Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 22 November-28 November 2023
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bogoslof United States New
Brava Cabo Verde New
Ioto Japan New
Purace Colombia New
Reykjanes Iceland 2023 Dec 18 New
Ulawun Papua New Guinea New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Bagana Papua New Guinea 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Etna Italy Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Mayon Philippines 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Ruapehu New Zealand Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin United States Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Philippines 2024 Apr 12 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

Search by Date



Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.

Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.          



Search by Volcano



Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network CAP Feed

The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.



Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bogoslof
AVO reported that seismicity at Bogoslof had declined during the previous three weeks to background levels and the last moderate earthquake, a M 2.7, was recorded on 9 November. No other signs of unrest were detected. Both the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code were changed to Unassigned on 24 November. A seismic swarm had started around 22 October and was characterized by 5-10 events per hour and a total of around 1,100 earthquakes per week at the peak. The volcano was monitored by a single local seismic station, distant seismic and infrasound instruments, satellite data, and lightning networks.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Brava
According to the Cape Verde National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INMG), seismicity at Brava increased on 30 October and remained elevated. A M 3.6 earthquake was recorded at 1819 on 30 October and was followed by eight more events of similar magnitudes that were felt by residents. A M 4.8 was recorded at 2100 and was followed by a 48-hour-long seismic swarm mostly consisting of low-magnitude events that were unable to be located. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (the second level on a five-level scale) on 30 October.

