEC, VOR Crater, and NEC. During the week of 25-31 May persistent visible flashes of incandescence at night were observed, which suggested there was intra-crater Strombolian activity in the SEC and NSEC. The mass of the SO2 plumes varied between 5,000-9,000 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 304. Photo of repeated Strombolian activity and ash emissions rising from Etna above the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 22 May 2020 seen from Zafferana Etnea on the SE flank at 0955 local time. Photo by Boris Behncke, INGV.

Activity during June-July 2020. During June, moderate intra-crater Strombolian activity with intermittent ash emissions continued in the NSEC and occurred more sporadically in the VOR Crater; at night, incandescence of variable intensity was observed at the summit. During the week of 8-14 June, Strombolian explosions in the cono della sella generated some incandescence and rare jets of incandescent material above the crater rim, though no ash emissions were reported. On the morning of 14 June a sequence of ten small explosions in the VOR Crater ejected incandescent material just above the crater rim and produced small ash emissions. On 25 June an overflight showed the developing pit crater in the center of the BN, accompanied by degassing along the S edge of the wall; degassing continued from the NEC, VOR Crater, SEC, and NSEC (figure 305). The mass of the SO2 plumes measured 5,000-7,000 tons per day, according to INGV.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 305. Aerial photo of Etna from the NE during an overflight on 25 June 2020 by the Catania Coast Guard (2 Nucleo Aereo della Guardia Costiera di Catania) showing degassing of the summit craters. Photo captured from the Aw139 helicopter by Stefano Branca. Courtesy of INGV (Report 27/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 22/06/2020 – 28/06/2020, data emissione 30/06/2020).

Similar modest, intra-crater Strombolian explosions in the NSEC, sporadic explosions in the VOR Crater, and degassing in the BN, VOR Crater, and NEC persisted into July. On 2 July degassing in the NEC was accompanied by weak intra-crater Strombolian activity. Intermittent weak ash emissions and ejecta from the NSEC and VOR Crater were observed during the month. During the week of 6-12 July INGV reported gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise from the vent in the pit crater at the bottom of BN (figure 306). On 11 July mild Strombolian activity, nighttime incandescence, and degassing was visible in the SEC (figure 307). By 15 July there was a modest increase in activity in the NSEC and VOR Craters, generating ash emissions and ejecting material over the crater rims while the other summit craters were dominantly characterized by degassing. On 31 July an explosion in the NSEC produced an ash plume that rose 4.5 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 306. Photos of the bottom of the Bocca Nuova (BN) crater at Etna on 8 July 2020 showing the developing pit crater (left) and degassing. Minor ash emissions were visible in the background at the Voragine Crater (right). Both photos by Daniele Andronico. Courtesy of INGV (Report 29/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 06/07/2020 – 12/07/2020, data emissione 14/07/2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 307. Mild Strombolian activity and summit incandescence in the “cono della sella” (saddle vent) at the Southeast crater (SEC) of Etna on 11 July 2020, seen from Piano del Vescovo (left) and Piano Vetore (right). Photo by Boris Behncke, INGV.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/it/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Boris Behncke, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy.


Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Tanzania

2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Multiple lava flows within the summit crater; September 2019-August 2020

Ol Doinyo Lengai, located near the southern end of the East African Rift in Tanzania, is a stratovolcano known for its unique low-temperature carbonatitic lava. Frequent eruptions have been recorded since the late 19th century. Activity primarily occurs in the crater offset to the N about 100 m below the summit where hornitos (small cones) and pit craters produce lava flows and spattering. Lava began overflowing various flanks of the crater in 1993. The eruption transitioned to significant explosive activity in September 2007, which formed a new pyroclastic cone inside the crater. Repeated ash emissions reached altitudes greater than 10 km during March 2008. By mid-April 2008 explosive activity had decreased. In September new hornitos with small lava flows formed on the crater floor. The most recent eruptive period began in April 2017 and has been characterized by spattering confined to the crater, effusive activity in the summit crater, and multiple lava flows (BGVN 44:09). Effusive activity continued in the summit crater during this reporting period from September 2019 through August 2020, based on data and images from satellite information.

Throughout September 2019 to August 2020, evidence for repeated small lava flows was recorded in thermal data and satellite imagery. A total of seven low-level pulses of thermal activity were detected within 5 km from the summit in MIROVA data during September 2019 (1), February (2), March (2), and August (2) 2020 (figure 207). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery also provided evidence of multiple lava flows within the summit crater throughout the reporting period. On clear weather days, intermittent thermal anomalies were observed in thermal satellite imagery within the summit crater; new lava flows were detected due to the change in shape, volume, and location of the hotspot (figure 208). During a majority of the reporting period, the thermal anomaly dominantly appeared in the center of the crater, though occasionally it would also migrate to the SE wall, as seen on 3 February, the E wall on 12 July, or the NE wall on 31 August. In Natural Color rendering, fresh lava flows appear black within the crater that quickly cools to a white-brown color. These satellite images showed the migration of new lava flows between February, March, and June (figure 209). The flow on 8 February occurs in the center and along the W wall of the crater; the flow on 9 March is slightly thinner and is observed in the center and along the E wall of the crater; finally, the flow on 17 June is located in the center and along the N wall of the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 207. Seven low-level pulses of thermal activity within 5 km of the summit of Ol Doinyo Lengai were recorded in the MIROVA thermal data between September 2019 to August 2020; one in early September 2019, two in February, two in March, and two in August 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 208. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Ol Doinyo Lengai from November 2019 to August 2020 show intermittent thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) within the summit crater. The location of these anomalies occasionally changes, indicating new lava flows. Images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 209. Sentinel-2 satellite images of new lava flows within the summit crater at Ol Doinyo Lengai during 8 February (left), 9 March (middle), and 17 June (right) 2020. Lava flows appear black in the center of the crater that changes in volume and location from February to June. Images with “Natural Color” (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During August, multiple lava flows were detected in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. On relatively clear days, lava flows were visible in the middle of the summit crater, occasionally branching out to one side of the crater (figure 210). On 6 August, a thin lava flow branched to the E flank, which became thicker by 11 August. On 16 and 21 August, the lava remained mostly in the center of the crater. A large pulse of fresh lava occurred on 31 August, extending to the NW and SE sides of the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 210. Sentinel-2 images of multiple new lava flows at Ol Doinyo Lengai during August 2020. When visible in the first half of August, dark lava is concentrated in the center and E side of the crater; by the end of August the lava flows had reached the NW side of the crater. Images with “Natural Color” (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Yasur (Vanuatu) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash and gas explosions continue through August 2020

Recent activity at Yasur, which has been erupting since July 1774, includes frequent Strombolian explosions, along with ash and gas plumes from several vents in the summit crater (BGVN 44:02, 45:03). This report summarizes activity during March through August 2020, using information from monthly bulletins of the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) and various satellite data. The volcano has remained on Alert Level 2 (major unrest state, on a scale of 0-5), where it has been since 18 October 2016, according to VMGD.

During the current reporting period, VMGD reported that explosive activity continued at an elevated level, with ongoing ash and gas emissions (figure 71). Some of the more intense explosions ejected bombs outside the summit crater. During 2-3, 13, and 17 March, 2-3 April, and 19 July, the Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) identified low-level ash plumes that reached an altitude of 1.5 km and drifted in multiple directions; the ash plume during 2-3 April resulted in ashfall on the SSW part of the island. On 19 May an ash plume rose to a maximum altitude of 2.1 km and drifted SE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Webcam photos of ash emissions from Yasur on 18 March (left)and gas-and-steam emissions on 2 April (right) 2020. Courtesy of VMGD.

During the reporting period, the MODVOLC thermal algorithm using MODIS satellite data detected a total of 55 thermal hotspots during three days in April, nine days in May, six days in June and August, and four days in July. A maximum of four pixels were recorded on a single day during 26 May, 6 June, and 20 July. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data detected numerous hotspots from 16 September 2019 through August 2020, with a slight increase in power and frequency during May (figure 72). Satellite images from Sentinel-2 detected a strong thermal anomaly within the summit crater on 10 May, accompanied by ash and gas emissions (figure 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Persistent low to moderate thermal activity at Yasur occurred from the summit area from 16 September 2019 through August 2020, as shown in this MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Sentinel-2 images of Yasur on 10 May 2020 showing a strong thermal anomaly from the summit crater (left) and a gas emission that appears to contain some ash (right). The thermal anomaly in the S vent area was stronger than in the N vent, an observation also noted in March and April 2019 (BGVN 44:06). The volcano was usually obscured by clouds during March through August. The left image is in false color (bands 12, 11, 4) rendering, the right image is in natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

High-resolution satellite sensors commonly recorded moderate sulfur dioxide levels drifting in multiple directions from the volcano. High sulfur dioxide levels were also occasionally observed, especially during March (figure 74).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. High-density SO2 emissions streaming from Yasur during 8 (left) and 13 (middle) March and 21 April (right) 2020, were observed using the TROPOMI imaging spectrometer on the Sentinel-5P satellite. The plume drifted W on 8 March and E on both 13 March and 21 April. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Meteorological Service of New Zealand Ltd (MetService), PO Box 722, Wellington, New Zealand (URL: http://vaac.metservice.com/index.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Villarrica (Chile) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Villarrica

Chile

39.42°S, 71.93°W; summit elev. 2847 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued summit incandescence February-August 2020 with larger explosions in July and August

Historical eruptions at Chile's Villarrica, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. An intermittently active lava lake at the summit has been the source of Strombolian activity, incandescent ejecta, and thermal anomalies for several decades; the current eruption has been ongoing since December 2014. Continuing activity during February-August 2020 is covered in this report, with information provided by the Southern Andes Volcano Observatory (Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur, OVDAS), part of Chile's National Service of Geology and Mining (Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, SERNAGEOMIN), and Projecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), part of the Fundacion Volcanes de Chile, a private research group that studies volcanoes across Chile. Sentinel satellite imagery also provided valuable data.

