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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 15 March-21 March 2023
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 New
Nyamulagira DR Congo 2018 Apr 18 New
Semisopochnoi United States New
Takawangha United States New
Tanaga United States New
Ahyi United States Continuing
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Indonesia 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Karangetang Indonesia 2018 Nov 25 Continuing
Kilauea United States Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Mauna Loa United States Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
San Miguel El Salvador Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,115 individual reports over 1,220 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 333 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Merapi
BPPTKG summarized the eruption at Merapi (on Java) during 10-16 March, including the collapses at the SW lava dome that began on 11 March and continued through the week. A total of 68 pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 4 km down the Bebeng and Krasak drainages on the SW flank. The largest pyroclastic flows were recorded during 11-12 March, which caused ashfall of varying intensity in areas to the W, NW, and N including in Dukun District, Sawangan, Magelang Regency; Magelang City; Selo District, Boyolali Regency; Ambarawa, Jambu, Sumowono, Pringapus, Banyubiru, Bawen Districts, Semarang Regency. Morphological changes to the SW lava domes were evident in webcam and drone images. The volume of the dome before 11 March was 2,759,100 cubic meters and by 13 March the dome volume had decreased to 1,686,200 cubic meters, with an estimate volume loss of 1,072,800 cubic meters. The volume of the summit dome remained unchanged and was estimated at 2,312,100 cubic meters.

According to the Darwin VAAC ash plumes were visible in webcam images on 15 and 17 March rising as high as 1.2 km above the summit and drifting S and W, respectively. On both days weather conditions prevented satellite image views. During 16-20 March BPPTKG reported 14-38 daily counts of lava avalanches with material descending the SW flank as far as 1.8 km. Daily counts were not available for 17 March, though incandescent avalanches were visible in webcam footage; rainy weather sometimes prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Sources: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Nyamulagira
An 18 March satellite image of Nyamulagira showed a large thermal anomaly, possibly 600 m wide, in the summit crater, indicating that the eruption that had begun on 14 March was continuing.
Source: Sentinel Hub
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that low-level ash emissions from the N crater of Semisopochnoi’s Mount Young were observed in several web camera images during 18-19 March. Small explosions and volcanic tremor had also resumed. Ash emissions were not detected in satellite images, though on 18 March a robust steam-and-gas plume was visible drifting 150 km from the N crater. AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest color on a four-color scale) on 19 March. Low-level seismicity continued during 20-21 March and one small explosion was detected in seismic and infrasound data. Clouds obscured webcam and satellite views.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Takawangha
AVO reported that earthquake activity near Takawangha had decreased in both rate and magnitude from the peak of the swarm recorded during 9-11 March. More than 800 earthquakes, including multiple M2 and above events, were detected beneath Tanaga Island at depths less than 9 km below sea level during 11-17 March. The decline in activity decreased the potential for an eruption, so AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second lowest color on a four-color scale) on 16 March. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code for Tanaga (8 km W) were also lowered to the same level. Several M 2 and higher earthquakes were detected during 17-18 March, in addition to numerous smaller events. Earthquake activity persisted through 20 March.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Tanaga
AVO reported that earthquake activity near Tanaga had decreased in both rate and magnitude from the peak of the swarm recorded during 9-11 March. More than 800 earthquakes, including multiple M2 and above events, were detected beneath Tanaga Island at depths less than 9 km below sea level during 11-17 March. The decline in activity decreased the potential for an eruption, so AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second lowest color on a four-color scale) on 16 March. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code for Takawangha (8 km E) were also lowered to the same level. Several M 2 and higher earthquakes were detected during 17-18 March, in addition to numerous smaller events. Earthquake activity persisted through 20 March.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ahyi
Unrest at Ahyi Seamount continued during 15-21 March. A total of three short (~30 seconds) hydroacoustic detections from the direction of Ahyi were detected by pressure sensors on Wake Island, 2,270 km E, during 17-19 March. Weather clouds often prevented satellite views. Data was not available during 20-21 March due to an outage, though a plume of discolored water was visible in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 13-20 March, with crater Incandescence visible nightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 2,100 tons per day on 13 March. On 14 March an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. Three eruptive events were recorded during 17-20 February, producing volcanic plumes that rose as high as 1 km. No activity or crater incandescence was detected at Showa Crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported that eruptive activity at Cotopaxi was ongoing during 15-21 March. Gas-and-steam emissions were visible on most days rising as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifting in multiple directions. On 16 March several gas emissions containing minor amounts of ash rose as high as 1.5 km and drifted SE. During 19-20 March ash-and-gas plumes rose 1-1.5 km and drifted E and SE. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes of variable densities rose from Dukono as high as 450 m above the summit and drifted N and W during 15-16, 18, and 20 March. No plumes were observed on 17 March, but white steam-and-gas plumes rose 150 m and drifted W on 19 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 9-16 March. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 10-12 March generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and NW. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 10 and 13 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-10 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 15-21 March, ejecting incandescent material up to 400 m above the crater and generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 20 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported on a few of the days in areas downwind including, Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Finca Asunción, Ceilán, San Andrés Osuna, Aldeas, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Daily block avalanches descended the flanks in various directions towards the Ceniza (SSW), Santa Teresa, Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), Honda (E), and El Jute (ESE) ravines, sometimes reaching vegetated areas. Shockwaves caused structures to shake in communities immediately surrounding the volcano. A lahar notice issued at 1530 on 15 March described lahars in the Ceniza ravine that carried branches, tree trunks, and blocks 30 cm to 1.5 m in diameter. Lahars on 18 March descended the El Jute and Las Lahas drainages, carrying branches, tree trunks, and blocks 30 cm to 1.5 m in diameter.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that eruptive activity at Great Sitkin continued during 15-21 March, characterized by the eruption of lava that was confined to the summit crater. Radar data from 20 March confirmed slow growth of the lava flow. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 15-18 March. White-and-gray plumes of variable densities rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted N, SE, SW, and W. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 March ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l., or about 800 m above the summit, and drifted SW based on satellite images. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Karangetang