The rate of seismicity was variable, with two events every 1-10 minutes during 30 October-1 November. Most of the events were located at depths of 3-4 km; the hypocenters were initially located in the Praia de Águada area but then they migrated towards the center of the island. Continuous harmonic tremor emerged on 9 November and was interpreted as indicating the movement of magmatic gases. On 15 November seismicity increased and was characterized by more intense periods of volcanic tremor, long-period events, and “burst” events defined as identical events separated by a few seconds. In addition, residents began to feel earthquakes more often. The Alert Level was raised to 3. Three earthquakes all with magnitudes greater than three occurred during 18-19 November, and harmonic tremor again intensified on 19 November.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofísica (INMG), Governo de Cabo Verde
Report for Ioto
The Japan Coast Guard made observations during an overflight of Ioto (Iwo-jima) on 23 November. They posted video, photos, and infrared photos that showed explosions at the main vent producing dark, dense ash-and-steam plumes and ejecting large blocks that landed on the island and in the ocean.
Source: Japan Coast Guard
Report for Purace
Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Popayán, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) reported that at 1929 on 16 November the seismic network recorded a signal at Puracé associated with an ash-and-gas emission. Ash deposits on the N flank were confirmed by an observer the next day. SGC noted that localized deformation between Puracé and Curiquinga volcanoes continued to be recorded. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions had stable values, but carbon dioxide concentrations were high compared to values recorded so far in 2023. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Reykjanes
On 22 November the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Reykjanes to Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale), noting that seismicity associated with the magmatic dike intrusion had decreased during the previous week. Although inflation continued to be detected at Svartsengi, they determined that the likelihood of an eruption had decreased. During 22-27 November seismic activity was relatively stable at a rate of about 500 earthquakes per day, with most events concentrated near Sýlingarfell and Hagafell. Sometimes around midnight on 27 November an hour-long seismic swarm occurred in the vicinity of Sýlingarfell. A total of 170 earthquakes were recorded and located at depths of 3-5 km; the largest event was an M 3. Seismicity slowly decreased during 28-29 November and most of the events were small, below M 1. The rate of deformation also declined, though uplift at Svartsengi continued at around 1 cm per day. The seismic and deformation data suggested that magma continued to flow into the middle portion of the dike.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Ulawun
Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that white steam plumes and occasional puffs of ash rose from Ulawun’s summit crater during 22-24 November, though weather clouds hindered views during 23-24 November. Lava continued to flow from a new fissure vent that had opened on the SW flank, near the vent that had formed in 2019. The intensity of the incandescence from the flow decreased during 23-24 November, suggesting that effusion may have slowed. Seismicity remained at background levels. The Alert Level remained at Stage 2 (on the four-level scale).
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 20-27 November, with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. Explosions at 1905 on 20 November and 0226 on 21 November produced ash plumes that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW. Eruptive events on 22 November produced emissions that rose 1 km and drifted N and E. During an overflight of the crater on 24 November plumes obscured views of Minamidake Crater, though observers noted no changes at the geothermal area at Showa Crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Bagana
The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Bagana was identified in satellite images rising to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW at 1300 on 24 November. The plume was continuously emitted for several hours. The plume had dissipated by 0710 on 25 November.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 15-21 November. Although seismicity had returned to normal eruptive levels the previous week, ash-and-gas plumes continued to rise to higher-than-normal heights. Daily dense white-and-gray or gray-to-black ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the summit and drifted NW, W, and S. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that Strombolian activity at Etna’s SE Crater (SEC) was periodically visible during 20-26 November; weather clouds often prevented visual observations. The frequency of the eruptive activity was on the scale of hours, and explosions were most intense during 25-26 November. The explosions ejected material that fell within the crater or nearby on the flanks and produced ash emissions that rapidly dispersed near the summit. Lava overflowed the crater starting at 1810 on 24 November and produced a slow-moving lava flow that descended the S flank to the base of the cone. The lava flowed down the same ravine as one of the three flows emplaced on 12 November and was no longer being fed by 0450 on 25 November. During periods of more intense Strombolian activity on 26 November ejected lava that accumulated on the upper S flank and was visible in thermal webcam images. Activity at Bocca Nuova Crater was characterized by pulsating gas emissions and flashes of incandescence generated by the hot gases.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 22-28 November characterized by a thick flow in the summit crater that mainly expanded E. Seismicity was low. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite imagery during 24-25 November. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG issued four Volcano Observatory Notices for Aviation (VONAs) on 26 November describing ash plumes from Krakatau rising as high as 1 km above the summit and drifting NW and NE. Webcam images showed incandescent material being ejected above the vent. There were 12 VONAs issued on 27 November; white-and-gray ash plumes that were sometimes dense rose as high as 1.5 km and drifted NE and NW. Webcam images continued to show incandescence at the vent and material being ejected from the vent. At least nine VONAs on 28 November described ash plumes rising as high as 2 km and drifting NE, N, and NW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 22-28 November. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 300-400 m above the summit and drifted W and NW during 22 and 24-26 November. White-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 1.9 km during 23 and 27-28 November and drifted W and NW. Incandescence at the summit was visible on 22 and 26 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that slow lava effusion at Mayon’s summit crater continued during 22-28 November. The lengths of the lava flows in the Mi-Isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages remained at 2.8 km, 3.4 km, and 1.1 km, respectively. Collapses at the lava dome produced rockfalls and occasional pyroclastic density currents (PDCs, or pyroclastic flows) that descended the flanks as far as 4 km. Seismic stations recorded 7-111 daily rockfall events and 0-7 daily volcanic earthquakes. Two earthquakes indicated Strombolian explosions during 26-27 November. A total of three PDC events were recorded during the week. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 857-1,992 tonnes per day. Lahars descended the Buyoan-Padang and Mi-Isi drainages during 25-26 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS recommended that civil aviation authorities advise pilots to avoid flying close to the summit.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 17-23 November. The SW lava dome produced a total of 91 lava avalanches that descended the flanks; three traveled as far as 1.3 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and 88 traveled as far as 1.8 km down the upper Bebeng drainage. Minor morphological changes to the SW lava dome were identified in webcam images due to continuing lava effusion and collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that the eruption at Nevado del Ruiz continued at low-to-moderate levels during 21-27 November. Seismic events indicating the movement of fluids increased in number and intensity compared to the previous week, especially with respect to the signals indicating emissions. The number of signals indicating rock fracturing decreased in both number an intensity. These events were located in areas up to 6 km in various directions from Arenas Crater, at depths of 1-8 km. The largest earthquake, a M 2, was recorded at 1949 on 25 November. Thermal anomalies on the crater floor were identified in satellite images. Ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit on 21 November and up to 1.7 km on 27 November. The plumes drifted WSW and SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased through the week. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Level III (the second level on a four-level scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Reventador
IG-EPN reported that the eruption at Reventador was ongoing during 21-28 November. Seismicity was characterized by 31-60 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor associated with emissions. Several daily ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. Daily crater incandescence was visible during both overnight and morning hours. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m above the crater rim during 21-23 November, and avalanches of incandescent material descended the flanks daily, traveling as far as 800 m from the summit. Weather conditions sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Ruapehu
GeoNet reported that 40 small earthquakes at Ruapehu was recorded by the seismic network during 21-26 November. The earthquakes were 0.3-1.8 in magnitude and located at depths of 3-6 km, though most clustered at depths of 4-5 km. Volcanic tremor levels were low during 2023 and did not vary in response to the sequence. The temperature of the crater lake water was slowly rising, starting in mid-October. During an overflight on 22 November, scientists observed that the color of the lake had changed to blue-green instead of the typical gray color, consistent with less gas flux disturbing lake-bottom sediment. No upwelling was observed and sulfur slicks on the water’s surface were visible. Water was overflowing at the lake’s outlet. Overall, activity was low. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale from 0-5) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: GeoNet
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that the eruption at Sabancaya continued at moderate levels during 20-26 November with a daily average of 31 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.9 km above the summit and drifted NE and SW. Thermal anomalies over the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation was detected near the Hualca Hualca sector (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12 km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sangay
IG-EPN reported a high level of eruptive activity at Sangay during 21-28 November, with seismic stations recording 232-463 daily explosions. Ash-and-gas plumes visible in webcam and satellite images during 21, 23, and 27-28 November rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and drifted N, NE, SE, and SW. Webcam images showed incandescent material at the summit vent and descending the SE flank as far as 1.8 km from the crater during 21-22 November. Weather clouds prevented observations during the rest of the week. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE), Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 22-28 November. No emissions were observed on 22 November. White-and-gray ash plumes that were often dense rose 300-800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions during 23-28 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 16-23 November. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. On 17 November plumes of resuspended ash drifted about 116 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that unrest continued at Shishaldin during 22-28 November. Seismicity began to decrease on 21 November, though remained elevated with ongoing seismic tremor and small, low-frequency earthquakes recorded during the week. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 22 and 25-26 November. Robust steam emissions rising from the summit vent as well as from a scarp on the upper NE flank, near the summit were visible in satellite and webcam images drifting 50 km SSE during 25-26 November. During 27-28 November steam plumes were visible in webcam images and small explosions were observed in seismic and local infrasound data. Weather clouds often prevented views of the volcano. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 20-27 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. No explosions were detected, though ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted mainly SE and W during 20-21 and 25 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 22-28 November. Daily pronounced upwelling of gases and hot fluids in the lake generated steam-and-gas plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 7,608 and 11,962 tonnes per day on 23 and 27 November, respectively. The seismic network recorded 6-66 daily periods of volcanic tremor each lasting 1-7 minutes long. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)