Intermittent incandescence was observed at the summit throughout February-August 2020, which was reflected in the MIROVA thermal anomaly data for the period (figure 92). Continuous steam and gas emissions with occasional ash plumes rose 100-520 m above the summit. Every clear satellite image of Villarrica from February -August 2020 showed either a strong thermal anomaly within the summit crater or a dense cloud within the crater that prevented the heat signal from being measured. Sentinel-2 captured on average twelve images of Villarrica each month (figure 93). Larger explosions on 25 July and 7 August produced ejecta and ash emissions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. Thermal anomaly data for Villarrica from 13 October 2019 through August 2020 showed intermittent periods of activity. Incandescence was intermittently reported from the summit and satellite imagery showed a persistent hot spot inside the summit crater throughout the period. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Examples of strong thermal anomalies inside the summit crater of Villarrica each month from March-August 2020 are shown with dates on the image. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A) showed thermal anomalies at the summit in all clear satellite images during the period. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Primarily white gas emissions rose up to 400 m above the summit during the first half of February 2020 and to 320 m during the second half. Incandescence was observed on clear nights. Incandescent ejecta was captured in the POVI webcam on 7 February (figure 94). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed bright thermal anomalies at the summit on 5, 8, 10, 13, 18, 20, 23, 25, and 28 February, nine of the eleven days that images were taken; the other days were cloudy.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Incandescent ejecta at the summit of Villarrica was captured in the POVI webcam late on 7 February 2020. Time sequence runs from top to bottom, then left to right. Courtesy of POVI.

Villarrica remained at Alert Level Yellow (on a four-level Green-Yellow-Orange-Red scale) in March 2020. Plumes of gas rose 350 m above the crater during the first half of March. The POVI webcam captured incandescent ejecta on 1 March (figure 95). SERNAGEOMIN reported continuous white emissions and incandescence at night when the weather permitted. During the second half of March emissions rose 300 m above the crater; they were mostly white but occasionally gray and drifted N, S, and SE. Nighttime incandescence could be observed from communities that were tens of kilometers away on multiple occasions (figure 96). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed bright thermal anomalies at the summit on 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11, 14, 16, 19, 26, 29, and 31 March, twelve of the fourteen days images were taken. The other days were cloudy.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. Incandescent ejecta rose from the summit of Villarrica in the early morning of 1 March 2020. Courtesy of POVI.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Nighttime incandescence was observed on 24 March 2020 tens of kilometers away from Villarrica. Courtesy of Luis Orlando.

During the first half of April 2020 plumes of gas rose 300 m above the crater, mostly as continuous degassing of steam. Incandescence continued to be seen on clear nights throughout the month. Steam plumes rose 150 m high during the second half of the month. A series of Strombolian explosions on 28-29 April ejected material up to 30 m above the crater rim (figure 97). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed bright thermal anomalies at the summit on 3, 8, 10, 13, 20, and 30 April, six of the twelve days images were taken; other days were cloudy.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. A series of Strombolian explosions on 28-29 April 2020 at Villarrica ejected material up to 30 m above the crater rim. Courtesy of POVI.

Daily plumes of steam rose 160 m above the summit crater during the first half of May 2020; incandescence was visible on clear nights throughout the month. During 5-7 May webcams captured episodes of dark gray emissions with minor ash that, according to SERNAGEOMIN, was related to collapses of the interior crater walls. Plumes rose as high as 360 m above the crater during the second half of May. The continuous degassing was gray and white with periodic ash emissions. Pyroclastic deposits were noted in a radius of 50 m around the crater rim associated with minor explosive activity from the lava lake. The POVI infrared camera captured a strong thermal signal rising from the summit on 29 May (figure 98), although no visual incandescence was reported. Residents of Coñaripe (17 km SSW) could see steam plumes at the snow-covered summit on 31 May (figure 99). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed bright thermal anomalies at the summit on 5, 13, 20, 23, 25 and 30 May, six of the twelve days images were taken. The other days were cloudy.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. The POVI infrared camera captured a strong thermal signal rising from the summit of Villarrica on 29 May 2020; no visual incandescence was noted. Courtesy of POVI.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. Residents of Coñaripe (17 km SSW) could see steam plumes at the snow-covered summit of Villarrica on 31 May 2020. Courtesy of Laura Angarita.

For most of the first half of June, white steam emissions rose as high as 480 m above the crater rim. A few times, emissions were gray, attributed to ash emissions from collapses of the inner wall of the crater by SERNAGEOMIN. Incandescence was visible on clear nights throughout the month. Vertical inflation of 1.5 cm was noted during the first half of June. Skies were cloudy for much of the second half of June; webcams only captured images of the summit on 21 and 27 June with 100-m-high steam plumes. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed bright thermal anomalies at the summit on 4, 7, and 14 June, three of the twelve days images were taken. The other days were cloudy.

Atmospheric clouds prevented most observations of the summit during the first half of July (figure 100); during brief periods it was possible to detect incandescence and emissions rising to 320 m above the crater. Continuous degassing was observed during the second half of July; the highest plume rose to 360 m above the crater on 23 July. On 25 July, monitoring stations in the vicinity of Villarrica registered a large-period (LP) seismic event associated with a moderate explosion at the crater. It was accompanied by a 14.7 Pa infrasound signal measured 1 km away. Meteorological conditions did not permit views of any surface activity that day, but a clear view of the summit on 28 July showed dark tephra on the snow around the summit crater (figure 101). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed bright thermal anomalies at the summit on 2 and 29 July, two of the twelve days images were taken. The other days were either cloudy or had steam obscuring the summit crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. Although a multi-layer cap cloud formed over the summit of Villarrica on 15 July 2020, steam emissions could be seen close to the summit drifting down the slope. Cap clouds form when a stable airstream rises to pass over a peak and cools, condensing moisture into clouds. Photograph by Sebastián Campos, courtesy of Geography Fans.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. Dark tephra appeared near the summit of Villarrica on 28 July 2020; an explosion had been measured seismically on 25 July but clouds obscured visual observations. Image taken from Coñaripe, courtesy of Laura Angarita.

An explosion on 7 August at 1522 local time (1922 UTC) produced an LP seismic signal and a 10 Pa infrasound signal. Webcams were able to capture an image of the explosion which produced a dense plume of steam and ash that rose 370 m above the summit and drifted SE (figure 102). The highest plumes in the first half of August reached 520 m above the summit on 7 August. Sporadic emissions near the summit level were reported by the Buenos Aires VAAC the following day but were not observed in satellite imagery. When weather permitted during the second half of the month, continuous degassing to 200 m above the crater was visible on the webcams. SERNAGEOMIN participated in a webinar on 20 August 2020 discussing safety at Villarrica and showed an image of the summit crater taken during an overflight on 19 August (figure 103). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed bright thermal anomalies at the summit on 6, 21, and 31 August, three of the thirteen days images were taken. The other days were cloudy.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. An explosion at Villarrica on 7 August 2020 at 1522 local time (1922 UTC) produced an LP seismic signal and 10 Pa infrasound signal. Webcams were able to capture an image of the explosion which produced a dense plume of steam and ash that rose 370 m above the summit and drifted SE Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN (Reporte Especial de Actividad Volcanica (REAV), Region De La Araucania y Los Rios, volcan Villarrica, 7 de Agosto de 2020, 16:15 Hora local).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. SERNAGEOMIN participated in a webinar on 20 August 2020 discussing safety at Villarrica and showed an image of the summit crater taken during an overflight on 19 August. Courtesy of Turismo Integral.

Geologic Background. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), (URL: http://www.povi.cl/, https://twitter.com/povi_cl/status/1237541250825248768); Luis Orlando (URL: https://twitter.com/valepizzas/status/1242657625495539712); Laura Angarita (URL: https://twitter.com/AngaritaV/status/1267275374947377152, https://twitter.com/AngaritaV/status/1288086614422573057); Geography Fans (URL: https://twitter.com/Geografia_Afic/status/1284520850499092480); Turismo Integral (URL: https://turismointegral.net/expertos-entregan-recomendaciones-por-actividad-registrada-en-volcan-villarrica/).


Stromboli (Italy) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity continues at both summit craters during May-August 2020

Stromboli, located in northeastern-most part of the Aeolian Islands, is composed of two active summit vents: the Northern (N) Crater and the Central-South (CS) Crater that are situated at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a large scarp that runs from the summit down the NW side of the volcano. The current eruption period began in 1934, continuing to the present with volcanism characterized by consistent Strombolian explosions in both summit craters, ash plumes, pyroclastic flows, and occasional lava flows (BGVN 45:08). This report updates activity consisting of dominantly Strombolian explosions and ash plumes from May to August 2020 with information primarily from daily and weekly reports by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and various satellite data.

Activity was consistent during this reporting period. Explosion rates ranged from 1-23 events per hour and were of variable intensity, producing material that typically rose from less than 80 to over 300 m above the crater. One ash plume on 19 July rose 1 km above the crater and high energy ballistics were ejected 500 m above the crater during the week of 20-26 July (table 9). Strombolian explosions were often accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions and spattering that has occasionally resulted in material deposited on the slopes of the Sciara del Fuoco. According to INGV, the average SO2 emissions measured 250-300 tons/day.

Table 9. Summary of activity at Stromboli during May-August 2020. Low-intensity activity indicates ejecta rising less than 80 m, medium-intensity is ejecta rising less than 150 m, and high-intensity is ejecta rising over 200 m above the vent. Data courtesy of INGV.

Month Activity
May 2020 Strombolian activity and degassing continued with some spattering. Explosion rates varied from 1-17 per hour. Ejected material rose 80-150 m above the N crater and 150-250 m above the CS crater. The average SO2 emissions measured 300 tons/day.
Jun 2020 Strombolian activity and degassing continued with spattering. Explosion rates varied from 2-14 per hour. Ejected material rose 80-200 m above the N crater and 150 m above the CS crater. Spattering was primarily focused in the CS crater. The average SO2 emissions measured 300 tons/day.
Jul 2020 Strombolian activity and degassing continued with some spattering. Explosion rates varied from 1-12 per hour. Ejected material rose 80-1,000 m above the N crater. Spattering was primarily focused in the CS crater. The average SO2 emissions measured 300 tons/day.
Aug 2020 Strombolian activity continued with discontinuous spattering. Explosion rates varied from 1-23 per hour. Ejected material rose at least 200 m above the N crater and at least 250 m above the CS crater.

Explosive activity was relatively consistent during May 2020 and was mainly produced in 3-4 eruptive vents in the N crater and at least two eruptive vents in the CS crater. As a result of some explosions fallout covered the slopes of the Sciara del Fuoco. Explosion rates varied from 1-17 per hour in the N crater and 1-8 per hour in the CS crater; ejected material rose 80-250 m above the craters.

During June, explosions originated from 2-3 eruptive vents in the N crater and at least 2-3 localized vents in the CS crater. The Strombolian explosions ejected material 80-200 m above the craters, some of which fell back onto the Sciara (figure 182). Explosion rates varied from 5-14 per hour in the N crater and 2-9 per hour in the CS crater. Spattering was typically observed in the CS crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 182. An explosion at Stromboli produced gas-and-steam and ash emissions on 18 June 2020 was observed in the CS crater in the Sciara del Fuoco. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 26/2020, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 15/06/2020 - 21/06/2020, data emissione 23/06/2020).

