Report on Colima (Mexico) — 6 October-12 October 2004
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
6 October-12 October 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Colima (Mexico). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 6 October-12 October 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 6-11 October, block-lava flows continued to travel down Colima's N, NW, W, and S flanks as they have since 30 September. On 6 October, the block-lava flows on the N flank reached a length of ~600 m and a width of 150 m, and on the WNW flank the block-lava reached a length of ~250 m. About 32 explosions occurred that day, producing plumes to ~400 m above the volcano. On 11 October, a block-lava flow on the N flank reached a length of ~900 m and a width of ~150 m, and on the WNW flank the block-lava flow reached a length of ~300 m and a width of ~200 m. About 27 small explosions again produced plumes to a height of ~400 m above the volcano. During the report period, block-and-ash flows spilling from the fronts of the advancing block-lava flows reached ~ 2 km from the summit.
Geological Summary. The Colima complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the high point of the complex) on the north and the historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of late-Pleistocene cinder cones is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide scarp, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, producing thick debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent recorded eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions have destroyed the summit (most recently in 1913) and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.