PVMBG reported that the summit Main Crater (S crater) on Karangetang continued to erupt during 15-21 March. Incandescent material at the summit and on the flanks was evident in webcam images captured at 0007 and 2345 on 16 March,1828 on 17 March, 1940 on 18 March, 2311 on 19 March, and 2351 on 20 March. The incandescence was most intense on 18 and 20 March, with webcam images possibly capturing Strombolian explosions. Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 March an ash plume rose to 2.4 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and a thermal anomaly was visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest on a scale on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Kilauea
On 21 March HVO reported that Kilauea was no longer erupting. The lava lake in Halema’uma’u Crater was no longer being supplied as of 7 March based on lava lake levels and crater floor observations. Sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased to near pre-eruption background levels. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Krakatau
The Darwin VAAC reported that at 1446 on 18 March white-and-gray ash plumes at Anak Krakatau rose about 500 m above the summit and drifted SW. At 1846 on that same day a gray ash plume rose 300 m and drifted SW. An eruptive event was recorded at 2143, though it was not visible due to darkness. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok was ongoing during 15-21 March. White gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions during 15-19 March. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 400-600 m above the summit and drifted W and NW during 20-21 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that on 17 March a white-and-gray plume from Marapi (on Sumatra) rose as high as 400 m above the summit and drifted N and E. Emissions were not observed on other days during 15-19 March, though some of the days were cloudy. White gas plumes rose 50 m above the summit on 20 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Mauna Loa
HVO reported that Mauna Loa had been quiet since the eruption ended on 13 December 2022 and the number of earthquakes beneath the summit had returned to background levels. Inflation continued as magma replenished the summit reservoir. On 16 March HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal (the lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that several ash emissions at Nevado del Ruiz were visible in webcam images and reported by residents during 18-20 March. The emissions were associated with seismic signals indicating fluid movement in the conduit. An ash emission at 0902 on 20 March rose 2.7 km above the summit and drifted SW. It was one of the tallest plumes recorded in recent days and was visible from the municipalities of Caldas, Tolima, and Risaralda. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that there were 110-236 steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing minor amounts of ash, rising from Popocatépetl each day during 14-21 March; explosions also occurred almost daily. On 15 March a moderately-sized explosion recorded at 0009 was followed by minor explosions at 0058, 0220, 0641, 1215, 1509, and 2105, with another moderate explosion at 1848. On 16 March minor explosions were recorded at 0155 and 2215, and on 17 March they were recorded at 1441, 2105, and 2349. On 19 March multiple minor explosions were recorded, at 0003, 0220, 0926, and 2023, and moderate explosions occurred at 0501, 1300, and 1315. Minor explosions on 20 March were recorded at 0013, 0200, 0226, and 2112, and a moderate one occurred at 1404. A minor explosion occurred at 1712 on 21 March. According to the Washington VAAC daily ash plumes rose to 6.1-8.2 (20,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l., or around as high as 2.8 km above the summit, and drifted mainly N, NE, and S. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for San Miguel
On 16 March MARN reported that gas emissions at San Miguel had decreased in the past few days and noted that gas-and-ash plumes were last observed on 9 March.
Source: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that the Santa Maria-Santiaguito lava dome complex remained highly active during 15-21 March. Emissions of gas and steam rose up to 800 m above the crater and drifted S, SW, and SE. Almost daily explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 800 m above the summit and often drifted SW. Effusion from Caliente dome fed lava flows that slowly descended the San Isidro and Zanjón Seco drainages on the W and SW flanks. Incandescence from the dome during the nights and early mornings. Block-and-ash flows originated from Caliente, and the middle and front of the lava flow. Lahars descended the Cabello de Ángel drainage (a tributary of Nimá I on the SE flank) on 19 March and consisted of a cement-like mixture of volcanic material, branches, and tree trunks.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 15-21 March. Dense ash plumes were visible almost daily. At 0737 and 0748 on 15 March white-and-gray ash plumes rose 600-800 m above the summit and drifted S and SE. At 0601 on 16 March a white-and-gray ash plume rose 600 m and drifted S, and at 0748 a gray-to-brown ash plume rose 500 m and drifted SW and W. At 0534 on 18 March a white-and-gray ash plume rose 500 m and drifted SW. Just over an hour later, at 0655, a white-and-gray ash plume rose 1 km and drifted S. At 0713 on 20 March white-and-gray ash plume rose 600 m and drifted SW and W, and at 0811 a gray-to-brown ash plume rose 1 km and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 100 m away from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 9-16 March. Ash plumes drifted as far as 62 km E on 11 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 13-20 March. A total of 20 explosions were recorded, sending ash plumes as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejecting large blocks as far as 500 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Occasional ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
Villarrica continued to erupt during 15-21 March. POVI posted a webcam image from 2227 on 18 March showing incandescent material from Strombolian explosions rising more than 100 m above the crater rim. Explosions were heard up to 8 km away. According to SERNAGEOMIN a long-period earthquake recorded at 1921 on 19 March was accompanied by a plume containing tephra that rose to 340 m above the crater rim and dispersed NE. A webcam image from a few hours later, at 2219, showed plumes rising from the crater and incandescence. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Yellow (the second highest on a four-level scale) according to SERNAGEOMIN. SENAPRED maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and Panguipulli, and SINAPRED maintained an exclusion zone of 1 km from the crater.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), Sistema y Servicio Nacional de Prevención y Repuesta Ante Desastres (SENAPRED)