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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 13 March-19 March 2024
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Fernandina Ecuador New
Ioto Japan New
Masaya Nicaragua 2015 Oct 3 New
Reykjanes Iceland 2023 Dec 18 New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Inielika Indonesia Continuing
Kavachi Solomon Islands Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nyamulagira DR Congo 2018 Apr 18 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Tinakula Solomon Islands 2018 Dec 8 (in or before) Continuing
Ubinas Peru 2024 May 6 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Fernandina
IG-EPN reported that the eruption at Fernandina that began on 2 March occurred from about 20 circumferential fissures within an area 4.3 km long on the upper SE flank, between 1,000-1,200 m elevation. Multiple lava flows descended the SE flank; the longest lobe traveled SE then curved S, reaching about 750 m elevation, and having a total length of 8-9 km. Activity declined on 6 March and only Fissure 13 continued to effuse lava. The characterization of the activity level was changed from high to moderate on 13 March. The lava flows from Fissure 13 were active during 13-19 March based on thermal anomalies identified in satellite images, gas emissions, and photos shared by the Parque Nacional Galápagos. Sulfur dioxide emissions detected by satellite fluctuated between 576 and 1,133 tons per day.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Ioto
The Japan Coast Guard conducted an overflight of Ioto (Iwo-jima) on 13 February and observed no eruptive activity. A remnant part of the island remained that was about 25 m wide and 10 m high and in the shape of an arch. White fumarolic activity occurred at the S end of the island and hot water over the main vent area was observed. Eruptive activity in an area adjacent to the island was observed during an overflight on 16 March. A video posted with the report showed a roughly circular area of disturbed whitish water with several steaming rocks located around the margins. The report urged nearby ships to use caution in the area.
Source: Japan Coast Guard
Report for Masaya
According to the U.S. Embassy in Nicaragua the Parque Nacional Volcán Masaya continued to be closed on 12 March due to an increased potential for explosive activity due to the blocking of the lava lake from landslide deposits in Santiago Crater. A satellite image from 13 March showed a slightly larger thermal anomaly on the NE crater floor compared to an 8 March image. According to a 13 March news article, INETER reported that landslides from the inner SW and NW crater walls were continuing. In a 14 March news article, a resident that lived near the volcano noted that the typical gas emissions seen before the 2 March landslide were no longer observed.
Sources: 100% Noticias, Copernicus, Onda Local, U.S. Embassy in Nicaragua
Report for Reykjanes
After about 40 minutes of increased seismicity and ground deformation, a fissure eruption within the Reykanes volcanic system began at 2023 on 16 March near the older Sundhnúkagígar crater row on the Reykjanes Peninsula, prompting IMO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). According to a news report about 700 people at the Blue Lagoon spa and the few people in Grindavík were evacuated within about a 30-minute period. IMO noted that the fissure quickly lengthened to 2.9 km and that the length and location was similar to the 8 February fissure eruption. The fissure was oriented roughly NE-SW and small fissure segments were aligned in the same orientation but offset at each end. A steam-and-gas-rich plume rose above 3 km; no ash was evident in the plume so IMO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange at 2122. Lava fountaining occurred along the length of the fissure and lava flows advanced E, SE, SW, and NW at a rate of about 1 km per hour. By 2210 the S flow was about 200 m from the earthen barriers constructed to protect the E part of Grindavík. Lava advanced NW, curved around the Stóra Skógfell cones, and then flowed SW; by 2220 lava was 700-800 m from Grindavíkurvegur (Road 43) and advancing towards the road at a rate of about 660 m per hour. At around 0030 on 17 March lava flowed W over the road, along the earthen barrier, and towards the water distribution pipe from the Svartsengi power plant; the flow slowed during the morning about 200 m from the pipe, only advancing minimally.

Eruptive activity decreased overnight during 16-17 March. Seismicity significantly decreased with only a few earthquakes recorded after 0300 on 17 March, coinciding with decreased tremor. Lava flows to the S were diverted from Grindavík along the barriers towards the SE. The effusion rate decreased substantially at around 0400, and lava was produced by a segment near the middle of the fissure that was 500 m long. By 1300 lava fountaining was concentrated at three areas along the fissure. The S flow advanced at a rate of about 12 m per hour during 1015-1630 and a few hours later the leading lobe was about 330 m from Suðurstrandarvegur, the main road along the S coast of the Reykjanes Peninsula. During the morning sulfur dioxide emissions peaked at 15,000 micrograms per cubic meter and emissions detected by satellite that day were the highest measured of the recent 2023-2024 eruptions. Sulfur dioxide fluxes were as high as 50 kilograms per second. A news articles noted that some small lava ponds formed near the Grindavík barriers and at the flow near Suðurstrandarvegur. The area of the flow field was an estimated 5.85 square kilometers based on a satellite image acquired at 1456 on 17 March.