Ongoing explosive activity continued into July, originating from 2-3 eruptive vents in the N crater and 3-4 eruptive vents in the CS crater. Explosions varied from 3-12 per hour in the N crater and 1-11 per hour in the CS crater; ejected lapilli and bombs rose 80-1,000 m above the craters (figure 183). On 19 July a high-energy explosion between 0500 and 0504 produced an ash plume containing ejecta more than 50 cm that rose to a maximum of 1 km above the crater, with fallout reaching the Pizzo sopra la Fossa and resulting in ashfall on the Sciara and the towns of Liscione and Roccette. During the week of 20-26 July explosions in the E portion of the volcano ejected ballistics 500 m above the crater; the size and shape of these varied between slag bombs to clasts greater than 50 cm.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 183. Webcam (left column) and thermal (right column) images of explosive activity at Stromboli on 29 July (top row) and 2 August (bottom row) 2020 originated from the N and CS craters, producing spatter and ash plumes. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 32/2020, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 27/07/2020 - 02/08/2020, data emissione 04/08/2020).

Strombolian activity accompanied by discontinuous spattering continued during August. Total daily explosions varied from 3-23 per hour ejecting material that up to 200-250 m above the craters. During the first half of the month the explosions were low-intensity and consisted of fine material. On 13 August the intensity of the explosions increased, producing an ash plume that rose 300 m above the crater drifting SE and resulting in a significant amount of ashfall on the Sciara. During the week of 17-23, explosions in the N1 crater ejected material 200 m above the crater while explosions in the CS crater ejected material 250 m above the crater, predominantly during 22 August in the S2 crater (figure 184).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 184. Images of gas-and-steam and ash plumes rising from the N2 (left), S2 (middle), and CS craters (right) at Stromboli on 22 August 2020. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 35/2020, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 17/08/2020 - 23/08/2020, data emissione 25/08/2020).

Moderate thermal activity was relatively consistent from October 2019 through mid-April 2020; during May-August thermal activity became less frequent and anomalies were lower in power based on the MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph using MODIS infrared satellite information (figure 185). Though there were no detected MODVOLC thermal alerts during this reporting period, many thermal hotspots were observed in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery in both summit craters (figure 186).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 185. Low to moderate thermal activity at Stromboli occurred frequently from 16 September to mid-April 2020 as shown in the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). During May-August thermal activity decreased and was less frequent compared to the previous months. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 186. Weak thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) at Stromboli were observed in thermal satellite imagery from both of the summit vents throughout May-August 2020. Images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy, (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/en/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 37, Number 01 (January 2012)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Chiginagak (United States)

Acidic crater-lake water escaped in 2005 perturbing regional hydrosphere

Cleveland (United States)

Amendments to BGVN reports 2001-2011

Fourpeaked (United States)

Syn- and post-eruptive seismicity and emissions; magma intrusion model

Lengai, Ol Doinyo (Tanzania)

Update on observations; new reports on 2007-2008 eruptions

Martin (United States)

Seismic swarm in January 2006

Negro, Cerro (Nicaragua)

Non-eruptive activity; fumarole and seismic monitoring; new crater morphology

Spurr (United States)

Summit ice cauldron, debris flows through 2006; fumarolic activity continues



Chiginagak (United States) — January 2012 Citation iconCite this Report

Chiginagak

United States

57.135°N, 156.99°W; summit elev. 2221 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Acidic crater-lake water escaped in 2005 perturbing regional hydrosphere

We previously reported fumarolic activity from November 1997 to August 1998, but issued no subsequent Bulletin reports for Chiginagak. This report covers the formation of a summit ice cauldron and crater lake and subsequent draining of the lake resulting in the acidification of Mother Goose Lake during 2000-2010. Records of Chiginagak's past activity are poor. It is not seismically monitored and, because of its remote location, much of the information is limited to observations of nearby residents. The primary source of information for this report has been Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) annual reports (McGimsey and others, 1999; McGimsey and others, 2004; Neal and others, 2004; and McGimsey and others, 2008).

Increased fumarolic activity occurred from November 1997-August 1998. AVO reports that the activity during that time was a result of formation of new fumaroles on the N flank of the volcano. In November of 1997 an increase in steam emission led to increased snowmelt (BGVN 22:11). The steam was accompanied by the smell of sulfur. Through January 1998 a robust steam plume was observed by AVO several times. In March 1998 vigorous fumarolic activity continued, characterized by gray clouds and a strong sulfur smell that was reported up to 49 km away. In August 1998 a plume of black ash and greenish-yellow gas rose from the volcano's fumaroles. In late July-early August 2000 Chiginagak again released a larger than normal plume.

Glacial Outburst Flooding. Between November 2004 and May 2005 non-explosive geothermal activity melted the snow and ice filling Chiginagak's summit crater, forming an ice cauldron ~400 m wide and ~105 m deep. The melt waters formed an acidic lake within the cauldron. The water from the lake melted a tunnel through the summit ice, draining the cauldron. The resulting lahar flowed down the SW flank of the volcano probably in May 2005, photographed August 20, 2005 (figure 1).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Lahar deposits on the SW flank of Chiginagak, caused as a result of draining of the lake, which likely occurred in May 2005. Photograph by Game McGimsey, AVO/USGS, August 20, 2005.

The water from the cauldron continued downstream into Mother Goose Lake, ~27 km downstream to the NW of Chiginagak (figure 2) and in August 2005 Mother Goose Lake became acidic, with pH dropping to 2.9. This killed the majority of aquatic life in the lake and damaged flora surrounding both the lake and the rivers (Indecision Creek and Volcano Creek which transport water from Chiginagak to Mother Goose Lake and King Salmon River that flows from the lake). Below a pH of 4.5, essentially no large fish are able to survive (figure 3). It is not just the acidity that kills aquatic fauna but also high levels of metals such as Al and Fe. At a pH of 5, Al3+ becomes insoluble and has a toxic effect on fauna. The acidic water was accompanied by sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic aerosols. The high acidity of the lake prevented the annual salmon run that typically ascends into Mother Goose Lake.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Acidic water from Mt. Chiginagak escaped the summit cauldron lake and traveled downstream into Mother Goose Lake. Bold lines indicate drainages that were affected by the acidic water, and thin lines indicate unaffected drainages. Modified from Schaefer and others (2011).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. This chart shows the varying pH levels at which aquatic life either leave an environment or die. Courtesy of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The pH at Mother Goose Lake has been monitored since 2005 and the pH has slowly returned to normal. By 2010 the lake water returned towards normal conditions; pH reached 5.2 and a variety of fish have returned to the lake. By August 2011 the pH had reached 6.9.

In 2005, Kassel (2009) studied the slurry pH deposited at Mother Goose Lake. Slurry pH is the standard method for estimating pH of soils; it is similar to pore water measurements. The details of the process used can be found in Kassel (2009, p.27-30). The slurry pH of Mother Goose Lake in 2005 was approximately the same as the pH of the lake at that time. The assumption can be made that slurry pH reflects lake pH at the time of deposition. Based on slurry pH seen in core samples, at least 7 similar events have occurred at Mother Goose Lake in the last ~3,800 years, including the 2005 event. Only one of these events was associated with tephra deposits, therefore the majority of the events were seemingly triggered by non-explosive geothermal activity, similar to the event in 2005.

According to McGimsey and others (2008), "The area is remote, and the active fumaroles frequently produce visible steam plumes, which have been mistaken for eruptive activity. Unverified reports of minor activity are attributed to 1852, 1929, and 1971. An event similar to the outburst flooding in 2005 may have occurred in the early 1970s according to third-person accounts from a cabin owner on Mother Goose Lake, who reported flooding from the volcano, discoloration of the lakeshore, vegetation damage, and interruption of the annual salmon run (Jon Kent, local lodge owner, oral commun., 2004)."

References. US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008, Effects of Acid Rain - Surface Waters and Aquatic Animals, Updated 1 December 2008, Accessed 15 Febuary 2012 (URL: epa.gov/acidrain/effects/surface_water.html).

Kassel, CM, 2009, Lacustrine Evidence from Mother Goose Lake of Holocene Geothermal Activity at Mount Chiginagak, Alaska Peninsula, Northern Arizona University, 276 p.

McGimsey, RG, and Wallace, KL, 1999, 1997 Volcanic Activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, Open-File Report 99-448, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 42 p.

McGimsey, RG, Neal, CA, and Girina, O, 2004, 1998 Volcanic Activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, Open-File Report 03-423, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

McGimsey, RG, Neal, CA, Dixon, JP and Ushakov, S, 2008, 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5269, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

Neal, CA, McGimsey, RG, and Chubarova, O, 2004, 2000 Volcanic Activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, Open-File Report 2004-1034, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

Schaefer, JR, Scott, WE, Evans, WC, Wang, B and McGimsey, RG, 2011, Summit Crater Lake Observations, and the Location, Chemistry, and pH of Water Samples Near Mount Chiginagak Volcano, Alaska: 2004-2011, Report of Investigations 2011-6, State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical, calc-alkaline Chiginagak stratovolcano located about 15 km NW of Chiginagak Bay contains a small summit crater, which is breached to the south, and one or more summit lava domes. Satellitic lava domes occur high on the NW and SE flanks of the glacier-mantled volcano. An unglaciated lava flow and an overlying pyroclastic-flow deposit extending east from the summit are the most recent products of Chiginagak. They most likely originated from a lava dome at 1687 m on the SE flank, 1 km from the summit of the volcano, which has variably been estimated to be from 2075 to 2221 m high. Brief ash eruptions were reported in July 1971 and August 1998. Fumarolic activity occurs at 1600 m elevation on the NE flank of the volcano, and two areas of hot-spring travertine deposition are located at the NW base of the volcano near Volcano Creek.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 3354 College Rd., Fairbanks, Alaska 99709-3707, USA.


Cleveland (United States) — January 2012 Citation iconCite this Report

Cleveland

United States

52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Amendments to BGVN reports 2001-2011

Our last report on Cleveland volcano, August 2011 (BGVN 36:08), described lava dome growth in August-September 2011. This report first addresses late 2011 to early 2012 observations, and then presents some amendments to Bulletin reports over the last decade.

Late 2011-early 2012. According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), by the first week of October 2011 satellite images showed the lava dome was within 10 m of the crater rim on the SW and ENE sides of the crater. On 23 October, a TerraSAR-X satellite radar image of Cleveland showed no discernable growth in the lava dome over the course of the past several weeks. Instead, the 23 October image showed deflation or collapse of the dome.

