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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 16 March-22 March 2022
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) 2010 May 21 (?) New
Lonquimay Central Chile New
Manam Northeast of New Guinea 2014 Jun 29 New
Ruapehu North Island (New Zealand) New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Central Chile 2016 Jan 8 Continuing
Nyamulagira DR Congo 2018 Apr 18 Continuing
Nyiragongo DR Congo 2002 May 17 (?) Continuing
Pavlof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska 2021 Aug 5 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Soufriere St. Vincent St. Vincent Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) Continuing
Wolf Isla Isabela (Galapagos) Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,900 individual reports over 1,120 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 321 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo Spurr
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Stromboli
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Epi Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erebus Karkar Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fernandina Katmai Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Novarupta Savo Veniaminof
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semeru Villarrica
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Vulcano
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Okataina Sheveluch Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okmok Shishaldin Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Ontakesan Simbo Witori
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Oraefajokull Sinabung Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Osorno Sinarka Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Pacaya Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pagan Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Palena Volcanic Group Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Paluweh Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Panarea Soputan Zubair Group
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Papandayan Sorikmarapi
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Parker Sotara
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere Hills
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee Soufriere St. Vincent
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bezymianny
An explosive eruption at Bezymianny began at 0310 on 15 March, producing ash plumes. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Activity intensified at 0053 on 16 March and remained elevated for about 30 minutes. During this phase pyroclastic flows descended the S, W, and N flanks, and ash plumes rose as high as 12 km (39,400 ft) a.s.l. that ultimately drifted more than 1,300 km NW and then NE. A large thermal anomaly over the volcano was visible through 18 March, indicating continuing lava-dome growth. Steam-and-gas emissions persisted though 23 March. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to yellow on 23 March.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Lonquimay
SERNAGEOMIN reported increased seismicity at Lonquimay during the first half of March, characterized by hybrid (HB) signals accompanied by long-period (LP) events, and fewer volcano-tectonic (VT) events. Only some of the HB and VT events could be located where the epicenters were within 2-7 km of the volcano with hypocenters at depths of 4-11 km. The number of HB and VT events increased on 9 March. Deformation was not detected and no abnormal gas emissions were recorded. During 18-21 March two additional earthquakes were recorded, a VT and an HB, both with magnitudes below 1.3. Although the events were low magnitude, the seismicity was anomalous in the data going back to 2010 when monitoring stations were installed. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
Report for Manam
The Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-17 March ash plumes from Manam rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Ruapehu
GeoNet reported that a warming trend of the crater lake water at Ruapehu was evident by 13 March, and by 21 March the temperature was 31 degrees Celsius. The heating cycle was accompanied by strong levels of volcanic tremor, indicating increased gas flux though the system, and an increased likelihood of eruptive activity. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 0-5) on 21 March and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green.