The eruption continued at stable levels during 18-19 March. Lava activity was concentrated at a series of vents which had built cones at the S end of the fissure; occasional fountaining was observed. The lava flows that had crossed Grindavíkurvegur and stopped near Suðurstrandarvegur were slow moving. Deformation data suggested that magma continued to flow into the dyke system. According to Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra (National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police and Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management) Grindavík residents were permitted to return to town on 19 March, though it was not recommended that they stay overnight. The Blue Lagoon remained closed.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra (National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police and Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management), Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), Simon Carn
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 11-18 March with nighttime crater incandescence. Sulfur dioxide emissions were extremely high, averaging 3,100 tons per day on 12 March. During an overflight on 13 March emissions obscured views of Minamidake Crater, though observers noted no changes at the either the Showa Crater geothermal area or around the flanks of both craters. An explosion at 0536 on 13 March produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted S and ejected large blocks 300-500 m from the vent. Eruptive events at 1345 on 13 March and at 0450 and 0538 on 15 March generated ash plumes that rose 1-2.9 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. An ash plume from an explosion at 2158 on 16 March rose 600 m above the crater rim and drifted NE; large blocks were ejected 600-900 m from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 13-19 March. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 1.9 km above the summit and drifted NW, NE, E, and S on most days; emissions were not observed on 14 March. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 8-14 March. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions on 12 March generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk that same day. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued in Great Sitkin’s summit crater during 13-19 March. Weather clouds obscured or partly obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. A radar satellite image acquired during 17-18 March showed advancement of the active NW lava flow, movement at the E lava flow, and uplift of the center of the lava dome above the vent. Seismicity was low and a few small earthquakes were recorded during 18-19 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Inielika
PVMBG lowered the Alert Level for Inielika to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) at 1100 on 16 March, noting that unrest had decreased based on visual observations, seismicity, and geochemistry data. The public was warned to stay at least 500 m away from the summit crater and to avoid solfatara zones and hot springs.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kavachi
On 8 March satellite data showed a plume of discolored water from the submarine Kavachi volcano extending N and curving E about 25 km before dissipating.
Source: NASA Earth Observatory
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 13-19 March. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 50-200 m above the summit and drifted E and SE on 15, 17, and 19 March; emissions were not visible on the other days. According to a news report the lava flows on the S and SE flanks remained at 600 m and 1.8 km long, respectively, and had not advanced, though lava effusion was ongoing. Strombolian explosions continued through at least 15 March, ejecting incandescent material as far as 500 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the vent and 3 km away from the vent on the S and SE flank.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 13-19 March. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 150-1,000 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, and SW during 13-14 and 16 March. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 100-200 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE on 15, 17, and 19 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 8-14 March. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 91 lava avalanches that descended the SW flank as far as 1.8 km. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nyamulagira
The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that lava effusion at Nyamulagira was continuing. Thermal anomalies in an area just NE of the central part of the caldera were identified in a 17 March satellite image. A larger thermal anomaly in the same area, though it extended farther SE, was evident in a 7 March image.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Copernicus
Report for Reventador
IG-EPN reported that a moderate eruption at Reventador was ongoing during 12-19 March. Seismicity was characterized by 23-48 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor associated with emissions. Ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions on most days. Weather conditions sometimes prevented views; emissions were not visible during 14-15 March. Avalanches of incandescent material were visible most overnights, descending the flanks as far as 900 m from the summit. Minor crater incandescence was visible during 14-15 March. The weather was occasionally rainy during the week; a seismic signal indicating a lahar was recorded at 0210 on 19 March. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that the eruption at Sabancaya continued at moderate levels during 11-17 March with a daily average of 29 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the summit and drifted less than 10 km W, SW, and S. Thermal anomalies over the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Slight inflation was detected near the Hualca Hualca sector (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12 km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sangay
IG-EPN reported that high levels of eruptive activity continued at Sangay during 12-19 March. The seismic network recorded 61-319 daily explosions during 12-18 March, though there were 3,838 explosions during 18-19 March with most of the events attributed to a period of heightened activity. Inclement or cloudy weather prevented views on most days, though incandescent material was visible descending the SE flank as far as 2 km during dark hours on most days. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible. A series of explosions began at 1540 on 18 March and lasted several hours. The explosions produced ash-and-gas plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted W and SW. Ashfall was reported in several towns including Palmira (46 km W), Alausí (60 km SW), and Achupallas (56 km SW) in the province of Chimborazo. Incandescent material was ejected above the crater and descended the upper SE flanks. Pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 1.8 km down the SE flank. During the afternoon and into the night roaring noises and vibrations were reported in areas surrounding the volcano. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 13-19 March. Eruptive events were recorded at 0047 on 15 March and at 1653 on 17 March by the seismic network, though emissions were not observed. At 0625 on 19 March a dense white-and-gray ash plume rose 500 m above the summit and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that eruptive activity at Sheveluch continued with a thermal anomaly identified in satellite images on 7, 9, and 13 March. Weather clouds obscured views on the other days during 7-14 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 11-18 March. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly and large blocks were sometimes ejected up to 600 m from the vent. An explosion at 0501 on 18 March generated an ash plume that rose 900 m above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Tinakula
A thermal anomaly extending from the summit of Tinakula down the W flank to the coast was identified in satellite images on 11 March. Images acquired on 6 and 16 March were cloudy or mostly cloudy.
Source: Copernicus
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that lahars on the SE flank of Ubinas descended through the Volcánmayo drainage towards the Ubinas River at 1507 on 13 March and at 1454 on 17 March. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to avoid driving on the Querapi-Ubinas-Huarina highway.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)