On 3 November 2011, citing lack of dome growth evident in satellite images, AVO lowered both the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Alert Level to ADVISORY. Throughout November, weather permitting, AVO continued to observe thermal anomalies and steam plumes in satellite imagery, consistent with cooling of the emplaced hot dome. Observations in early December 2011 showed continued deflation and cooling of the lava dome, which was about 1x106 m3 in volume.

On 29 December 2011, AVO observed in satellite imagery a detached, drifting ash cloud at an altitude of ~4.6 km and ~80 km ESE of Cleveland. Ground-coupled airwaves from an explosion were also detected at the distant Okmok seismic network, placing the time of explosion at 1312 (UTC) on 29 December 29.

Based on the presence of an ash cloud, on 29 December AVO raised the aviation color code to ORANGE and the alert level to WATCH. On 30 December, with no new explosive activity, AVO lowered the aviation color code to YELLOW and the alert level to ADVISORY. Subsequent satellite images showed that the 25 December (recognized in retrospective data analysis) and 29 December explosions had largely removed the dome.

On 30 January 2012, satellite data showed another small dome within the summit crater, which measured ~ 40 m in diameter by 30 January. On 31 January, AVO raised the aviation color code to ORANGE and the volcano alert level to WATCH. No observations of elevated surface temperatures or ash emissions from Cleveland were noted during 15-21 February. On 17 February, AVO reported that partly-cloudy satellite observations over the past week revealed that the current lava dome had grown to about 60 m in diameter and occupied a small portion of the approximately 200-m diameter summit crater. On 19 February an elevated surface temperature was detected in satellite images. As of this date, there is no real-time seismic monitoring network on Mount Cleveland.

Amendments to Bulletin. According to Diefenbach, Guffanti, and Ewert, (2009), "During the past 29 years, 43 volcanoes within the United States have produced 95 eruptions and 32 episodes of unrest. More than half of the 30 eruptive volcanoes have erupted two or more times. The majority (77 percent) of U.S. eruptions has occurred in Alaska. Akutan volcano in Alaska has produced the most eruptions (11) in the past 29 years, followed by Veniaminof (10), Cleveland (9), and Pavlof (8)."

Because of the relative importance of Cleveland in the Aleutian chain as a source of active volcanism along a busy commercial airline route, we revisited the AVO web site recently to compare information available with that which we used to prepare the Bulletin in the past. As a prelude to this section, table 4 lists Cleveland eruptions reported by the AVO during 2001-2012 and the issues of the Bulletin covering a particular event.

Table 4. Dates of significant eruptions as reported by the AVO web site for Cleveland from January 2001 through January 2012, and related BGVN reports covering the respective eruptions. These data were accessed 9 February 2012; as of that date, the latest eruption reported by AVO was the one of 19 July 2011. From the AVO web site.

Item Eruption dates (start-stop; ? = questionable event) BGVN issue(s)
a 02 Feb-15 Apr 2001 26:01, 26:04
b 27 Apr-27 Sep 2005 30:09
c 06 Feb-06 Feb 2006 31:01, 31:06
d 23 May-23 May 2006 31:06, 31:07
e 24 Aug-28 Oct 2006 31:09
f Jun 2007-28 Oct 2008 33:02, 33:07
g 02 Jan-21 Jan 2009 33:11
h 26 Jun-26 Jun 2009 34:10
i 02 Oct-02 Oct 2009 34:10
j 30 May-02 Jun 2010 35:06
k 12 Sep-12 Sep 2010 (?) 36:05
l 19 Jul 2011 ± 7 days 36:08

We amend some of our previous Bulletin reports with the following excerpts from USGS reports of Cleveland eruptions since 2001, ending with the last Bulletin containing a report on Cleveland (BGVN 36:08). The dates for the eruptions are the start and stop dates from the USGS reports.

Item a, Table 4 - BGVN 26:01: On 19 February 2001, Cleveland volcano erupted explosively at ~1430 UTC and AVO established the eruption termination date as 15 April 2001. However, after the eruption, AVO received reports indicating that precursory emission activity had taken place. Most graphic was a photograph taken on 2 February 2001 by a pilot flying by the volcano showing a dark, lobate deposit on the snow-covered SW flank and robust steaming from the summit crater.

Item a, Table 4 - BGVN 26:04: According to AVO, in 2001, ash fall from the February 2001 eruption of Cleveland was observed only at Nikolski over a ~5 hr on 19 February 2001. A sample from Nikolski showed that the ash was composed of glass shards, crystals, and lithics. The glass was dacitic and had a magmatic morphology rather than phreatomagmatic.

Item b, Table 4 - BGVN 30:09: On 27 April 2005, the Federal Aviation Association (FAA) alerted AVO of a pilot report of eruptive activity (ash cloud 4.6-5.5 km altitude) in the vicinity of Cleveland (based on coordinates from the pilots). Although satellite images and nearby seismic stations showed no evidence of activity, a one-time Urgent Pilot Report and a one-time SIGMET were issued.

Item c, Table 4 - BGVN 31:01: AVO noted that by the end of 6 January 2006 there were no further reports or images of ash production at Cleveland.

Item f, Table 4 - BGVN 33:02: Satellite data from February 2007 revealed evidence of recent activity involving ejection of bombs and debris on the upper flanks and generation of water-rich flows that traveled halfway to the coast. No ash emissions or ash fall deposits were observed. This level of activity -accompanied by persistent thermal anomalies - occurred throughout the spring and early summer. On 4 March 2008, a pilot reported minor ash to 1.5 km above sea level in the vicinity of Cleveland, and a weak thermal anomaly was observed the following day.

Item g, Table 4 - BGVN 33:11: The volcano was relatively quiet until 28 October 2008, when an ash cloud rising to ~4.6 km and drifting E was spotted in satellite imagery. On 29 October, another cloud, 160 km long and drifting NE at an altitude of 3.0 km with little or no ash was observed. A strong thermal anomaly over the summit of the volcano was noted on 30 October 2008, but given the low-level nature of the recent activity, AVO did not elevate the Color Code or Alert Level.

Item k, Table 4 - BGVN 36:05: AVO continued to detect thermal anomalies on 14, 15, 25, and 26 September 2010, and 1 October. During the other days, clouds prevented satellite observation of Cleveland. Although the weather usually prevented observations of Cleveland, weak thermal anomalies were also detected on 14, 19, 25, and 29 October 2010. Clouds completely obscured observations for the week of 1-6 November 2010, but thermal anomalies were again detected on 7 November. The weather then remained cloudy until 16,17, 25, 28, and 30 November 2010, when thermal anomalies were again visible. Thermal anomalies were also recorded on 6, 13, 14, 23, and 27 December 2010, and weak thermal anomalies were visible on 1, 11, and 16 January 2011. A weak thermal anomaly was observed on 1 February 2011, and on 9 February a pilot overflew Cleveland and reported minor, repetitive steam emissions rising hundreds of meters above the summit. The snow on the flanks was pristine, with no indication of recent ash emissions. Steam emissions are common at Cleveland and do not indicate an increased level of unrest.

References. Cervelli, P. F., and Cameron, C. E., 2008, Causation or coincidence? The correlations in time and space of the 2008 eruptions of Cleveland, Kasatochi, and Okmok Volcanoes, Alaska, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract ##A53B-0278.

Diefenbach, A.K., Guffanti, M., and Ewert, J.W., 2009, Chronology and References of Volcanic Eruptions and Selected Unrest in the United States, 1980-2008, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1118, 85 p (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1118/).

Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 it produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; USAToday (URL: http://www.usatoday.com).


Fourpeaked (United States) — January 2012 Citation iconCite this Report

Fourpeaked

United States

58.77°N, 153.672°W; summit elev. 2105 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Syn- and post-eruptive seismicity and emissions; magma intrusion model

Following the 17 September 2006 phreatic eruption of Fourpeaked volcano and subsequent non-juvenile ash emissions and debris flows (Cervelli and West, 2007; BGVN 31:09), low level seismicity (up to M 1.8) and emissions (S02 fluxes up to almost 3,000 tons/day) continued during late 2006 and the first half of 2007. Small explosions occurred during February-April 2007 amidst declining gas emissions. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level from Yellow/Advisory to Green/Normal on 6 June 2007 (on a scale from Green/Normal to Red/Warning).

Seismic monitoring network. Prior to the 2006-2007 eruption and unrest, Fourpeaked lacked a monitoring network (BGVN 31:09). A network of monitoring instruments was deployed in stages following the onset of unrest in 2006 (figure 8). The network consisted of 4 short-period seismometers (3 newly-deployed and 1 pre-existing), 2 co-located pressure sensors, and a web camera. As a result of the stepwise deployment of the instruments, the precision and number of earthquakes successfully located by AVO increased during the active period. Following the network's successful operation through the winter of 2006-2007, Fourpeaked was formally recognized as the 31st seismically monitored Alaskan volcano on 3 May 2007.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. The seismic monitoring network of Fourpeaked volcano. Orange stars indicate the 4 short-period seismometers monitoring Fourpeaked; black stars indicate other nearby seismometers; triangles indicate volcanoes. Modified from Gardine and others (2011).

November 2006-June 2007 activity. AVO reported that low level seismicity and persistent steaming (reaching up to several hundred meters above the summit) continued through the end of 2006. McGimsey and others (2011) reported that an airborne gas survey on 6 November 2006 showed continued elevated S02 emissions (~1,000 tons/day). The measured S02 flux measured soon after the 17 September eruption (figure 9) was more than 2,000 tons/day (McGimsey and others, 2011). In January 2007, AVO reported an earthquake swarm (swarm IV, figure 9), but stated that it was not considered unusual. Until 8 February, activity was typical of the past few months.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Recorded syn- and post-eruptive seismicity and S02 emissions at Fourpeaked volcano. Plots indicate the number of earthquakes per month (gray bars), timing of earthquake swarms (I-IV, vertical dashed black lines), and measured S02 emissions (tons/day, dark gray points and trend). The data extend 13 months following the 17 September 2006 phreatic eruption (swarm I). Courtesy of Gardine and others (2011).

Beginning on 8 February 2007, AVO reported small explosive events that were registered on seismic and acoustic instruments, and a possible large steam plume that was noticed in a partly cloudy satellite view. A swarm of 13 locatable earthquakes occurred on 18 February, the largest of which was an M 1.8 event at ~4 km deep; this was the largest seismic event of the 2006-2007 Fourpeaked activity (McGimsey and others, 2011). A gas overflight on 22 February recorded S02 flux values below those measured in November.

Occasional small eruptions continued through March 2007, while seismicity gradually decreased (McGimsey and others 2011). In the last week of March, AVO reported decreased steam emissions from the vents at the summit. Explosive activity and declining gas emissions continued throughout April, and on 18 May, an aerial gas measurement revealed that the S02 flux had decreased to less than 90% of the measured values in September 2006 (Cervelli and West, 2007).

On 6 June 2007, citing declining seismicity and gas emissions, AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code from Yellow to Green, and the Volcanic Activity Alert Level from Advisory to Normal. They noted that "local hazards still [existed] near the summit, including jetting steam and/or very small explosions, unstable snow and ice, hot water and rock, and the possibility for high concentrations of dangerous volcanic gas."

Magma intrusion. Gardine and others (2011) analyzed seismic and gas emission data from the 2006-2007 Fourpeaked eruption and unrest (figure 9) in order to constrain the origin of the eruptive activity. Their findings suggested that the high levels of seismicity and gas emissions during the initial unrest indicated the intrusion of new magma into the upper 10 km of crust. They suggested that the intrusion reactivated fractures, allowing gases exsolved from the magma to be released at the surface. They argued that continued exsolution provided the gases released during the period of unrest, while local stress accumulation led to earthquake swarms (figure 9). They also suggested that the activity ceased only after the magma had cooled and degassed to a point where it became trapped and could no longer overcome the overburden pressure.

References. Cervelli, P.F. and West, M., 2007, The 2006 Eruption of Fourpeaked Volcano, Katmai National Park, Alaska, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract ##V31E-0719.

Gardine, M., West, M., Werner, C., and Doukas, M., 2011, Evidence of magma intrusion at Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska in 2006-2007 from a rapid-response seismic network and volcanic gases, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 200, issues 3-4, p. 192-200 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.11.018).

McGimsey, R.G., Neal, C.A., Dixon, J.P., Malik, N., and Chibisova, M., 2011, 2007 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, US Geological Society Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5242, 103 p.

Geologic Background. Poorly known Fourpeaked volcano in NE Katmai National Park consists of isolated outcrops surrounded by the Fourpeaked Glacier, which descends eastward almost to the Shelikof Strait. The orientation of andesitic lava flows and extensive hydrothermal alteration of rocks near the present summit suggest that it probably marks the vent area. Eruptive activity during the Holocene had not been confirmed prior to the first historical eruption in September 2006. A N-trending fissure extending 1 km from the summit produced minor ashfall.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://www.dggs.alaska.gov/).


Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) — January 2012 Citation iconCite this Report

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Tanzania

2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Update on observations; new reports on 2007-2008 eruptions

This report on Ol Doinyo Lengai (hereafter, Lengai) is a continuation of previous Bulletin reports that were based in part on those found on Frederick Belton's Lengai web site (Belton, 2012). Our last report was in September 2010 (BGVN 35:09). Figures 149 and 150 show aerial photographs of Lengai in late 2010.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 149. Aerial photo of the N crater of Lengai, looking NE, in late November 2010. Courtesy of Ben Wilhelmi; from Belton (2012).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 150. Dave Simpson, a guide working in Kenya, flew over Lengai on 6 December 2010 and took this photo looking at a steep angle downward into the crater. Cloudy conditions prevailed, but Simpson saw no areas of fresh lava or other activity. Several darker areas on the rim of the crater are results of slope failure. Courtesy of Dave Simpson; from Belton (2012).

On 22 June 2011, Hans Schabel took a group of 8 conservation biologists to the Lengai summit up the regular approach along the NNW trail through the Pearly Gates (PG). During the ascent, the weather was cold, worsened by strong, increasingly sulfurous gusts from above. Minor fumaroles produced small clouds just above the PG. At the summit, conditions were relatively clear, making details of the crater rim and the pit visible. The slump on the E crater that Schabel first saw on his previous climb (16 January 2010, BGVN 35:05) had not expanded significantly, but some of the walls of the crater below had obviously slumped into big piles of rubble below. The group heard a 'whoosh' from two boiling, rolling, lava pools that spilled pitch-black lava into a growing lake flowing E in the crater floor (figure 151).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 151. Lava lake seen at the bottom of Lengai's N Crater (photo looking N), 22 June 2011. Courtesy of Hans Schabel; from Belton (2012).

New Reports. Two recent research papers have been published concerning the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions of Lengai (BGVN 32:11, 33:02, 33:06, 33:08, 34:02, and 34:05). Kervyn and others (2010) and Keller and others (2010) summarize the first relatively closely documented 'cycle' from natrocarbonatite to carbonated nephelinite at Lengai. According to Kervyn and others (2010), on 4 September 2007, after 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatite eruptions, the eruptive activity of Lengai changed abruptly to episodic explosive eruptions. This transition was preceded by a voluminous lava eruption in March 2006, a year of quiescence, resumption of natrocarbonatite eruptions in June 2007, and a volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in July 2007.

Keller and others (2010) noted that, with its paroxysmal ash eruption on 4 September 2007 and the highly explosive activity continuing in 2008, Lengai dramatically changed its behavior, crater morphology (figure 152), and magma composition after 25 years of quiet extrusion of fluid natrocarbonatite lava. This explosive activity resembled the explosive phases of 1917, 1940-1941, and 1966-1967, which were characterized by mixed ashes with dominantly nephelinitic and natrocarbonatitic components. Chemical analyses of the erupted products showed that the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions were associated with an undersaturated carbonated silicate melt. This new phase of explosive eruptions provided constraints on the factors causing the transition from natrocarbonatite effusive eruptions to explosive eruptions of carbonated nephelinite magma, variations observed repetitively in the last 100 years at Lengai.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 152. Morphological evolution of the Lengai volcano active crater from June 2007 to June 2008 illustrated by aerial photographs (date, day-month-year, of each photo shown at left bottom): (a) one central pit crater; (b) the massive lava emission at end of August 2007; (c-d) the progressive growth of an ash cone covering the hornitos in the first months of the 2007 explosive phase; (e-f) the rapidly evolving morphology of the new crater within a prominent ash cone and the changing vent location in January to February 2008; (g) the overgrowth of the inner cone slopes grew outward and here extend to the steep flanks by 18 March 2008; and (g-h) the inner cone grew to the point where its slopes reached the outer slopes of the volcano, and it acquired a deep and wide crater formed by the paroxysmal outbursts of February-March 2008. Photos from Kervyn and others (2010).

Table 25 gives the summary of historical activity of Lengai from Keller and others (2010). The table shows the repeated occurrence of explosive paroxysms with documented or inferred natrocarbonatite activity in between the explosive eruptions.

Table 25. Synopis of the historical activity of Lengai, with observations covering about 100 years (since 1904 to 2008). References cited in the table are listed in the 'References to Table 25' section at the end of this Bulletin report. From Keller and others (2010).

Date(s) Observations (references)
ca. 1880 First reports by early explorers: "Snow on the summit, Smoke at the summit." Volcanic activity reported by local people (Fischer, 1885; Neumann, 1894).
1904 First ascent by F. Jaeger (Uhlig, 1905)
1913 "Sodaschlammströme" (Reck and Schulze, 1921), from this inferred, effusive natrocarbonatite activity. Hornito morphology changed between photographs taken 1904 and 1915. Geological record: carbonatite platform below 1917 nephelinites (Keller and Krafft, 1990; Zaitsev and others, 2008a).
1917 Major explosive eruption. Ash eruptions, nephelinite lavas, and agglomerates. Geological record: nephelinite lavas and agglomerates above carbonatite platform forming the western and eastern crater rim before the 2007/2008 events.
1921, 1926 Eruption reports for 1921, 1926 classified as "minor" (Barns, 1921; Richard, 1942).
1940-41 Explosive eruption. "Soda-rich ashes" (Richard, 1942). Geological record: "Surge-series" bracketed between 1917 and 1966/1967 pyroclastics in the summit area. Ashes, spherical lapilli, bomb field. Ashes mixed of silicate and carbonatite components.
1954/1955 Explosive eruption classified as "minor" (Guest, 1956).
1960 Effusive activity. First recognition and analysis of natrocarbonatites (Dawson, 1962).
1966-67 Explosive eruptions (Dawson and others, 1968, 1992). "Mixed ashes." Geological record: "Grey series" ashes with spherical CWN lapilli on all slopes of the cone. Re-interpretation of the "Footprint Tuff" of Hay, 1983.
mid-1967 to 1983 Reported quiescence.
1983-88 Minor explosive eruption, probably natrocarbonatitic (Nyamweru, 1997).
1988-2007 Regularly documented effusive natrocarbonatite activity (Nyamweru, 1990; Keller and Krafft, 1990; Dawson and others, 1990, 1995; Keller and others, 2007; Kervyn and others, 2008).
04 Sep 2007 Explosive paroxysm.
2007-08 Since 4 Sep 2007 through early 2008, explosive eruptions with plumes over 10 km. Geological record: ashes, lapilli and scoriae of carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinite.

References. Belton, F., 2012, Mountain of God (URL: http://oldoinyolengai.pbworks.com/w/page/33191422/Ol Doinyo Lengai2C The Mountain of God).

Keller, J., Klaudius, J., Kervyn, M., Ernst, G.G.J., and Mattsson, H.B., 2010, Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: I. New magma composition during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions, Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 72, no. 8, pp. 893-912. DOI 10.1007/s00445-010-0371-x.

Kervyn, M., Ernst, G.G.J., Keller, J., Vaughan, R.G., Klaudius, J., Pradal, E., Belton, F., Mattsson, H.B., Mbede, E., and Jacobs, P., 2010, Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: II. Eruptive behaviour during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions, Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 72, no. 8, pp. 913-931. DOI 10.1007/s00445-010-0360-0.

Klaudius, J., and Keller, J., 2006, Peralkaline silica lavas at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, Lithos, v. 91, no. 1-4, pp. 173-190.

Mattsson, H.B., and Reusser, E., 2010, Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of ashes from an early phase of the explosive September 2007 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania), Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 58, no. 5, pp. 752-763.

Wiedenmann, D., Keller, J., and Zaitsev, A.N., 2010, Melilite-group minerals at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, Lithos, v. 118, no. 1-2, pp. 112-118.

References to Table 25. Barns, T.A., 1921, The highlands of the Great Craters, Tanganyika Territory, Geographic Journal, v. 58, pp. 401-416.

Dawson, J.B., 1962, The geology of Oldoinyo Lengai, Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 24, pp. 348-387.

Dawson, J.B., Bowden, P., and Clark, G.C., 1968, Activity of the carbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, 1966, Geol Rundsch, v. 57, pp. 865-879.

Dawson, J.B., Pinkerton, H., Norton, G.E., and Pyle, D., 1990, Physicochemical properties of alkali carbonatite lavas: data from the 1988 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, Geology, v. 18, pp. 260-263.