Source: GeoNet
Report for Aira
JMA reported that very small eruptive events were recorded at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 14-21 March. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was slightly high at 1,300 tons per day on 17 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 15-22 March and very low seismicity persisted. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano most of the week; slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 13-16 March. The volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days during 11-18 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava effusion from vents in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 15-22 March; effusion briefly paused during 0145-0445 on 18 March. Lava flowed in the active W part of the lava lake causing circulation in the lake that was visible on most days. At around 0700 on 16 March a lava flow originating from the embayment just N of the western vent area traveled NW onto the crater floor; this flow periodically advanced through the week. Ooze outs of lava along the lake’s margins were visible on a few of the days; a notable one began along the N margin at 0345 on 21 March and persisted through the next day. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Lewotolok
The eruption at Lewotolok continued during 15-22 March according to PVMBG. Almost daily white-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence, lava effusion, and rumbling sounds were reported on most days. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater and 4 km away from the crater on the SE flank.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported no significant morphological changes at Merapi’s summit lava dome during 11-17 March, but the height of the dome below the SW rim had decreased by 2 m. Seismicity remained at high levels; the intensity of the signals had increased compared to the previous week. As many as 119 lava avalanches originating from the SW dome traveled a maximum of 2 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. Four avalanches traveled no more than 1 km SE down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-5 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
SERNAGEOMIN reported that lava in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was observed in satellite images on 1 March and coincided with elevated thermal temperatures also identified in satellite images. A higher resolution satellite image acquired on 15 March showed the extrusive lava feature in more detail; it was about 33 x 57 m elongated E-W, and had irregular edges. The emplacement of the lava was contemporaneous with nighttime crater incandescence and moderate explosive activity. Steam plumes with occasional tephra content rose to heights less than 1.5 km above the crater rim. Seismic activity had steadily declined since January. During the first half of March sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 454 tons per day, peaking at an anomalously high value of 2,348 tons per day on 13 March. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Nyamulagira
Active lava on Nyamulagira’s crater floor was visible in satellite images during 8-13 March.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Sentinel Hub
Report for Nyiragongo
Lava effusion from vents on Nyiragongo’s crater floor continued during 13-18 March based on satellite images. Significant gas emissions were visible drifting SW on 13 March.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Sentinel Hub
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 15-22 March, and seismic tremor persisted. Cloud cover sometimes prevented webcam and satellite views of the summit area, though almost-daily elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images were consistent with minor lava effusion. Three small explosions were detected in local and regional infrasound data during 19-20 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Reventador
IG reported that a high level of activity continued at Reventador during 15-22 March, though cloudy weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Steam-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible most nights; incandescent material was visible descending the S flank during 15-16 March.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported that eruptive events at Rincón de la Vieja were recorded at 0405 on 19 March, 1402 on 20 March, and 0350 on 22 March. The events lasted 1-8 minutes each and no plumes were visible due to weather conditions.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 15-22 March. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual and webcam observations of the volcano, though daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in satellite images by the Washington VAAC or in webcam views; plumes rose as high as 1 km above the volcano and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Multiple daily thermal anomalies over the volcano were visible in satellite data. Emissions of incandescent material were occasionally visible in webcam images. The seismic network detected signals indicating descending lahars on 17, 19, and 21 March.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 15-22 March, though weather conditions sometimes hindered views. Daily eruptive events produced white-and-gray plumes that rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted mainly N, W, and SW. At 0353 on 22 March a pyroclastic flow originating from the end of a lava flow descended the Kobokan drainage on the SE flank and produced an ash cloud that rose 1.5 km above summit and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 500 m away from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 15-22 March. Periods of seismic tremor and occasional small explosions were detected daily in seismic and regional infrasound data. Daily minor ash emissions and occasional steam emissions were visible in webcam images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 11-18 March. An ash cloud was identified in satellite images drifting 50 km WNW at an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. on 15 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Soufriere St. Vincent
UWI Seismic Research Centre and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) lowered the Alert Level for Soufrière St. Vincent to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) on 16 March, noting that seismic and fumarolic activity were at or below background levels recorded prior to the 2020-2021 eruption. The La Soufriere trail remained closed due to the uneven and dangerous terrain. The public was reminded about lahar hazards during heavy rains.
Sources: University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC), National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 14-21 March. As many as 27 explosions were recorded, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.9 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks 300-500 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported as far as 5 km away, including in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during 18-21 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
On 23 March GeoNet reported that volcanologists observed Whakaari/White Island and took gas measurements during overflights the week before. The active vent area had subsided, and small collapses in one of the 2019 craters had occurred in between the flights. During the second flight, scientists observed geysering from a small, gray-colored pool on the S side of the main crater. In just over an hour the pool was gone and a collapse pit was in its place. Diffuse ash emissions had ceased. Gas and temperature measurements were lower (290 degrees Celsius) compared to the previous month. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: GeoNet
Report for Wolf
IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 15-22 March. Daily thermal alert counts, as many as around 176, indicated active and advancing lava flows on the SSE flank.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)