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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Erta Ale (Ethiopia) Continued lava flow outbreaks and thermal anomalies during November 2019 to early April 2020

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) Weak phreatic explosions during August 2019-March 2020; ash and lahars reported in late January

Manam (Papua New Guinea) Minor explosive activity, continued thermal activity, and SO2 emissions, October 2019-March 2020.

Stromboli (Italy) Strombolian activity continues at both summit crater areas, September-December 2019

Semeru (Indonesia) Ash plumes and thermal anomalies continue during September 2019-February 2020

Popocatepetl (Mexico) Dome growth and destruction continues along with ash emissions and ejecta, September 2019-February 2020

Santa Maria (Guatemala) Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continue, September 2019-February 2020

Villarrica (Chile) Brief increase in explosions, mid-September 2019; continued thermal activity through February 2020

Semisopochnoi (United States) Intermittent small explosions detected in December 2019 through mid-March 2020

Ubinas (Peru) Explosions produced ash plumes in September 2019; several lahars generated in January and February 2020

Yasur (Vanuatu) Strombolian activity continues during June 2019 through February 2020

Cleveland (United States) Intermittent thermal anomalies and lava dome subsidence, February 2019-January 2020



Erta Ale (Ethiopia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Erta Ale

Ethiopia

13.6°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued lava flow outbreaks and thermal anomalies during November 2019 to early April 2020

Erta Ale is a shield volcano located in Ethiopia and contains multiple active pit craters in the summit and southeastern caldera. Volcanism has been characterized by lava flows and large lava flow fields since 2017. Surficial lava flow activity continued within the southeastern caldera during November 2019 until early April 2020; source information was primarily from various satellite data.

The number of days that thermal anomalies were detected using MODIS data in MODVOLC and NASA VIIRS satellite data was notably higher in November and December 2019 (figure 96); the number of thermal anomalies in the Sentinel-2 thermal imagery was substantially lower due to the presence of cloud cover. Across all satellite data, thermal anomalies were identified for 29 days in November, followed by 30 days in December. After December 2019, the number of days thermal anomalies were detected decreased; hotspots were detected for 17 days in January 2020 and 20 days in February. By March, these thermal anomalies became rare until activity ceased. Thermal anomalies were identified during 1-4 March, with weak anomalies seen again during 26 March-8 April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Graph comparing the number of thermal alerts using calendar dates using MODVOLC, NASA VIIRS, and Sentinel-2 satellite data for Erta Ale during November 2019-March 2020. Data courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, NASA Worldview using the “Fire and Thermal Anomalies” layer, and Sentinel Hub Playground.

MIROVA (Middle Infrared Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed frequent strong thermal anomalies from 18 April through December 2019 (figure 97). Between early August 2019 and March 2020, these thermal signatures were detected at distances less than 5 km from the summit. In late December the thermal intensity dropped slightly before again increasing, while at the same time moving slightly closer to the summit. Thermal anomalies then became more intermittent and steadily decreased in power over the next two months.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Two time-series plots of thermal anomalies from Erta Ale from 18 April 2019 through 18 April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system. The top plot (A) shows that the thermal anomalies were consistently strong (measured in log radiative power) and occurred frequently until early January 2020 when both the power and frequency visibly declined. The lower plot (B) shows these anomalies as a function of distance from the summit, including a sudden decrease in distance (measured in kilometers) in early August 2019, reflecting a change in the location of the lava flow outbreak. A smaller distance change can be identified at the end of December 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Unlike the obvious distal breakouts to the NE seen previously (BGVN 44:04 and 44:11), infrared satellite imagery during November-December 2019 showed only a small area with a thermal anomaly near the NE edge of the Southeast Caldera (figure 98). A thermal alert was seen at that location using the MODVOLC system on 28 December, but the next day it had been replaced by an anomaly about 1.5 km WSW near the N edge of the Southeast Caldera where the recent flank eruption episode had been centered between January 2017 and January 2018 (BGVN 43:04). The thermal anomaly that was detected in the summit caldera was no longer visible after 9 January 2020, based on Sentinel-2 imagery. The exact location of lava flows shifted within the same general area during January and February 2020 and was last detected by Sentinel-2 on 4 March. After about two weeks without detectable thermal activity, weak unlocated anomalies were seen in VIIRS data on 26 March and in MODIS data on the MIROVA system four times between 26 March and 8 April. No further anomalies were noted through the rest of April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Erta Ale volcanism between November 2019 and March 2020 showing small lava flow outbreaks (bright yellow-orange) just NE of the southeastern calderas. A thermal anomaly can be seen in the summit crater on 15 November and very faintly on 20 December 2019. Imagery on 19 January 2020 showed a small thermal anomaly near the N edge of the Southeast Caldera where the recent flank eruption episode had been centered between January 2017 and January 2018. The last weak thermal hotspot was detected on 4 March (bottom right). Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide edifice rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the N flank.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak phreatic explosions during August 2019-March 2020; ash and lahars reported in late January

Rincón de la Vieja is a remote volcanic complex in Costa Rica containing an acid lake that has regularly generated weak phreatic explosions since 2011 (BGVN 44:08). The most recent eruptive period occurred during late March-early June 2019, primarily consisting of small phreatic explosions, minor deposits on the N crater rim, and gas-and-steam emissions. The report period of August 2019-March 2020 was characterized by similar activity, including small phreatic explosions, gas-and-steam plumes, ash and lake sediment ejecta, and volcanic tremors. The most significant activity during this time occurred on 30 January, where a phreatic explosion ejected ash and lake sediment above the crater rim, resulting in a pyroclastic flow which gradually turned into a lahar. Information for this reporting period of August 2019-March 2020 comes from the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) using weekly bulletins.

According to OVSICORI-UNA, a small hydrothermal eruption was recorded on 1 August 2019. The seismicity was low with a few long period (LP) earthquakes around 1 August and intermittent background tremor. No explosions or emissions were reported through 11 September; seismicity remained low with an occasional LP earthquake and discontinuous tremor. The summit’s extension that has been recorded since the beginning of June stopped, and no significant deformation was observed in August.

Starting again in September 2019 and continuing intermittently through the reporting period, some deformation was observed at the base of the volcano as well as near the summit, according to OVSICORI-UNA. On 12 September an eruption occurred that was followed by volcanic tremors that continued through 15 September. In addition to these tremors, vigorous sustained gas-and-steam plumes were observed. The 16 September weekly bulletin did not describe any ejecta produced as a result of this event.

During 1-3 October small phreatic eruptions were accompanied by volcanic tremors that had decreased by 5 October. In November, volcanism and seismicity were relatively low and stable; few LP earthquakes were reported. This period of low activity remained through December. At the end of November, horizontal extension was observed at the summit, which continued through the first half of January.

Small phreatic eruptions were recorded on 2, 28, and 29 January 2020, with an increase in seismicity occurring on 27 January. On 30 January at 1213 a phreatic explosion produced a gas column that rose 1,500-2,000 m above the crater, with ash and lake sediment ejected up to 100 m above the crater. A news article posted by the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) noted that this explosion generated pyroclastic flows that traveled down the N flank for more than 2 km from the crater. As the pyroclastic flows moved through tributary channels, lahars were generated in the Pénjamo river, Zanjonuda gorge, and Azufrosa, traveling N for 4-10 km and passing through Buenos Aires de Upala (figure 29). Seismicity after this event decreased, though there were still some intermittent tremors.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Photo of a lahar generated from the 30 January 2020 eruption at Rincon de la Vieja. Photo taken by Mauricio Gutiérrez, courtesy of UCR.

On 17, 24, and 25 February and 11, 17, 19, 21, and 23 March, small phreatic eruptions were detected, according to OVSICORI-UNA. Geodetic measurements observed deformation consisting of horizontal extension and inflation near the summit in February-March. By the week of 30 March, the weekly bulletin reported 2-3 small eruptions accompanied by volcanic tremors occurred daily during most days of the week. None of these eruptions produced solid ejecta, pyroclastic flows, or lahars, according to the weekly OVSICORI-UNA bulletins during February-March 2020.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/, https://www.facebook.com/OVSICORI/); Luis Enrique Brenes Portuguéz, University of Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio Brenes, San José, San Pedro, Costa Rica (URL: https://www.ucr.ac.cr/noticias/2020/01/30/actividad-del-volcan-rincon-de-la-vieja-es-normal-segun-experto.html).


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor explosive activity, continued thermal activity, and SO2 emissions, October 2019-March 2020.

Manam is a basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano that lies 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea; it has a 400-year history of recorded evidence for recurring low-level ash plumes, occasional Strombolian activity, lava flows, pyroclastic avalanches, and large ash plumes from Main and South, the two active summit craters. The current eruption, ongoing since June 2014, produced multiple large explosive eruptions during January-September 2019, including two 15-km-high ash plumes in January, repeated SO2 plumes each month, and another 15.2 km-high ash plume in June that resulted in ashfall and evacuations of several thousand people (BGVN 44:10).

This report covers continued activity during October 2019 through March 2020. Information about Manam is primarily provided by Papua New Guinea's Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), part of the Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM). This information is supplemented with aviation alerts from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). MODIS thermal anomaly satellite data is recorded by the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC thermal alert recording system, and the Italian MIROVA project; sulfur dioxide monitoring is done by instruments on satellites managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Satellite imagery provided by the Sentinel Hub Playground is also a valuable resource for information about this remote location.

A few modest explosions with ash emissions were reported in early October and early November 2019, and then not again until late March 2020. Although there was little explosive activity during the period, thermal anomalies were recorded intermittently, with low to moderate activity almost every month, as seen in the MODIS data from MIROVA (figure 71) and also in satellite imagery. Sulfur dioxide emissions persisted throughout the period producing emissions greater than 2.0 Dobson Units that were recorded in satellite data 3-13 days each month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. MIROVA thermal anomaly data for Manam from 17 June 2019 through March 2020 indicate continued low and moderate level thermal activity each month from August 2019 through February 2020, after a period of increased activity in June and early July 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume in visible satellite imagery moving NW at 3.1 km altitude on 2 October 2019. Weak ash emissions were observed drifting N for the next two days along with an IR anomaly at the summit. RVO reported incandescence at night during the first week of October. Visitors to the summit on 18 October 2019 recorded steam and fumarolic activity at both of the summit craters (figure 72) and recent avalanche debris on the steep slopes (figure 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Steam and fumarolic activity rose from Main crater at Manam on 18 October 2019 in this view to the south from a ridge north of the crater. Google Earth inset of summit shows location of photograph. Courtesy of Vulkanologische Gesellschaft and Claudio Jung, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Volcanic debris covered an avalanche chute on the NE flank of Manam when visited by hikers on 18 October 2019. Courtesy of Vulkanologische Gesellschaft and Claudio Jung, used with permission.

On 2 November, a single large explosion at 1330 local time produced a thick, dark ash plume that rose about 1,000 m above the summit and drifted NW. A shockwave from the explosion was felt at the Bogia Government station located 40 km SE on the mainland about 1 minute later. RVO reported an increase in seismicity on 6 November about 90 minutes before the start of a new eruption from the Main Crater which occurred between 1600 and 1630; it produced light to dark gray ash clouds that rose about 1,000 m above the summit and drifted NW. Incandescent ejecta was visible at the start of the explosion and continued with intermittent strong pulses after dark, reaching peak intensity around 1900. Activity ended by 2200 that evening. The Darwin VAAC reported a discrete emission observed in satellite imagery on 8 November that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted WNW, although ground observers confirmed that no eruption took place; emissions were only steam and gas. There were no further reports of explosive activity until the Darwin VAAC reported an ash emission in visible satellite imagery on 20 March 2020 that rose to 3.1 km altitude and drifted E for a few hours before dissipating.

Although explosive activity was minimal during the period, SO2 emissions, and evidence for continued thermal activity were recorded by satellite instruments each month. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite captured evidence each month of SO2 emissions exceeding two Dobson Units (figure 74). The most SO2 activity occurred during October 2019, with 13 days of signatures over 2.0 DU. There were six days of elevated SO2 each month in November and December, and five days in January 2020. During February and March, activity was less, with smaller SO2 plumes recording more than 2.0 DU on three days each month. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery recorded thermal anomalies at least once from one or both of the summit craters each month between October 2019 and March 2020 (figure 75).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. SO2 emissions at Manam exceeded 2 Dobson Units multiple days each month between October 2019 and March 2020. On 3 October 2019 (top left) emissions were also measured from Ulawun located 700 km E on New Britain island. On 30 November 2019 (top middle), in addition to a plume drifting N from Manam, a small SO2 plume was detected at Bagana on Bougainville Island, 1150 km E. The plume from Manam on 2 December 2019 drifted ESE (top right). On 26 January 2020 the plume drifted over 300 km E (bottom left). The plumes measured on 29 February and 4 March 2020 (bottom middle and right) only drifted a few tens of kilometers before dissipating. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8a) showed thermal anomalies at one or both of Manam’s summit craters each month during October 2019-March 2020. On 17 October 2019 (top left) a bright anomaly and weak gas plume drifted NW from South crater, while a dense steam plume and weak anomaly were present at Main crater. On 25 January 2020 (top right) the gas and steam from the two craters were drifting E; the weaker Main crater thermal anomaly is just visible at the edge of the clouds. A clear image on 5 March 2020 (bottom left) shows weak plumes and distinct thermal anomalies from both craters; on 20 March (bottom right) the anomalies are still visible through dense cloud cover that may include steam from the crater vents as well. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Vulkanologische Gesellschaft (URL: https://twitter.com/vulkanologen/status/1194228532219727874, https://twitter.com/vulkanologen/status/1193788836679225344); Claudio Jung, (URL: https://www.facebook.com/claudio.jung.1/posts/10220075272173895, https://www.instagram.com/jung.claudio/).


Stromboli (Italy) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity continues at both summit crater areas, September-December 2019

Near-constant fountains of lava at Stromboli have served as a natural beacon in the Tyrrhenian Sea for at least 2,000 years. Eruptive activity at the summit consistently occurs from multiple vents at both a north crater area (N area) and a southern crater group (CS area) on the Terrazza Craterica at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a large scarp that runs from the summit down the NW side of the volcano-island (figure 168). Periodic lava flows emerge from the vents and flow down the scarp, sometimes reaching the sea; occasional large explosions produce ash plumes and pyroclastic flows. Thermal and visual cameras that monitor activity at the vents are located on the nearby Pizzo Sopra La Fossa, above the Terrazza Craterica, and at multiple locations on the flanks of the volcano. Detailed information for Stromboli is provided by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) as well as other satellite sources of data; September-December 2019 is covered in this report.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 168. This shaded relief map of Stromboli’s crater area was created from images acquired by drone on 9 July 2019 (In collaboration with GEOMAR drone group, Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany). Inset shows Stromboli Island, the black rectangle indicates the area of the larger image, the black curved and the red hatched lines indicate, respectively, the morphological escarpment and the crater edges. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 50/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 02/12/2019 - 08/12/2019, data emissione 10/12/2019).