Dawson, J.B., Smith, J.V., and Steele, I.M., 1992, 1966 ash eruption of the carbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai: mineralogy of lapilli and mixing of silicate and carbonate magmas, Mineralogical Magazine, v. 56, pp. 1-16.

Dawson, J.B., Keller, J., and Nyamweru, C., 1995, Historic and recent eruptive activity of Oldoinyo Lengai. In: Bell K, Keller J (eds) Carbonatite volcanism: Oldoinyo Lengai and the petrogenesis of natrocarbonatites, IAVCEI Proceedings on Volcanology, v. 4. Springer, Berlin, pp. 4-22.

Fischer, G.A., 1885, Bericht über die im Auftrage der Geographischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg unternommene Reise in das Masai-Land 1882-1883. II: Begleitworte zur Original-Routenkarte, Mitt Geogr Ges Hamburg 1885, pp. 189-237.

Guest, N.J., 1956, The volcanic activity of Oldoinyo L'Engai, 1954, Rec Geol Surv Tanganyika, v. 4, pp. 56-59.

Hay, R.L., 1983, Natrocarbonatite tephra of Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania, Geology, v. 11, pp. 599-602.

Keller, J., and Krafft, M., 1990, Effusive natrocarbonatite activity of Oldoinyo Lengai, June 1988, Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 52, pp. 629-645.

Keller, J., Zaitsev, A.N., and Klaudius, J., 2007, Geochemistry and petrogenetic significance of natrocarbonatites at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: composition of lavas from 1988 to 2007, Goldschmidt Conference 2007, Cologne, Abstracts.

Kervyn, M., Klaudius, J., Keller, J., Kervyn, F., Mattsson, H., Belton, F., Mbede, E., Jacobs, P., and Ernst,G.G.J., 2008, Voluminous lava floods at Oldoinyo Lengai in 2006: chronology of events and insights into the shallow magmatic system. Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 70, pp. 1069-1086.

Neumann, O., 1894, In: Matschie, P., Nachrichten aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten. Deutsch-Ostafrika. Von der wissenschaftlichen Expedition Oskar Neumanns, Deutsches Kolonialblatt, v. 21, pp 421-424.

Nyamweru, C. 1990, Observations on changes in the active crater of Oldoinyo Lengai from 1960 to1988, Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 11, pp. 385-390.

Nyamweru, C., 1997, Changes in the crater of Oldoinyo Lengai, Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 25, pp. 43-53.

Reck, H., and Schulze, G., 1921, Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Baues und der jüngsten Veränderung des L'Engai Vulkans im nördlichen Deutsch-Ostafrika, Z Vulk, v. 6, pp. 47-71.

Richard, J.J., 1942, Volcanological observations in East Africa. I Oldoinyo Lengai. The 1940-1 eruption, Journal of East Africa Uganda Natural Historical Society, v. 16, pp. 89-108.

Uhlig, C., 1905, Bericht über die Expedition der Otto-Winter-Stiftung nach den Umgebungen des Meru. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, Jg 1905, pp. 120-123.

Zaitsev, A.N., Keller, J., Spratt, J., Perova, E.N., and Kearsley, A., 2008a, Nyerereite-pirssonite-calcite-shortite relationships in altered natrocarbonatites, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, Canadian Mineralogy, v. 46, pp. 1077-1094.

Zaitsev, A.N., Keller, J., Spratt, J., Jeffries, T.E., and Sharigin, V.V., 2008b, Chemical composition of nyerereite and gregoryite in natrocarbonatites of Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, Tanzania, Procedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society, v. 137, pp. 101-111.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: Frederick Belton, Developmental Studies Department, PO Box 16, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA (URL: http://oldoinyolengai.pbworks.com/); Laura Carmody, Department of Earth Science, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; Michael Dalton-Smith, Digital Crossing Productions (URL: http://digitalcrossing.ca/); Adrian P. Jones, Department of Earth Science, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; Sonja Joplin, One Heart Source (URL: http://www.oneheartsource.org); Matthew J. Genge, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Royal School of Mines, Prince Consort Road, Imperial College London, SW7 2BP United Kingdom; Wendy Nelson, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd, NW Washington, DC 20015, USA; Hans Schabel, retired forestry professor; Dave Simpson, Dave Simpson, professional guide, Kenya, East Africa (URL: http://www.davesimpsonsafaris.com); Ben Wilhelmi, commercial pilot (URL: http://benwilhelmi.typepad.com/benwilhelmi/).


Martin (United States) — January 2012 Citation iconCite this Report

Martin

United States

58.172°N, 155.361°W; summit elev. 1863 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic swarm in January 2006

Activity at Mount Martin volcano since our last report (March 1995, BGVN 20:03) was marked by typical activity (summit fumarolic activity, often generating thick steam plumes reaching up to 1 km above the summit; Neal and others, 2009), occasionally interrupted by increased seismicity. The most notable event was a seismic swarm in January 2006.

Outstanding activity. An increase in seismicity during October 1996 was attributed to an actively degassing intrusion at the neighboring Mount Mageik volcano, ~7 km ENE of Martin (Jolly and McNutt, 1999). Other increases in seismicity occurred in December 1998, May-July 1999, January 2006 (the largest swarm at Martin since it has been monitored, discussed below), and May-June 2007 (figure 1).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Number of earthquakes recorded per month at Mount Martin since 1996. Five episodes of increased seismicity are shown, the most notable of which was the January 2006 seismic swarm at Martin. Note the break in scale on the y-axis, denoted by the horizontal dashed line. Modified from Dixon and Power (2009).

January 2006 seismic swarm. The January 2006 Mount Martin seismic swarm included 860 locatable earthquakes (figures 1 and 2), more than four times the number of earthquakes seen during other periods of increased seismicity or seismic swarms since the region has been monitored. No recorded earthquakes during the swarm were much greater than M 2 (figure 2d), and a significant number of earthquakes were of magnitudes below the magnitude of completeness, Mc (figure 2a-c). Mc is the minimum magnitude needed to reliably locate an earthquake, reported by Dixon and Power (2009) to be Mc = 0.2 for Mount Martin.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Plots highlighting the January 2006 Mount Martin seismic swarm. (A) Number of earthquakes per day; (B) cumulative number of earthquakes; (C) cumulative seismic moment; (D) magnitude of each recorded earthquake. In plots A-C, black symbols indicate all recorded earthquakes, and gray symbols indicate locatable earthquakes (earthquakes with magnitudes equal to or above the magnitude of completeness, M ≥ Mc = 0.2 (explained in text).

Dixon and Power (2009) concluded that the pattern of the seismicity of the January 2006 swarm was characteristic of a volcanic earthquake sequence (as opposed to a tectonic earthquake sequence, which begins with a large mainshock) since the located hypocenters of the swarm occurred in the same space as those during previous background periods (figure 3). However, citing the short duration of the swarm, similar focal mechanisms compared to background periods, and the lack of long-period earthquakes, Dixon and Power (2009) stated that the data was not suggestive of a large intrusion of magma beneath Martin.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3.Located earthquake hypocenters at Mount Martin during March 2002-December 2005 (map view shown in A, cross section in B) and during the January 2006 seismic swarm (map view shown in C, cross section in D). The graphs indicate that the hypocenters of the seismic swarm earthquakes occurred within the same volume as those that occurred during previous background period, suggesting that the earthquakes were characteristic of a volcanic earthquake sequence. Modified from Dixon and Power (2009).

References. Dixon, J.P., and Power, J.A., 2009, The January 2006 Volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, Alaska, in Haeussler, P.J., and Galloway, J.P., eds, Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2007: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1760-D, 17 p.

Jolly, A.D., McNutt, S.R., 1999, Seismicity at the volcanoes of Katmai National Park, Alaska; July 1995-December 1997, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 93, issues 3-4, pg. 173-190 (DOI: 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00115-8).

Neal, C.A., McGimsey, R.G., Dixon, J.P., Manevich, A., and Rybin, A., 2009, 2006 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5214, 102 p.

Geologic Background. The mostly ice-covered Mount Martin stratovolcano lies at the SW end of the Katmai volcano cluster in Katmai National Park. The volcano was named for George C. Martin, the first person to visit and describe the area after the 1912 eruption. It is capped by a 300-m-wide summit crater, which is ice-free because of an almost-constant steam plume; it also contains a shallow acidic lake. The edifice was constructed entirely during the Holocene, and overlies glaciated lava flows of the adjacent mid- to late-Pleistocene Alagoshak volcano to the WSW. Martin consists of a small fragmental cone that was the source of ten thick overlapping blocky dacitic lava flows, largely uneroded by glaciers, that descend 10 km to the NW, cover 31 km2, and form about 95% of the eruptive volume of the volcano. Two reports of historical eruptions that originated from uncertain sources were attributed by Muller et al. (1954) to Martin.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://www.dggs.alaska.gov/).


Cerro Negro (Nicaragua) — January 2012 Citation iconCite this Report

Cerro Negro

Nicaragua

12.506°N, 86.702°W; summit elev. 728 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Non-eruptive activity; fumarole and seismic monitoring; new crater morphology

Cerro Negro remained non-eruptive from 2003 to 2011; explosive activity was last recorded in December 1999 (BGVN 24:11). Our last report reviewed Cerro Negro's fumarolic field observations, including descriptions of passive degassing and measurements of temperatures from June 2002 through May 2003, provided courtesy of Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) and international collaborators (BGVN 28:07). No volcanic ash advisory reports for the area of Cerro Negro were released by the Washington VAAC office during 2003-2011. The following report reviews seismicity from 2003 to 2011, field observations, and emission measurements provided by INETER. The primary physical features of Cerro Negro highlighted in this report include the 1992 and 1995 central craters as well as the three 1999 craters, which continued to steam in 2007 (figure 15).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. A composite Landsat 7 ETM+ image of Cerro Negro processed by GVP with geospatial software (NASA Landsat Program, 2003). The image had an original resolution of 30 m and was collected on 15 November 1999. Lava flow ages shown (1923 to 1999) are based on GVP online photo captions ("Photo Gallery") and published literature by McKnight and Williams (1997) and Hill and others (1998).

Figure 15 consists of a false-color image made from visible, near- and mid-infrared bands (3,7,2) to enhance geological features. Cerro Negro appears dark-red in the center of the image. The central cone, which was the source of many lava flows, lies immediately to the left of "1960" (the label dating the eruption associated with one of the lava flows). The tiny, arcuate pink and green zones at the central cone represent the rim of the nested craters there. Those craters are the scene of the highest fumarolic activity.

On the cone's S flanks, the three small cones created during the 1999 eruption appear as bright pink points. In figure 15 these appear immediately right of "1999".

Several volcanoes of the NW trending Marrabios range of Western Nicaragua are labeled on figure 15. Along the range to the SE is the historically active El Hoyo (Las Pilas) volcanic complex, which in figure 15 is partly cloud-covered. The complex includes Las Pilas, Cerro Grande, and Cerro Ojo de Agua eruptive centers. To the N and NW of Cerro Negro lie the volcanic centers Cerro la Mula and Rota.

Post-eruptive seismicity from 1999 to 2003. The INETER December 2003 report discussed seismicity after the small-scale, cone-forming events in 1999. INETER described Cerro Negro as relatively quiet since the 1999 episode; minor ash and gas explosions occurred as late as 25 December 1999. Earthquake counts from August 1999 to December 2003 ranged from 40 to 100 earthquakes per month, typically volcanic-tectonic (VT) events. Low amplitude tremor (frequency ranges of 8-19 Hz) was detected throughout 2003.

Figure 16 depicts multi-year seismicity and illustrates comparitive highs during 2003, particularly in January, September, and December when the the number of monthly earthquakes rose to over 100. These swarms led to counts roughly 10-fold higher than the 18-month interval of quiet from middle to late 2001. The later seismic swarm, occurring from 30 to 31 December, comprised 37 events too small to locate.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Histogram presenting the number of earthquakes recorded at Cerro Negro from January 2000 through December 2003. Two swarms occurred during 2003 (labeled). Courtesy of INETER.

During 2003, INETER visited the volcano and found the scene without visible sign of change, without felt earthquakes, and lacking anomalous gas emissions. Fumarole temperatures from eight sites were in the range ~100-400°C. The only anomalous temperature increase in 2003 appeared at two fumaroles measuring ~550°C on 27 August. That was an increase of more than 200°C since July 2003.

2004 banded tremor and elevated seismicity. Although not ploted on figure 16, elevated seismicity continued through January, February, and March 2004. Banded tremor was recorded until 20 January, when it began to diminish. In January, RSAM was not greater than 50 units, but several cautionary public announcements were made regarding persistent tremor and its typical association with explosive activity.

Although INETER reported decreased tremor toward the end of January 2004, a seismic swarm occurred from 23 to 27 January. On 26 January the highest number of earthquakes registered (203 earthquakes, ~50 more than high of December 2003).

Of the ~1,200 earthquakes registered during January 2004, only three were located. During 3-29 February, ~400 events were registered and 33 were located. In March, 23 earthquakes were located and during the following months, significant events became rare averaging ~3 events located per month for the rest of the year. In March, tremor reached only 5 RSAM units.

Field visits by INETER determined that fumarole temperatures in March, May, June, and July 2004, ~50-350°C, spanned a wider range than those from the previous year. INETER had been measuring temperatures from several fumaroles (three to eight sites) within the crater since 1999 (figure 12 in BGVN 24:06 shows two primary fumarole locations in a map developed after major crater changes in 1995).

Press accounts regarding the seismic swarms. Officials interviewed by the newspaper La Prensa on 17 January 2004 included the mayor of León, who stated that the municipality's Emergency Committee was activated and on standby. The director of INETER's Volcanology program, Martha Navarro, also explained that caution was merited due to experience from Cerro Negro's 1999 escalation. Similar seismic tremor was recorded recently from the volcano, but conditions had clearly changed since 1999 and no explosions had occurred. The director also noted that on 11 January 2004 visiting scientists had looked for substantial sulfur-dioxide emissions but found them absent.

On 22 January 2004, a Civil Defense representative told La Prensa that recent reports of plumes from the crater were false and that no physical changes had occurred at Cerro Negro during the December-January seismic unrest. Passive degassing had been occurring at the summit and from fumaroles since the 1999 events but may have appeared anomalous to local observers. Regular monitoring by INETER had shown elevated temperatures from the fumaroles and steam frequently escaped from the three 1999 cinder cones (figure 15). According to La Prensa, the Civil Defense representative also shared details regarding new installations of seismic stations and gas-monitoring sites. A collaborative effort between Civil Defense and INETER made this possible.

2005-2011 rockfalls and altered crater morphology. Routine monitoring by INETER from 2005 through 2011 has been recorded in monthly reports available online in Spanish with English abstracts, works that chiefly documented passive degassing through this time period. Fumarole temperatures ranged from 13°C to ~400°C. In May 2003, seven fumaroles had elevated temperatures (BGVN 28:07), but in April 2008, six of these sites had ceased discharging measurable emissions. By July 2008, four fumarole sites were emitting gas and elevated temperatures ranging from 96 to 285°C that month and appeared stable through 2011.

INETER began reporting significant rockfalls along Cerro Negro's S and SW interior crater walls in 2009. These rockfalls continued through 2011 and released meter-sized blocks of coherent rock as well as highly altered material that collected within the crater (figure 17). INETER suggested that some of the large rockfalls may have been caused by large rainfalls, particularly those events during July 2009 and May-July 2010.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Photos of the S and SW interior crater walls of Cerro Negro. (Left) A photo (with people for scale) taken in August 2009 shows meter-sized blocks had collected on the crater floor and (in the middle ground) a diffuse plume from fumarolic degassing. (Right) A photo taken in September 2009 depicts massive blocks cropping out along the upper portion of the near-vertical wall and extensive areas of loose scree and blocks that have already fallen free. Courtesy of INETER.

A significant geomorphic change at Cerro Negro was noted by INETER investigators on 11 January 2011. A N-trending fault had appeared since the last field visit (10 November 2010) on the SE interior crater wall (figure 18). Offset along the fault measured ~30 cm. Based on field relations INETER suggested this feature appeared gradually. The fault intersected fumarole ##1, a reliable site for thermal measurements. A major system of normal faults had already been documented to the NW of Cerro Negro, and the new fault on the cone appeared to trend parallel to it.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Observations made on 11 January 2011 by INETER detail the surface expression of a new fault intersecting fumarole ##1 on the SE segment of the interior crater wall (viewed looking S). The terms 'Upthrown' and 'Downthrown' refer to relative motion on the fault. The fault trends N-S and underwent ~30 cm of lateral displacement. Courtesy of INETER.

Seismicity at Cerro Negro remained generally low from 2005 through 2011 although tremor was detected regularly. At times, tremor was as low as 5 RSAM units (July 2009) and as high as 30 (December 2010 and September 2011). Numerous VT events were recorded in 2006 (~347) and in 2011 (~240) and accordingly, the number of significant located events was higher for those years as well, 25 and 32, respectively (table 4).

Table 4. Significant earthquakes located near Cerro Negro from 2003 through 2011. For each year, the table lists the number of located earthquakes, range of local magnitudes (ML), range of focal depths, and most frequently-occurring focal depth. Courtesy of INETER.

Year # EQs ML Depth1 (km) Depth2 (km)
2003 13 1.5-3.3 0-8 2
2004 86 0.6-2.7 0-13 0
2005 23 1.0-2.6 1-61 2
2006 25 0.8-3.3 1-157 2
2007 6 1.9-2.8 2-6 6
2008 5 0.5-3.1 1-194 2
2009 1 3.1 4 4
2010 6 1.5-2.8 2-88 3
2011 32 0.5-3.5 0-140 3

The range of focal depths was relatively large in 2006 and 2011. The deepest earthquake during 2003-2011 struck on 23 December 2008 with local magnitude (ML) 3.1 and located ~190 km below sea level. The most frequently occurring focal depth during 2005-2011 was very shallow, 2 km below sea level, under ML 3.5.

During field campaigns on 21-27 February 2011, a collaborative effort between Spain's Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables (ITER) and INETER mapped the spatial CO2-flux pattern. The team was able to map CO2 fluxes from multiple diffuse sources over the cone and within Cerro Negro's 1992 and 1995 craters (figure 19). An overall total CO2 flux of 43 tons per day was determined; a similar measurement was obtained in 2010 (44 tons per day). Collaborative efforts between ITER and INETER have applied this mapping technique since 1999 in order to locate anomalous areas of emissions from the cone and to calculate total flux (Dionis, S. and others 2010). These investigators noted that the years following the 1999 explosion were marked by decreasing levels of CO2 however, an increasing trend appeared from December 2008 to March 2009; values ranged from 12 tons per day to 38 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Results of a CO2 measuring campaign from 21 to 27 February 2011. Courtesy of ITER and INETER.

References. Dionis, S., Melián, G., Barrancos, J., Padilla, G., Calvo, D., Rodríguez, F., Padrón, E., Nolasco, D., Hernández, Pedro A., Pérez, N. M., Ibarra, M., and Muñoz, A., 2010. Dynamics of diffuse CO2 emission and eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, Cities on Volcanoes 6, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, 31 May-4 June, 2010, Abs, p 103.

Hill, B. E., Connor, C.B, Jarzemba, M.S., La Femina, P.C., Navarro, M., and Strauch, W., 1998, 1995 eruptions of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, and risk assessment for future eruptions, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110, no. 10;1231-1241.

NASA Landsat Program, 2003, Landsat ETM+ scene 7dt19991115, SLC-Off, USGS, Sioux Falls, Nov. 15, 1999.

McKnight, S.B. and Williams, S.N., 1997, Old cinder cone or young composite volcano?: The nature of Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, Geology, 25, 339-342.

Geologic Background. Nicaragua's youngest volcano, Cerro Negro, was created following an eruption that began in April 1850 about 2 km NW of the summit of Las Pilas volcano. It is the largest, southernmost, and most recent of a group of four youthful cinder cones constructed along a NNW-SSE-trending line in the central Marrabios Range. Strombolian-to-subplinian eruptions at intervals of a few years to several decades have constructed a roughly 250-m-high basaltic cone and an associated lava field constrained by topography to extend primarily NE and SW. Cone and crater morphology have varied significantly during its short eruptive history. Although it lies in a relatively unpopulated area, occasional heavy ashfalls have damaged crops and buildings.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); Global Land Cover Facility ( URL: http:// http://www.glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/); Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables (ITER), 38611 Granadilla, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain (URL: http://www.iter.es/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS E/SP23, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/); La Prensa de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.laprensa.com.ni/).


Spurr (United States) — January 2012 Citation iconCite this Report

Spurr

United States

61.299°N, 152.251°W; summit elev. 3374 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Summit ice cauldron, debris flows through 2006; fumarolic activity continues

The 2004 unrest at Mount Spurr (BGVN 29:10) continued for nearly two years before the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) lowered the Level of Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green (on a scale from Green to Yellow to Orange to Red) on 21 February 2006. During those two years, hydrothermal and fumarolic activity within the ice-filled summit crater resulted in the formation of a summit ice cauldron and emplacement of debris-flow deposits on the upper slopes of Spurr. The summit crater and cauldron remained active after most other signs of unrest had declined. This report discusses observations of the development of the unrest following November 2004 (activity prior to that time covered in BGVN 29:10).

A depression in the summit ice was observed in its early stages in June 2004 (figures 12 and 13). The subsidence became more pronounced, and was recognized as an ice cauldron on 2 August, following debris flows emplaced in late July (figure 14). The cauldron housed a lake, whose water was described by Neal and others (2005) and McGimsey and others (2008) as "dark battleship gray" and turquoise in color, respectively, likely due to dissolved sulfur compounds (figure 15).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Photograph of Mount Spurr's summit (viewing SSW) on 20 June 2004, showing the initial development of a depression (dashed outline) in the ice and snow covering the summit. Crevassing of the snow and ice downslope is indicated by arrows. This is the earliest image of the 2004 development of the summit ice cauldron. Photograph courtesy of Bruce Hopper, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Satellite photography highlighting the 2004 development of Mount Spurr's summit ice cauldron, acquired on (A) 15 June 2002 and (B) 10 August 2004. Modified from Coombs and others (2005).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Debris flow deposits on the upper slopes of Mount Spurr, photographed on 15 July 2004, viewing NNW. The debris flow deposits prompted an observation flight, which resulted in the observation of the summit ice cauldron on 2 August. Courtesy of Christina Neal, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Aerial photograph and Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) images of Mount Spurr's summit ice cauldron and lake, taken on 25 April 2005. Hottest parts of the FLIR image correspond to the exposed bedrock on the shore of the lake (see temperature scale at right). The light blue gray color of the lake is likely due to dissolved sulfur compounds (Neal and others, 2005). Courtesy of McGimsey and others (2008).

Ice cauldron widens. Neal and others (2005) reported that measurements made on 10 August and 30 October 2004 revealed enlargement of the ice cauldron from ~65 m x 95 m to ~130 m x 130 m in two and a half months' time. Gas measurements during the same time revealed that CO2 emissions had more than doubled (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Measured gas emissions (tons/day) at Mount Spurr during the 2004-2006 active period. SO2 (in parentheses) and CO2 fluxes plotted on left axis; H2S flux plotted on right axis. Data courtesy of Doukas and McGee (2007).

Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) measurements on 24 September showed that the crater lake was ~0 °C (substantially warmer than the surrounding ice and snow), and the surrounding exposed bedrock (and main fumarolic emission area) was as hot as ~39 °C (figure 15).

By the end of 2004, seismicity remained elevated, and most located earthquakes were within 0-5 km depth below sea level (figure 17; Neal and others 2005).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Earthquakes located beneath Mount Spurr during 2004 showed increased seismicity correlating to increased gas emissions and hydrothermal activity responsible for the formation of the summit ice cauldron. Plots show (A) number of earthquakes per day and (B) hypocenter depths below sea level. Symbol size indicates the relative magnitude of the earthquakes; triangles indicate located hypocenters at depths greater than 20 km. Courtesy of Neal and others (2005).

During 2005, growth of the summit ice cauldron continued (figures 18 and 19), and areas of exposed bedrock increased along the N and NW walls of the crater. According to McGimsey and others (2008), FLIR measurements on 25 April 2005 showed similar temperatures to those measured in September 2004 (figure 15).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Mount Spurr's summit ice cauldron extent as it expanded during 2004-2006. Colored lines indicate the rim of the cauldron as measured on the dates indicated. Courtesy of Coombs and others (2006).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Two plots showing (A) the area of Mount Spurr's ice cauldron and (B) the number of earthquakes per week during March 2004-March 2006. Courtesy of Coombs and others (2006).

May 2005 debris flow. A small debris flow was captured on webcam views of the summit on 2 May 2005 (figure 20). Observations a week later revealed that the cauldron lake level had dropped by ~15 m, and fumaroles on the N shore of the lake had been exposed (McGimsey and others, 2008). The fumaroles were described as vigorous by McGimsey and others (2008). FLIR measurements during an observation flight on 21 June indicated increasing temperatures of exposed bedrock within the crater (up to 60 °C; orange areas within the ice cauldron outline, figure 20) and observers noted strong upwelling within the N half of the cauldron lake.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Map and interpretive cross-section highlighting the locations of debris flows emplaced onto the summit cone of Mount Spurr during 2004-2005. Dates of observation or emplacement of debris flows are provided in the explanation; associated outflow points are indicated by red dots. Orange areas indicate zones of elevated thermal activity and/or exposed bedrock. Schematic cross-section (bottom right) is along the line A-A', and indicates the probable pathway of debris-laden water from the cauldron lake to the outflow points of the debris flows. Base image from QuickBird satellite image, acquired 10 August 2004. Modified from Coombs and others (2006).

The likely (or at least nearly) contemporaneous lake level drop and debris flow on 2 May were not associated with any significant ice collapse into the cauldron lake; Coombs and others (2006) thus concluded that the debris flows were the result of widening of englacial or subglacial pathways by erosion, heating, or glacial flow (cross-section, figure 20). They also interpreted the main source of the debris carried in the debris flows to be melted glacial ice containing layers of tephra and ash. The primary source of the tephra and ash layers was likely the 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak (Spurr's satellite cone and youngest vent) and possibly the 1989-90 eruptions of Mount Redoubt (Coombs and others, 2006). Some component of the debris was also likely sourced from the summit crater floor and wall rocks.

Snow/ice melts from summit crater. By 1 August 2005, the ice cauldron had reached its largest size (i.e. the snow/ice had melted from within the perimeter of the summit crater; figures 18 and 19), and was thus no longer termed the "ice cauldron", but simply the summit crater (McGimsey, personal communication, 2012). In September, the crater lake was observed to be completely ice-free, and most likely remained as such through mid January 2006. McGimsey and others (2008) reported that, as of 3 November 2005, ~5.4 x 106 m3 of ice and snow had been melted and consumed by the summit lake.

Decreasing seismicity prompted the AVO to lower the Level of Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green on 21 February 2006. With the exception of an earthquake swarm during 11-12 April, seismicity continued to decrease, and reached background levels by May 2006. During the earthquake swarm, Neal and others (2009) reported 157 volcano-tectonic earthquakes (reaching M ~2.3) that occurred at less than 5 km depth below sea level and ~1-3 km W of the summit. FLIR measurements two days after the earthquake swarm revealed that fumaroles within the summit crater were as hot as 150 °C (Neal and others, 2009). By mid July, however, snow and ice had started accumulating on the lake's surface, and by 17 November 2006, a rise in the level of the lake was observed. As fumarolic activity continued, yellow, sulfur stained ice and snow, as well as a strong sulfur smell, was often reported by pilots passing the summit.

Since 2006, most of the sides and bottom of the summit crater have been covered by snow, with the exception of the fumarole field in the N part of the crater floor. As of the last observation flight, the fumarole field maintained a small patch of snow/ice free bedrock on the summit crater's floor, an area still active as of 28 August 2011 (figure 21). Later satellite imagery suggested that the fumarole field had been covered as the summit crater filled with snow and ice during the first part of the 2011-2012 winter (figure 22), but there have been no observation flights to confirm this as of 24 February 2012.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Aerial observation photograph of Mount Spurr's summit on 28 August 2011. Although the crater had begun refilling with snow, the fumarole field on the crater floor remained in a clear patch of bedrock. Photograph courtesy of Game McGimsey, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. WorldView-1 daytime optical panchromatic imagery detailing the apparent filling of Mount Spurr's summit crater with snow and ice during the early 2011-2012 winter. (B) shows Spurr on 11 August 2011, with the fumarole field and area of exposed bedrock in the N of the summit crater (enlarged, inset). Snow appears white, and vegetation at the bottom of the image appears dark. (C) shows the same area on 15 October, with the fumarole field and exposed bedrock areas apparently covered by snow at the bottom of the summit crater. Vegetation is no longer visible at the bottom of the image. (D) shows the same area on 27 October, but the summit crater appears to be completely filled with snow, no longer exhibiting a depression. Topographic map of the same area is shown for reference (A). '*' symbol indicates a prominent topographic ridge to the N of Spurr that is visible in each image. Scale is approximate for the satellite imagery (B-D). Courtesy of Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and Digital Globe, Inc. (B-D).

Coombs and others (2006) stated that the overall effect of the hydrothermal activity (including water/debris flow releases from the summit) on the glacial system of Spurr were likely minimal, pointing out that the volume of water released was relatively small and probably easily accommodated "without significant modification of the icemass."

References. Coombs, M.L., Neal, C.A., Wessels, R.L., and McGimsey, R.G., 2006, Geothermal disruption of summit glaciers at Mount Spurr Volcano, 2004-6: An unusual manifestation of volcanic unrest: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1732-B, 33 p.

Doukas, M.P., and McGee, K.A., 2007, A compilation of gas emission-rate data from volcanoes of Cook Inlet (Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) and Alaska Peninsula (Douglas, Fourpeaked, Griggs, Mageik, Martin, Peulik, Ukinrek, and Veniaminof), Alaska, from 1995-2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1400, 16 p.

McGimsey, R.G., Neal, C.A., Dixon, J.P., and Ushakov, S., 2008, 2005 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5269, 94 p.

Neal, C.A., McGimsey, R.G., Dixon, J.P., Manevich, A., and Rybin, A., 2009, 2006 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5214, 102 p.

Neal, C.A., McGimsey, R.G., Dixon, J., and Melnikov, D., 2005, 2004 Volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1308, 71 p.

Geologic Background. The summit of Mount Spurr, the highest volcano of the Aleutian arc, is a large lava dome constructed at the center of a roughly 5-km-wide horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the south. The volcano lies 130 km W of Anchorage and NE of Chakachamna Lake. The caldera was formed by a late-Pleistocene or early Holocene debris avalanche and associated pyroclastic flows that destroyed an ancestral edifice. The debris avalanche traveled more than 25 km SE, and the resulting deposit contains blocks as large as 100 m in diameter. Several ice-carved post-caldera cones or lava domes lie in the center of the caldera. The youngest vent, Crater Peak, formed at the breached southern end of the caldera and has been the source of about 40 identified Holocene tephra layers. Eruptions from Crater Peak in 1953 and 1992 deposited ash on the city of Anchorage.

Information Contacts: Bruce Hopper, Game McGimsey, and Christina Neal, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://www.dggs.alaska.gov/); Digital Globe, Inc. (URL: http://www.digitalglobe.com/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports