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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 30 December-5 January 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 New
Soufriere St. Vincent St. Vincent New
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Kadovar Papua New Guinea 2018 Jan 5 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 Continuing
Ubinas Peru Continuing
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,038 individual reports over 1,081 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 315 different volcanoes.

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Agung Concepcion Ijen Little Sitkin Peuet Sague Spurr
Ahyi Copahue Iliamna Llaima Pinatubo St. Helens
Aira Cotopaxi Iliwerung Loihi Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Akan Cuicocha Inielika Lokon-Empung Poas Sulu Range
Alaid Cumbal Ioto Lopevi Popocatepetl Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Irazu Machin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Makian Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kambalny Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Egon Kanaga Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Epi Karangetang Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erta Ale Karthala Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Etna Karymsky Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Fernandina Katmai Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fogo Kavachi Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fonualei Kelimutu Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fourpeaked Kerinci Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fuego Ketoi Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fujisan Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Galeras Kikai Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galunggung Kilauea Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Gamalama Kirishimayama Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamkonora Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gareloi Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gaua Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gorely Korovin Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Great Sitkin Koryaksky Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Grimsvotn Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Cameroon Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Witori
Cereme Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Wolf
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Sinarka Yasur
Chaiten Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Siple Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chiginagak Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Sirung Zavodovski
Chikurachki Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Slamet Zhupanovsky
Chiles-Cerro Negro Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zubair Group
Chillan, Nevados de Hood Lascar Paluweh Soputan
Chirinkotan Huaynaputina Lateiki Panarea Sorikmarapi
Chirpoi Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Papandayan Sotara
Cleveland Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Parker Soufriere Hills
Colima Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Ibu Lewotolok Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava effusion from a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to feed a growing lava lake during 30 December-5 January. A cone had formed over the remaining active vent, which was one of three that had opened at the beginning of the eruption. Lava sometimes spattered from vents at the top of a cone and flowed down into the lake through a crusted-over channel; during 2-5 January a dome fountain was visible near the lake’s margin, formed by upwelling of lava as in entered the lake at a partially submerged inlet.

The lake deepened from 181 m on 30 December to 191 m by 4 January, and the lake volume was an estimated 26 million cubic meters by 4 January. An island of cooler, solidified lava continued to float around on the lava lake’s surface, and by 4 January the island’s surface was 1-2 m above the surface of the lava lake. Over the week the island was joined by less than a dozen other small islands of cooled and solidified material that also moved around, though they mostly remained in the eastern part of the lake. The lava lake was also becoming perched as overflows of lava onto the narrow edge formed around the lake’s margins continued to build a levee; by 3 January the lake was perched about 1 m above the margin. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between 3,000 and 6,500 tonnes/day. Seismicity remained elevated but stable.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that during 25-31 December rock avalanches traveled as far as 1.5 km down Merapi’s NW flank in the Senowo drainage. A comparison of photos taken on 24 and 30 December showed minor morphological changes in the summit area. Seismic activity was more intense than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data continued to measure a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 14 cm per day. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 31 December, possibly signifying the emergence of lava. At 1952 on 4 January avalanches on the SW flank were recorded by webcams and heard at the Merapi Babadan observation post, and were coincident with the appearance of another incandescent area. That same day BNPB noted that 1,115 residents remained in evacuation centers. Descending incandescent material was visible on the upper SW flank during 1847-1911 on 5 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Soufriere St. Vincent
The Seismic Research Centre at the University of the West Indies (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) of St. Vincent and the Grenadines reported that during an overflight at 1600 on 31 December scientists confirmed that the new lava dome on the WSW edge of Soufrière St. Vincent’s 1979 lava dome continued to grow. Steam from the dome was visible from Belmont Observatory through 4 January. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC), National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that two explosions, on 29 and 30 December, were recorded at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 1-4 January, and eruption plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 28 December-4 January incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high. Four explosions were recorded during 28 December-1 January; an explosion at 1614 on 29 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim and ejecting bombs 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. Very small eruptive events were recorded during 2-4 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25 and 30-31 December; ash plumes rose up to 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 3-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 29 December-5 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 7-30 km generally N, NW, W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were detected as far as 25 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales, La Soledad (11 km N), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Kadovar
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 January two ash puffs from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 24-28 December. Explosions on 26 and 30 December produced ash plumes that rose 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 70 km NW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 25 December-1 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 250 km in multiple directions. Kamchatka Volcanological Station observers reported that at about 1720 on 2 January a landslide descended the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank, producing a cloud of ash that rose about 1 km and quickly drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that a Strombolian eruption at Lewotolo continued during 30 December-5 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes were visible daily, rising as high as 1 km above the summit. Rumbling and banging sounds were reported almost daily, and incandescent material was ejected as far as 1 km SE from the crater during 30-31 December and 4-5 January. Strombolian explosions ejected material 100-200 m above the summit crater during 1-5 January. The Alert Level was remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summit crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 29 December-5 January. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 300 m above the vent and away from the crater. Lava flows on the SW and W flanks were active and varied in length between 400 and 650 m; the lava flow on the SW flank had numerous branches. Activity was most notable on 1 January; gas-and-ash plumes rose 100-300 m above the summit and drifted 10 km NW, and explosions that were sometimes strong rattled nearby houses.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that during 29 December-5 January explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m above the complex. Plumes sometimes drifted about 1 km SW. The extrusion of blocky lava at Caliente dome generated block-and-ash flows that descended the NW, W, SW, and E flanks, often reaching the base of the complex. Ashfall on the flanks was noted almost daily, though during 1-2 January ashfall was also reported in Loma Linda (6 km WSW) and San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that incandescent material ejected 50 m above Semeru’s summit was visible most nights during 30 December-5 January. Cloudy weather often obscured visual observations during the daytime. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the Kobokan drainage on the SE flank on 31 December. Incandescent material from the ends of lava flows descended 300-1,000 m, reaching a maximum distance of 550-1,250 m from the crater during 1-3 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.

According to BNPB, observers at the Gunungsawur Observatory, 12 km SE of Semeru, recorded heavy rain around the volcano on 30 December, resulting in multiple lahars. At 0939 a lahar in the Koboan River drainage on the SE flank was seen and also recorded by the post’s seismic station. A lahar detected at 0950 was followed by an increase in water flow in the Curah Koboan, Rejali Bondeli, and Regoyo watersheds. At 1111 the seismic station recorded a lahar and accompanying pyroclastic flow that traveled 3.5 km down the Curah Koboan drainage. At 1130 lahars in Curah Koboan drainage damaged bamboo stalls owned by a local resident in Sumberwuluh Village (15 km SE).
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 25 December-1 January. A strong explosion on 29 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 250 km W. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes generally rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung’s summit during 30 December-5 January. Avalanches of material traveled 500-1,200 m down the E and SE flanks each day. Three eruptive events recorded on 4 January (at 0854, 1150, and 1412) produced dense gray ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the summit and drifted N, NW, and W. Three eruptive events were detected the next day as well. The first, at 0825, generated an ash plume that rose 800 m above the summit. Ash emissions were not visible from the second and third events, recorded at 2027 and 2108. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that at 1659 on 31 December and at 1746 on 1 January low-volume lahars descended the Volcánmayo drainage on Ubinas’s SE flank and damaged parts of the highway linking Arequipa, Querapi, Ubinas, and Huarina. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Villarrica
POVI reported that during an overflight of Villarrica on 2 January scientists observed an incandescent vent at the bottom of the crater that had a solidified lava bridge connecting across a partially crusted-over top. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.
Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)