Activity was very consistent throughout the period of September-December 2019. Explosion rates ranged from 2-36 per hour and were of low to medium-high intensity, producing material that rose from less than 80 to over 150 m above the vents on occasion (table 7). The Strombolian activity in both crater areas often sent ejecta outside the crater rim onto the Terrazza Craterica, and also down the Sciara del Fuoco towards the coast. After the explosions of early July and late August, thermal activity decreased to more moderate levels that persisted throughout the period as seen in the MIROVA Log Radiative Power data (figure 169). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery supported descriptions of the constant glow at the summit, revealing incandescence at both summit areas, each showing repeating bursts of activity throughout the period (figure 170).

Table 7. Monthly summary of activity levels at Stromboli, September-December 2019. Low-intensity activity indicates ejecta rising less than 80 m, medium-intensity is ejecta rising less than 150 m, and high-intensity is ejecta rising over 200 m above the vent. Data courtesy of INGV.

Month Activity
Sep 2019 Explosion rates varied from 11-36 events per hour and were of low- to medium intensity (producing 80-120 m high ejecta). Lapilli and bombs were typical from the N area, and coarse and finer-grained tephra (lapilli and ash) were most common in the CS area. The Strombolian activity in both crater areas often sent ejecta outside the crater rim onto the terrace, and also down the Sciara del Fuoco towards the coast.
Oct 2019 Typical Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosions rates varied from 2-21 events per hour. Low intensity activity was common in the N area (ejecta less than 80 m high) and low to moderate intensity activity was typical in the CS area, with a few explosions rising over 150 m high. Lapilli and bombs were typical from the N area, and coarse and finer-grained tephra (lapilli and ash) were most common in the CS area. Some of the explosions sent ejecta down the Sciara del Fuoco.
Nov 2019 Typical Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosion rates varied from 11-23 events per hour with ejecta rising usually 80-150 m above the vents. Occasional explosions rose 250 m high. In the N area, explosions were generally low intensity with coarse material (lapilli and bombs). In many explosions, ejecta covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, and some blocks rolled for a few hundred meters before stopping. In the CS area, coarse material was mixed with fine and some explosions sent ejecta onto the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco.
Dec 2019 Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosion rates varied from 12-26 per hour. In the N area, explosion intensity was mainly medium-low (less than 150 m) with coarse ejecta while in the CS area it was usually medium-high (more than 150 m) with both coarse and fine ejecta. In many explosions, debris covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, and some blocks rolled for a few hundred meters before stopping. Spattering activity was noted in the southern vents of the N area.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 169. Thermal activity at Stromboli was high during July-August 2019, when two major explosions occurred. Activity continued at more moderate levels through December 2019 as seen in the MIROVA graph of Log Radiative Power from 8 June through December 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 170. Stromboli reliably produced strong thermal signals from both of the summit vents throughout September-December 2019 and has done so since long before Sentinel-2 satellite imagery was able to detect it. Image dates are (top, l to r) 5 September, 15 October, 20 October, (bottom l to r) 14 November, 14 December 2019, and 3 January 2020. Sentinel-2 imagery uses Atmospheric penetration rendering with bands 12, 11, and 8A, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

After a major explosion with a pyroclastic flow on 28 August 2019, followed by lava flows that reached the ocean in the following days (BGVN 44:09), activity diminished in early September to levels more typically seen in recent times. This included Strombolian activity from vents in both the N and CS areas that sent ejecta typically 80-150 m high. Ejecta from the N area generally consisted of lapilli and bombs, while the material from the CS area was often finer grained with significant amounts of lapilli and ash. The number of explosive events remained high in September, frequently reaching 25-30 events per hour. The ejecta periodically landed outside the craters on the Terrazza Craterica and even traveled partway down the Sciara del Fuoco. An inspection on 7 September by INGV revealed four eruptive vents in the N crater area and five in the S crater area (figure 171). The most active vents in the N area were N1 with mostly ash emissions and N2 with Strombolian explosions rich in incandescent coarse material that sometimes rose well above 150 m in height. In the S area, S1 and S2 produced jets of lava that often reached 100 m high. A small cone was observed around N2, having grown after the 28 August explosion. Between 11 and 13 September aerial surveys with drones produced detailed visual and thermal imagery of the summit (figure 172).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 171. Video of the Stromboli summit taken with a thermal camera on 7 September 2019 from the Pizzo sopra la Fossa revealed four active vents in the N area and five active vents in the S area. Images prepared by Piergiorgio Scarlato, courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 37.2/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 10/09/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 172. An aerial drone survey on 11 September 2019 at Stromboli produced a detailed view of the N and CS vent areas (left) and thermal images taken by a drone survey on 13 September (right) showed elevated temperatures down the Sciara del Fuoco in addition to the vents in the N and CS areas. Images by E. De Beni and M. Cantarero, courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 37.5/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 13/09/2019).

Strombolian activity from the N crater on 28 September and 1 October 2019 produced blocks and debris that rolled down the Sciara del Fuoco and reached the ocean (figure 173). Explosive activity from the CS crater area sometimes produced ejecta over 150 m high (figure 174). A survey on 26 November revealed that a layer of ash 5-10 cm thick had covered the bombs and blocks that were deposited on the Pizzo Sopra la Fossa during the explosions of 3 July and 28 August (figure 175). On the morning of 27 December a lava flow emerged from the CS area and traveled a few hundred meters down the Sciara del Fuoco. The frequency of explosive events remained relatively constant from September through December 2019 after decreasing from higher levels during July and August (figure 176).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 173. Strombolian activity from vents in the N crater area of Stromboli produced ejecta that traveled all the way to the bottom of the Sciara del Fuoco and entered the ocean. Top images taken 28 September 2019 from the 290 m elevation viewpoint by Rosanna Corsaro. Bottom images captured on 1 October from the webcam at 400 m elevation. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 39.0/2019 and Rep. No. 40.3, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 29/09/2019 and 02/10/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 174. Ejecta from Strombolian activity at the CS crater area of Stromboli rose over 150 m on multiple occasions. The webcam located at the 400 m elevation site captured this view of activity on 8 November 2019. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 45.5/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 08/11/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 175. The Pizzo Sopra la Fossa area at Stromboli was covered with large blocks and pyroclastic debris on 6 September 2019, a week after the major explosion of 28 August (top). By 26 November, 5-10 cm of finer ash covered the surface; the restored webcam can be seen at the far right edge of the Pizzo (bottom). Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 49/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/11/2019 - 01/12/2019, data emissione 03/12/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 176. The average hourly frequency of explosive events at Stromboli captured by surveillance cameras from 1 June 2019 through 5 January 2020 remained generally constant after the high levels seen during July and August. The Total value (blue) is the sum of the average daily hourly frequency of all explosive events produced by active vents.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy, (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/en/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Semeru (Indonesia) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes and thermal anomalies continue during September 2019-February 2020

Semeru is a stratovolcano located in East Java, Indonesia containing an active Jonggring-Seloko vent at the Mahameru summit. Common activity has consisted of ash plumes, pyroclastic flows and avalanches, and lava flows that travel down the SE flank. This report updates volcanism from September 2019 to February 2020 using primary information from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

The dominant activity at Semeru for this reporting period consists of ash plumes, which were frequently reported by the Darwin VAAC. An eruption on 10 September 2019 produced an ash plume rising 4 km altitude drifting WNW, as seen in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. Ash plumes continued to rise during 13-14 September. During the month of October the Darwin VAAC reported at least six ash plumes on 13, 14, 17-18, and 29-30 October rising to a maximum altitude of 4.6 km and moving primarily S and SW. Activity in November and December was relatively low, dominated mostly by strong and frequent thermal anomalies.

Volcanism increased in January 2020 starting with an eruption on 17 and 18 January that sent a gray ash plume up to 4.6 km altitude (figure 38). Eruptions continued from 20 to 26 January, producing ash plumes that rose up to 500 m above the crater that drifted in different directions. For the duration of the month and into February, ash plumes occurred intermittently. On 26 February, incandescent ejecta was ejected up to 50 m and traveled as far as 1000 m. Small sulfur dioxide emissions were detected in the Sentinel 5P/TROPOMI instrument during 25-27 February (figure 39). Lava flows during 27-29 February extended 200-1,000 m down the SE flank; gas-and-steam and SO2 emissions accompanied the flows. There were 15 shallow volcanic earthquakes detected on 29 February in addition to ash emissions rising 4.3 km altitude drifting ESE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Ash plumes rising from the summit of Semeru on 17 (left) and 18 (right) January 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia and via Ø.L. Andersen's Twitter feed (left).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Small SO2 plumes from Semeru were detected by the Sentinel 5P/TROPOMI instrument during 25 (left) and 26 (right) February 2020. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed relatively weak and intermittent thermal anomalies occurring during May to August 2019 (figure 40). The frequency and power of these thermal anomalies significantly increased during September to mid-December 2019 with a few hotspots occurring at distances greater than 5 km from the summit. These farther thermal anomalies to the N and NE of the volcano do not appear to be caused by volcanic activity. There was a brief break in activity during mid-December to mid-January 2020 before renewed activity was detected in early February 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Thermal anomalies were relatively weak at Semeru during 30 April 2019-August 2019, but significantly increased in power and frequency during September to early December 2019. There was a break in activity from mid-December through mid-January 2020 with renewed thermal anomalies around February 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The MODVOLC algorithm detected 25 thermal hotspots during this reporting period, which took place during 25 September, 18 and 21 October 2019, 29 January, and 11, 14, 16, and 23 February 2020. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery shows intermittent hotspots dominantly in the summit crater throughout this reporting period (figure 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected intermittent thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) at the summit of Semeru, which included some lava flows in late January to early February 2020. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com).


Popocatepetl (Mexico) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Popocatepetl

Mexico

19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dome growth and destruction continues along with ash emissions and ejecta, September 2019-February 2020

Frequent historical eruptions have been reported from Mexico's Popocatépetl going back to the 14th century. Activity increased in the mid-1990s after about 50 years of quiescence, and the current eruption, ongoing since January 2005, has included numerous episodes of lava-dome growth and destruction within the 500-m-wide summit caldera. Multiple emissions of steam and gas occur daily, rising generally 1-3 km above the summit at about 5,400 m elevation; many contain small amounts of ash. Larger, more explosive events with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta landing on the flanks occur frequently. Activity through August 2019 was typical of the ongoing eruption with near-constant emissions of water vapor, gas, and minor ash, as well as multiple explosions with ash plumes and incandescent blocks scattered on the flanks (BGVN 44:09). This report covers similar activity from September 2019 through February 2020. Information comes from daily reports provided by México's Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED); ash plumes are reported by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Satellite visible and thermal imagery and SO2 data also provide helpful observations of activity.

Activity summary. Activity at Popocatépetl during September 2019-February 2020 continued at the high levels that have been ongoing for many years, characterized by hundreds of daily low-intensity emissions that included steam, gas, and small amounts of ash, and periods with multiple daily minor and moderate explosions that produce kilometer-plus-high ash plumes (figure 140). The Washington VAAC issued multiple daily volcanic ash advisories with plume altitudes around 6 km for many, although some were reported as high as 8.2 km. Hundreds of minutes of daily tremor activity often produced ash emissions as well. Incandescent ejecta landed 500-1,000 m from the summit frequently. The MIROVA thermal anomaly data showed near-constant moderate to high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 141).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 140. Emissions continued at a high rate from Popocatépetl throughout September 2019-February 2020. Daily low-intensity emissions numbered usually in the hundreds (blue, left axis), while less frequent minor (orange) and moderate (green) explosions, plotted on the right axis, occurred intermittently through November 2019, and increased again during February 2020. Data was compiled from CENAPRED daily reports.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 141. MIROVA log radiative power thermal data for Popocatépetl from 1 May 2019 through February 2020 showed a constant output of moderate energy the entire time. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured with satellite instruments many days of each month from September 2019 thru February 2020. The intensity and drift directions varied significantly; some plumes remained detectable hundreds of kilometers from the volcano (figure 142). Plumes were detected almost daily in September, and on most days in October. They were measured at lower levels but often during November, and after pulses in early and late December only small plumes were visible during January 2020. Intermittent larger pulses returned in February. Dome growth and destruction in the summit crater continued throughout the period. A small dome was observed inside the summit crater in late September. Dome 85, 210-m-wide, was observed inside the summit crater in early November. Satellite imagery captured evidence of dome growth and ash emissions throughout the period (figure 143).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 142. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Popocatépetl were frequent from September 2019 through February 2020. Plumes drifted SW on 7 September (top left), 30 October (top middle), and 21 February (bottom right). SO2 drifted N and NW on 26 November (top right). On 2 December (bottom left) a long plume of sulfur dioxide hundreds of kilometers long drifted SW over the Pacific Ocean while the drift direction changed to NW closer to the volcano. The SO2 plumes measured in January (bottom center) were generally smaller than during the other months covered in this report. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 143. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Popocatépetl during November 2019-February 2020 provided evidence for ongoing dome growth and explosions with ash emissions. Top left: a ring of incandescence inside the summit crater on 8 November 2019 was indicative of the growth of dome 85 observed by CENAPRED. Top middle: incandescence on 8 December inside the summit crater was typical of that observed many times during the period. Top right: a dense, narrow ash plume drifted N from the summit on 17 January 2020. Bottom left: Snow cover made ashfall on 6 February easily visible on the E flank. On 11 February, the summit crater was incandescent and nearly all the snow was covered with ash. Bottom right: a strong thermal anomaly and ash emission were captured on 21 February. Bottom left and top right images use Natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); other images use Atmospheric penetration rendering to show infrared signal (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during September-November 2019. On 1 September 2019 minor ashfall was reported in the communities of Atlautla, Ozumba, Juchitepec, and Tenango del Aire in the State of Mexico. The ash plumes rose less than 2 km above the summit and incandescent ejecta traveled less than 100 m from the summit crater. Twenty-two minor and three moderate explosions were recorded on 4-5 September along with minor ashfall in Juchitepec, Tenango del Aire, Tepetlixpa, and Atlautla. During a flyover on 5 September, officials did not observe a dome within the crater, and the dimensions remained the same as during the previous visit (350 m in diameter and 150 m deep) (figure 144). Ashfall was reported in Tlalmanalco and Amecameca on 6 September. The following day incandescent ejecta was visible on the flanks near the summit and ashfall was reported in Amecameca, Ayapango, and Tenango del Aire. The five moderate explosions on 8 September produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the summit, and incandescent ejecta on the flanks. Explosions on 10 September sent ejecta 500 m from the crater. Eight explosions during 20-21 September produced ejecta that traveled up to 1.5 km down the flanks (figure 145). During an overflight on 27 September specialists from the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED ) of the National Coordination of Civil Protection and researchers from the Institute of Geophysics of UNAM observed a new dome 30 m in diameter; the overall crater had not changed size since the overflight in early September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 144. CENAPRED carried out overflights of Popocatépetl on 5 (left) and 27 September (right) 2019; the crater did not change in size, but a new dome 30 m in diameter was visible on 27 September. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Sobrevuelo al volcán Popocatépetl, 05 y 27 de septiembre).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 145. Ash plumes at Popocatépetl on 19 (left) and 20 (right) September 2019 rose over a kilometer above the summit before dissipating. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 19 y 20 de septiembre).

Fourteen explosions were reported on 2 October 2019. The last one produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and sent incandescent ejecta down the E slope (figure 146). Ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Atlautla Ozumba, Ayapango and Ecatzingo in the State of Mexico. Explosions on 3 and 4 October also produced ash plumes that rose between 1 and 2 km above the summit and sent ejecta onto the flanks. Additional incandescent ejecta was reported on 6, 7, 15, and 19 October. The communities of Amecameca, Tenango del Aire, Tlalmanalco, Cocotitlán, Temamatla, and Tláhuac reported ashfall on 10 October; Amecameca reported more ashfall on 12 October. On 22 October slight ashfall appeared in Amecameca, Tenango del Aire, Tlalmanalco, Ayapango, Temamatla, and Atlautla.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 146. Incandescent ejecta at Popocatépetl traveled down the E slope on 2 October 2019 (left); an ash plume two days later rose 2 km above the summit (right). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 2 y 4 de octubre).

During 2-3 November 2019 there was 780 minutes of tremor reported in four different episodes. The seismicity was accompanied by ash emissions that drifted W and NW and produced ashfall in numerous communities, including Amecameca, Juchitepec, Ozumba, Tepetlixpa, and Atlautla in the State of México, in Ayapango and Cuautla in the State of Morelos, and in the municipalities of Tlahuac, Tlalpan, and Xochimilco in Mexico City. A moderate explosion on 4 November sent incandescent ejecta 2 km down the slopes and produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NW. Minor ashfall was reported in Tlalmanalco, Amecameca, and Tenango del Aire, State of Mexico. Similar ash plumes from explosions occurred the following day. Scientists from CENAPRED and the Institute of Geophysics of UNAM observed dome number 85 during an overflight on 5 November 2019. It had a diameter of 210 m and was 80 m thick, with an irregular surface (figure 147). Multiple explosions on 6 and 7 November produced incandescent ejecta; a moderate explosion late on 11 November produced ejecta that traveled 1.5 km from the summit and produced an ash plume 2 km high (figure 148). A lengthy period of constant ash emission that drifted E was reported on 18 November. A moderate explosion on 28 November sent incandescent fragments 1.5 km down the slopes and ash one km above the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 147. A new dome was visible inside the summit crater at Popocatépetl during an overflight on 5 November 2019. It had a diameter of 210 m and was 80 m thick. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Sobrevuelo al volcán Popocatépetl, 05 de noviembre).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 148. Ash emissions and explosions with incandescent ejecta continued at Popocatépetl during November 2019. The ash plume on 1 November changed drift direction sharply a few hundred meters above the summit (left). Incandescent ejecta traveled 1.5 km down the flanks on 11 November (right). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 1 y 12 de noviembre).

Activity during December 2019-February 2020. Throughout December 2019 weak emissions of steam and gas were reported daily, sometimes with minor amounts of ash, and minor explosions were only reported on 21 and 27 December. On 21 December two new high-resolution webcams were installed around Popocatépetl, one 5 km from the crater at the Tlamacas station, and the second in San Juan Tianguismanalco, 20 km away. Ash emissions and incandescent ejecta 800 m from the summit were observed on 25 December (figure 149). Incandescence at night was reported during 27-29 December.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 149. Incandescent ejecta moved 800 m down the flanks of Popocatépetl during explosions on 25 December 2019 (left); weak emissions of steam, gas, and minor ash were visible on 27 December and throughout the month. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 25 y 27 de diciembre).

Continuous emissions of water vapor and gas with low ash content were typical daily during January 2020. A moderate explosion on 9 January produced an ash plume that rose 3 km from the summit and drifted NE. In addition, incandescent ejecta traveled 1 km from the crater rim. A minor explosion on 21 January produced a 1.5-km-high plume with low ash content and incandescent ejecta that fell near the crater (figure 150). The first of two explosions late on 27 January produced ejecta that traveled 500 m and a 1-km-high ash plume. Constant incandescence was observed overnight on 29-30 January.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 150. Although fewer explosions were recorded at Popocatépetl during January 2020, activity continued. An ash plume on 19 January rose over a kilometer above the summit (top left). A minor explosion on 21 January produced a 1.5-km-high plume with low ash content and incandescent ejecta that fell near the crater (top right). Smaller emissions with steam, gas, and ash were typical many days, including on 22 (bottom left) and 31 (bottom right) January 2019. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 19, 21, 22 y 31 de enero).

A moderate explosion on 5 February 2020 produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NNE. Explosions on 10 and 13 February sent ejecta 500 m down the flanks (figure 151). During an overflight on 18 February scientists noted that the internal crater maintained a diameter of 350 m and its approximate depth was 100-150 m; the crater was covered by tephra. For most of the second half of February the volcano had a continuous emission of gases with minor amounts of ash. In addition, multiple explosions produced ash plumes that rose 400-1,200 m above the crater and drifted in several different directions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 151. Ash emissions and explosions continued at Popocatépetl during February 2020. Dense ash drifted near the snow-covered summit on 6 February (top left). Incandescent ejecta traveled 500 m down the flanks on 13 February (top right). Ash plumes billowed from the summit on 18 and 22 February (bottom row). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl, 6, 15, 18 y 22 de febrero).

Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.

Information Contacts: Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED), Av. Delfín Madrigal No.665. Coyoacan, México D.F. 04360, México (URL: http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/), Daily Report Archive http://www.cenapred.unam.mx:8080/reportesVolcanGobMX/BuscarReportesVolcan); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Santa Maria (Guatemala) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Santa Maria

Guatemala

14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continue, September 2019-February 2020

The dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex on the W flank of Guatemala's Santa María volcano has been growing and actively erupting since 1922. Ash explosions, pyroclastic, and lava flows have emerged from Caliente, the youngest of the four vents in the complex, for more than 40 years. A lava dome that appeared within the summit crater of Caliente in October 2016 has continued to grow, producing frequent block avalanches down the flanks. Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continued during September 2019-February 2020, the period covered in this report, with information primarily from Guatemala's INSIVUMEH (Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia e Hidrologia) and the Washington VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center).

Constant fumarolic activity with steam and gas persisted from the Caliente dome throughout September 2019-February 2020. Explosions occurred multiple times per day, producing ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.1-3.5 km and usually drifted a few kilometers before dissipating. Several lahars during September and October carried volcanic blocks, ash, and debris down major drainages. Periodic ashfall was reported in communities within 10 km of the volcano. An increase in thermal activity beginning in November (figure 101) resulted in an increased number of observations of incandescence visible at night from the summit of Caliente through February 2020. Block avalanches occurred daily on the flanks of the dome, often reaching the base, stirring up small clouds of ash that drifted downwind.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. The MIROVA project graph of thermal activity at Santa María from 12 May 2019 through February 2020 shows a gradual increase in thermal energy beginning in November 2019. This corresponds to an increase in the number of daily observations of incandescence at the summit of the Caliente dome during this period. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Constant steam and gas fumarolic activity rose from the Caliente dome, drifting W, usually rising to 2.8-3.0 km altitude during September 2019. Multiple daily explosions with ash plumes rising to 2.9-3.4 km altitude drifted W or SW over the communities of San Marcos, Loma Linda Palajunoj, and Monte Claro (figure 102). Constant block avalanches fell to the base of the cone on the NE and SE flanks. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery on 10 September at 3.1 km altitude drifting W. On 14 September another plume was spotted moving WSW at 4.6 km altitude which dissipated quickly; the webcam captured another plume on 16 September. Ashfall on 27 September reached about 1 km from the volcano; it reached 1.5 km on 29 September. Lahars descended the Rio Cabello de Ángel on 2 and 24 September (figure 102). They were about 15 m wide, and 1-3 m deep, carrying blocks 1-2 m in diameter.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. A lahar descended the Rio Cabello de Ángel at Santa Maria and flowed into the Rio Nima 1 on 24 September 2019. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 21 al 27 de septiembre de 2019).

Througout October 2019, degassing of steam with minor gases occurred from the Caliente summit, rising to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and generally drifting SW. Weak explosions took place 1-5 times per hour, producing ash plumes that rose to 3.2-3.5 km altitude. Ashfall was reported in Monte Claro on 2 October. Nearly constant block avalanches descended the SE and S flanks, disturbing recent layers of fine ash and producing local ash clouds. Moderate explosions on 11 October produced ash plumes that rose to 3.5 km altitude and drifted W and SW about 1.5 km towards Río San Isidro (figure 103). The following day additional plumes drifted a similar distance to the SE. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission visible in satellite imagery at 4.9 km altitude on 13 October drifting NNW. Ashfall was reported in Parcelamiento Monte Claro on 14 October. Some of the block avalanches observed on 14 October on the SE, S, and SW flanks were incandescent. Ash drifted 1.5 km W and SW on 17 October. Ashfall was reported near la finca Monte Claro on 25 and 28 October. A lahar descended the Río San Isidro, a tributary of the Río El Tambor on 7 October carrying blocks 1-2 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. It was about 16 m wide and 1-2 m deep. Additional lahars descended the rio Cabello de Angel on 23 and 24 October. They were about 15 m wide and 2 m deep, and carried ash and blocks 1-2 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. Daily ash plumes were reported from the Caliente cone at Santa María during October 2019, similar to these from 30 September (left) and 11 October 2019 (right). Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 28 de septiembre al 04 de octubre de 2019; Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 05 al 11 de octubre de 2019).

During November 2019, steam plumes rose to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and generally drifted E. There were 1-3 explosions per hour; the ash plumes produced rose to altitudes of 3.1-3.5 km and often drifted SW, resulting in ashfall around the volcanic complex. Block avalanches descended the S and SW flanks every day. On 4 November ashfall was reported in the fincas (ranches) of El Faro, Santa Marta, El Viejo Palmar, and Las Marías, and the odor of sulfur was reported 10 km S. Incandescence was observed at the Caliente dome during the night of 5-6 November. Ash fell again in El Viejo Palmar, fincas La Florida, El Faro, and Santa Marta (5-6 km SW) on 7 November. Sulfur odor was also reported 8-10 km S on 16, 19, and 22 November. Fine-grained ash fell on 18 November in Loma Linda and San Marcos Palajunoj. On 29 November strong block avalanches descended in the SW flank, stirring up reddish ash that had fallen on the flanks (figure 104). The ash drifted up to 20 km SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. Ash plumes rose from explosions multiple times per day at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito complex during November 2019, and block avalanches stirred up reddish clouds of ash that drifted for many kilometers. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH. Left, 11 November 2019, from Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 09 al 15 de noviembre de 2019. Right, 29 November 2019 from BOLETÍN VULCANOLÓGICO ESPECIAL BESTG# 106-2019, Guatemala 29 de noviembre de 2019, 10:50 horas (Hora Local).

White steam plumes rising to 2.9-3.0 km altitude drifted SE most days during December 2019. One to three explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose to 3.1-3.5 km altitude and drifted W and SW producing ashfall on the flanks. Several strong block avalanches sent material down the SW flank. Ash from the explosions drifted about 1.5 km SW on 3 and 7 December. The Washington VAAC reported a small ash emission that rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted WSW on 8 December, and another on 13 December that rose to 4.3 km altitude. Ashfall was reported up to 10 km S on 24 December. Incandescence was reported at the dome by INSIVUMEH eight times during the month, significantly more than during the recent previous months (figure 105).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Strong thermal anomalies were visible in Sentinel-2 imagery at the summit of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex on 19 December 2019. Image uses Atmospheric Penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during January 2020 was similar to that during previous months. White plumes of steam rose from the Caliente dome to altitudes of 2.7-3.0 km and drifted SE; one to three explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose to 3.2-3.4 km altitude and generally drifted about 1.5 km SW before dissipating. Frequent block avalanches on the SE flank caused smaller plumes that drifted SSW often over the ranches of San Marcos and Loma Linda Palajunoj. On 28 January ash plumes drifted W and SW over the communities of Calaguache, El Nuevo Palmar, and Las Marías. In addition to incandescence observed at the crater of Caliente dome at least nine times, thermal anomalies in satellite imagery were detected multiple times from the block avalanches on the S flank (figure 106).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Incandescence at the summit and in the block avalanches on the S flank of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex was visible in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 8 and 13 January 2020. Atmospheric penetration rendering images (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 4.6 km altitude drifting W on 3 February 2020. INSIVUMEH reported constant steam degassing that rose to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and drifted SW. In addition, 1-3 weak to moderate explosions per hour produced ash plumes to 3.1-3.5 km altitude that drifted about 1 km SW. Small amounts of ashfall around the volcano’s perimeter was common. The ash plumes on 5 February drifted NE over Santa María de Jesús. On 8 February the ash plumes drifted E and SE over the communities of Calaguache, El Nuevo Palmar, and Las Marías. Block avalanches on the S and SE flanks of Caliente dome continued, creating small ash clouds on the flank. Incandescence continued frequently at the crater and was also observed on the S flank in satellite imagery (figure 107).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 107. Incandescence at the summit and on the S flank of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex was frequent during February 2020, including on 2 (left) and 17 (right) February 2020 as seen in Sentinel-2 imagery. Atmostpheric Penetration rendering imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank, and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four vents, with activity progressing W towards the most recent, Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/ ); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Villarrica (Chile) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Villarrica

Chile

39.42°S, 71.93°W; summit elev. 2847 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Brief increase in explosions, mid-September 2019; continued thermal activity through February 2020

Historical eruptions at Chile's Villarrica, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. An intermittently active lava lake at the summit has been the source of Strombolian activity, incandescent ejecta, and thermal anomalies for several decades; the current eruption has been ongoing since December 2014. Continuing activity during September 2019-February 2020 is covered in this report, with information provided by the Southern Andes Volcano Observatory (Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur, OVDAS), part of Chile's National Service of Geology and Mining (Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, SERNAGEOMIN), and Projecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), part of the Fundacion Volcanes de Chile, a research group that studies volcanoes across Chile.

A brief period of heighted explosive activity in early September 2019 caused SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level from Yellow to Orange (on a four-color scale of Green-Yellow-Orange-Red) for several days. Increases in radiative power were visible in the MIROVA thermal anomaly data during September (figure 84). Although overall activity decreased after that, intermittent explosions were observed at the summit, and incandescence continued throughout September 2019-February 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery indicated a strong thermal anomaly from the summit crater whenever the weather conditions permitted. In addition, ejecta periodically covered the area around the summit crater, and particulates often covered the snow beneath the narrow gas plume drifting S from the summit (figure 85).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Thermal activity at Villarrica from 28 May 2019 through February 2020 was generally at a low level, except for brief periods in August and September 2019 when larger explosions were witnessed and recorded in seismic data and higher levels of thermal activity were noted by the MIROVA project. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Natural-color (top) and Atmospheric penetration (bottom) renderings of three different dates during September 2019-February 2020 show typical continued activity at Villarica during the period. Dark ejecta periodically covered the snow around the summit crater, and streaks of particulate material were sometimes visible on the snow underneath the plumes of bluish gas drifting S from the volcano (top images). Persistent thermal anomalies were recorded in infrared satellite data on the same dates (bottom images). Dates recorded are (left to right) 28 September 2019, 20 December 2019, and 1 January 2020. Natural color rendering uses bands 4,3, and 2, and Atmospheric penetration rendering uses bands 12, 11, and 8a. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

SERNAGEOMIN raised the Alert Level from Green to Yellow in early August 2019 due to the increase in activity that included incandescent ejecta and bombs reaching 200 m from the summit crater (BGVN 44:09). An increase in seismic tremor activity on 8 September was accompanied by vigorous Strombolian explosions reported by POVI. The following day, SERNAGEOMIN raised the Alert Level from Yellow to Orange. Poor weather prevented visual observations of the summit on 8 and 9 September, but high levels of incandescence were observed briefly on 10 September. Incandescent ejecta reached 200 m from the crater rim late on 10 September (figure 86). Activity increased the next day with ejecta recorded 400 m from the crater, and the explosions were felt 12 km from the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. A new pulse of activity at Villarrica reached its maximum on 10 (left) and 11 (right) September 2019. Incandescent ejecta reached 200 m from the crater rim on 10 September and up to 400 m the following day. Courtesy of POVI (Volcan Villarrica, Resumen grafico del comportamiento, Septiembre 2019 a enero 2020).

Explosions decreased in intensity by 13 September, but avalanches of incandescent material were visible on the E flank in the early morning hours (figure 87). Small black plumes later in the day were interpreted by POVI as the result of activity from landslides within the crater. Fine ash deposited on the N and NW flanks during 16-17 September was attributed to wind moving ash from within the crater, and not to new emissions from the crater (figure 88). SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Yellow on 16 September as tremor activity decreased significantly. Activity continued to decrease during the second half of September; incandescence was moderate with no avalanches observed, and intermittent emissions with small amounts of material were noted. Degassing of steam plumes rose up to 120 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. By 13 September 2019, a decrease in activity at Villarrica was apparent. Incandescence (red arrow) was visible on the E flank of Villarrica early on 13 September (left). Fine ash, likely from small collapses of new material inside the vent, rose a short distance above the summit later in the day (right). Courtesy of POVI (Volcan Villarrica, Resumen grafico del comportamiento, Septiembre 2019 a Enero 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Fine-grained material covered the summit of Villarrica on 17 September 2019. POVI interpreted this as a result of strong winds moving fine ash-sized particles from within the crater and depositing them on the N and NW flanks. Courtesy of POVI (Volcan Villarrica, Resumen grafico del comportamiento, Septiembre 2019 a enero 2020).

Low-altitude degassing was typical activity during October-December 2019; occasionally steam and gas plumes rose 300 m above the summit, but they were generally less than 200 m high. Incandescence was visible at night when weather conditions permitted. Occasional Strombolian explosions were observed in the webcam (figure 89). During January and February 2020, similar activity was reported with steam plumes observed to heights of 300-400 m above the summit, and incandescence on nights where the summit was visible (figure 90). A drone overflight on 19 January produced a clear view into the summit crater revealing a 5-m-wide lava pit about 120 m down inside the crater (figure 91).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Activity continued at a lower level at the summit of Villarrica from October-December 2019. The 30-m-wide vent at the bottom of the summit crater (120 m deep) of Villarrica (left) was emitting wisps of bluish gas on 30 October 2019. Sporadic Strombolian explosions ejected material around the crater rim on 12 December (right). Courtesy of POVI (Volcan Villarrica, Resumen grafico del comportamiento, Septiembre 2019 a enero 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Small explosive events were recorded at Villarrica during January and February 2020, including these events on 4 (left) and 18 (right) January where ejecta reached about 50 m above the crater rim. Courtesy of POVI (Volcan Villarrica, Resumen grafico del comportamiento, Septiembre 2019 a Enero 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. An oblique view into the bottom of the summit crater of Villarrica on 19 January 2020 was captured by drone. The diameter of the lava pit was calculated at about 5 m and was about 120 m deep. Image copyright by Leighton M. Watson, used with permission; courtesy of POVI (Volcan Villarrica, Resumen grafico del comportamiento, Septiembre 2019 a Enero 2020).

Geologic Background. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI) (URL: http://www.povi.cl/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Leighton M. Watson, Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1272, USA (URL: https://earthsciences.uoregon.edu/).


Semisopochnoi (United States) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Semisopochnoi

United States

51.93°N, 179.58°E; summit elev. 1221 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent small explosions detected in December 2019 through mid-March 2020

Semisopochnoi is a remote stratovolcano located in the western Aleutians dominated by an 8 km-wide caldera containing the small (100 m diameter) Fenner Lake and a three-cone cluster: a northern cone known as the North cone of Mount Cerberus, an eastern cone known as the East cone of Mount Cerberus, and a southern cone known as the South cone of Mount Cerberus. Previous volcanism has included small explosions, ash deposits, and gas-and-steam emissions. This report updates activity during September 2019 through March 2020 using information from the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). A new eruptive period began on 7 December 2019 and continued until mid-March 2020 with activity primarily focused in the North cone of Mount Cerberus.

During September-November 2019, low levels of unrest were characterized by intermittent weeks of elevated seismicity and gas-and-steam plumes visible on 8 September, 7-8 October, and 24 November. On 6 October an SO2 plume was visible in satellite imagery, according to AVO.

Seismicity increased on 5 December and was described as a strong tremor through 7 December. This tremor was associated with a small eruption on 7 December; intermittent explosions occurred and continued into the night. Increased seismicity was recorded throughout the rest of the month while AVO registered small explosions during 11-19 December. On 11-12 December, a gas-and-steam plume possibly containing some of ash extended 80 km (figure 2). Two more ash plumes were observed on 14 and 17 December, the latter of which extended 15 km SE. Sentinel-2 satellite images show gas-and-steam plumes rising from the North Cerberus crater intermittently at the end of 2019 and into early 2020 (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Sentinel-2 satellite image showing a gray ash plume extending up to 17 km SE from the North Cerberus crater on 11 December 2019. Image taken by Hannah Dietterich; courtesy of AVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Sentinel-2 satellite images of gas-and-steam plumes at Semisopochnoi from late November 2019 through mid-March 2020. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The month of January 2020 was characterized by low levels of unrest due to intermittent low seismicity. Small explosions were reported during 14-17 February and a gas-and-steam plume was visible on 26 February. Seismic unrest occurred between 18 February-7 March. Gas-and-steam plumes were visible on 1, 9, 14-17, 20, and 21 March (figure 4). During 15-17 March, small explosions occurred, according to AVO. Additionally, clear satellite images showed gas-and-steam emissions and minor ash deposits around North Cerberus’ crater rim. After 17 March the explosions subsided and ash emissions were no longer observed. However, intermittent gas-and-steam emissions continued and seismicity remained elevated through the end of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Satellite image of Semisopochnoi showing degassing within the North Cerberus crater on 22 March 2020. Image taken by Matt Loewen; courtesy of AVO.

Geologic Background. Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Ubinas (Peru) — March 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Ubinas

Peru

16.355°S, 70.903°W; summit elev. 5672 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions produced ash plumes in September 2019; several lahars generated in January and February 2020

Ubinas, located 70 km from the city of Arequipa in Peru, has produced frequent eruptions since 1550 characterized by ash plumes, ballistic ejecta (blocks and bombs), some pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Activity is focused at the summit crater (figure 53). A new eruptive episode began on 24 June 2019, with an ash plume reaching 12 km altitude on 19 July. This report summarizes activity during September 2019 through February 2020 and is based on agency reports and satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. A PlanetScope satellite image of Ubinas on 16 December 2019. Courtesy of PlanetLabs.

Prior to September 2019 the last explosion occurred on 22 July. At 2145 on 1 September moderate, continuous ash emission occurred reaching nearly 1 km above the crater. An explosion produced an ash plume at 1358 on the 3rd that reached up to 1.3 km above the summit; six minutes later ashfall and lapilli up to 1.5 cm in diameter was reported 6 km away, with ashfall reported up to 8 km away (figure 54 and 55). Three explosions produced ash plumes at 0456, 0551, and 0844 on 4 September, with the two later ash plumes reaching around 2 km above the crater. The ash plume dispersed to the south and ashfall was reported in Ubinas, Tonohaya, San Miguel, Anascapa, Huatahua, Huarina, and Matalaque, reaching a thickness of 1 mm in Ubinas.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. An eruption at Ubinas produced an ash plume up to 1.3 km on at 1358 on 3 September 2019. Courtesy of INGEMMET.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Ash and lapilli fall up to 1.5 cm in diameter was reported 6 km away from Ubinas on 3 September 2019 (top) and an Ingemmet geologist collects ash samples from the last three explosions. Courtesy of INGEMMET.

During 8-9 September there were three explosions generating ash plumes to less than 2.5 km, with the largest occurring at 1358 and producing ashfall in the Moquegua region to the south. Following these events, gas and water vapor were continuously emitted up to 1 km above the crater. There was an increase in seismicity during the 10-11th and an explosion produced a 1.5 km high (above the crater) ash plume at 0726 on the 12th, which dispersed to the S and SE (figure 56). During 10-15 September there was continuous emission of gas (blue in color) and steam up to 1.5 km above the volcano. Gas emission, thermal anomalies, and seismicity continued during 16-29 September, but no further explosions were recorded.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. An explosion at Ubinas on 12 September 2019 produced an ash plume to 1.5 km above the volcano. The ash dispersed to the S and SE. Courtesy of IGP.

Throughout October activity consisted of seismicity, elevated temperatures within the crater, and gas emissions reaching 800 to 1,500 m above the crater. No explosions were recorded. Drone footage released in early October (figure 57) shows the gas emissions and provided a view of the crater floor (figure 58). On the 15th IGP reported that the likelihood of an eruption had reduced.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. IGP flew a fixed-wing drone over Ubinas as part of their monitoring efforts. This photograph shows gas emissions rising from the summit crater, published on 7 October 2019. Courtesy of IGP.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Drone image showing gas emissions and the summit crater of Ubinas. Image taken by IGP staff and released on 7 October 2019; courtesy of IGP.

Similar activity continued through early November with no reported explosions, and the thermal anomalies were no longer detected at the end of November (figure 59), although a faint thermal anomaly was visible in Sentinel-2 data in mid-December (figure 60). A rockfall occurred at 1138 on 13 November down the Volcanmayo gorge.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. This MIROA Log Radiative Power plot shows increased thermal energy detected at Ubinas during August through November 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image showing elevated temperatures in the Ubinas crater on 16 December 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There were no explosions during January or February 2020, with seismicity and reduced gas emissions continuing. There was a small- to moderate-volume lahar generated at 1620 on 4 January down the SE flank. A second moderate- to high-volume lahar was generated at 1532 on 24 February, and three more lahars at 1325 and 1500 on 29 February, and at 1601 on 1 March, moved down the Volcanmayo gorge and the Sacohaya river channel. The last three lahars were of moderate to large volume.

Geologic Background. A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Perú's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. It is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I was followed by construction of Ubinas II beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank about 3,700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits include one of Holocene age about 1,000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Volcanologico del INGEMMET (Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico), Barrio Magisterial Nro. 2 B-16 Umacollo - Yanahuara Arequipa, Peru (URL: http://ovi.ingemmet.gob.pe); Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), Calle Badajoz N° 169 Urb. Mayorazgo IV Etapa, Ate, Lima 15012, Perú (URL: https://www.gob.pe/igp); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Yasur (Vanuatu) — March 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity continues during June 2019 through February 2020

Yasur has remained on Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 0-4) since 18 October 2016, indicating "Major Unrest; Danger Zone remains at 395 m around the eruptive vents." The summit crater contains several active vents that frequently produce Strombolian explosions and gas plumes (figure 60). This bulletin summarizes activity during June 2019 through February 2020 and is based on reports by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), visitor photographs and videos, and satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. The crater of Yasur contains several active vents that produce gas emissions and Strombolian activity. Photo taken during 25-27 October 2019 by Justin Noonan, used with permission.

A VMGD report on 27 June described ongoing Strombolian explosions with major unrest confined to the crater. The 25 July report noted the continuation of Strombolian activity with some strong explosions, and a warning that volcanic bombs may impact outside of the crater area (figure 61).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. A volcanic bomb (a fluid chunk of lava greater than 64 mm in diameter) that was ejected from Yasur. The pattern on the surface shows the fluid nature of the lava before it cooled into a solid rock. Photo taken during 25-27 October 2019 by Justin Noonan, used with permission.

No VMGD report was available for August, but Strombolian activity continued with gas emissions and explosions, as documented by visitors (figure 62). The eruption continued through September and October with some strong explosions and multiple active vents visible in thermal satellite imagery (figure 63). Strombolian explosions ejecting fluid lava from rapidly expanding gas bubbles were recorded during October, and likely represented the typical activity during the surrounding months (figure 64). Along with vigorous degassing producing a persistent plume there was occasional ash content (figure 65). At some point during 20-29 October a small landslide occurred along the eastern inner wall of the crater, visible in satellite images and later confirmed to have produced ashfall at the summit (figure 66).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Different views of the Yasur vents on 7-8 August 2019 taken from a video. Strombolian activity and degassing were visible. Courtesy of Arnold Binas, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show variations in detected thermal energy emitting from the active Yasur vents on 18 September and 22 December 2019. False color (bands 12, 11, 4) satellite images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. Strombolian explosions at Yasur during 25-27 October 2019. Large gas bubbles rise to the top of the lava column and burst, ejecting volcanic bombs – fluid chunks of lava, out of the vent. Photos by Justin Noonan, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Gas and ash emissions rise from the active vents at Yasur between 25-27 October 2019. Photos by Justin Noonan, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Planet Scope satellite images of Yasur show a change in the crater morphology between 20 and 29 October 2019. Copyright of Planet Labs.

Continuous explosive activity continued in November-February with some stronger explosions recorded along with accompanying gas emissions. Gas plumes of sulfur dioxide were detected by satellite sensors on some days through this period (figure 67) and ash content was present at times (figure 68). Thermal anomalies continued to be detected by satellite sensors with varying intensity, and with a reduction in intensity in February, as seen in Sentinel-2 imagery and the MIROVA system (figures 69 and 70).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. SO2 plumes detected at Yasur by Aura/OMI on 21 December 2019 and 31 January 2020, drifting W to NW, and on 14 and 23 February 2020, drifting W and south, and NWW to NW. Courtesy of Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, NASA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. An ash plume erupts from Yasur on 20 February 2020 and drifts NW. Courtesy of Planet Labs.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show variations in detected thermal energy in the active Yasur vents during January and February 2020. False color (bands 12, 11, 4) satellite images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. The MIROVA thermal detection system recorded persistent thermal energy emitted at Yasur with some variation from mid-May 2019 to May 2020. There was a reduction in detected energy after January. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Justin Noonan (URL: https://www.justinnoonan.com/, Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/justinnoonan_/); Doro Adventures (Twitter: https://twitter.com/DoroAdventures, URL: http://doroadventures.com/).


Cleveland (United States) — March 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Cleveland

United States

52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal anomalies and lava dome subsidence, February 2019-January 2020

Cleveland is a stratovolcano located in the western portion of Chuginadak Island, a remote island part of the east central Aleutians. Common volcanism has included small lava flows, explosions, and ash clouds. Intermittent lava dome growth, small ash explosions, and thermal anomalies have characterized more recent activity (BGVN 44:02). For this reporting period during February 2019-January 2020, activity largely consisted of gas-and-steam emissions and intermittent thermal anomalies within the summit crater. The primary source of information comes from the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and various satellite data.

Low levels of unrest occurred intermittently throughout this reporting period with gas-and-steam emissions and thermal anomalies as the dominant type of activity (figures 30 and 31). An explosion on 9 January 2019 was followed by lava dome growth observed during 12-16 January. Suomi NPP/VIIRS sensor data showed two hotspots on 8 and 14 February 2019, though there was no evidence of lava within the summit crater at that time. According to satellite imagery from AVO, the lava dome was slowly subsiding during February into early March. Elevated surface temperatures were detected on 17 and 24 March in conjunction with degassing; another gas-and-steam plume was observed rising from the summit on 30 March. Thermal anomalies were again seen on 15 and 28 April using Suomi NPP/VIIRS sensor data. Intermittent gas-and-steam emissions continued as the number of detected thermal anomalies slightly increased during the next month, occurring on 1, 7, 15, 18, and 23 May. A gas-and-steam plume was observed on 9 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. The MIROVA graph of thermal activity (log radiative power) at Cleveland during 4 February 2019 through January 2020 shows increased thermal anomalies between mid-April to late November 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) confirmed intermittent thermal signatures occurring in the summit crater during March 2019 through October 2019. Some gas-and-steam plumes were observed accompanying the thermal anomaly, as seen on 17 March 2019 and 8 May 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There were 10 thermal anomalies observed in June, and 11 each in July and August. Typical mild degassing was visible when photographed on 9 August (figure 32). On 14 August, seismicity increased, which included a swarm of a dozen local earthquakes. The lava dome emplaced in January was clearly visible in satellite imagery (figure 33). The number of thermal anomalies decreased the next month, occurring on 10, 21, and 25 September. During this month, a gas-and-steam plume was observed in a webcam image on 6, 8, 20, and 25 September. On 3-6, 10, and 21 October elevated surface temperatures were recorded as well as small gas-and-steam plumes on 4, 7, 13, and 20-25 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Photograph of Cleveland showing mild degassing from the summit vent taken on 9 August 2019. Photo by Max Kaufman; courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Satellite image of Cleveland showing faint gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit crater. High-resolution image taken on 17 August 2019 showing the lava dome from January 2019 inside the crater (dark ring). Image created by Hannah Dietterich; courtesy of AVO/USGS and DigitalGlobe.

Four thermal anomalies were detected on 3, 6, and 8-9 November. According to a VONA report from AVO on 8 November, satellite data suggested possible slow lava effusion in the summit crater; however, by the 15th no evidence of eruptive activity had been seen in any data sources. Another thermal anomaly was observed on 14 January 2020. Gas-and-steam emissions observed in webcam images continued intermittently.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows intermittent weak thermal anomalies within 5 km of the crater summit during mid-April through November 2019 with a larger cluster of activity in early June, late July and early October (figure 30). Thermal satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 also detected weak thermal anomalies within the summit crater throughout the reporting period, occasionally accompanied by gas-and-steam plumes (figure 31).

Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).

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Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin - Volume 09, Number 03 (March 1984)

Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland

Aira (Japan)

Tephra causes minor damage

Arenal (Costa Rica)

43rd to 46th lava flows since 1968

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989) (Unknown)

Aerosols persist at mid-latitudes; sunset reports

Bagana (Papua New Guinea)

Sounds, glow, tephra emissions; but no new lava flows

Campi Flegrei (Italy)

More vigorous seismicity; uplift continues

Chichon, El (Mexico)

Plumes on satellite images not caused by eruptions

Fernandina (Ecuador)

Caldera eruption; lava flow; SO2 plume detected

Fukujin (United States)

No water discoloration seen since December 1982

Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba (Japan)

Discolored water observed on 12 days in 1983

Kilauea (United States)

Episodes 16 and 17 include strong fountaining, tephra, and the longest flow of the 1983-84 eruption

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Activity low; explosions at middle and end of month

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Strombolian jets, glowing avalanches, scoria flows

Mauna Loa (United States)

Fissure eruption produces voluminous lava flows from NE rift vents; SO2-rich tropospheric plume reduces visibilities 7,000 km away

Minami-Hiyoshi (Japan)

No water discoloration seen since March 1978

Nyamuragira (DR Congo)

Large lava flows and tephra ejection from flank fissure

Pavlof (United States)

Vapor plume to 6 km altitude

Poas (Costa Rica)

Fumarole temperatures decrease

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Seismicity continues to intensify; deeper, stronger earthquakes; 2 seismic crises

St. Helens (United States)

New lobe extruded onto the composite lava dome

Suwanosejima (Japan)

Summary of activity, November 1982-January 1984

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Explosions and January seismic crisis; 3-month summary

Veniaminof (United States)

Vapor plumes and incandescence



Aira (Japan) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tephra causes minor damage

An explosion at Sakura-jima on 12 April at about 0940, the 95th in 1984, produced an eruption cloud that rose to 2.3 km (table 6). According to press reports, ejecta fell over half the volcano and broke windows at the foot.

Table 6. Damage caused by Sakura-jima eruptive activity in 1984.

Date Time Result
04 Jan 1984 1928 Lapilli broke car windshield at S foot of the volcano.
10 Jan 1984 1457 Air shock cracked a window at E foot.
11 Jan 1984 2140 Air shock cracked three windows.
08 Mar 1984 0724 Lapilli cracked car windshield.
19 Mar 1984 -- Debris flows reached E foot; no damage reported.
30 Mar 1984 1853 Large quantity of lapilli; forest fires started.
12 Apr 1984 0941 Strong air shock cracked three windows at the E and S foot, two windows in Kagoshima.
19 Apr 1984 -- Debris flows occurred.
29 Apr 1984 1800 Large quantities of incandescent ejecta started forest fires in more than 10 places; strong air shock broke a window in Kamoike. (Damage in Kagoshima is rare.)
04 May 1984 -- A windowpane was broken in Yasui.
08 May 1984 -- Air shock broke a hospital window at the SW foot.
23 Jun 1984 -- Heavy ashfall caused a traffic jam and interrupted electric service in Kagoshima.
03 Jul 1984 -- Strong air shock broke windowpanes at a junior high school and a house in Koike at the W foot. A Sakura-jima Volcano Observatory employee was injured by broken glass in Yokoyama at the W foot.
07 Jul 1984 -- A large amount of lapilli broke 11 car windshields and a house windowpane at the NE foot.
21 Jul 1984 -- A large amount of ejecta including pieces up to a few meters in diameter fell at the S foot. Incandescent fragments broke the roofs of 10 houses and a warehouse, burning some slightly. Telephone and electric service was interrupted for a few hours.
10-11 Oct 1984 -- Volcanic gas damaged farm crops at the SW foot.
20 Dec 1984 -- Lapilli broke a few car windshields at the S foot.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Kyodo News Service, Tokyo; UPI.


Arenal (Costa Rica) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


43rd to 46th lava flows since 1968

Lava extrusion continued from the vent at 1,450 m elevation. The lava flow that had been active in September 1983 stopped advancing in October. During the same month, a new flow (the 43rd since 1968) began to emerge, moving NW before halting at 980 m elevation in November. Another flow (no. 44) started to advance NW in December, remaining active until February, and still another flow moved N between January and March. Extrusion of flow no. 46 started in March and it continued to travel westward late in the month. Rumblings, or sounds similar to those produced by jet aircraft, were often heard in the crater.

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: J. Barquero H., E. Fernández S., Univ. Nacional, Heredia.


Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989) (Unknown) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)

Unknown

Unknown, Unknown; summit elev. m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Aerosols persist at mid-latitudes; sunset reports

Unusual sunrises and sunsets. Paul Handler observed brilliant twilights 11-18 March from Guana Island, British Virgin Islands (18.50°N, 64.62°W). Skies 30-45° above the horizon were tinted lavender pink and colors remained for 36-37 minutes after sunset, suggesting the presence of aerosols to about 18 km altitude (Meinel and Meinel, 1983). Yellowish-green illumination was observed one evening, and green clouds were seen around sunset during the week before Handler's visit. The source of the aerosols was unknown.

From Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Edward Brooks observed few colorful dawns and twilights in early March. Little stratospheric aerosol material appeared to be present, and the bright yellow dawns of 9 and 12 March were the only colorful ones observed during the first half of the month. Effects of stratospheric aerosols were occasionally observed in late March, but colors were not usually strong. Pale colors were seen 17-21 March. The absence of late dusk illumination 22 March indicated that there were no significant aerosols in the stratosphere, and scatterers appeared scarce the next morning. The brief dusk color sequence 30 March indicated a thin layer of aerosols. Dawns were bright and began early 31 March and 1 April, suggesting the presence of high aerosol layers. Dusks and dawns were strong during the first 3 days of April.

Lidar data. Lidar data from Fukuoka, Japan showed two backscattering peaks 28 and 29 March; on the 29th the lower peak was below the local tropopause. Layer altitudes and peak backscattering were very similar 1, 7, and 14 March at Hampton, Virginia, but integrated values were substantially lower on the 7th. More structure was evident on 2 April and integrated backscattering had dropped again to below 7 March levels. Data collection from Mauna Loa, Hawaii was curtailed by the onset of the eruption 25 March. Integrated backscattering has remained very similar since 16 February. Two layers were evident 7 and 13 March, but a broad, multiple-peaked layer was present on the 21st.

Reference. Meinel, A.B., and Meinel, M.P., 1983, Sunsets, twilights and evening skies: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.

Geologic Background. The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found here.

Information Contacts: P. Handler, Univ. of Illinois; E. Brooks, Saudi Arabia; M. Fujiwara and M. Hirono, Kyushu Univ., Japan; T. DeFoor, MLO; W. Fuller, NASA.


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Sounds, glow, tephra emissions; but no new lava flows

"The increased activity continued in February and March. Occasional brown and grey tephra emissions were observed, and rumbling and explosion sounds were heard 17 km away. Nighttime summit glows were occasionally seen.

"New lava flows were reported in January, but aerial inspections have failed to confirm these reports. They indicated a relatively static body of lava extending about 200 m from the summit, but this is an old lava flow. The main development of the known active lava flow at Bagana in recent times has been a sharp change in direction of flow on the lower slopes. The nose of the flow is now abutting the dome on the W foot of Bagana after completing a 60°C turn toward the W from the established flow channel on the N flank."

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Campi Flegrei (Italy) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Campi Flegrei

Italy

40.827°N, 14.139°E; summit elev. 458 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More vigorous seismicity; uplift continues

"The rate of seismic strain energy release at Campi Flegrei was higher during the first three months of 1984 than during 1983. The seismic strain energy released in the first three months of 1984 was almost as high as that released during all of 1983, although it must be noted that seismic activity did not begin to be detected until March 1983. Seasonal trends in periods of quiet activity have been observed at Campi Flegrei. The complex interplay between external and internal causes of the present crisis makes prediction of the development of the phenomenon still more difficult.

"A peak in activity occurred during the second week of March and at the beginning of April 1984. A magnitude 3.9 earthquake occurred 9 March and five days later a M 4.0 earthquake caused the roof collapse of a fifteenth century church in Pozzuoli. No injuries occurred. The close association of these two earthquakes caused some concern about the possible development of the continuing crisis. On 1 April, a seismic swarm of 499 events occurred between 0300 and 0800. The maximum magnitude was 3.0. The preliminary location is in an area about 1 km W of Pozzuoli, the same area as another swarm on 13 October 1983.

"An analysis of the reliability of hypocentral determinations has been performed using different velocity models. The uncertainties in the velocity model prevent any reliable estimate of the true depth of the earthquakes, even if they are definitely confined within the upper 4 km of crust. The effect of different velocity models does not appreciably change the epicentral determinations. The most energetic events are still confined in a small area around Solfatara Crater. The M 4.0 earthquake of 14 March was located ~ 1 km SE of Solfatara.

"The focal mechanisms of 37 selected events have been studied. Fifteen reliable solutions were obtained (figure 4). Ten events, located around Solfatara Crater, are of tensional type. Two events, located in the Gulf of Pozzuoli, seem of compressive type. No predominant orientation of the P and T axes is found.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Focal mechanisms of 15 selected earthquakes at Campi Flegrei. Courtesy of OV.

"The previously inferred trend of high deformation rates preceding the largest shocks was not observed for the last two large events. The velocity of uplift, as measured by the Pozzuoli tide gauge, was in the range of 2-3 mm/day during the first two weeks of March 1984; it increased to ~ 4 mm/day during the last two weeks in March. A survey of the levelling network was completed during March. The pattern of deformation is similar to that observed in December 1983. A maximum uplift of 32 cm since December 1983 was measured near Pozzuoli. The maximum uplift since January 1982 was 142 cm. Geochemical surveillance was implemented in 1983 as a consequence of the uplift. Some variations in the chemical composition of water wells have been detected between January and March 1984. In the same period, small variations in the composition of fumarolic gases from Solfatara Crater have been recorded (slight increase of the S/C ratio). The radon content was approximately constant. The reducing capacity of fumarolic gases has been continuously monitored at two fumaroles within Solfatara Crater, showing a broad peak since mid-February, and reaching a maximum in mid-March.

Geologic Background. Campi Flegrei is a large 13-km-wide caldera on the outskirts of Naples that contains numerous phreatic tuff rings and pyroclastic cones. The caldera margins are poorly defined, and on the south lie beneath the Gulf of Pozzuoli. Episodes of dramatic uplift and subsidence within the dominantly trachytic caldera have occurred since Roman times. The earliest known eruptive products are dated 47,000 yrs BP. The caldera formed following two large explosive eruptions, the massive Campanian ignimbrite about 36,000 BP, and the over 40 km3 Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) about 15,000 BP. Following eruption of the NYT a large number of eruptions have taken place from widely scattered subaerial and submarine vents. Most activity occurred during three intervals: 15,000-9500, 8600-8200, and 4800-3800 BP. Two eruptions have occurred in historical time, one in 1158 at Solfatara and the other in 1538 that formed the Monte Nuovo cinder cone.

Information Contacts: G. Luongo and R. Scandone, OV; F. Barberi, Univ. di Pisa; M. Carapezza, Univ. di Palermo.


El Chichon (Mexico) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

El Chichon

Mexico

17.36°N, 93.228°W; summit elev. 1150 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Plumes on satellite images not caused by eruptions

Weather satellite images 3-4 April showed a series of plume-like features originating from the vicinity of El Chichón. Data from the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus-7 polar orbiting satellite 9.5 hours after the last plume observation showed no enhancement in SO2 over the area. However, cloud elevations were estimated at 13.5 km and this prompted an on-site investigation.

Servando de la Cruz visited the volcano and found no evidence that an eruption had occurred. There was no change in the appearance of the crater, crater lake, or outer flanks, and no sign of any recent tephra deposits. Since the 15 February visit, temperatures of the crater lake (36-37°C) and fumaroles (96-98°C) had declined slightly, and the crater lake level was somewhat lower after several weeks of very little rainfall. de la Cruz noted that smoke produced by the centuries-old practice of burning the remains of the corn plants after the harvest might have looked like eruption plumes on the satellite imagery, although corn is not the most common crop in the immediate vicinity of the volcano.

Geologic Background. El Chichón is a small, but powerful trachyandesitic tuff cone and lava dome complex that occupies an isolated part of the Chiapas region in SE México far from other Holocene volcanoes. Prior to 1982, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent nonvolcanic peaks. The largest dome, the former summit of the volcano, was constructed within a 1.6 x 2 km summit crater created about 220,000 years ago. Two other large craters are located on the SW and SE flanks; a lava dome fills the SW crater, and an older dome is located on the NW flank. More than ten large explosive eruptions have occurred since the mid-Holocene. The powerful 1982 explosive eruptions of high-sulfur, anhydrite-bearing magma destroyed the summit lava dome and were accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges that devastated an area extending about 8 km around the volcano. The eruptions created a new 1-km-wide, 300-m-deep crater that now contains an acidic crater lake.

Information Contacts: S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM; A. Krueger, NASA GSFC; M. Matson, NOAA/NESDIS; T. Casadevall and R.. Tilling, USGS.


Fernandina (Ecuador) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Fernandina

Ecuador

0.37°S, 91.55°W; summit elev. 1476 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Caldera eruption; lava flow; SO2 plume detected

At 0500 on 30 March, Oswaldo Chapi and Fausto Cepeda (of the Galápagos National Park) heard noise from Fernandina Caldera, 22 km SW of their position at Tagus Cove. Glow was visible over the NW end of the caldera and a cloud was seen issuing from the same location after sunrise. The eruption was described as being smaller than the Volcán Wolf eruption of 1982.

On 1 and 2 April, the TOMS instrument in the NIMBUS 7 polar orbiting satellite detected SO2 produced by the eruption (figure 15-9). No data were available 30-31 March, and SO2 had dropped below the detection threshold by 3 April. Strongest values on 1 April were directly over the volcano and a preliminary estimate of total SO2 was 60,000 metric tons. No eruption cloud was evident on NOAA weather satellite imagery. On the afternoon of 4 April, the cruise ship Santa Cruz reported a long vapor plume coming from the caldera, but apparently decreasing in size. They looked for glow over the volcano that night but reported none.

On 11 April Fernandina was climbed from the NW by David Day [and others], who reported an apparently inactive lava flow reaching from the W side of the caldera (near the site of the major eruption of 1968) to the lake. At 0650 the next morning, [Day's group] heard a noise "like a large landslide" from their camp near the W caldera rim. Within 30 seconds, they reached the rim in time to see what Day described as a nuée ardente that had already moved from the vent area halfway to the lake. They left the rim, and observers from Punta Espinoza (17 km to the NE) described an eruptive cloud rising at 0655 to an estimated height of about 7 km. At 0704, [Day's group] was overtaken by an ash rain described as "raindrops with ash" and total darkness persisted until 0720. A thickness of 3 mm of tephra accumulated during that period at their rim camp. By 0725 it was clear enough to see into the caldera. Tephra covered the new lava on the caldera floor with the exception of an area a few hundred meters across in which molten lava could be seen. [The group] left the rim at 1030 and no further volcanism had been witnessed at the time of their radio report, at 1500 on 13 April, from Punta Espinoza. [A substantial part of the caldera wall collapsed into the 1984 vent area on 11 April, and was responsible for most, if not all, of the phenomena witnessed by Day and his group.]

This is the 6th known eruption of Fernandina since the major explosive eruption and massive caldera collapse of 1968. The last eruption was not recognized in the Galápagos, but its products are visible in an aerial photograph taken 26 March 1982. From a 900-m-long circumferential fissure on the S rim of the caldera, flows moved both inward (N) down the caldera wall and over a high topographic bench, and outward (S) where the flow ponded behind another row of circumferential vents. The eruption had not yet taken place when Tom Simkin and others passed this area on 4 December 1980.

Geologic Background. Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 km3 section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake.

Information Contacts: G. Reck, CDRS, Galápagos; L. Maldonado, Quito, Ecuador; D. Day, Isla Santa Cruz, Galápagos; A. Krueger, NASA/GSFC; M. Matson, NOAA/NESDIS.


Fukujin (United States) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Fukujin

United States

21.93°N, 143.47°E; summit elev. -217 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


No water discoloration seen since December 1982

Frequent monitoring of several known submarine volcanoes has continued. . . . No discolored water has been observed at Fukujin since December 1982.

Geologic Background. One of the larger of the submarine volcanoes of the Marianas arc, Fukujin seamount has risen on occasion to just beneath the sea surface. Intermittent periods of water discoloration have been observed since the mid-20th century, and eruptions producing floating pumice were noted on several occasions.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba (Japan) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba

Japan

24.285°N, 141.481°E; summit elev. -29 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Discolored water observed on 12 days in 1983

Frequent monitoring of several known submarine volcanoes has continued. . . . [Discolored water was observed at Fukutoku-Okanoba in 1983 on 14 January, 2 and 15 February, 3 and 15-16 March, 24 May, 16 June, 20 July, 25 October, 11 November, and 12 December; and was not visible 12 July, 25 August, and 13 September.]

Geologic Background. Fukutoku-Oka-no-ba is a submarine volcano located 5 km NE of the pyramidal island of Minami-Ioto. Water discoloration is frequently observed from the volcano, and several ephemeral islands have formed in the 20th century. The first of these formed Shin-Ioto ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, and the most recent island was formed in 1986. The volcano is part of an elongated edifice with two major topographic highs trending NNW-SSE, and is a trachyandesitic volcano geochemically similar to Ioto.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Kilauea (United States) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Episodes 16 and 17 include strong fountaining, tephra, and the longest flow of the 1983-84 eruption

"The 16th and 17th major episodes of the eruption occurred 3-4 and 30-31 March. Pu'u O was the eruptive locus for both episodes. Simultaneous eruptions on 30 March at Mauna Loa, Mt. St. Helens, Veniaminof, and Kilauea make this the first date known on which four U.S. volcanoes were erupting at the same time.

"Beginning on 28 February, lava was visible continuously within the upper 30 m of the vertical 20 m-diameter pipe that extended downward from the bowl-like crater within Pu'u O. Sometimes completely open and sometimes partly crusted, the surface of the magma column rose slowly over the next 4 days to the level of the spillway in the deep breach in the NE rim of Pu'u O. Minor amounts of spatter and small volumes of SO2-rich gas issued from the lava surface.

EPISODE 16

"Time-lapse camera data indicate that the lava ponded within Pu'u O first overflowed the spillway on 3 March at about 1450. The vigor of fountain activity increased from that time, and the fountain became visible above the rim of Pu'u O at about 1520. By 1700, when HVO personnel arrived, the fountain rose 200-250 m above the lava pond (the crater rim was about 40 m above the pond). Glowing tephra was at times wafted to twice the height of the fountain by convective air currents rising over the cone. Erratic winds distributed tephra on all sides of the vent and at times during the night, intense tephra falls, including incandescent bombs up to 20 cm in diameter, rained on observers 750 m uprift of the vent. At about 0400 on 4 March, fountain activity diminished greatly and became sporadic. During the remainder of the eruption the fountain played to heights ranging from about 20-150 m above the pond.

"The intense fountain activity produced a thick spatter-fed aa flow that advanced about 1 km N; smaller spatter-fed flows extended E, SE, and W. The major flow, dominantly aa, was fed by a vigorous lava river debouching through the breach in the NE rim of Pu'u O at an average of about 0.25 x 106 m3/hour. It advanced E and ESE, mostly on top of flows from earlier episodes. Approximately 6.4 km from the vent, it split into 2 lobes, the longer of which extended another 1.6 km SE across the NE corner of Royal Gardens subdivision. This lobe, however, was contained within the evacuated channel of the episode 2 flow that invaded the subdivision in March 1983, and caused no new damage. After a momentary pause at 2228, the eruption stopped abruptly at 2231 on 4 March. Occasional small bursts of spatter issued from the vent over the next 10 or 15 minutes.

"Basalt produced during episode 16, as in previous episodes, is sparsely porphyritic. In hand specimen, scattered, small (millimeter-size) olivine phenocrysts are visible. Lava temperatures, measured by thermocouple, were 1,139-1,142°C in pahoehoe within 1.5 km of the vent and 1,135-1,138°C at the advancing distal end of the main flow in aa and local breakouts of viscous pahoehoe.

"The volume of lava erupted during episode 16 was approximately 12 x 106 m3. The corresponding summit collapse caused almost 15 µrad of deflationary tilt change at Uwekahuna. As in previous episodes, the beginning and end of measurable summit deflation lagged slightly behind the onset and termination of lava production at the vent.

"Harmonic tremor associated with episode 16 began to increase gradually in amplitude on 3 March at 1435, and rapid increase began at 1504. Sustained, high-level tremor continued in the eruption area until 4 March at 2229 when the intensity began to pulsate and gradually decrease. Rapid decrease in tremor amplitude began at 2231, coincident with the end of lava production.

Repose-period activity. "The repose period between episodes 16 and 17 was marked by an unusually gradual reinflation of the summit, slightly over 9 µrad of inflationary tilt change in 3½ weeks. The upper surface of the gradually rising magma column was first seen at the vent on 20 March, when it was approximately 50 m deep inside the pipe that extends downward from the crater floor, and 60 m below the spillway through the NE crater rim. Intermittent observations showed that the column rose slowly until the onset of vigorous lava production on 30 March.

EPISODE 17

"Harmonic tremor related to episode 17 began to increase 30 March at 0510, and glow from the eruptive area was visible from Kilauea's summit at 0515. A photographer camped near the vent reported seeing a low dome fountain in the crater and a short NE-moving lava flow at about 0520-0530. He estimated that the flow was about 0.5 km long by 0545, and that by about 0610 the fountain top was at the level of the rim of Pu'u O (about 40 m above the surface of the overflowing lava pond).

"HVO personnel arrived at about 1000. From then on, they observed the fountain playing in a rapidly pulsating fashion (up to 20 pulses per minute); the fountain height ranged about 40-160 m above the surface of the lava pond. A narrow lava flow, fed by a voluminous lava river discharging through the breach in the NE crater rim, was more than 1.5 km long at 1000. It extended ENE (to the spatter/cinder cone south of Pu'u Kahaualea) then, following the episode 16 flow, turned ESE. During the day the flow continued advancing ESE on top of the episode 16 flow at 0.5 km/hour. During the night it followed the northern episode 16 lobe N of Royal Gardens. Near the terminus of that episode 16 lobe, the episode 17 flow turned SE and followed a gully parallel to and 1 km NE of the subdivision's E boundary. When seen the next morning, 3.5 hours after the eruption's end, the still-advancing aa flow front was about 3 km from the ocean. A preliminary estimate suggests that this flow is more than 10 km long, the longest of the 1983-84 eruptive series. Episode 17 stopped on 31 March at 0324. The sustained high-amplitude tremor characteristic of Pu'u O eruptions began to diminish in intensity at 0316 and by 0324, when lava production stopped, the tremor amplitude had nearly reached the repose-period background level.

"The episode 17 basalt, like the episode 16 basalt, is slightly porphyritic with scattered millimeter-size olivine phenocrysts. However, thermocouple temperatures measured in overflows at the edge of the lava river range from 1,131 to 1,137°C, distinctly lower than the episode 16 temperatures.

"Measurable summit deflation began about 2.5 hours after the onset of lava production and ended nearly 4 hours after the termination of lava production. Deflationary tilt change at Uwekahuna was about 10 µrad. A preliminary guess is that the volume of episode 17 lava is significantly 1ess than the episode 16 volume."

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, R. Koyanagi, HVO.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Activity low; explosions at middle and end of month

"A relatively low level of activity persisted during March, although a slight intensification was noted after the 19th. Pale grey ash emissions from Crater 2 were occasionally observed 1-18 March. A strong Vulcanian explosion took place on 19 March, and on the 20th further explosions were observed. The seismic record for 20 March indicates a total of 10 explosions. A lull in Crater 2 activity was noted 21-25 March but weak ash emission began on the 26th, and explosive activity resumed on the 27th. Two or three explosion earthquakes were recorded on 27, 28, and 30 March. Crater 3 released white and blue vapours at low rates throughout the month."

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian jets, glowing avalanches, scoria flows

"The phase of major Southern crater eruptive activity continued until mid-March, with the same pattern of high Strombolian projections resulting in flows and glowing avalanches in the SE valley. Sub-continuous vertical jets of incandescent fragments (up to 10 per minute) commonly reached 300-500 m above the crater rim. The Strombolian jets appeared to originate without recognizable synchronization from two and possibly three vents within Southern crater.

"Under the influence of the seasonal NW wind, the fragments, mainly scoria, accumulated on the SE side of the crater on 35° slopes. Approximately 20-30% of the scoria rolled down to the base of the talus fan or, gathering in channels, formed scoria-fed lava flows which progressed at about 100 m per day. The high rate of scoria accumulation prevented cooling and consolidation of the deposits. Their instability resulted in debris flows and glowing avalanches on 6-9 and 11-12 March. The avalanches, occurring in series of 10-30 within periods of 20-90 minutes, generally came to rest at the base of the talus fan, a descent of about 900 m from the summit at 1800 m. The most voluminous avalanches, however, on 8 and 11 March, had enough momentum to travel another kilometer down the SE valley to about 300 m elevation. Pyroclastic avalanches ended on 12 March with the decrease in intensity of the summit Strombolian explosions. During the last 2 weeks of March, they averaged 1 per minute and reached heights of 100-300 m above the crater. Main crater activity remained unchanged, consisting of thick white vapour emission, illuminated at night by weak fluctuating glow.

"Seismicity was high throughout the month with noticeable peaks. The amplitude of B-type events was up to 10 times normal 15-16 March, and seven times normal 23-26 March. Background harmonic tremor was strong 6-17 March. The daily number of volcanic earthquakes reached 2800 on the 9th before decreasing to 1400 on 16-19 March, and rising to over 2000 after the 20th. Tiltmeter measurements at Tabele Observatory continued to register a steady deflationary change of about 2 µµrad per month."

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: P. de Saint Ours, RVO.


Mauna Loa (United States) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Mauna Loa

United States

19.475°N, 155.608°W; summit elev. 4170 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fissure eruption produces voluminous lava flows from NE rift vents; SO2-rich tropospheric plume reduces visibilities 7,000 km away

The following (except for the plume data) is from HVO. Times noted below are preliminary and subject to slight revision after later analysis. "A long-expected flank eruption of Mauna Loa began on 25 March, and had ended by 14 April.

Background. "When summit seismic activity increased sharply in April 1974, Mauna Loa had not erupted since June 1950. Measurement of EDM lines across the summit caldera (Mokuaweoweo) in the summer of 1974 revealed significant extensions, monitoring capabilities were increased, and a forecast of renewed activity was issued (Koyanagi and others, 1975). The summit eruption of 5-6 July, 1975 lasted for less than 20 hours, and only about 30 x 106 m3 of lava were erupted. The eruption was identical to numerous other Mauna Loa summit eruptions that had been followed within 3 years by large flank eruptions. Given the historic record and continuing inflation, a forecast was made for renewed eruptive activity sometime before the summer of 1978 (Lockwood and others, 1976). The 1976 forecast was rescinded in 1977 but slow inflation continued and another forecast (based on an increase in the rate of geodetic change and seismic activity) was issued in 1983. This called attention to the increased probability of a Mauna Loa eruption within the next two years' (Decker and others, 1983), but see SEAN 08:05 in which the forecast was more specific: 'a significantly increased probability of eruption of Mauna Loa during 1983 or 1984.'

Premonitory activity. "The 25 March outbreak gave almost no short-term instrumental warning. Seismic activity had been increasing gradually through March (figure 2), but was relatively low immediately preceding the outbreak; only 29 microearthquakes were recorded beneath the summit caldera during the preceding 24 hours (in contrast to 700 microearthquakes/day in September 1983).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Number of earthquakes per day at Mauna Loa, 1 January-5 April. The start of the eruption is indicated by an arrow.

"Several people saw probable fume clouds from the summit caldera and a camper at the summit noted small explosions from the 1975 eruptive fissures on 23 March. One hiker had reported seeing 'glowing cracks' near the 1940 cone on 18 March, but no anomalous activity was detected on a thermal probe in the 1975 fumaroles. Oxidation state and temperatures of fumarolic gases remained essentially unchanged prior to the last satellite transmission about midnight on 24 March.

Eruption narrative. "At 2255 on 24 March, a small earthquake swarm began directly beneath the summit. Weak harmonic tremor with an amplitude of about 1 mm was recorded at the summit station (WIL, figure 3) at 2330. The number of small summit earthquakes increased at 2350. Tremor amplitude recorded at the summit increased to about 5 mm at 0015 on 25 March, remained high at 0051, and was recorded on all Mauna Loa and Kilauea summit area stations.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Sketch maps of the NE rift zone and summit of Mauna Loa, showing positions of 1984 lava flows (stippled) as of 5 April. Eruption fissures are indicated by hachured lines. The edge of the suburbs of Hilo is shown by a dotted line on the NE rift zone map. The areas covered are shown by the index map (inset).

"At 0055 a magnitude 4.0 earthquake beneath the summit awoke geologists (from the University of Massachusetts) camped at Pu'u Ula'ula on the NE Rift Zone. At 0056, the telescope at the summit of Mauna Kea (42 km NNW of Mauna Loa) began high-amplitude oscillation, preventing astronomical observations for the next few hours. Between 0051 and 0210, 11 earthquakes with magnitudes between 2.0 and 4.1 were recorded beneath the summit. At 0100 borehole tiltmeters recorded the onset of rapid summit inflation.

"A military satellite detected a strong infrared signal from the summit at 0125. Glow was sighted in the SW portion (1940 cone area) of the summit caldera by an observer on the summit of Mauna Kea at 0129, by the geologists at Pu'u Ula'ula at 0130, and from Kilauea at 0140. At 0146, fountain reflection on fume clouds observed from HVO suggested that fountaining extended across much of SW Mokuaweoweo and was migrating down the SW Rift Zone.

"At 0232 the tops of fountains within Mokuaweoweo were seen from Pu`u Ula`ula, suggesting a height greater than 100 m. At approximately 0340, fountaining ceased on the SW Rift Zone. At 0357, 30-m-high fountains migrated out of Mokuaweoweo, down the upper NE Rift Zone. Lava flowed downrift and onto the SE flank.

"At approximately 0600, fountaining in the caldera gradually ended. At 0632, a new vent opened about 700 m E of Pohaku Hanalei and 8 minutes later another en echelon fissure began to erupt about 600 m downrift. Lava appearance was preceded by 3 minutes of copious white steam emission from the fissure. For the next 2.5 hours, activity waned.

"At 0905, profuse steaming appeared on a fracture at about 3,510 m altitude, and at 0910 fountaining 15-40 m high began at 3,410 m and migrated downrift. At 0930, fountains above Pohaku Hanalei died down as lava production increased to approximately 1-2 x 106 m3/hour along a 2 km-long curtain of fire between about 3,400 and 3,470 m. The loci of most vigorous fountaining alternated along the 2-km fountain length. Much of the production from these vents was consumed by an open fissure parallel to and S of the principal fissure upslope, although an aa flow did move 5 km SE, S of an 1880 flow. During activity of these vents, episodic turbulent emissions of red and brown `dust' from the eruptive fissures sent clouds to about 500 m height. At 1030, steaming was noted along a 1-km-long crack system extending from about 3,260-3,170 m, but there was no further downrift migration of eruptive vents for several hours. At about 1550, ground cracking extended below 3,000 m, and at 1641 eruptive vents opened at about 2,800 m and migrated both up- and downrift. At 1830 an eruptive vent extended about 1.7 km from about 2,770-2,930 m elevation. Fountains to 50 m height fed fast-moving flows to the E and NE. Activity waned at the 3,400-m vents.

"By 0640 the next day, all lava production had ceased above 3000 m. Fountains (to 30 m height) were localized along a 500-m segment of the fissure that had opened the previous afternoon. The fastest moving flow cut the power line to the NOAA Mauna Loa Observatory shortly before dawn. At 0845, the E flows were spread out over a wide area above 1,900 m elevation, but their advance slowed during the day. Four principal eruptive vents then developed along this fissure system. Two vents fed the NE flow (1), while the other two fed the S (2-4) flows. Flow 1 steadily advanced downslope 27-28 March (figure 4), between the 1852 and 1942 lava flows. Approximately 80% of the lava production fed flow 1. Flows 2-4 ceased significant advance by 28 March. The terminus of flow 1 stopped significant advance by early 29 March, while production at the vents remained essentially constant. This suggested that a new branch flow had developed upslope. Bad weather prevented confirmation of the new branch until 30 March. This new flow (1A) moved rapidly downslope, N of flow 1.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Rates of movement of flows 1, 1A, and 1B in kilometers per day. Small circles represnet observations of flow positions. Courtesy of J.P. Lockwood.

"Phase 17 of Kilauea's E Rift Zone eruption began that morning but had no apparent effect on Mauna Loa activity. Likewise Kilauea tilt showed no deflection at the time of the Mauna Loa outbreak on 25 March.

"Flow 1A slowed on 31 March as the feeding channel became sluggish, and the flow thickened and widened upstream. At 1215 on 5 April, the flow was moving very slowly (18 m/hour) slightly below 900 m elevation. A major overflow at about 2,000 m shut off most of its lava supply and created a fast-moving flow (lB), which advanced 3 km NE to about 1,800 m elevation by 1700.

Deformation. "Much of the NE rift zone geodetic monitoring network was measured shortly before the 25 March outbreak, and EDM, tilt, and gravity stations were re-measured several times during the eruption. Although continuously recording tiltmeters at the summit showed sharp inflation (dike emplacement) immediately preceding the outbreak, major subsidence of the summit region accompanied eruptive activity along the NE rift. The center of subsidence, near the S edge of the summit caldera (figure 5), was coincident with the center of uplift identified from repeated geodetic surveys between 1977 and 1983. The amount of summit deflation recorded by tilt and horizontal distance measurements exceeded the amount of gradual inflation of the volcano since the July 1975 summit eruption, suggesting substantial injection of magma into the summit area prior to this eruption, and possibly prior to the first EDM line across the summit caldera in 1964. Maximum vertical elevation change, inferred from repeated gravity measurements, is 500 mm.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Tilt changes near the summit of Mauna Loa, July 1983-30 March 1984.

"Large extensions occurred across the middle NE rift zone during dike emplacement on 25 March, but EDM monitor lines across this zone showed no significant change after the initial dilation. The rate of summit subsidence initially followed an exponential decay, similar to subsidence episodes in the summit region of Kilauea. Since 30 March, tilt and horizontal distance measurements have indicated a steady rate of deflation (figures 6 and 7), although measurements on 6 April suggest decreasing deflation rates.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Plot of summit tilt vs. time, 25 March-3 April 1984.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Change in horizontal distance across the summit of Mauna Loa vs. time, 25 March-3 April 1984.

Dike propagation. "All dikes were emplaced within the first 15 hours of the eruption. The eruptive fissure (surface expression of dikes) extended discontinuously along a 25-km zone from 3,890 m on the SW rift zone to about 2,770 m on the NE rift zone. Ground cracking along most of this zone demonstrates the continuity of the dike at shallow levels. Lateral propagation rates vary from >2,500 m/hour down the SW rift zone to about 1,200 m/hour in lower parts of the NE rift zone (figure 8).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Rate of propagation of eruption fissures, shown as distance from the 1940 cone (in the SW part of the summit caldera) vs. hours after the start of the eruption.

Petrography, lava temperatures, and gas measurements. "Hand specimens of the 1984 basalt are very fine-grained with widely scattered (<1%) phenocrysts of olivine <3 mm in diameter and sparse microphenocrysts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Most olivines are anhedral, resorbed, commonly kinked, and surprisingly forsteritic (Fo88-90). Plagioclase and clinopyroxene are barely resolvable in the groundmass. Maximum temperatures determined repeatedly by thermocouple and radiometer ranged from 1,137 to 1,141°C and had not changed as of 5 April.

"Eruptive gases have been extensively sampled and analyzed. Observed C/S ratios are much lower than expected in primitive Hawaiian tholeiite, suggesting extensive degassing in a shallow (<4 km deep) magma reservoir.

Geoelectric studies. "One self-potential (SP) profile, first measured in July 1983, exists across the NE Rift Zone about 1 km W of the main erupting vents. The first complete reoccupation of the SP line 3 days after the eruption's start showed an amplitude increase slightly > l00 mV centered over a zone about 300 m wide across the 1.5 km-long crack zone N of Pu'u Ula'ula. VLF measurements show that the dike is located nearly in the center of the cracked zone, directly beneath the pre-existing SP maximum, at a very approximate depth of 150 m.

Areal extent and volume of lava. "As of 5 April, 25-30 km2 of area was covered. The lava is mostly pahoehoe near the vents, but is mostly aa more than 2 km from the vents. The volume was estimated to be about 150 x 106 m3 by 5 April."

Eruption plume. The eruption produced a large gas plume that was carried thousands of kilometers to the W. The plume from the summit caldera activity was clearly visible from HVO. An airline pilot approaching Honolulu at dawn 25 March reported that the top of the plume was between 10.7 and 11 km altitude and was drifting SW. Observers at Honolulu airport tower (300 km NW of Mauna Loa) reported that the top of a tall cumulus-like cloud became visible S of the airport just before dawn.

There was no evidence that the plume reached the stratosphere; the tropopause on 25 March was at about 18 km altitude. The plume was carried W by trade winds. By 30 March, a haze layer was detected at Wake and Johnston Islands (3,900 km W and 1,400 km WSW of Mauna Loa; table 2). Haze reached Kwajalein (4,000 km WSW of Mauna Loa) the next day and had reached Guam (6,300 km WSW of Mauna Loa) by 2 April.

Table 2. Visibilities at airports on several islands affected by the plume from Mauna Loa (distances are from Mauna Loa). All times are Hawaiian Standard Time. Note that all except Johnston Island are across the International Date Line from Hawaii. Data courtesy of NOAA.

Island Distance Visibility Date and Time (1984)
Johnston 1,400 km WSW 6 km 2200 on 2 April - 0200 on 3 April
Wake 3,900 km W 1.6 km 1200 on 2 April - 1700 on 2 April
Ponape 5,000 km WSW 3.2 km 1000 on 2 April - 1400 on 2 April

SO2 emitted by Mauna Loa was detected by the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus 7 polar orbiting satellite, which passed over Hawaii daily at about local noon (figure 9). Although the TOMS instrument was designed to measure ozone, it is also sensitive to SO2. An algorithm has been developed to isolate SO2 values and calculate its approximate concentration within pixels (picture elements) roughly 50 km in diameter. Preliminary estimates of the total SO2 in the Mauna Loa plume, using TOMS data, were roughly 130,000 metric tons on 26 March and 190,000 metric tons on 27 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Preliminary SO2 data from the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite. All values less than 10 milliatmosphere-cm (100 ppm-meters) have been supressed. Each number or letter represents the average SO2 value within an area 50 km across. 1 = 11-15 matm-cm = 101-150 ppm-m, 2 = 16-20 matm-cm = 151-200s ppm-m, etc; 9 is followed by A, B, C, etc. Courtesy of Arlin Krueger.

References. Decker, R.W., Koyanagi, R.Y., Dvorak, J.J., Lockwood, J.P. Okamura, A.T. Yamashita, K.M., and Tanigawa, W.R., 1983, Seismicity and surface deformation of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii: EOS, v. 64, no. 37, p. 545-547.

Koyanagi, R.Y., Endo, E.T., and Ebisu, J.S., 1975, Reawakening of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii; a preliminary evaluation of seismic evidence: Geophys. Res. Letters, v. 2, no. 9, p. 405-408.

Geologic Background. Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents.

Information Contacts: J. Lockwood and HVO staff, Hawaii; M. Rhodes, Univ. of Massachusetts; M. Garcia, Univ. of Hawaii; T. Casadevall, CVO, Vancouver, WA; A. Krueger, NASA/GSFC; M. Matson, NOAA/NESDIS.


Minami-Hiyoshi (Japan) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Minami-Hiyoshi

Japan

23.5°N, 141.935°E; summit elev. -107 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


No water discoloration seen since March 1978

Frequent monitoring of several known submarine volcanoes has continued. . . . Minami-Hiyoshi produced discolored sea water January-March 1977 and January-March 1978 but no further activity has been observed.

Geologic Background. Periodic water discoloration and water-spouting have been reported over this submarine volcano since 1975, when detonations and an explosion were also reported. It lies near the SE end of a coalescing chain of youthful seamounts, and is the only historically active vent. The reported depth of the summit of the trachyandesitic volcano has varied between 274 and 30 m. The morphologically youthful seamounts Kita-Hiyoshi and Naka-Hiyoshi lie to the NW, and Ko-Hiyoshi to the SE.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyamuragira

DR Congo

1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Large lava flows and tephra ejection from flank fissure

The NW-flank fissure eruption ended during the evening of 14 March. Lava flows covered a large area and a substantial quantity of tephra was deposited near the vents.

An A-type volcanic earthquake at 0323 on 23 February was followed by volcanic tremor. A fissure trending N100°E began opening gradually from E to W at 1013. Lava issued from the entire fissure during the first day of the eruption, but activity soon concentrated at two vents ~400 m from the E end of the fissure and two others ~1.5 km to the W (A and C on figure 4). About a week later, a new vent (B), ~500 m W of the E vents, began to emit lava, but at a lower rate than the other vents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Sketch map of part of Nyamuragira's NW flank, showing the relative positions of vents active in the 1984 eruption, and the location of the 1971 cone, S of the 1984 vents, Courtesty of N. Zana.

Lava extrusion was accompanied by explosions that could be heard 25-30 km away, along the W margin of the rift valley. About 2 m of scoria and many spindle bombs were deposited within 600-800 m S of the E vents. A bomb weighing ~12 kg was found 600 m away. N. Zana judged the volume of ejecta to be much more than in the 1976, 1980, or 1982 eruptions.

When Zana visited the eruption site 8-11 March, activity had ended at the W vents and was declining at the new vent. Both aa and pahoehoe were observed between the new vent and the W vents. Cones at the W vents stood about 80 m above the surface of the lava. At about 2300 on 10 March an aa lava flow from the E vents flooded the area of the new vent and carried away its small cone. This flow was still moving S about 0900 on 11 March. By 11 March the composite cone at the E vents had a basal diameter of 300 m and was ~250 m high, but activity was becoming intermittent.

Eruptive activity, including the explosions, ceased on the evening of 14 March. Night glow disappeared 16-17 March. Lava had flowed 20 km to the W and the lava field had an average width of 2.5 km (figure 5). The new cones have been named Kivandimwe, meaning "things running together."

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Map of the Nyamuragira-Nyiragongo area showing recent vents and lava flows. The 1984 lava flow is shaded solid black. Courtesy of N. Zana.

Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

Information Contacts: N. Zana, IRS.


Pavlof (United States) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Pavlof

United States

55.417°N, 161.894°W; summit elev. 2493 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vapor plume to 6 km altitude

At 1225 on 16 March, the pilot of Air Pacific flight S27 observed a white vapor plume rising to 6 km altitude from the volcano and drifting NW. There had been no eyewitness reports of activity at Pavlof since 15 December 1983 (8:12). After an increase on 17-21 December, seismicity decreased to the background level of several tens of events per day and remained at that level as of 2 April.

Geologic Background. The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.

Information Contacts: M. E. Yount, USGS, Anchorage; S. McNutt, LDGO.


Poas (Costa Rica) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarole temperatures decrease

Fumarolic activity continued with vigorous gas emission, but temperatures declined at a fumarole on the eroded cone (see table 3).

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: J. Barquero H., E. Fernández S., Univ. Nacional, Heredia.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismicity continues to intensify; deeper, stronger earthquakes; 2 seismic crises

"Seismicity continued to intensify in March. The total number of caldera earthquakes was 8,729, as compared to 8,339 in February. More significant than actual numbers of earthquakes, however, was the continued increase in the proportion of stronger earthquakes. This change appears to be related to the increased incidence of somewhat deeper (2-4 km), more energetic earthquakes in the Vulcan area. The remainder of the caldera seismic zone continued to be active, highlighted by the usual strong concentration of very shallow, relatively low-energy events under the W flank of Tavurvur.

"Major seismic crises took place on 3 and 25 March. The totals of caldera earthquakes on those days were 932 and 726, respectively. The crisis of 3 March involved the E part of the caldera seismic zone, at the mouth of Blanche Bay, and included an event of ML 5.1. Strong ground deformation was associated with this crisis. Tilts of up to about 50 µrad indicated inflation centred near Sulphur Point at the mouth of Greet Harbour. [Horizontal distance measurements near the time of the crisis were affected by movement of one of the caldera rim base stations.] After this crisis, expansion of Greet Harbour resumed at the same rate as before, about 25 microstrain per month. The crisis of 25 March was centred immediately NE of Vulcan, and the strongest earthquake was an ML 3.7. Water spouts up to about 3 m high were observed briefly near the NE shore of Vulcan during this crisis. No significant ground deformation accompanied the seismicity.

"Five levelling surveys carried out between late November 1983 and mid-March 1984 showed that the area of maximum measured uplift in the caldera is at the S end of Matupit Island. The rate of uplift in this period was steady at about [50 mm] per month. This compares with an uplift rate of about [8 mm/month] for the period 1973-1983."

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


St. Helens (United States) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

St. Helens

United States

46.2°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2549 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New lobe extruded onto the composite lava dome

Strong seismicity and rapid deformation were followed in late March by the addition of a new lobe to the composite lava dome. Deformation, seismicity, and SO2 emission declined after the extrusion of a small lobe in early February, and remained low through mid-March. Poor weather prevented access to the crater 22-27 March. Deformation on the 22nd was at low levels, but measurements on the 27th showed that targets on the N side of the dome had moved outward at an average rate of 0.5 m/day since the 22nd. Instantaneous rates increased from 1.9 to 2.4 m/day during a 2-hour period on 27 March.

Seismicity began to increase late 22 March, and the number of events doubled each day 24-28 March. The swarm was characterized by type "M" (medium-frequency) events similar to those that preceded the February extrusion episode. The type "M" swarm peaked early 28 March, then declined rapidly, ending by midnight. As the type "M" events diminished, a swarm of small crater events began. By noon, eleven events were being recorded per minute, and by 1600 there were 15/minute. On more distant stations, the individual events could not be resolved, merging into a tremor-like signal with an amplitude that increased through the evening.

A continuously recording tiltmeter about 30 m from the base of the talus N of the dome began telemetering data 27 March. Within a day, outward tilt, initially 200 µrad/hour, increased to more than 400 µrad/hour, accelerating abruptly to more than 1,000 µrad/hr during the afternoon of 28 March, then went off scale by 2000 that evening.

At 0320 on 29 March, an avalanche from the N side of the dome removed much of the February lobe and advanced 0.5-1 km onto the crater floor. Minor snowmelt occurred, but there was no significant mudflow. The March 1984 avalanche was similar in size to the 4 April 1982 avalanche (SEAN 07:03). Fine particles from the avalanche rose to 4.5 km altitude, dusting the E and SE parts of the crater and flanks of the volcano. A large arcuate crack in the February lobe had been observed 27 March, and failure occurred along this crack.

By 29 March, the N side of the dome had decoupled from the rest of the structure and was moving very rapidly outward. The W and probably the SE sides of the dome were virtually stationary, but the N side had moved outward 42 m since 27 March, and instantaneous rates of 15 m per day were observed on the 29th. Since 22 March, the SE side of the dome had moved only a few centimeters outward, while the W side had expanded about 4 m. When the tiltmeter N of the dome was releveled early 29 March, the rate of outward tilt had dropped to 400 µrad/hr. By midnight, the tilt rate was decreasing rapidly.

Tremor gradually separated into individual events early 29 March. During the first couple of hours after the avalanche, large rockfalls were superimposed on the tremor. The tremor gradually evolved into an earthquake swarm that remained vigorous until midnight.

Poor weather prevented frequent measurements of SO2 emission rates immediately before the extrusion episode. From 3-28 March, SO2 emission remained relatively constant at about 80 t/d, increasing to 400 t/d 29-30 March.

An overflight at about 2200 on 29 March confirmed that lava had reached the surface, emerging just W of the remnants of the February extrusion. The lobe eventually grew to nearly fill the crater at the top of the dome and reached the edge of the 29 March avalanche chute. Fragments spalled down the chute but lava did not flow beyond the edge of the dome's summit area. Weather conditions prevented direct observations of the extrusion, but deformation and seismic data suggested that lava production ended within a few days.

The earthquake swarm began to decline on 30 March, but did not reach background levels until 4 days later. This slow decline in seismicity contrasts with previous years when seismicity often dropped to background levels within hours of the onset of lava extrusion.

Total outward movement of the N flank was about 3.2 m between 30 March and 2 April, but deformation declined rapidly and had probably nearly stopped by 31 March. Between 22 March and 2 April, the N flank moved outward a total of 55 m. Tilting measured near the N foot of the dome had stopped by the morning of 31 March. Unlike the extrusion episodes of 1981-2, no tilt reversal was detected. Total tilt (assigning a rate of 400 µrad/hr while the instrument was off-scale late 28 to early 29 March) was 28 milliradians, more tilt than had previously been recorded in association with an extrusion episode at Mt. St. Helens (20 milliradians of tilt preceded the September 1981 extrusion). Tiltmeters were redeployed 80 and 250 m N of the dome 6 April and had detected no tilt as of 16 April. Rates of outward movement of the dome were only about 5 mm/day in mid-April.

Geologic Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. Prior to 2200 years ago, tephra, lava domes, and pyroclastic flows were erupted, forming the older St. Helens edifice, but few lava flows extended beyond the base of the volcano. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the north flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

Information Contacts: S. Brantley, T. Casadevall, D. Dzurisin, C. Newhall, P. Otway, USGS CVO, Vancouver, WA; R. Norris, S. Malone, University of Washington; D. Sowa, Northwest Orient Airlines.


Suwanosejima (Japan) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Summary of activity, November 1982-January 1984

Strombolian activity has been recorded almost every month, November 1982-January 1984 (table 1). No damage was reported, although there were often heavy ashfalls on the inhabited area of the island, along the shore 3.5 km SSW of the active vent.

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions and January seismic crisis; 3-month summary

"Following increased seismicity and reports of audible explosions and vapour rings in December 1983, a phase of mild explosive activity took place in January. The eruptions were probably phreatic or phreatomagmatic as some correlation with rainfall is evident. Explosions producing tephra clouds were observed 12-14 and 19-20 January. These emissions rose as high as 2,000 m above the summit. Seismicity throughout this period was of low intensity and characterized by occasional bursts of tremor. A major seismic crisis began at about 1400 on 20 January. Tremor rapidly became strong and continuous. Large-amplitude volcanic earthquakes were discernible in the tremor by 2300. Soon afterwards tremor began to subside. It is not known whether eruptive activity accompanied this seismicity as the volcano was obscured by clouds. For the remainder of January and throughout February, no eruptive activity took place, and seismicity was low.

"An explosion sound from Ulawun was reported on 4 March, and tephra emissions were observed on the 5th and 13th. The emissions on the 13th rose to about 2000 m above the summit. Seismicity was generally at a low level in March. On most days, 100-300 volcanic earthquakes were recorded, but a peak of about 750 events was reached on 9 March. Earthquake amplitudes were slightly higher 9-11 March."

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Veniaminof (United States) — March 1984 Citation iconCite this Report

Veniaminof

United States

56.17°N, 159.38°W; summit elev. 2507 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vapor plumes and incandescence

Eruptive activity continued through mid-March, but declined late March-early April. Weather clouds obscured the volcano for most of March; however, Perryville residents were able to make the following observations. On 7, 11, 14, and 16 March, a vapor plume rose above the intra-caldera cone. Glow was seen over the summit of the volcano on the evenings of the 7th and 16th. Between 1600 and 1700 on 22 March, an eruption cloud with a small amount of ash rose to approximately 4 km altitude, and an earthquake was felt in Perryville at 2345 that evening. A large vapor cloud was observed on the 23rd and a dark ash cloud was "glimpsed" on the 28th. Another vapor plume rose about 60 m above the intra-caldera cone on 30 March. Weather clouds continued to obscure the volcano through 8 April. Perryville residents observed a vapor cloud above the summit during the day 9-10 April but no incandescence during the evening. During an overflight by USGS personnel on 11 April, a vapor cloud containing little or no tephra rose about 90 m from the summit area of the intra-caldera cone. No incandescent ejecta was observed. The lava flow did not appear to be advancing and it was covered by a light dusting of snow. Vapor was emitted from the edges and top of the lava flow.

Geologic Background. Veniaminof, on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3,700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.

Information Contacts: M.E. Yount, USGS, Anchorage.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports