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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Nevados de Chillan (Chile) Explosions and pyroclastic flows continue; new dome emerges from Nicanor crater in June 2020

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Ash plumes during 29 February-2 March and 1 May 2020

Kerinci (Indonesia) Intermittent ash emissions during January-early May 2020

Tinakula (Solomon Islands) Intermittent small thermal anomalies and gas-and-steam plumes during January-June 2020

Ibu (Indonesia) Frequent ash emissions and summit incandescence; Strombolian explosions in March 2020

Suwanosejima (Japan) Frequent explosions, ash plumes, and summit incandescence in January-June 2020

Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) Intermittent ash plumes and persistent summit thermal anomalies, January-June 2020

Sangay (Ecuador) Daily ash plumes and frequent pyroclastic flows produce ashfall and lahars, January-June 2020

Karangetang (Indonesia) Incandescent block avalanches through mid-January 2020; crater anomalies through May

Shishaldin (United States) Intermittent thermal activity and a possible new cone at the summit crater during February-May 2020

Masaya (Nicaragua) Lava lake level drops but remains active through May 2020; weak gas plumes

Krakatau (Indonesia) Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence during April 2020



Nevados de Chillan (Chile) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevados de Chillan

Chile

36.868°S, 71.378°W; summit elev. 3180 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions and pyroclastic flows continue; new dome emerges from Nicanor crater in June 2020

Nevados de Chillán is a complex of late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes in the Chilean Central Andes. An eruption started with a phreatic explosion and ash emission on 8 January 2016 from a new crater (Nicanor) on the E flank of the Nuevo crater, itself on the NW flank of the large Volcán Viejo stratovolcano. Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continued throughout 2016 and 2017; a lava dome within the Nicanor crater was confirmed in early January 2018. Explosions and pyroclastic flows continued during 2018 and 2019, with several lava flows appearing in late 2019. This report covers continuing activity from January-June 2020 when ongoing explosive events produced ash plumes, pyroclastic flows, and the growth of new dome inside the crater. Information for this report is provided primarily by Chile's Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)-Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), and by the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Explosions with ash plumes rising up to three kilometers above the summit area were intermittent from late January through early June 2020. Some of the larger explosions produced pyroclastic flows that traveled down multiple flanks. Thermal anomalies within the Nicanor crater were recorded in satellite data several times each month from February through June. A reduction in overall activity led SERNAGEOMIN to lower the Alert Level from Orange to Yellow (on a 4-level, Green-Yellow-Orange-Red scale) during the first week of March, although tens of explosions with ash plumes were still recorded during March and April. Explosive activity diminished in early June and SERNAGEOMIN reported the growth of a new dome inside the Nicanor crater. By the end of June, a new flow had extended about 100 m down the N flank. Thermal activity recorded by the MIROVA project showed a drop in thermal energy in mid-December 2019 after the lava flows of September-November stopped advancing. A decrease in activity in January and February 2020 was followed by an increase in thermal and explosive activity in March and April. Renewed thermal activity from the growth of a new dome inside the Nicanor crater was recorded beginning in mid-June (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. MIROVA thermal anomaly data for Nevados de Chillan from 8 September 2019 through June 2020 showed a drop in thermal activity in mid-December 2019 after the lava flows of September-November stopped advancing. A decrease in activity in January and February 2020 was followed by an increase in explosive activity in March and April. Renewed thermal activity from the growth of a new dome inside the Nicanor crater was recorded beginning in mid-June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Weak gas emissions were reported daily during January 2020 until a series of explosions began on the 21st. The first explosion rose 100 m above the active crater; the following day, the highest explosion rose 1.6 km above the crater. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported pulse emissions visible in satellite imagery on 21 and 24 January that rose to 3.9-4.3 km altitude and drifted SE and NE, respectively. Intermittent explosions continued through 26 January. Incandescent ejecta was observed during the night of 28-29 January. The VAAC reported an isolated emission on 29 January that rose to 5.2 km altitude and drifted E. A larger explosion on 30 January produced an ash plume that SERNAGEOMIN reported at 3.4 km above the crater (figure 53). It produced pyroclastic flows that traveled down ravines on the NNE and SE flanks. The Washington VAAC reported on behalf of the Buenos Aires VAAC that an emission was observed in satellite imagery on 30 January that rose to 4.9 km altitude and was moving rapidly E, reaching 15 km from the summit at midday. The altitude of the ash plume was revised two hours later to 7.3 km, drifting NNE and rapidly dissipating. Satellite images identified two areas of thermal anomalies within the Nicanor crater that day. One was the same emission center (CE4) identified in November 2019, and the second was a new emission center (CE5) located 60 m NW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. A significant explosion and ash plume from the Nicanor crater at Nevados de Chillan on 30 January 2020 produced an ash plume reported at 7.3 km altitude. The left image was taken within one minute of the initial explosion. Images posted by Twitter accounts #EmergenciasÑuble (left) and T13 (right); original photographers unknown.

When the weather permitted, low-altitude mostly white degassing was seen during February 2020, often with traces of fine-grained particulate material. Incandescence at the crater was observed overnight during 4-5 February. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported an emission on 14 February visible in the webcam. The next day, an emission was visible in satellite imagery at 3.9 km altitude that drifted E. Episodes of pulsating white and gray plumes were first observed by SERNAGEOMIN beginning on 18 February and continued through 25 February (figure 54). The Buenos Aires VAAC reported pulses of ash emissions moving SE on 18 February at 4.3 km altitude. Ash drifted E the next day at 3.9 km altitude and a faint plume was briefly observed on 20 February drifting N at 3.7 km altitude before dissipating. Sporadic pulses of ash moved SE from the volcano on 22 February at 4.3 km altitude, briefly observed in satellite imagery before dissipating. Thermal anomalies were visible from the Nicanor crater in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 23 and 28 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. An ash emission at Nevados de Chillan on 18 February 2020 was captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery drifting SE (left). Thermal anomalies within the Nicanor crater were measured on 23 (right) and 28 February. Images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Only low-altitude degassing of mostly steam was reported for the first half of March 2020. When SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level from Orange to Yellow on 5 March, they reduced the affected area from 5 km NE and 3 km SW of the crater to a radius of 2 km around the active crater. Thermal anomalies were recorded at the Nicanor crater in Sentinel-2 imagery on 4, 9, 11, 16, and 19 March (figure 55). A new series of explosions began on 19 March; 44 events were recorded during the second half of the month (figure 56). Webcams captured multiple explosions with dense ash plumes; on 25 and 30 March the plumes rose more than 2 km above the crater. Fine-grained ashfall occurred in Las Trancas (10 km SW) on 25 March. Pyroclastic flows on 25 and 30 March traveled 300 m NE, SE, and SW from the crater. Incandescence was observed at night multiple times after 20 March. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported several discrete pulses of ash that rose to 4.3 km altitude and drifted SE on 20 and 21 March, SW on 25 March, and SE on 29 and 30 March. Another ash emission rose to 5.5 km altitude later on 30 March and drifted SE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Sentinel-2 Satellite imagery of Nevados de Chillan during March 2020 showed thermal anomalies on five different dates at the Nicanor crater, including on 9, 11, and 16 March. A second thermal anomaly of unknown origin was also visible on 11 March about 2 km SW of the crater (center). Images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Forty-four explosive events were recorded at Nevados de Chillan during the second half of March 2020 including on 19 March. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN webcams and chillanonlinenoticia.

In their semi-monthly reports for April 2020, SERNAGEOMIN reported 94 explosive events during the first half of the month and 49 during the second half; many produced dense ash plumes. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported frequent intermittent ash emissions during 1-13 April reaching altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (figure 57). They reported the plume on 8 April visible in satellite imagery at 7.3 km altitude drifting SE. An emission on 13 April was also visible in satellite imagery at 6.1 km altitude drifting NE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery captured a strong thermal anomaly and an ash plume drifting SE from Nevados de Chillan on 10 April 2020. Image uses Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the second half of April 2020, SERNAGEOMIN reported that only one plume exceeded 2 km in height; on 21 April, it rose to 2.4 km above the crater (figure 58). The Buenos Aires VAAC reported isolated pulses of ash on 18, 26, 28, and 30 April. During the second half of April SERNAGEOMIN also reported that a pyroclastic flow traveled about 1,200 m from the crater rim down the SE flank. The ash from the pyroclastic flow drifted SE and S as far as 3.5 km. Satellite images showed continued activity from multiple emission centers around the crater. Pronounced scarps were noted on the internal walls of the crater, attributed to the deepening of the crater from explosive activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Tens of explosions were reported at Nevados de Chillan during the second half of April 2020 that produced dense ash plumes. The plume on 21 April rose 2.4 km above the Nicanor crater. Photo by Josefa Carrasco Acuña from San Fabián de Alico; posted by Noticias Valpo Express.

Intermittent explosive activity continued during May 2020. The plumes contained abundant particulate material and were accompanied by periodic pyroclastic flows and incandescent ejecta around the active crater, especially visible at night. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported several sporadic weak ash emissions during the first week of May that rose to 3.7-5.2 km altitude and drifted NE. SERNAGEOMIN reported that only one explosion produced an ash emission that rose more than two km above the crater during the first two weeks of the month; on 6 May it rose to 2.5 km above the crater and drifted NE. They also observed pyroclastic flows on the E and SE flanks that day. Additional pyroclastic flows traveled 450 m down the S flank during the first half of the month, and similar deposits were observed to the N and NE. Satellite observations showed various emission points along the NW-trending lineament at the summit and multiple erosion scarps. Major erosion was noted at the NE rim of the crater along with an increase in degassing around the rim.

During the second half of May 2020 most of the ash plumes rose less than 2 km above the crater; a plume from one explosion on 22 May rose 2.2 km above the crater; the Buenos Aires VAAC reported the plume at 5.5 km altitude drifting NW (figure 59). Continuing pyroclastic emissions deposited material as far as 1.5 km from the crater rim on the NNW flank. There were also multiple pyroclastic deposits up to 500 m from the crater directed N and NE during the period. SERNAGEOMIN reported an increase in steam degassing between Nuevo-Nicanor and Nicanor-Arrau craters.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Explosions produced dense ash plumes and pyroclastic flows at Nevados de Chillan multiple times during May 2020 including on 22 May. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Webcam images during the first two weeks of June 2020 indicated multiple incandescent explosions. On 3 and 4 June plumes from explosions reached heights of over 1.25 km above the crater; the Buenos Aires VAAC reported them drifting NW at 3.9 km altitude. Incandescent ejecta on 6 June rose 760 m above the vent and drifted NE. In addition, pyroclastic flows were distributed on the N, NW, E and SE flanks. Significant daytime and nighttime incandescence was reported on 6, 9, and 10 June (figure 60). The VAAC reported emission pulses on 6 and 9 June drifting E and SE at 4.3 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Multiple ash plumes with incandescence were reported at Nevados de Chillan during the first ten days of June 2020 including on 6 June, after which explosive activity decreased significantly. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIIN and Sismo Alerta Mexicana.

SERNAGEOMIN reported that beginning on the afternoon of 9 June 2020 a tremor-type seismic signal was first recorded, associated with continuous emission of gas and dark gray ash that drifted SE (figure 61). A little over an hour later another tremor signal began that lasted for about four hours, followed by smaller discrete explosions. A hybrid-type earthquake in the early morning of 10 June was followed by a series of explosions that ejected gas and particulate matter from the active crater. The vent where the emissions occurred was located within the Nicanor crater close to the Arrau crater; it had been degassing since 30 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. A tremor-type seismic signal was first recorded on the afternoon of 9 June 2020 at Nevados de Chillan. It was associated with the continuous emission of gas and dark gray ash that drifted SE, and incandescent ejecta visible after dark. View is to the S, courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN webcam, posted by Volcanology Chile.

After the explosions on the afternoon of 9 June, a number of other nearby vents became active. In particular, the vent located between the Nuevo and Nicanor craters began emitting material for the first time during this eruptive cycle. The explosion also generated pyroclastic flows that traveled less than 50 m in multiple directions away from the vent. Abundant incandescent material was reported during the explosion early on 10 June. Deformation measurements showed inflation over the previous 12 days.

SERNAGEOMIN identified a surface feature in satellite imagery on 11 June 2020 that they interpreted as a new effusive lava dome. It was elliptical with dimensions of about 85 x 120 m. In addition to a thermal anomaly attributed to the dome, they noted three other thermal anomalies between the Nuevo, Arrau, and Nicanor craters. They reported that within four days the base of the active crater was filled with effusive material. Seismometers recorded tremor activity after 11 June that was interpreted as associated with lava effusion. Incandescent emissions were visible at night around the active crater. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery recorded a bright thermal anomaly inside the Nicanor crater on 14 June (figure 62).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. A bright thermal anomaly was recorded inside the Nicanor crater at Nevados de Chillan on 14 June 2020. SERNAGEOMIN scientists attributed it to the growth of a new lava dome within the crater. Image uses Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A special report from SERNAGEOMIN on 24 June 2020 noted that vertical inflation had increased during the previous few weeks. After 20 June the inflation rate reached 2.49 cm/month, which was considered high. The accumulated inflation measured since July 2019 was 22.5 cm. Satellite imagery continued to show the growth of the dome, and SERNAGEOMIN scientists estimated that it reached the E edge of the Nicanor crater on 23 June. Based on these images, they estimated an eruptive rate of 0.1-0.3 m3/s, about two orders of magnitude faster than the Gil-Cruz dome that emerged between December 2018 and early 2019.

Webcams revealed continued low-level explosive activity and incandescence visible both during the day and at night. By the end of June, webcams recorded a lava flow that extended 94 m down the N flank from the Nicanor crater and continued to advance. Small explosions with abundant pyroclastic debris produced recurring incandescence at night. Satellite infrared imagery indicated thermal radiance from effusive material that covered an area of 37,000 m2, largely filling the crater. DEM analysis suggested that the size of the crater had tripled in volume since December 2019 due largely to erosion from explosive activity since May 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed a bright thermal anomaly inside the crater on 27 June.

Geologic Background. The compound volcano of Nevados de Chillán is one of the most active of the Central Andes. Three late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes were constructed along a NNW-SSE line within three nested Pleistocene calderas, which produced ignimbrite sheets extending more than 100 km into the Central Depression of Chile. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, Cerro Blanco (Volcán Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group. Volcán Viejo (Volcán Chillán), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcán Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcán Viejo in elevation. The Volcán Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcán Nuevo between 1973 and 1986 and eventually exceeded its height.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/, https://twitter.com/Sernageomin); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); #EmergenciasÑuble (URL: https://twitter.com/urgenciasnuble/status/1222943399185207296); T13, Channel 13 Press Department (URL: https://twitter.com/T13/status/1222951071443771394); Chillanonlinenoticia (URL: https://twitter.com/ChillanOnline/status/1240754211932995595); Noticias Valpo Express (URL: https://twitter.com/NoticiasValpoEx/status/1252715033131388928); Sismo Alerta Mexicana (URL: https://twitter.com/Sismoalertamex/status/1269351579095691265); Volcanology Chile (URL: https://twitter.com/volcanologiachl/status/1270548008191643651).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes during 29 February-2 March and 1 May 2020

Bagana lies in a nearly inaccessible mountainous tropical rainforest area of Bougainville Island in Papua New Guinea and is primarily monitored by satellite imagery of ash plumes and thermal anomalies. After a state of elevated activity that lasted through December 2018 (BGVN 43:05, 44:06, 44:12), the volcano entered a quieter period that persisted through at least May 2020. This report focuses on activity between December 2019 and May 2020.

Atmospheric clouds often obscured satellite views of the volcano during the reporting period. When the volcano could be observed, light-colored gas plumes were often observed (figure 43). Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 29 February-2 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8-2.1 km and drifted SW and N. On 1 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted NW and W. According to both Darwin VAAC volcanic ash advisories, the Aviation Color Code was Orange (second highest of four hazard levels).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Sentinel-2 image of Bagana, showing a gas plume drifting SE on 13 March 2020, during a period when the Darwin VAAC had not reported any ash explosions (Natural Color rendering, bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the reporting period, the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system recorded only intermittent thermal anomalies, all of which were of low radiative power. Sulfur dioxide emissions detected by satellite-based instruments over this reporting period were at low levels.

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash emissions during January-early May 2020

Kerinci is a stratovolcano located in Sumatra, Indonesia that has been characterized by explosive eruptions with ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions. The most recent eruptive episode began in April 2018 which has included intermittent explosions and ash plumes. The previous report (BGVN 44:12) described more recent activity consisting of intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes which occurred during June through early November 2019. This volcanism continued through May 2020, though little to no activity was reported during December 2019. The primary source of information for this report comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

Activity during December 2019 consisted of white gas-and-steam emissions rising 100-500 m above the summit. White and brown emissions continued intermittently through May 2020, rising to a maximum altitude of 1 km above the summit on 14 April. During 3-6 and 8-9 January 2020, the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG issued notices reporting brown volcanic ash rising 150-600 m above the summit drifting S and ESE (figure 19). PVMBG published a VONA notice on 24 January at 0828 reporting ash rising 400 m above the summit. Brown emissions continued intermittently throughout the reporting period. On 1 February, volcanic ash was observed rising 300-960 m above the summit and drifting NE; PVMBG reported continuing brown emissions during 1-3 February. During 16-17 February, two VONA notices reported that brown ash plumes rose 150-400 m above the summit and drifted SW accompanied by consistent white gas-and-steam emissions (figure 20).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Brown ash plume rose 500-600 m above Kerinci on 4 January 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. White gas-and-steam emissions rose 400 m above Kerinci on 19 February 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Øystein Lund Andersen.

During 1-16 and 25-26 March 2020 brown ash emissions were frequently observed rising 100-500 m above the summit drifting in multiple directions. During 6-8 and 10-15, April brown ash emissions were reported 50-1,000 m above the summit. The most recent Darwin VAAC and VONA notices were published on 14 April, reporting volcanic ash rising 400 and 600 m above the summit, respectively; however, PVMBG reported brown emissions rising up to 1,000 m. By 25-27 April brown ash emissions rose 50-300 m above the summit. Intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions continued through May. The last brown emissions seen in May were reported on the 7th rising 50-100 m above the summit.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com, images at https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse/status/1213658331564269569/photo/1 and https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse/status/1230419965209018369/photo/1).


Tinakula (Solomon Islands) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Tinakula

Solomon Islands

10.386°S, 165.804°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent small thermal anomalies and gas-and-steam plumes during January-June 2020

Tinakula is a remote stratovolcano located 100 km NE of the Solomon Trench at the N end of the Santa Cruz. In 1971, an eruption with lava flows and ash explosions caused the small population to evacuate the island. Volcanism has previously been characterized by an ash explosion in October 2017 and the most recent eruptive period that began in December 2018 with renewed thermal activity. Activity since then has consisted of intermittent thermal activity and dense gas-and-steam plumes (BGVN 45:01), which continues into the current reporting period. This report updates information from January-June 2020 using primary source information from various satellite data, as ground observations are rarely available.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed weak, intermittent, but ongoing thermal activity during January-June 2020 (figure 41). A small cluster of slightly stronger thermal signatures was detected in late February to early March, which is correlated to MODVOLC thermal alert data; four thermal hotspots were recorded on 20, 27, and 29 February and 1 March. However, observations using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery were often obscured by clouds. In addition to the weak thermal signatures, dense gas-and-steam plumes were observed in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery rising from the summit during this reporting period (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Weak thermal anomalies at Tinakula from 26 June 2019 through June 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were intermittent and clustered more strongly in late February to early March.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery shows ongoing gas-and-steam plumes rising from Tinakula during January through May 2020. Images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8a) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Three distinct thermal anomalies were observed in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery on 22 January, 11 April, and 6 May 2020, accompanied by some gas-and-steam emissions (figure 43). The hotspot on 22 January was slightly weaker than the other two days, and was seen on the W flank, compared to the other two that were observed in the summit crater. According to MODVOLC thermal alerts, a hotspot was recorded on 6 May, which corresponded to a Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image with a notable anomaly in the summit crater (figure 43). On 10 June no thermal anomaly was seen in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery due to the presence of clouds; however, what appeared to be a dense gas-and-steam plume was extending W from the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing a weak thermal activity (bright yellow-orange) on 22 January 2020 on the W flank of Tinakula (top) and slightly stronger thermal hotspots on 11 April (middle) and 6 May (bottom) in at the summit, which are accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. Images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8a) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The small 3.5-km-wide island of Tinakula is the exposed summit of a massive stratovolcano at the NW end of the Santa Cruz islands. Similar to Stromboli, it has a breached summit crater that extends from the summit to below sea level. Landslides enlarged this scarp in 1965, creating an embayment on the NW coast. The satellitic cone of Mendana is located on the SE side. The dominantly andesitic volcano has frequently been observed in eruption since the era of Spanish exploration began in 1595. In about 1840, an explosive eruption apparently produced pyroclastic flows that swept all sides of the island, killing its inhabitants. Frequent historical eruptions have originated from a cone constructed within the large breached crater. These have left the upper flanks and the steep apron of lava flows and volcaniclastic debris within the breach unvegetated.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Ibu (Indonesia) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Ibu

Indonesia

1.488°N, 127.63°E; summit elev. 1325 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent ash emissions and summit incandescence; Strombolian explosions in March 2020

Ibu is an active stratovolcano located along the NW coast of Halmahera Island in Indonesia. Volcanism has recently been characterized by frequent ash explosions, ash plumes, and small lava flows within the crater throughout 2019 (BGVN 45:01). Activity continues, consisting of frequent white-and-gray emissions, ash explosions, ash plumes, and lava flows. This report updates activity through June 2020, using data from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), and various satellites.

Volcanism during the entire reporting period dominantly consisted of white-and-gray emissions that rose 200-800 m above the summit drifting in multiple directions. The ash plume with the maximum altitude of 13.7 km altitude occurred on 16 May 2020. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected multiple smaller hotspots within the crater throughout the reporting period.

Continuous ash emissions were reported on 6 February rising to 2.1 km altitude drifting E, accompanied by a hotspot visible in infrared satellite imagery. On 16 February, a ground observer reported an eruption that produced an ash plume rising 800 m above the summit drifting W, according to a Darwin VAAC notice. Ash plumes continued through the month, drifting in multiple directions and rising up to 2.1 km altitude. During 8-10 March, video footage captured multiple Strombolian explosions that ejected incandescent material and produced ash plumes from the summit (figures 21 and 22). Occasionally volcanic lightning was observed within the ash column, as recorded in video footage by Martin Rietze. This event was also documented by a Darwin VAAC notice, which stated that multiple ash emissions rose 2.1 km altitude drifting SE. PVMBG published a VONA notice on 10 March at 1044 reporting ash plumes rising 400 m above the summit. PVMBG and Darwin VAAC notices described intermittent eruptions on 26, 28, and 29 March, all of which produced ash plumes rising 300-800 m above the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Strombolian explosions recorded at the crater summit of Ibu during 8-10 March 2020 ejected incandescent ejecta and a dense ash plume. Video footage copyright by Martin Rietze, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Strombolian explosions recorded at the crater summit of Ibu during 8-10 March 2020 ejected incandescent ejecta and ash. Frequent volcanic lightning was also observed. Video footage copyright by Martin Rietze, used with permission.

A majority of days in April included white-and-gray emissions rising up to 800 m above the summit. A ground observer reported an eruption on 9 April, according to a Darwin VAAC report, and a hotspot was observed in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. Minor eruptions were reported intermittently during mid-April and early to mid-May. On 12 May at 1052 a VONA from PVMBG reported an ash plume 800-1,100 m above the summit. A large short-lived eruption on 16 May produced an ash plume that rose to a maximum of 13.7 km altitude and drifted S, according to the Darwin VAAC report. By June, volcanism consisted predominantly of white-and-gray emissions rising 800 m above the summit, with an ash eruption on 15 June. This eruptive event resulted in an ash plume that rose 1.8 km altitude drifting WNW and was accompanied by a hotspot detected in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery, according to a Darwin VAAC notice.

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system detected frequent hotspots during July 2019 through June 2020 (figure 23). In comparison, the MODVOLC thermal alerts recorded a total of 24 thermal signatures over the course of 19 different days between January and June. Many thermal signatures were captured as small thermal hotspots in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery within the crater (figure 24).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Thermal anomalies recorded at Ibu from 2 July 2019 through June 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were frequent and consistent in power. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) showed occasional thermal hotspots (bright orange) in the Ibu summit crater during January through June 2020. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Martin Rietze, Taubenstr. 1, D-82223 Eichenau, Germany (URL: https://mrietze.com/, https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5LzAA_nyNWEUfpcUFOCpJw/videos, video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMkfT1e4HQQ).


Suwanosejima (Japan) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent explosions, ash plumes, and summit incandescence in January-June 2020

Suwanosejima is an active stratovolcano located in the northern Ryukyu Islands. Volcanism has previously been characterized by Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and summit incandescence (BGVN 45:01), which continues to occur intermittently. A majority of this activity originates from vents within the large Otake summit crater. This report updates information during January through June 2020 using monthly reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

During 3-10 January 2020, 13 explosions were detected from the Otake crater rising to 1.4 km altitude; material was ejected as far as 600 m away and ashfall was reported in areas 4 km SSW, according to JMA. Occasional small eruptive events continued during 12-17 January, which resulted in ash plumes that rose 1 km above the crater rim and ashfall was again reported 4 km SSW. Crater incandescence was visible nightly during 17-24 January, while white plumes rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim.

Nightly incandescence during 7-29 February, and 1-6 March, was accompanied by intermittent explosions that produced ash plumes rising up to 1.2 km above the crater rim (figure 44); activity during early February resulted in ashfall 4 km SSW. On 19 February an eruption produced a gray-white ash plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater (figure 45), resulting in ashfall in Toshima village (4 km SSW), according to JMA. Explosive events during 23-24 February ejected blocks onto the flanks. Two explosions were recorded during 1-6 March, which sent ash plumes as high as 900-1,000 m above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 300 m from the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Surveillance camera images of summit incandescence at Suwanosejima on 29 January (top left), 21 (middle left) and 23 (top right) February, and 25 March (bottom left and right) 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Monthly bulletin reports 511, January, February, and March 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Surveillance camera images of which and white-and-gray gas-and-steam emissions rising from Suwanosejima on 5 January (top), 19 February (middle), and 24 March 2020 (bottom). Courtesy of JMA (Monthly bulletin reports 511, January, February, and March 2020).

Nightly incandescence continued to be visible during 13-31 March, 1-10 and 17-24 April, 1-8, 15-31 May, 1-5 and 12-30 June 2020; activity during the latter part of March was relatively low and consisted of few explosive events. In contrast, incandescence was frequently accompanied by explosions in April and May. On 28 April at 0432 an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim and drifted SE and E, and ejected blocks as far as 800 m from the crater. The MODVOLC thermal alerts algorithm also detected four thermal signatures during this eruption within the summit crater. An explosion at 1214 on 29 April caused glass in windows to vibrate up to 4 km SSW away while ash emissions continued to be observed following the explosion the previous day, according to the Tokyo VAAC.

During 1-8 May explosions occurred twice a day, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and ejecting material 400 m from the crater. An explosion on 29 May at 0210 produced an off-white plume that rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and ejected large blocks up to 200 m above the rim. On 5 June an explosion produced gray-white plumes rising 1 km above the crater. Small eruptive events continued in late June, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed relatively stronger thermal anomalies in late February and late April 2020 with an additional six weaker thermal anomalies detected in early January (2), early February (1), mid-April (2), and mid-May (1) (figure 46). Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery in late January through mid-April showed two distinct thermal hotspots within the summit crater (figure 47).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Prominent thermal anomalies at Suwanosejima during July-June 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) occurred in late February and late April. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing small thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) from two locations within the Otake summit crater at Suwanosejima. Images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kadovar

Papua New Guinea

3.608°S, 144.588°E; summit elev. 365 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes and persistent summit thermal anomalies, January-June 2020

The steeply sloped 1.4-km-diameter Kadovar Island is located in the Bismark Sea offshore from the mainland of Papua New Guinea about 25 km NNE from the mouth of the Sepik River. Its first confirmed observed eruption began in early January 2018, with ash plumes and lava extrusion resulting in the evacuation of around 600 residents from the N side of the island (BGVN 43:03). A dome appeared at the base of the E flank during March-May 2018 (Planka et al., 2019); by November activity had migrated to a new dome growing near the summit on the E flank. Pulsating steam plumes, thermal anomalies, and periodic ash emissions continued throughout 2019 (BGVN 44:05, 45:01), and from January-June 2020, the period covered in this report. Information was provided by the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), satellite sources, and photographs from visitors.

Activity during January-June 2020. Intermittent ash plumes, pulsating gas and steam plumes, and thermal anomalies continued at Kadovar during January-June 2020. MIROVA thermal data suggested persistent low-level anomalies throughout the period (figure 45). Sentinel-2 satellite data confirmed thermal anomalies at the summit on 5 and 25 January 2020, and an ash emission on 20 January (figure 46). Persistent pulsating steam plumes were visible whenever the skies were clear enough to see the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Persistent low-level thermal activity at Kadovar was recorded in the MIROVA graph of radiative power from 2 July 2019 through June 2020. The island location is mislocated in the MIROVA system by about 5.5 km SE due to older mis-registered imagery; the anomalies are all on the island. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Sentinel-2 satellite data confirmed thermal anomalies at the summit of Kadovar on 5 (left) and 25 January 2020, and an ash emission and steam plume that drifted SE on 20 January (center). Pulsating steam-and-gas emissions left a trail in the atmosphere drifting SE for several kilometers on 25 January (right). Left image uses Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a), center and right images use Natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 2 February 2020 the Darwin VAAC reported a minor eruption plume that rose to 1.5 km altitude and drifted ESE for a few hours. Another plume was clearly discernible in satellite imagery on 5 February at 2.1 km altitude moving SE. RVO issued an information bulletin on 7 February reporting that, since the beginning of January, the eruption had continued with frequent Vulcanian explosions from the Main Vent with a recurrence interval of hours to days. Rocks and ash were ejected 300-400 m above the vent. Rumbling could be heard from Blupblup (Rubrub) island, 15 km E, and residents there also observed incandescence at night. On clear days the plume was sometimes visible from Wewak, on the mainland 100 km W. Additional vents produced variable amounts of steam. The Darwin VAAC reported continuous volcanic ash rising to 1.5 km on 22 February that extended ESE until it was obscured by a meteoric cloud; it dissipated early the next day. A small double ash plume and two strong thermal anomalies at the summit were visible in satellite imagery on 24 February (figure 47).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Ash emissions and thermal anomalies continued at Kadovar during February 2020. Two small plumes of ash or dense steam rose from the summit on 24 February 2020, seen in this Natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) on the left. The same image rendered in Atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8a) on the right shows two thermal anomalies in the same locations as the ash plumes. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The Darwin VAAC reported continuous ash emissions beginning on 13 March 2020 that rose to 1.5 km altitude and drifted SE. The plume was visible intermittently in satellite imagery for about 36 hours before dissipating. During April, pulsating steam plumes rose from two vents at the summit, and thermal anomalies appeared at both vents in satellite data (figure 48). Small but distinct SO2 anomalies were visible in satellite data on 15 and 16 April (figure 49).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Steam plumes and thermal anomalies continued at Kadovar during April 2020. Top: A thermal anomaly at the summit accompanied pulsating steam plumes that drifted several kilometers SE before dissipating on 4 April 2020. Bottom left: Two gas-and-steam plumes drifted E from the summit on 9 April. Bottom right: Two adjacent thermal anomalies were present near the summit on 19 April. Top and bottom right images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a), bottom left image uses Natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Small but distinct SO2 anomalies were detected at Kadovar on 15 and 16 April 2020 with the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Nearby Manam often produces larger SO2 plumes that obscure evidence of activity at Kadovar. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Two summit vents remained active throughout May and June 2020, producing pulsating steam plumes that were visible for tens of kilometers and thermal anomalies visible in satellite data (figure 50). A strong thermal anomaly was visible beneath meteoric clouds on 8 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. During May and June 2020 thermal and plume activity continued at Kadovar. Top: Gas-and-steam plumes drifted NW from two sources at the summit of Kadovar on 19 May 2020. Bottom left: Two thermal anomalies marked the E rim of the summit crater on 28 June 2020. Bottom right: A zoomed out view of the same 28 June image shows pulsating steam plumes drifting 10 km NW from Kadovar. Top image is Natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Bottom images are Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a) of Sentinel-2 images. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Visitor observations on 21 October 2019. Claudio Jung visited Kadovar on 21 October 2019. Shortly before arriving on the island an ash plume rose tens of meters above the summit and drifted W (figure 51). From the NW side of the summit crater rim, Jung saw the actively growing dome on the side of a larger dome, and steam and gas issuing from the growing dome (figure 52). The crater rim was covered with dead vegetation, ash, and large bombs from recent explosions (figure 53). The summit dome had minor fumarolic activity around the summit area and dead vegetation halfway up the flank (figure 54) while the fresh blocky lava of the actively growing dome on the E side of the summit produced significant steam and gas emissions. The growing dome produced periodic pulses of dense steam during his visit (figure 55).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Views looking S show the shoreline dome at the base of the E flank of Kadovar that was active during March-May 2018 (left), and an ash plume drifting W from the summit dome located on the E side of the summit crater (right) on 21 October 2019. Copyrighted photos courtesy of Claudio Jung, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. A panorama looking SE from the crater rim of Kadovar on 21 October 2019 shows the actively growing dome on the far left with a narrow plume of steam and gas being emitted. A large dome fills the summit crater; the crater rim is visible on the right. Copyrighted photo courtesy of Claudio Jung, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The crater rim of Kadovar on 21 October 2019 was covered with dead vegetation, ash, and large bombs from recent explosions. Person is sitting on a large bomb; weak fumarolic activity is visible along the rim. Copyrighted photo courtesy of Claudio Jung, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. The summit dome of Kadovar on 21 October 2019 had minor fumarolic activity around most of its summit and dead vegetation half-way up the flank (left). The dead tree stumps suggest that vegetation covered the lower half of the dome prior to the eruption that began in January 2018. The fresh blocky lava of the actively growing dome on the E side of the summit dome produced significant steam and gas emissions (right). Copyrighted photos courtesy of Claudio Jung, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Dense steam from the growing dome on the E side of the summit drifted W from Kadovar on 21 October 2019. Copyrighted photo courtesy of Claudio Jung, used with permission.

Reference: Planka S, Walter T R, Martinis S, Cescab S, 2019, Growth and collapse of a littoral lava dome during the 2018/19 eruption of Kadovar Volcano, Papua New Guinea, analyzed by multi-sensor satellite imagery, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 388, 15 December 2019, 106704, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.106704.

Geologic Background. The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of Holocene age. It is part of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 25 km N of the mouth of the Sepik River. Prior to an eruption that began in 2018, a lava dome formed the high point of the andesitic volcano, filling an arcuate landslide scarp open to the south; submarine debris-avalanche deposits occur in that direction. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low cliffs along the coast. The youthful island lacks fringing or offshore reefs. A period of heightened thermal phenomena took place in 1976. An eruption began in January 2018 that included lava effusion from vents at the summit and at the E coast.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Claudio Jung (URL: https://www.instagram.com/jung.claudio/).


Sangay (Ecuador) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangay

Ecuador

2.005°S, 78.341°W; summit elev. 5286 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily ash plumes and frequent pyroclastic flows produce ashfall and lahars, January-June 2020

Frequent activity at Ecuador's Sangay has included pyroclastic flows, lava flows, ash plumes, and lahars reported since 1628. Its remoteness on the east side of the Andean crest make ground observations difficult; remote cameras and satellites provide important information on activity. The current eruption began in March 2019 and continued through December 2019 with activity focused on the Cráter Central and the Ñuñurco (southeast) vent; they produced explosions with ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows and block avalanches. In addition, volcanic debris was remobilized in the Volcan river causing significant damming downstream. This report covers ongoing similar activity from January through June 2020. Information is provided by Ecuador's Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), and a number of sources of remote data including the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), the Italian MIROVA Volcano HotSpot Detection System, and Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. Visitors also provided excellent ground and drone-based images and information.

Throughout January-June 2020, multiple daily reports from the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) indicated ash plumes rising from the summit, generally 500-1,100 m. Each month one or more plumes rose over 2,000 m. The plumes usually drifted SW or W, and ashfall was reported in communities 25-90 km away several times during January-March and again in June. In addition to explosions with ash plumes, pyroclastic flows and incandescent blocks frequently descended a large, deep ravine on the SE flank. Ash from the pyroclastic flows rose a few hundred meters and drifted away from the volcano. Incandescence was visible on clear nights at the summit and in the ravine. The MIROVA log radiative power graph showed continued moderate and high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 57). Sangay also had small but persistent daily SO2 signatures during January-June 2020 with larger pulses one or more days each month (figure 58). IG-EPN published data in June 2020 about the overall activity since May 2019, indicating increases throughout the period in seismic event frequency, SO2 emissions, ash plume frequency, and thermal energy (figure 59).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. This graph of log radiative power at Sangay for 18 Aug 2018 through June 2020 shows the moderate levels of thermal energy through the end of the previous eruption in late 2018 and the beginning of the current one in early 2019. Data is from Sentinel-2, courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Small but persistent daily SO2 signatures were typical of Sangay during January-June 2020. A few times each month the plume was the same or larger than the plume from Columbia’s Nevado del Ruiz, located over 800 km NE. Image dates are shown in the header over each image. Courtesy of NASA’s Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. A multi-parameter graph of activity at Sangay from May 2019 to 12 June 2020 showed increases in many types of activity. a) seismic activity (number of events per day) detected at the PUYO station (source: IG-EPN). b) SO2 emissions (tons per day) detected by the Sentinel-5P satellite sensor (TROPOMI: red squares; source: MOUNTS) and by the IG-EPN (DOAS: green bars). c) height of the ash plumes (meters above crater) detected by the GOES-16 satellite sensor (source: Washington VAAC). d) thermal emission power (megawatt) detected by the MODIS satellite sensor (source: MODVOLC) and estimate of the accumulated lava volume (million M3, thin lines represent the error range). Courtesy of IG-EPN (Informe Especial del Volcán Sangay - 2020 - N°3, “Actualización de la actividad eruptiva”, Quito, 12 de junio del 2020).

Activity during January-March 2020. IG-EPN and the Washington VAAC reported multiple daily ash emissions throughout January 2020. Gas and ash emissions generally rose 500-1,500 m above the summit, most often drifting W or SW. Ashfall was reported on 8 January in the communities of Sevilla (90 km SSW), Pumallacta and Achupallas (60 km SW) and Cebadas (35 km WNW). On 16 January ash fell in the Chimborazo province in the communities of Atillo, Ichobamba, and Palmira (45 km W). Ash on 28 January drifted NW, with minor ashfall reported in Púngala (25 km NW) and other nearby communities. The town of Alao (20 km NW) reported on 30 January that all of the vegetation in the region was covered with fine white ash; Cebadas and Palmira also noted minor ashfall (figure 60).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Daily ash plumes and repeated ashfall were reported from Sangay during January 2020. Top left: 1 January 2020 (INFORME DIARIO DEL ESTADO DEL VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 2020-2, JUEVES, 2 ENERO 2020). Top right: 20 January 2020 (INFORME DIARIO DEL ESTADO DEL VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 2020-21, MARTES, 21 ENERO 2020). Bottom left: 26 January-1 February 2020 expedition (Martes, 18 Febrero 2020 12:21, EXPEDICIÓN AL VOLCÁN SANGAY). Bottom right: 30 January 2020, minor ashfall was reported in the Province of Chimborazo (#IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 006, JUEVES, 30 ENERO 2020). Courtesy of IG-EPN.

A major ravine on the SE flank has been the site of ongoing block avalanches and pyroclastic flows since the latest eruption began in March 2019. The pyroclastic flows down the ravine appeared incandescent at night; during the day they created ash clouds that drifted SW. Satellite imagery recorded incandescence and dense ash from pyroclastic flows in the ravine on 7 January (figure 61). They were also reported by IG on the 9th, 13th, 26th, and 28th. Incandescent blocks were reported in the ravine several times during the month. The webcam captured images on 31 January of large incandescent blocks descending the entire length of the ravine to the base of the mountain (figure 62). Large amounts of ash and debris were remobilized as lahars during heavy rains on the 25th and 28th.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Sangay from 7 January 2020 clearly showed a dense ash plume drifting W and ash and incandescent material from pyroclastic flows descending the SE-flank ravine. Left image uses natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering and right images uses atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Pyroclastic flows at Sangay produced large trails of ash down the SE ravine many times during January 2020 that rose and drifted SW. Top left: 9 January (INFORME DIARIO DEL ESTADO DEL VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 2020-9, JUEVES, 9 ENERO 2020). Top right: 13 January (INFORME DIARIO DEL ESTADO DEL VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 2020-14, MARTES, 14 ENERO 2020). On clear nights, incandescent blocks of lava and pyroclastic flows were visible in the ravine. Bottom left: 16 January (INFORME DIARIO DEL ESTADO DEL VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 2020-17, VIERNES, 17 ENERO 2020). Bottom right: 31 January (#IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 007, VIERNES, 31 ENERO 2020). Courtesy of IG-EPN.

Observations by visitors to the volcano during 9-17 January 2020 included pyroclastic flows, ash emissions, and incandescent debris descending the SE flank ravine during the brief periods when skies were not completely overcast (figure 63 and 64). More often there was ash-filled rain and explosions heard as far as 16 km from the volcano, along with the sounds of lahars generated from the frequent rainfall mobilizing debris from the pyroclastic flows. The confluence of the Rio Upano and Rio Volcan is 23 km SE of the summit and debris from the lahars has created a natural dam on the Rio Upano that periodically backs up water and inundates the adjacent forest (figure 65). A different expedition to Sangay during 26 January-1 February 2020 by IG personnel to repair and maintain the remote monitoring station and collect samples was successful, after which the station was once again transmitting data to IG-EPN in Quito (figure 66).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. Hikers near Sangay during 9-17 January 2020 witnessed pyroclastic flows and incandescent explosions and debris descending the SE ravine. Left: The view from 40 km SE near Macas showed ash rising from pyroclastic flows in the SE ravine. Right: Even though the summit was shrouded with a cap cloud, incandescence from the summit crater and from pyroclastic flows on the SE flank were visible on clear nights. Courtesy of Arnold Binas, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. The steep ravine on the SE flank of Sangay was hundreds of meters deep in January 2020 when these drone images were taken by members of a hiking trip during 9-17 January 2020 (left). Pyroclastic flows descended the ravine often (right), coating the sides of the ravine with fine, white ash and sending ash billowing up from the surface of the flow which resulted in ashfall in adjacent communities several times. Courtesy of Arnold Binas, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Debris from pyroclastic flows that descended the SE Ravine at Sangay was carried down the Volcan River (left) during frequent rains and caused repeated damming at the confluence with the Rio Upano (right), located 23 km SE of the summit. These images show the conditions along the riverbeds during 9-17 January 2020. Courtesy of Arnold Binas, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. An expedition by scientists from IG-EPN to one of the remote monitoring stations at Sangay during 26 January-1 February 2020 was successful in restoring communication to Quito. The remote location and constant volcanic activity makes access and maintenance a challenge. Courtesy of IG-EPN (Martes, 18 Febrero 2020 12:21, EXPEDICIÓN AL VOLCÁN SANGAY).

During February 2020, multiple daily VAAC reports of ash emissions continued (figure 67). Plumes generally rose 500-1,100 m above the summit and drifted W, although on 26 February emissions were reported to 1,770 m. Ashfall was reported in Macas (40 km SE) on 1 February, and in the communities of Pistishi (65 km SW), Chunchi (70 km SW), Pumallacta (60 k. SW), Alausí (60 km SW), Guamote (40 km WNW) and adjacent areas of the Chimborazo province on 5 February. The Ecuadorian Red Cross reported ash from Sangay in the provinces of Cañar and Azuay (60-100 km SW) on 25 February. Cebadas and Guamote reported moderate ashfall the following day. The communities of Cacha (50 km NW) and Punín (45 km NW) reported trace amounts of ashfall on 29 February. Incandescent blocks were seen on the SE flank multiples times throughout the month. A pyroclastic flow was recorded on the SE flank early on 6 February; additional pyroclastic flows were observed later that day on the SW flank. On 23 February a seismic station on the flank recorded a high-frequency signal typical of lahars.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Steam and ash could be seen drifting SW from the summit of Sangay on 11 February 2020 even though the summit was hidden by a large cap cloud. Ash was also visible in the ravine on the SE flank. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground, natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering.

A significant ash emission on 1 March 2020 was reported about 2 km above the summit, drifting SW. Multiple ash emissions continued daily during the month, generally rising 570-1,170 m high. An emission on 12 March also rose 2 km above the summit. Trace ashfall was reported in Cebadas (35 km WNW) on 12 March. The community of Huamboya, located 40 km ENE of Sangay in the province of Morona-Santiago reported ashfall on 17 March. On 19 and 21 March ashfall was seen on the surface of cars in Macas to the SE. (figure 68). Ash was also reported on the 21st in de Santa María De Tunants (Sinaí) located E of Sangay. Ash fell again in Macas on 23 March and was also reported in General Proaño (40 km SE). The wind changed direction the next day and caused ashfall on 24 March to the SW in Cuenca and Azogues (100 km SW).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Ashfall from Sangay was reported on cars in Huamboya on 17 March 2020 (left) and in Macas on 19 March (right). Courtesy IG-EPN, (#IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 024, MARTES, 17 MARZO 2020 and #IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 025, JUEVES, 19 MARZO 2020).

Incandescence from the dome at the crater and on the SE flank was noted by IG on 3, 4, and 13 March. Remobilized ash from a pyroclastic flow was reported drifting SW on 13 March. The incandescent path of the flow was still visible that evening. Numerous lahars were recorded seismically during the month, including on days 5, 6, 8, 11, 15, 30 and 31. Images from the Rio Upano on 11 March confirmed an increase from the normal flow rate (figure 69) inferred to be from volcanic debris. Morona-Santiago province officials reported on 14 March that a new dam had formed at the confluence of the Upano and Volcano rivers that decreased the flow downstream; by 16 March it had given way and flow had returned to normal levels.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. Images from the Rio Upano on 11 March 2020 (left) confirmed an increase from the normal flow rate related to lahars from Sangay descending the Rio Volcan. By 16 March (right), the flow rate had returned to normal, although the large blocks in the river were evidence of substantial activity in the past. Courtesy of IG (#IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 018, MIÉRCOLES, 11 MARZO 2020 and #IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 023, LUNES, 16 MARZO 2020).

Activity during April-June 2020. Lahar activity continued during April 2020; they were reported seven times on 2, 5, 7, 11, 12, 19, and 30 April. A significant reduction in the flow of the Upano River at the entrance bridge to the city of Macas was reported 9 April, likely due to a new dam on the river upstream from where the Volcan river joins it caused by lahars related to ash emissions and pyroclastic flows (figure 70). The flow rate returned to normal the following day. Ash emissions were reported most days of the month, commonly rising 500-1,100 m above the summit and drifting W. Incandescent blocks or flows were visible on the SE flank on 4, 10, 12, 15-16, and 20-23 April (figure 71).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. A significant reduction in the flow of the Upano River at the entrance bridge to the city of Macas was reported on 9 April 2020, likely due to a new dam upstream from lahars related to ash emissions and pyroclastic flows from Sangay. Courtesy of IG-EPN (#IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 032, JUEVES, 9 ABRIL 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE ravine at Sangay multiple times during April 2020, including on 4 April (left). Pyroclastic flows left two continuous incandescent trails in the ravine on 23 April (right). Courtesy of IG-EPN (INFORME DIARIO DEL ESTADO DEL VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 2020-95, SÁBADO, 4 ABRIL 2020 and INFORME DIARIO DEL ESTADO DEL VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 2020-114, JUEVES, 23 ABRIL 2020).

Activity during May 2020 included multiple daily ash emissions that drifted W and numerous lahars from plentiful rain carrying ash and debris downstream. Although there were only a few visible observations of ash plumes due to clouds, the Washington VAAC reported plumes visible in satellite imagery throughout the month. Plumes rose 570-1,170 m above the summit most days; the highest reported rose to 2,000 m above the summit on 14 May. Two lahars occurred in the early morning on 1 May and one the next day. A lahar signal lasted for three hours on 4 May. Two lahar signals were recorded on the 7th, and three on the 9th. Lahars were also recorded on 16-17, 20-22, 26-27, and 30 May. Incandescence on the SE flank was only noted three times, but it was cloudy nearly every day.

An increase in thermal and overall eruptive activity was reported during June 2020. On 1 and 2 June the webcam captured lava flows and remobilization of the deposits on the SE flank in the early morning and late at night. Incandescence was visible multiple days each week. Lahars were reported on 4 and 5 June. The frequent daily ash emissions during June generally rose to 570-1,200 m above the summit and drifted usually SW or W. The number of explosions and ash emissions increased during the evening of 7 June. IG interpreted the seismic signals from the explosions as an indication of the rise of a new pulse of magma (figure 72). The infrasound sensor log from 8 June also recorded longer duration tremor signals that were interpreted as resulting from the descent of pyroclastic flows in the SE ravine.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Seismic and infrasound signals indicated increased explosive and pyroclastic flow activity at Sangay on 7-8 June 2020. Left: SAGA station (seismic component) of 7 and 8 June. The signals correspond to explosions without VT or tremor signals, suggesting the rise of a new magma pulse. Right: SAGA station infrasound sensor log from 8 June. The sharp explosion signals are followed a few minutes later (examples highlighted in red) by emergent signals of longer duration, possibly associated with the descent of pyroclastic material in the SE flank ravine. Courtesy if IG-EPN (Informe Especial del Volcán Sangay - 2020 - N°3, “Actualización de la actividad eruptiva”, Quito, 12 de junio del 2020).

On the evening of 8 June ashfall was reported in the parish of Cebadas and in the Alausí Canton to the W and SW of Sangay. There were several reports of gas and ash emissions to 1,770 m above the summit the next morning on 9 June, followed by reports of ashfall in the provinces of Guayas, Santa Elena, Los Ríos, Morona Santiago, and Chimborazo. Ashfall continued in the afternoon and was reported in Alausí, Chunchi, Guamote, and Chillanes. That night, which was clear, the webcam captured images of pyroclastic flows down the SE-flank ravine; IG attributed the increase in activity to the collapse of one or more lava fronts. On the evening of 10 June additional ashfall was reported in the towns of Alausí, Chunchi, and Guamote (figure 73); satellite imagery indicated an ash plume drifting W and incandescence from pyroclastic flows in the SE-flank ravine the same day (figure 74).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Ashfall from Sangay was reported in Alausí (top left), Chunchi (top right) and Guamote (bottom) on 10 June 2020. Courtesy of IG-EPN (#IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 049, MIÉRCOLES, 10 JUNIO 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Incandescent pyroclastic flows (left) and ash plumes that drifted W (right) were recorded on 10 June 2020 at Sangay in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Ashfall continued on 11 June and was reported in Guayaquil, Guamote, Chunchi, Riobamba, Guaranda, Chimbo, Echandía, and Chillanes. The highest ash plume of the report period rose to 2,800 m above the summit that day and drifted SW. That evening the SNGRE (Servicio Nacional de Gestion de Riesgos y Emergencias) reported ash fall in the Alausí canton. IG noted the increase in intensity of activity and reported that the ash plume of 11 June drifted more than 600 km W (figure 75). Ash emissions on 12 and 13 June drifted SW and NW and resulted in ashfall in the provinces of Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Tungurahua, and Bolívar. On 14 June, the accumulation of ash interfered with the transmission of information from the seismic station. Lahars were reported each day during 15-17 and 19-21 June. Trace amounts of ashfall were reported in Macas to the SE on 25 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. The ash plume at Sangay reported on 11 June 2020 rose 2.8 km above the summit and drifted W according to the Washington VAAC and IG (left). Explosions and high levels of incandescence on the SE flank were captured by the Don Bosco webcam (right). Courtesy of IG-EPN (#IGAlInstante Informativo VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 055, JUEVES, 11 JUNIO 2020 and INFORME DIARIO DEL ESTADO DEL VOLCÁN SANGAY No. 2020-164, VIERNES, 12 JUNIO 2020).

During an overflight of Sangay on 24 June IG personnel observed that activity was characterized by small explosions from the summit vent and pyroclastic flows down the SE-flank ravine. The explosions produced small gas plumes with a high ash content that did not rise more than 500 m above the summit and drifted W (figure 76). The pyroclastic flows were restricted to the ravine on the SE flank, although the ash from the flows rose rapidly and reached about 200 m above the surface of the ravine and also drifted W (figure 77).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. A dense ash plume rose 500 m from the summit of Sangay on 24 June 2020 and drifted W during an overflight by IG-EPN personnel. The aerial photograph is taken from the SE; snow-covered Chimborazo is visible behind and to the right of Sangay. Photo by M Almeida, courtesy of IG EPN (Jueves, 02 Julio 2020 10:29, INFORME DEL SOBREVUELO AL VOLCÁN SANGAY EL 24 DE JUNIO DE 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Pyroclastic flows descended the SE flank ravine at Sangay during an overflight by IG-EPN personnel on 24 June 2020. Ash from the pyroclastic flow rose 200 m and drifted W, and infrared imagery identified the thermal signature of the pyroclastic flow in the ravine. Photo by M Almeida, IR Image by S Vallejo, courtesy of IG EPN (Jueves, 25 Junio 2020 12:24, SOBREVUELO AL VOLCÁN SANGAY).

Infrared imagery taken during the overflight on 24 June identified three significant thermal anomalies in the large ravine on the SE flank (figure 78). Analysis by IG scientists suggested that the upper anomaly 1 (125°C) was associated with explosive activity that was observed during the flight. Anomaly 2 (147°C), a short distance below Anomaly 1, was possibly related to effusive activity of a small flow, and Anomaly 3 (165°C) near the base of the ravine that was associated with pyroclastic flow deposits. The extent of the changes at the summit of Sangay and along the SE flank since the beginning of the eruption that started in March 2019 were clearly visible when images from May 2019 were compared with images from the 24 June 2020 overflight (figure 79). The upper part of the ravine was nearly 400 m wide by the end of June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. A thermal image of the SE flank of Sangay taken on 24 June 2020 indicated three thermal anomalies. Anomaly 1 was associated with explosive activity, Anomaly 2 was associated with effusive activity, and Anomaly 3 was related to pyroclastic-flow deposits. Image prepared by S Vallejo Vargas, courtesy of IG EPN (Jueves, 02 Julio 2020 10:29, INFORME DEL SOBREVUELO AL VOLCÁN SANGAY EL 24 DE JUNIO DE 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Aerial and thermal photographs of the southern flank of the Sangay volcano on 17 May 2019 (left: visible image) and 24 June 2020 (middle: visible image, right: visible-thermal overlay) show the morphological changes on the SE flank, associated with the formation of a deep ravine and the modification of the summit. Photos and thermal image by M Almeida, courtesy of IG EPN (Jueves, 02 Julio 2020 10:29, INFORME DEL SOBREVUELO AL VOLCÁN SANGAY EL 24 DE JUNIO DE 2020).

Geologic Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Arnold Binas (URL: https://www.doroadventures.com).


Karangetang (Indonesia) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Karangetang

Indonesia

2.781°N, 125.407°E; summit elev. 1797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Incandescent block avalanches through mid-January 2020; crater anomalies through May

The Karangetang andesitic-basaltic stratovolcano (also referred to as Api Siau) at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has had more than 50 observed eruptions since 1675. Frequent explosive activity is accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars, and lava-dome growth has created two active summit craters (Main to the S and Second Crater to the N). Rock avalanches, observed incandescence, and satellite thermal anomalies at the summit confirmed continuing volcanic activity since the latest eruption started in November 2018 (BGVN 44:05). This report covers activity from December 2019 through May 2020. Activity is monitored by Indonesia's Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM, or the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation), and ash plumes are monitored by the Darwin VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center). Information is also available from MODIS thermal anomaly satellite data through both the University of Hawaii's MODVOLC system and the Italian MIROVA project.

Increased activity that included daily incandescent avalanche blocks traveling down the W and NW flanks lasted from mid-July 2019 (BGVN 44:12) through mid-January 2020 according to multiple sources. The MIROVA data showed increased number and intensity of thermal anomalies during this period, with a sharp drop during the second half of January (figure 40). The MODVOLC thermal alert data reported 29 alerts in December and ten alerts in January, ending on 14 January, with no further alerts through May 2020. During December and the first half of January incandescent blocks traveled 1,000-1,500 m down multiple drainages on the W and NW flanks (figure 41). After this, thermal anomalies were still present at the summit craters, but no additional activity down the flanks was identified in remote satellite data or direct daily observations from PVMBG.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. An episode of increased activity at Karangetang from mid-July 2019 through mid-January 2020 included incandescent avalanche blocks traveling down multiple flanks of the volcano. This was reflected in increased thermal activity seen during that interval in the MIROVA graph covering 5 June 2019 through May 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. An episode of increased activity at Karangetang from mid-July 2019 through mid-January 2020 included incandescent avalanche blocks traveling up to 1,500 m down drainages on the W and NW flanks of the volcano. Top left: large thermal anomalies trend NW from Main Crater on 5 December 2019; about 500 m N a thermal anomaly glows from Second Crater. Top center: on 15 December plumes of steam and gas drifted W and SW from both summit craters as seen in Natural Color rendering (bands 4,3,2). Top right: the same image as at top center with Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a) shows hot zones extending WNW from Main Crater and a thermal anomaly at Second Crater. Bottom left: thermal activity seen on 14 January 2020 extended about 800 m WNW from Main Crater along with an anomaly at Second Crater and a hot spot about 1 km W. Bottom center: by 19 January the anomaly from Second Crater appeared slightly stronger than at Main Crater, and only small anomalies appeared on the NW flank. Bottom right: an image from 14 March shows only thermal anomalies at the two summit craters. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A single VAAC report in early April noted a short-lived ash plume that drifted SW. Intermittent low-level activity continued through May 2020. Small SO2 plumes appeared in satellite data multiple times in December 2019 and January 2020; they decreased in size and frequency after that but were still intermittently recorded into May 2020 (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Small plumes of sulfur dioxide were measured at Karangetang with the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite multiple times during December 2019 (top row). They were less frequent but still appeared during January-May 2020 (bottom row). Larger plumes were also detected from Dukono, located 300 km ESE at the N end of North Maluku. Courtesy of Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

PVMBG reported in their daily summaries that steam plumes rose 50-150 m above the Main Crater and 25-50 m above Second Crater on most days in December. The incandescent avalanche activity that began in mid-July 2019 also continued throughout December 2019 and January 2020 (figure 43). Incandescent blocks from the Main Crater descended river drainages (Kali) on the W and NW flanks throughout December. They were reported nearly every day in the Nanitu, Sense, and Pangi drainages, traveling 1,000-1,500 m. Incandescence from both craters was visible 10-25 m above the crater rim most nights.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Incandescent block avalanches descended the NW flank of Karangetang as far as 1,500 m frequently during December 2019 and January 2020. Left image taken 13 December 2019, right image taken 6 January 2020 by PVMBG webcam. Courtesy of PVMBG, Oystein Anderson, and Bobyson Lamanepa.

A few blocks were noted traveling 800 m down Kali Beha Barat on 1 December. Incandescence above the Main crater reached 50-75 m during 4-6 December. During 4-7 December incandescent blocks appeared in Kali Sesepe, traveling 1,000-1,500 m down from the summit. They were also reported in Kali Batang and Beha Barat during 4-14 December, usually moving 800-1,000 m downslope. Between 5 and 14 December, gray and white plumes from Second Crater reached 300 m multiple times. During 12-15 December steam plumes rose 300-500 m above the Main crater. Activity decreased during 18-26 December but increased again during the last few days of the month. On 28 December, incandescent blocks were reported 1,500 m down Kali Pangi and Nanitu, and 1,750 m down Kali Sense.

Incandescent blocks were reported in Kali Sesepi during 4-6 January and in Kali Batang and Beha Barat during 4-8 and 12-15 January (figure 44); they often traveled 800-1,200 m downslope. Activity tapered off in those drainages and incandescent blocks were last reported in Kali Beha Barat on 15 January traveling 800 m from the summit. Incandescent blocks were also reported traveling usually 1,000-1,500 m down the Nanitu, Sense, and Pangi drainages during 4-19 January. Blocks continued to occasionally descend up to 1,000 m down Kali Nanitu through 24 January. Pulses of activity occurred at the summit of Second Crater a few times in January. Steam plumes rose 25-50 m during 8-9 January and again during 16-31 January, with plumes rising 300-400 m on 20, 29, and 31 January. Incandescence was noted 10-25 m above the summit of Second Crater during 27-30 January.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Incandescent material descends the Beha Barat, Sense, Nanitu, and Pangi drainages on the NW flank of Karangetang in early January 2020. Courtesy of Bobyson Lamanepa; posted on Twitter on 6 January 2020.

Activity diminished significantly after mid-January 2020. Steam plumes at the Main Crater rose 50-100 m on the few days where the summit was not obscured by fog during February. Faint incandescence occurred at the Main Crater on 7 February, and steam plumes rising 25-50 m from Second Crater that day were the only events reported there in February. During March, steam plumes persisted from the Main Crater, with heights of over 100 m during short periods from 8-16 March and 25-30 March. Weak incandescence was reported from the Main Crater only once, on 25 March. Very little activity occurred at Second Crater during March, with only steam plumes reported rising 25-300 m from the 22nd to the 28th (figure 45).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Steam plumes at Karangetang rose over 100 m above both summit craters multiple times during March, including on 26 March 2020. Courtesy of PVMBG and Oystein Anderson.

The Darwin VAAC reported a continuous ash emission on 4 April 2020 that rose to 2.1 km altitude and drifted SW for a few hours before dissipating. Incandescence visible 25 m above both craters on 13 April was the only April activity reported by PVMBG other than steam plumes from the Main Crater that rose 50-500 m on most days. Steam plumes of 50-100 m were reported from Second Crater during 11-13 April. Activity remained sporadic throughout May 2020. Steam plumes from the Main Crater rose 50-300 m each day. Satellite imagery identified steam plumes and incandescence from both summit craters on 3 May (figure 46). Faint incandescence was observed at the Main Crater on 12 and 27 May. Steam plumes rose 25-50 m from Second Crater on a few days; a 200-m-high plume was reported on 27 May. Bluish emissions were observed on the S and SW flanks on 28 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Dense steam plumes and thermal anomalies were present at both summit craters of Karangetang on 3 May 2020. Sentinel 2 satellite image with Natural Color (bands 4, 3, 2) (left) and Atmospheric Penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a) (right); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, about 125 km NNE of the NE-most point of Sulawesi island. The stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. It is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts have produced pyroclastic flows.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com); Bobyson Lamanepa, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, (URL: https://twitter.com/BobyLamanepa/status/1214165637028728832).


Shishaldin (United States) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Shishaldin

United States

54.756°N, 163.97°W; summit elev. 2857 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal activity and a possible new cone at the summit crater during February-May 2020

Shishaldin is located near the center of Unimak Island in Alaska, with the current eruption phase beginning in July 2019 and characterized by ash plumes, lava flows, lava fountaining, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. More recently, in late 2019 and into January 2020, activity consisted of multiple lava flows, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and ashfall events (BGVN 45:02). This report summarizes activity from February through May 2020, including gas-and-steam emissions, brief thermal activity in mid-March, and a possible new cone within the summit crater. The primary source of information comes from the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reports and various satellite data.

Volcanism during February 2020 was relatively low, consisting of weakly to moderately elevated surface temperatures during 1-4 February and occasional small gas-and-steam plumes (figure 37). By 6 February both seismicity and surface temperatures had decreased. Seismicity and surface temperatures increased slightly again on 8 March and remained elevated through the rest of the reporting period. Intermittent gas-and-steam emissions were also visible from mid-March (figure 38) through May. Minor ash deposits visible on the upper SE flank may have been due to ash resuspension or a small collapse event at the summit, according to AVO.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Photo of a gas-and-steam plume rising from the summit crater at Shishaldin on 22 February 2020. Photo courtesy of Ben David Jacob via AVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. A Worldview-2 panchromatic satellite image on 11 March 2020 showing a gas-and-steam plume rising from the summit of Shishaldin and minor ash deposits on the SE flank (left). Aerial photo showing minor gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit crater on 11 March (right). Some erosion of the snow and ice on the upper flanks is a result of the lava flows from the activity in late 2019 and early 2020. Photo courtesy of Matt Loewen (left) and Ed Fischer (right) via AVO.

On 14 March, lava and a possible new cone were visible in the summit crater using satellite imagery, accompanied by small explosion signals. Strong thermal signatures due to the lava were also seen in Sentinel-2 satellite data and continued strongly through the month (figure 39). The lava reported by AVO in the summit crater was also reflected in satellite-based MODIS thermal anomalies recorded by the MIROVA system (figure 40). Seismic and infrasound data identified small explosions signals within the summit crater during 14-19 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images (bands 12, 11, 8A) show a bright hotspot (yellow-orange) at the summit crater of Shishaldin during mid-March 2020 that decreases in intensity by late March. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. MIROVA thermal data showing a brief increase in thermal anomalies during late March 2020 and on two days in late April between periods of little to no activity. Courtesy of MIROVA.

AVO released a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) stating that seismicity had decreased by 16 April and that satellite data no longer showed lava or additional changes in the crater since the start of April. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery continued to show a weak hotspot in the crater summit through May (figure 41), which was also detected by the MIROVA system on two days. A daily report on 6 May reported a visible ash deposit extending a short distance SE from the summit, which had likely been present since 29 April. AVO noted that the timing of the deposit corresponds to an increase in the summit crater diameter and depth, further supporting a possible small collapse. Small gas-and-steam emissions continued intermittently and were accompanied by weak tremors and occasional low-frequency earthquakes through May (figure 42). Minor amounts of sulfur dioxide were detected in the gas-and-steam emissions during 20 and 29 April, and 2, 16, and 28 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images (bands 12, 11, 8A) show occasional gas-and-steam emissions rising from Shishaldin on 26 February (top left) and 24 April 2020 (bottom left) and a weak hotspot (yellow-orange) persisting at the summit crater during April and early May 2020. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. A Worldview-1 panchromatic satellite image showing gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit of Shishaldin on 1 May 2020 (local time) (left). Aerial photo of the N flank of Shishaldin with minor gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit on 8 May (right). Photo courtesy of Matt Loewen (left) and Levi Musselwhite (right) via AVO.

Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steam plume often rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the W and NE sides at 1,500-1,800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of Strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Masaya (Nicaragua) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.985°N, 86.165°W; summit elev. 594 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake level drops but remains active through May 2020; weak gas plumes

Masaya, which is about 20 km NW of the Nicaragua’s capital of Managua, is one of the most active volcanoes in that country and has a caldera that contains a number of craters (BGVN 43:11). The Santiago crater is the one most currently active and it contains a small lava lake that emits weak gas plumes (figure 85). This report summarizes activity during February through May 2020 and is based on Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) monthly reports and satellite data. During the reporting period, the volcano was relatively calm, with only weak gas plumes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Satellite images of Masaya from Sentinel-2 on 18 April 2020, showing and a small gas plume drifting SW (top, natural color bands 4, 3, 2) and the lava lake (bottom, false color bands 12, 11, 4). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

According to INETER, thermal images of the lava lake and temperature data in the fumaroles were taken using an Omega infrared gun and a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) SC620 thermal camera. The temperatures above the lava lake have decreased since November 2019, when the temperature was 287°C, dropping to 96°C when measured on 14 May 2020. INETER attributed this decrease to subsidence in the level of the lava lake by 5 m which obstructed part of the lake and concentrated the gas emissions in the weak plume. Convection continued in the lava lake, which in May had decreased to a diameter of 3 m. Many landslides had occurred in the E, NE, and S walls of the crater rim due to rock fracturing caused by the high heat and acidity of the emissions.

During the reporting period, the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system recorded numerous thermal anomalies from the lava lake based on MODIS data (figure 86). Infrared satellite images from Sentinel-2 regularly showed a strong signature from the lava lake through 18 May, after which the volcano was covered by clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Thermal anomalies at Masaya during February through May 2020. The larger anomalies with black lines are more distant and not related to the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) made by INETER in the section of the Ticuantepe - La Concepción highway (just W of the volcano) with a mobile DOAS system varied between a low of just over 1,000 metric tons/day in mid-November 2019 to a high of almost 2,500 tons/day in late May. Temperatures of fumaroles in the Cerro El Comalito area, just ENE of Santiago crater, ranged from 58 to 76°C during February-May 2020, with most values in the 69-72°C range.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras caldera and is itself a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The Nindirí and Masaya cones, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6,500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and there is a lake at the far eastern end. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals have caused health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence during April 2020

Krakatau, located in the Sunda Strait between Indonesia’s Java and Sumatra Islands, experienced a major caldera collapse around 535 CE, forming a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands. On 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338-m-high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami (BGVN 44:03). The near-sea level crater lake inside the remnant of Anak Krakatau was the site of numerous small steam and tephra explosions. A larger explosion in December 2019 produced the beginnings of a new cone above the surface of crater lake (BGVN 45:02). Recently, volcanism has been characterized by occasional Strombolian explosions, dense ash plumes, and crater incandescence. This report covers activity from February through May 2020 using information provided by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Activity during February 2020 consisted of dominantly white gas-and-steam emissions rising 300 m above the crater, according to PVMBG. According to the Darwin VAAC, a ground observer reported an eruption on 7 and 8 February, but no volcanic ash was observed. During 10-11 February, a short-lived eruption was detected by seismograms which produced an ash plume up to 1 km above the crater drifting E. MAGMA Indonesia reported two eruptions on 18 March, both of which rose to 300 m above the crater. White gas-and-steam emissions were observed for the rest of the month and early April.

On 10 April PVMBG reported two eruptions, at 2158 and 2235, both of which produced dark ash plumes rising 2 km above the crater followed by Strombolian explosions ejecting incandescent material that landed on the crater floor (figures 108 and 109). The Darwin VAAC issued a notice at 0145 on 11 April reporting an ash plume to 14.3 km altitude drifting WNW, however this was noted with low confidence due to the possible mixing of clouds. During the same day, an intense thermal hotspot was detected in the HIMAWARI thermal satellite imagery and the NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide page showed a strong SO2 plume at 11.3 km altitude drifting W (figure 110). The CCTV Lava93 webcam showed new lava flows and lava fountaining from the 10-11 April eruptions. This activity was evident in the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) graph of MODIS thermal anomaly data (figure 111).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. Webcam (Lava93) images of Krakatau on 10 April 2020 showing Strombolian explosions, strong incandescence, and ash plumes rising from the crater. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. Webcam image of incandescent Strombolian explosions at Krakatau on 10 April 2020. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. Strong sulfur dioxide emissions rising from Krakatau and drifting W were detected using the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite on 11 April 2020 (top row). Smaller volumes of SO2 were visible in Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI maps on 13 (bottom left) and 19 April (bottom right). Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 111. Thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from 29 June-May 2020 shown on a MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph. The power and frequency of the thermal anomalies sharply increased in mid-April. After the larger eruptive event in mid-April the thermal anomalies declined slightly in strength but continued to be detected intermittently through May. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Strombolian activity rising up to 500 m continued into 12 April and was accompanied by SO2 emissions that rose 3 km altitude, drifting NW according to a VAAC notice. PVMBG reported an eruption on 13 April at 2054 that resulted in incandescence as high as 25 m above the crater. Volcanic ash, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions, continued intermittently through 18 April, many of which were observed by the CCTV webcam. After 18 April only gas-and-steam plumes were reported, rising up to 100 m above the crater; Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed faint thermal anomalies in the crater (figure 112). SO2 emissions continued intermittently throughout April, though at lower volumes and altitudes compared to the 11th. MODIS satellite data seen in MIROVA showed intermittent thermal anomalies through May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 112. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the cool crater lake on 20 March (top left) followed by minor heating of the crater during April and May 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 42, Number 04 (April 2017)

Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Ahyi (United States)

Hydrothermal activity continues in December 2014

Alaid (Russia)

Ash plumes and lava flow, October 2015 to August 2016

Cleveland (United States)

Growth and destruction of six lava domes between June 2014 and February 2017

Copahue (Chile-Argentina)

Eruptive activity consisting of Strombolian explosions and gas-and-ash plumes ends in late December 2016

Daikoku (United States)

Explorations in 2014 and 2016 reveal active hydrothermal plumes and sulfur chimney formation

Kerinci (Indonesia)

Brief ash eruptions in December 2011, June 2013, March-June 2016, and November 2016

Klyuchevskoy (Russia)

Mixed explosive and effusive eruption ongoing from August 2015 through March 2017

Pacaya (Guatemala)

Summary of 2004-2010 eruptions including a fatality in May 2010; lava flows in 2013-2014

Paluweh (Indonesia)

Two major pyroclastic flows in February and August 2013; five fatalities on 10 August 2013

Zhupanovsky (Russia)

Moderate ash plumes continued until 24 March, then an explosion on 20 November 2016



Ahyi (United States) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Ahyi

United States

20.42°N, 145.03°E; summit elev. -75 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Hydrothermal activity continues in December 2014

Ahyi seamount is one of a long string of submarine seamounts at the northern edge of the Northern Mariana Islands, part of the Mariana Back-arc segment of the Izu-Bonin trench in the western Pacific Ocean. The remote location of the seamount has made eruptions difficult to document, but seismic stations installed in the region confirmed an eruption in the vicinity in 2001. No further activity was reported until a new eruption was detected by seismic stations and felt by divers in the immediate area in April 2014. Volcanic activity in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is monitored by the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program, and observations are sometimes gathered by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) expeditions. The 2014 eruption and follow-up observations from December 2014 are summarized here.

The eruption at Ahyi seamount between 24 April and 17 May 2014 (BGVN 39:02; Haney et al., 2014) was first recorded as T-phase signals that were detected by various seismometers in the Mariana Islands. Submarine explosions were also heard and felt by NOAA scuba divers conducting coral reef research on the SE coastline of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) Island, about 20 km NW of Ahyi. In the same area, the NOAA crew reported sighting mats of orange-yellow bubbles on the water surface that extended up to 1 km from the shoreline. T-phase seismic signals registered across the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI) seismic network at a rate of approximately 10 per hour until 8 May, and then sporadically until 17 May (Haney et al., 2014).

During mid-May, the NOAA ship Hi'ialakai gathered multibeam sonar bathymetry and took three water-column CTD casts (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth sensor; it gives scientists a precise and comprehensive charting of the distribution and variation of water temperature, salinity, and density). The May 2014 bathymetry revealed that the minimum depth to the summit was about 90 m, notably deeper than the 60 m measured during a 2003 survey. In addition a new crater about 100 m deep had formed at the summit, replacing the summit cone. Also, a distinct landslide chute descended the SE slope 2,300 m, removing material from the head and depositing debris at the base (see figure 4, BGVN 39:02). Significant particle plumes were detected with all three CTD casts, indicating ongoing hydrothermal activity. Plumes with optical anomalies up to 0.4 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units) were found S and W of Ahyi at 100-175 m water depth, corresponding to the depth of the new summit crater. NTU's are light backscattering measurements done by optical sensors in sea water to determine the presence of hydrothermal plumes in the water column.

On 4 December 2014, the NOAA Expedition "Submarine Ring of Fire 2014 – Ironman" visited Ahyi, and again used a CTD sensor to assess the hydrothermal status of the volcano. EM122 multibeam bathymetry data imaged CO2 gas bubbles rising from the summit (figure 5), and clearly revealed the new summit crater. When the CTD sensor and sampling package was lowered into the water, it measured a thick plume of particles indicating ongoing hydrothermal activity near 150 m depth, close to the base of the new crater that formed during the eruption in April-May 2014.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Three-dimensional image of the summit of Ahyi submarine volcano gathered on 4 December 2014 with the mid-water data shown above the new crater created by the April 2014 eruption. The summit crater is ~100 m deep. CO2 bubbles (in green) can be seen rising from most of the summit, suggesting that there is more than one source of venting. This image shows an area 850 m across with depths ranging from 78 (red) to 400 m (blue). No vertical exaggeration. Image courtesy of Submarine Ring of Fire 2014 - Ironman, NSF/NOAA (http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/ 14fire/logs/december04/media/ahyi.html).

References: Haney, M. M., Chadwick, W., Merle, S. G., Buck, N. J., Butterfield, D. A., Coombs, M. L., Evers, L. G., Heaney, K. D., Lyons, J. J., Searcy, C. K., Walker, S. L., Young, C., and Embley, R. W., The 2014 Submarine Eruption of Ahyi Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2014, abstract V11B-4727.

Geologic Background. Ahyi seamount is a large conical submarine volcano that rises to within 75 m of the sea surface about 18 km SE of the island of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) in the northern Marianas. Water discoloration has been observed there, and in 1979 the crew of a fishing boat felt shocks over the summit area of the seamount, followed by upwelling of sulfur-bearing water. On 24-25 April 2001 an explosive eruption was detected seismically by a station on Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. The event was well constrained (+/- 15 km) at a location near the southern base of Ahyi. An eruption in April-May 2014 was detected by NOAA divers, hydroacoustic sensors, and seismic stations.

Information Contacts: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA (URL: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/welcome.html); US Geological Survey, Volcano Hazards Program (USGS-VHP), 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA, USA (URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/index.html).


Alaid (Russia) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Alaid

Russia

50.861°N, 155.565°E; summit elev. 2285 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes and lava flow, October 2015 to August 2016

Russia's Alaid volcano, located just off the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, is the northernmost of the chain of volcanoes that comprise the Kuril archipelago. A number of strong explosive eruptions have been recorded there in the last 200 years, including VEI 4 explosions in 1790 and 1981. The last eruption occurred between 5 October and 12 December 2012 when repeated thermal anomalies and ash plumes from the summit crater were observed. A new eruption was first reported on 29 September 2015 by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) (BGVN 41:06). Alaid is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT); valuable information about this remote site is also gathered from satellite thermal infrared data reported by both the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC system and the Italian MIROVA system.

A new eruption at Alaid was reported on 29 September 2015. It was characterized by strong thermal anomalies and intermittent gas-and-ash plumes. The thermal anomalies were interpreted by KVERT as Strombolian eruptions and lava flows. The first episode of the eruption exhibited strong thermal anomalies with only two reports of ash, and lasted until 4 January 2016. The second episode began with the reappearance of a strong thermal anomaly and an ash plume on 20 February 2016. This was followed by a series of low-level ash plumes in March and April, and ongoing strong thermal anomalies through early May. The anomalies decreased during mid-May and June, but then a large spike of intense anomalies in the first week of July was accompanied by ash plumes and observations by KVERT of Strombolian eruptions at the summit crater and a lava flow down the SW flank. Thermal activity decreased substantially following this spike, and tapered off completely by the second week of August 2016.

The Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption at Alaid at 2120 UTC on 28 September (0720 on 29 September local time) 2015. They reported it as below 6.1 km altitude, and volcanic ash was not identifiable in satellite images. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code from Green to Yellow early on 2 October 2015 (local time) based on an intense thermal anomaly observed during the night that they interpreted to be the beginning of a new Strombolian eruption. The first thermal anomalies identified by MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) also appear during the first two days of October (figure 5). MODVOLC thermal alerts first appeared on 5 October and were essentially continuous with no more than a few days break until 4 January 2016. The MIROVA signal remained steady until about the same date when it abruptly decreased. KVERT reported consistent and usually intense thermal anomalies, when the volcano was not obscured by clouds, until 4 January. They observed anomalies in satellite images with decreasing frequency and intensity during the rest of January and into early February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. MIROVA thermal anomaly data for Alaid from 5 April 2015 through 13 January 2017. The first thermal anomaly is visible on 1 or 2 October 2015. The signal remained consistently in the Moderate to High range until the first week of January when it abruptly stopped. It reappeared during the third week of February and was consistently 'High' until mid-May when it decreased to 'Low' values. A sudden spike to near 'Very High' values during the first week of July corresponded with KVERT reports of Strombolian eruptions from the summit crater and a lava flow down the SW flank. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The first report of observed gas-and-steam activity (after the Tokyo VAAC report on 29 September) was by KVERT on 16 December. Visual observations from nearby Paramushir Island (45 km SE) noted a small amount of ash in the steam-and-gas plumes on 28 and 29 December. The Tokyo VAAC also reported a plume of volcanic ash at 4.6 km altitude on 29 December drifting SW. On 5 February 2016 local time KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Green, noting decreased thermal activity and only moderate continuing fumarole activity during the previous weeks. A break in the thermal activity between early January and late February is also recorded in the MIROVA data (figure 5).

Another eruptive episode began with the appearance of a strong thermal anomaly and a weak ash emission sending a plume 50 km E on 20 February UTC, leading KVERT to raise the ACC back to Yellow. Renewed MIROVA thermal anomalies appeared on 16 or 17 February (figure 5). The first MODVOLC thermal alert was reported 23 February, and they were essentially continuous (except for probable cloudy days) until 5 May 2016. MIROVA thermal anomalies values remained consistently in the 'High' (VRP of 108-109 Watts) range until the second week of May when they dropped back to 'Low' (VRP of 106-107 Watts).

KVERT reported gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash on 20 and 24 February 2016. Minor ashfall (less than 1 mm) was reported on 24 February in Severo-Kurilsk, 45 km SE on Paramushir Island. The Tokyo VAAC also reported a possible eruption that day with a plume to 3 km altitude extending NE. An ash plume was reported by KVERT and the Tokyo VAAC on 3 March 2016 at 3 km altitude drifting 52 km WSW. This prompted KVERT to raise the ACC to Orange. Ash emissions continued for the next two days, rising to 3.4-3.9 km and drifting S and SW, according to the Tokyo VAAC. KVERT reported visual data from Paramushir Island confirming an ash plume extending SW on 6 March, and satellite data showing the plume 90 km SW that same day.

Possible eruptions were again reported on 11 and 12 March 2016 by the Tokyo VAAC under 3 km altitude, and on 12 and 14 March by KVERT as visual observations from Paramushir extending 85 km E. Weak ash emissions were reported several more times in March and April rising to between 3 and 4.3 km altitude and drifting in various directions (some as far as 90 km) on 22, 26, and 30-31 March, and 1, 9, 14, 18, 21, and 24 April. KVERT noted that on 21 and 23 April the ash plumes extended about 260 km SE. Moderate thermal anomalies were reported by KVERT from mid-May through the beginning of July, and MIROVA anomalies registered in the 'Low' range during this time. KVERT reported on 12 May that satellite data showed a lava flow on the SW flank. They noted continuing thermal anomalies over the volcano during clear weather throughout May and June, but no ash plumes were reported.

KVERT and the Tokyo VAAC once again noted ash plumes that drifted 150 km SW during 3-4 July. This is consistent with an Aura/OMI image of an SO2 plume drifting SW from Alaid on 4 July (figure 6). On 7 July, KVERT reported Strombolian activity from a new cinder cone in the summit crater and a lava flow effusing down the SW flank. A sudden spike in the MIROVA data with values rising to 109 W of Radiative Power during 3-7 July (figure 5) corroborates the KVERT observation of the lava flow; the MODVOLC data also shows a strong signal between 3 and 7 July, including several alert pixels on the SW flank of the volcano (figure 7).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. SO2 plume drifting SW from Alaid captured on 4 July 2016 by the Aura instrument on the OMI satellite. Courtesy NASA/GSFC.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. MODVOLC thermal alert pixel data for Alaid during 3-7 July 2016 showing a multi-pixel alert at the summit likely from Strombolian activity and alert pixels on the SW flank described by KVERT as a lava flow. Green grid lines represent 0.05 decimal degrees. Courtesy of MODVOLC.

The last ash plume was observed by the Tokyo VAAC on 3 July 2016. The final thermal alert was recorded by MODVOLC on 7 July. MIROVA anomalies continued steadily, however, at low levels through the first week in August before ceasing. Two additional MIROVA anomalies appeared briefly in the first and last weeks of September. KVERT reported thermal anomalies continuing until early August. They also noted a gas-and-steam plume extending 155 km NE on 26 July. In their VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) issued on 11 August 2016 at 2305 UTC (1105 on 12 August KST), KVERT lowered the ACC to Yellow based on decreasing intensity of thermal anomalies, and no additional ash plumes since 4 July; they lowered it again to Green on 19 August (local time) citing no further evidence for volcanic activity since the last thermal anomaly on 11 August.

Geologic Background. The highest and northernmost volcano of the Kuril Islands, 2285-m-high Alaid is a symmetrical stratovolcano when viewed from the north, but has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater that is breached widely to the south. Alaid is the northernmost of a chain of volcanoes constructed west of the main Kuril archipelago. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the lower flanks of this basaltic to basaltic-andesite volcano, particularly on the NW and SE sides, including an offshore cone formed during the 1933-34 eruption. Strong explosive eruptions have occurred from the summit crater beginning in the 18th century. Reports of eruptions in 1770, 1789, 1821, 1829, 1843, 1848, and 1858 were considered incorrect by Gorshkov (1970). Explosive eruptions in 1790 and 1981 were among the largest in the Kuril Islands during historical time.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/, http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Cleveland (United States) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Cleveland

United States

52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Growth and destruction of six lava domes between June 2014 and February 2017

Large lava flows descend the flanks of Alaska's Cleveland volcano, located on Chuginadak Island in the Aleutians, slightly over 1,500 km SW of Anchorage (figure 18). However, dome growth and destruction by frequent small ash explosions have been more typical behavior in recent years; historical activity, including three large (VEI 3) eruptions, is recorded back to 1893. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) are responsible for monitoring activity and notifying air traffic of aviation hazards associated with Cleveland. This report summarizes activity between July 2011 and June 2014, and provides details of activity from June 2014 through February 2017.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Morning sunlight illuminates the southeast-facing slopes of the Islands of the Four Mountains on 15 November 2013 in this photograph taken from the International Space Station (ISS). The islands, part of the Aleutian Island chain, are the upper slopes of volcanoes rising from the sea floor: Carlisle, Cleveland, Herbert, and Tana. Carlisle and Herbert volcanoes are distinct cones and form separate islands. Cleveland and the Tana volcanic complex form the eastern and western ends respectively of Chuginadak Island; clouds obscure the connecting land area. Astronaut photograph ISS038-E-3612 acquired with a Nikon D3S digital camera using a 400 mm lens, provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 38 crew. It has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed. Caption by William L. Stefanov, Jacobs at NASA-JSC. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

Summary of activity during July 2011-June 2014. Dome growth and destruction characterized activity at Cleveland during 2011-2014. Eruptive episodes are challenging to determine due to weather conditions and the remoteness of the volcano; detectible ash plumes are intermittent, and thermal anomalies caused by dome growth are often obscured in satellite imagery. Seismic and infrasound data on explosions often provide valuable information. Dome growth was clearly documented between late July and October 2011 (BGVN 36:08, 37:01). An ash cloud observed on 29 December 2011 was followed by observations of dome growth in satellite data on 30 January 2012. Significant ash explosions occurred during April and June 2012 (BGVN 38:10). AVO also reported ash plumes on 12 July and 20 August 2012. Another small ash cloud was noted by AVO on 10 Nov 2012.

Details of the 2013 activity are provided in Dixon et al. (2015) and summarized here. Elevated temperatures in mid-January 2013 were followed by observations of a new lava dome that measured 100 m in diameter on 30 January 2013, and a second lava extrusion on 9 February. Elevated surface temperatures were intermittently observed until the next ash explosion on 4 May 2013, which was followed by a larger series of explosions on 6 May that filled the crater with tephra and created flowage deposits on the NE, E, and SE flanks. On 26 July, analysis of a satellite images suggested a new lava flow within the summit crater.

From August through 28 December 2013 the infrasound and seismic networks detected a number of additional explosions and periods of infrasonic tremor (see table 8 in Dixon et al., 2015). Most of these events did not have an accompanying ash signal in AVHRR satellite images, suggesting minor to no ash emissions. A detectible ash cloud on 30 December 2013 was preceded by strongly elevated surface temperature readings in the summit area on 28 December (BVGN 39:08). Ash plumes were again detected at the summit on 2 January, 25 February, and 6 March 2014. Cleveland was quiet for almost three months until an explosion on 5 June with a weak ash signal was detected.

Summary of activity during June 2014-February 2017. The growth and explosive destruction of six lava domes at Cleveland were recorded between June 2014 and February 2017. Although an explosion on 5 June 2014 was the last recorded explosion with confirmed ash until 14 June 2015, thermal and visual satellite evidence suggested dome growth activity during July-September and late November 2014. Weakly elevated surface temperatures at the summit were intermittent through February 2015. Minor ash deposits on the flanks were observed on 14 June 2015 in addition to stronger elevated surface temperatures, suggesting a new dome growth episode. An explosion on 21 July 2015 was thought to have destroyed the dome, and strongly elevated surface temperatures indicating new dome growth continued through July and August.

Moderately-elevated surface temperatures were detected at the summit in satellite data from January through 16 April 2016 when a new explosion was recorded. Satellite views in late April indicated that the August 2015 lava dome had been replaced with a small cinder cone within the summit crater. Explosions with no ash reported occurred twice in May, before the extrusion of a small amount of lava forming a new lava dome was observed on 17 May 2016, and which continued to grow for about one week. Moderately-elevated surface temperatures reappeared in mid-July, and field crews observed incandescence in a vent at the summit in late July. Satellite thermal anomalies were persistent from mid-May through September 2016. A new explosion on 24 October 2016 destroyed the dome emplaced in May; satellite views in November showed a deep pit within the summit crater. Weakly elevated surface temperatures reappeared in early December 2016. Moderately-elevated surface temperatures reappeared on 31 January 2017, [followed on 3 February by satellite observations that indicated] a new dome of similar size to earlier ones was once again filling the summit crater.

Activity during June 2014-February 2015. An ash-bearing explosion occurred in the late evening hours of 5 June 2014, resulting in a detached cloud with a weak ash signal observed in a satellite image that rapidly dissipated; no additional ash explosions were observed over the next 12 months. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite data on 7 July, and a vigorous steam-and-gas plume was observed on 8 and 9 July. Typical steam-and-gas emissions and persistent elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were noted in satellite observations during clear periods through July and August, but AVO received no reports from pilots or mariners of any eruptive activity. Scientists working on the island in early August noted incandescence and puffing activity of steam and gas at the summit, and witnessed several small rockfall events. A newly installed webcam and other geophysical equipment at station CLCO near Concord Point on the SE coast of Chuginadak Island, about 15 km E of the volcano's summit, became operational in September 2014. In mid-September several rockfall signals were detected by the new local seismic network, and indicated the continued instability of volcanic debris on the steep upper flanks of the volcano.

Elevated surface temperatures were observed at the summit on clear days with occasional minor steaming visible in webcam images from late September to late October 2014. On 14 November AVO reported that vigorous steaming from the summit crater was observed in webcam images during the prior week, although they remarked that steam emissions are routinely observed at Cleveland and do not necessarily indicate an increase in unrest. On 28 November, they noted that a small mound of lava in the crater was observed in clear satellite views earlier that week that may have corresponded with the appearance of a faint thermal signal in the satellite data; the lava possibly extruded around 24 November. Satellite views on 19 December 2014 showed weakly elevated surface temperatures at the summit vent.

Low-density gas emissions and weakly elevated surface temperatures in the summit region were observed on 1 January 2015, and during clear weather up to 9 January. After this, nothing of note was observed in satellite or webcam images, and no significant activity was detected in seismic or infrasound (air pressure) data until weakly elevated surface temperatures were again detected in satellite data on 25 February. A low-level steam-and-gas plume emanated from the summit on 24 February, and again was identified in multiple satellite images on 28 February. During March, April, and May 2015, no significant activity, except for occasional steaming from the summit crater, was observed during periods of clear weather, causing AVO to downgrade both the Aviation Color Code (ACC) and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Unassigned on 28 May 2015.

Activity during June 2015-March 2016. AVO issued a new VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) on 17 June 2015 returning the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (Yellow is 2nd lowest on a 4-color scale), and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (also 2nd lowest on a 4-level scale). This was based on satellite detection of elevated surface temperatures at the summit and an image from 14 June showing very minor ash deposits on the upper flanks. They interpreted the increase in temperature as consistent with renewed growth of the small lava dome within the crater. Elevated summit surface temperatures were again observed on 30 June, and during three clear days in early July. On 21 July AVO detected an explosion in both infrasound and seismic data, and raised the ACC to Orange and the VAL to WATCH. Satellite views were obscured by clouds, though a dusting of ash on the upper flanks was noted by a nearby field crew and recorded by the webcam later in the day. The explosion destroyed the dome that had formed in November 2014. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were recorded at the summit during the last week of July, including a thermal alert pixel from the MODVOLC system on 31 July.

Slightly elevated surface temperatures were recorded at the summit during the first week of August 2015. On 4 August, a field crew working in the area reported a small amount of lava covering the crater floor. Surface temperatures of the cooling lava measured by the crew were in the range of 550-600°C. Minor ash-and-gas emissions were also observed. A small explosion occurred on 6 August at 2203 AKDT, but no ash cloud was identified. Strongly elevated surface temperatures suggestive of lava effusion were noted in satellite data through 18 August, and weakly elevated temperatures were recorded for the rest of August and September. A small swarm of earthquakes was detected on 29 August.

AVO lowered the ACC to Yellow and the VAL to ADVISORY on 14 October 2015, citing the likely cessation of lava effusion, while minor steaming, weakly elevated surface temperatures, and slightly above-background seismicity continued through November 2015. Exceptionally clear weather during late November allowed many views of the volcano, showing only modest steaming from the summit. Elevated surface temperatures were detected twice during December, and an increase in frequency of small VT (Volcano-Tectonic) events was noted on 22 and 23 December, but otherwise no significant seismicity or emissions (other than steam plumes) were detected.

Moderately-elevated surface temperatures were detected at the beginning of the second week in January 2016, followed by several small earthquakes per day during the third week, and weakly elevated temperatures. Low-level seismicity and elevated surface temperatures were next observed during the last week of February; a brief burst of small local earthquakes was recorded on 28 February followed by weakly elevated surface temperatures during the first week of March. Moderately-elevated surface temperatures were again observed during the last week of March.

Activity during April-September 2016. A new explosion on 16 April 2016 was detected in both infrasound and seismic data, but satellite views were obscured by clouds. AVO raised the ACC to Orange until 29 April, when they noted that recent satellite imagery indicated that the August 2015 lava dome had been replaced with a small cinder cone within the summit crater; seismic activity remained lower after the explosion. Another explosion on 5 May at 1844 local time led AVO to raise the ACC back to Orange, although no ash emissions were observed above the cloud deck. A brief explosive event on 10 May was detected by pressure sensors near the volcano, and again no ash was reported.

A small volume of lava was extruded from the summit on 17 or 18 May, as confirmed in satellite data. The low-relief, 50-m-diameter dome was similar in size and shape to the ten domes observed since 2011, the most recent of which was extruded and destroyed earlier in May. During the week of 20 May, this lava dome enlarged to about 60 m in diameter. Dome growth appeared to have paused or ceased by 23 May. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in mostly clear views by satellite on 25 and 26 May, which is consistent with the presence of the new lava dome. The Aviation Color Code was lowered from Orange to Yellow by AVO on 3 June when no other signs of eruptive activity were observed. Occasional clear satellite views detected weakly elevated surface temperatures that AVO interpreted as consistent with cooling lava during June 2016.

The MIROVA infrared data suggests ongoing thermal anomalies from late May through September 2016 (figure 19). AVO reported weakly-to-moderately-elevated surface temperatures reappearing during the second and third weeks of July. Field crews conducted an overflight during the last week of July and observed incandescence from a vent in the summit crater. Low-level steam plumes and minor degassing were observed a number of times during August. A small swarm of earthquakes occurred on 29 August; owing to the small number of telemetered seismometers on Cleveland, the locations and magnitudes of the earthquakes could not be determined precisely. Thermal anomalies were observed in satellite data during the last week of August and slightly elevated surface temperatures were observed on clear satellite images a number of times in September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. MIROVA data from 18 January 2016 to 18 January 2017 showing a persistent thermal anomaly from Cleveland starting about the time of the observation of the new lava dome (17 or 18 May) through late September 2016. A new thermal anomaly appears in late December 2016. AVO reported elevated surface temperatures on 6 January 2017. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during October 2016-February 2017. AVO detected an explosion at 1310 local time on 24 October 2016 that was heard by residents in Nikolski (75 km E), prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Orange and the VAL to WATCH. No evidence of an eruption cloud was detected above the weather cloud present at 8.5 km altitude, and no ashfall was reported in Nikolski. However, clear post-explosion webcam views of the volcano showed a darkened area around the summit crater which may have been the result of minor ash fallout. Narrow dark streaks were also observed extending down the upper snow-covered part of the edifice, which according to AVO may have been produced by small flows of meltwater and ash. They lowered the ACC back to Yellow on 4 November 2016. Satellite views from early November indicated that the lava dome emplaced in late May was mostly destroyed in the 24 October explosion, and was replaced with a deep pit within the summit crater. Minor steaming was observed from the summit during a few periods of clear weather in November.

Observations of weakly-elevated surface temperatures returned 8 and 9 December, with minor steaming at the summit observed on clear days. A MIROVA thermal anomaly signal reappeared around 25 December. This was followed by AVO's observation of weak-to-moderate elevated surface temperatures during first week of January 2017. Low-level steam plumes were seen on clear days later in the month. Moderately-elevated surface temperatures appeared in satellite data on 31 January. [On 3 February 2017 the appearance of a new dome] led AVO to raise the ACC to Orange. Satellite observations indicated that a new lava dome had been extruded and was partially filling the summit crater. The new dome was about 70 m in diameter and similar in size to previous lava domes that have developed on the floor of the crater.

References: Dixon, J.P., Cameron, C., McGimsey R.G., Neal, D.A., and Waythomas, C., 2015, 2013 Volcanic activity in Alaska-Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015-5110, 92 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20155110 .

Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 it produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://www.dggs.alaska.gov/); Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Alaska Aviation Weather Unit, NWS NOAA US Dept of Commerce, 6930 Sand Lake Road, Anchorage, AK 99502-1845(URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/).


Copahue (Chile-Argentina) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Copahue

Chile-Argentina

37.856°S, 71.183°W; summit elev. 2953 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptive activity consisting of Strombolian explosions and gas-and-ash plumes ends in late December 2016

Recent activity at Copahue through January 2016 (BGVN 41:03) consisted of gas and steam plumes with minor amounts of ash. This report, based on information obtained from the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), the Southern Andes Volcanological Observatory (OVDAS), and the Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (National Geology and Mining Service) (SERNAGEOMIN), covers similar activity from mid-January through December 2016. Volcano Alert Levels were maintained by SERNAGEOMIN (on a four-color scale) and by the Chilean Oficina Nacional de Emergencia del Ministerio del Interior (National Office of Emergency of the Interior Ministry) (ONEMI), on a three-color scale), for alerts to individual communes in the region.

Reports from the Buenos Aires VAAC between 13 January and 26 March 2016, based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) notices, satellites, and webcam views, indicated continuous gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. The plumes rose as high as 3.3-4.3 km altitude (during 24-25 and 28 February) and drifted as far as 160 km (trending SE and SW) between 28 January and 2 February, and more generally as far as 150 km in a variety of directions.

The Buenos Aires VAAC next reported steam-and-gas emissions, possibly containing minor amounts of ash on 11 June, based on webcam recordings. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported an eruption during 16-30 June characterized by phreato-magmatic explosions and Strombolian activity. During an overflight on 3 July, SERNAGEOMIN scientists observed Strombolian activity from a pyroclastic cone that was forming on the floor of El Agrio crater (figure 17).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Photo taken during an overflight of Copahue on 3 July 2016 showing Strombolian activity from a pyroclastic cone on the floor of El Agrio crater. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Based on webcam and satellite views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 7-8 July diffuse gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale).

Activity renewed in September and lasted through December 2016. Based on satellite and webcam images, notices from the Buenos Aires VAAC after 23 September described gas and water vapor plumes with minor ash content rising above the summit. The plumes rose as high as 5.2 km a.s.l. (during 23-25 and 27-29 November) and drifted based on wind direction SW, S, SSE, ESE, SE, E, ENE, NE, and N. On 2 December OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity continued to be dominated by weak Strombolian explosions, likely from a pyroclastic cone forming on the floor of El Agrio crater. The last VAAC reports of activity during 2016 were for gas-and-ash emissions to altitudes of 3.6-3.9 km drifting in S and E directions.

The only MODVOLC thermal anomaly during the entire reporting period was on 26 October 2016 (1 pixel). The MIROVA volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected low level thermal anomalies that became more frequent during the latter part of June through early July 2016 and thereafter occurred less often. The last anomalies recorded by MIROVA (as of early April 2017) were in about the third week of December 2016 (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Plot of thermal anomalies at Copahue as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power), April 2016-March 2017. Courtesy of MIROVA.

At some point after the December 2016 activity, SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Green, the lowest of the four levels. No additional reports of activity were issued from any agency through March 2017.

Geologic Background. Volcán Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Río Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile ( URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Beaucheff 1637/1671, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.onemi.cl/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php?lang=es); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Daikoku (United States) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Daikoku

United States

21.324°N, 144.194°E; summit elev. -323 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explorations in 2014 and 2016 reveal active hydrothermal plumes and sulfur chimney formation

Daikoku seamount lies in the Northern Seamount Province of the Mariana Arc, and is about 850 km due N of Guam in the western Pacific Ocean. The summit is about 325 m below sea level and was first shown to be hydrothermally active in 2003 (figure 3). NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has conducted four expeditions to the Northern Mariana Islands in 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2014 under their Ocean Explorer program, specifically to study the volcanoes and the marine life they support. A comparison of the bathymetry recorded in 2003 and 2014 suggests that an explosion may have occurred at Daikoku during that interval, and both geochemical data and rock sampling indicate ongoing hydrothermal activity. In 2016, a research cruise conducted by the Schmidt Ocean Institute included a visit to Daikoku that revealed sulfur chimney formation.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Bathymetry and other data gathered on the 2003 NOAA Ocean Explorer Program's 'Submarine Ring of Fire 2003' expedition at the Mariana Arc between 9 February and 5 March 2003. The stars indicate submarine volcanoes where evidence of hydrothermal activity was found. The volcanoes were mapped in high resolution, and sampled with a CTD, as indicated by the open black circles on the tracklines. The red dots represent the location of the deployed hydrophones and the red line represents the location of the back-arc spreading center. Daikoku is located in the Northern Seamount Province of the Mariana Arc. Courtesy of NOAA's 'Submarine Ring of Fire 2003' expedition.

Geochemical sampling of the seawater is carried out with an instrument package that measures conductivity, temperature, and depth, commonly referred to as a CTD. Turbidity of the water, which estimates the concentration of particulate matter suspended in the plumes, is also measured. The CTD carries bottles for seawater sampling which is then geochemically analyzed.

On 15 April 2004 the NOAA 'Submarine Ring of Fire 2004' expedition made a single dive at Daikoku and noted warm water present over large areas of sandy sediment deposits near the summit, and small flatfish in great abundance in the venting areas. The 'Submarine Ring of Fire 2006' expedition again visited Daikoku on 4 May 2006 and discovered a "cauldron" of molten sulfur (BGVN 31:05). They also observed extensive sulfur crusts in the vicinity of the cauldron, suggesting past emissions of liquid sulfur; they were able to sample a large piece of sulfur crust (figure 4). At that time, they also mapped two large craters on the summit. One pit was reported as over 100 m deep and about 80 m in diameter, and a large plume of white fluid was observed rising out of it.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Sulfur crusts near the Diakoku "cauldron" were observed insitu as well as sampled by the ROV. Upper Image: Sulfur crusts in the vicinity of the sulfur cauldron (BGVN 31:05) imply past emissions of liquid sulfur at Daikoku. Lower Image: The Jason remotely operated vehicle (ROV) holds up a large piece of the sulfur crust that was sampled at Daikoku on 4 May 2006. The lasers- two red dots in the images- are 10 cm apart. Courtesy of Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition, NOAA Ocean Explorer Program.

Researchers from the NOAA Ocean Explorer program visited Daikoku again on 14 December 2014 during its 'Submarine Ring of Fire 2014 – Ironman' expedition, which was conducted from the R/V (Research Vessel) Revelle between 29 November and 22 December 2014. They gathered geochemical and bathymetric data which they were able to compare with 2003 data. The CTD information gathered in 2014 showed very strong plumes coming from the top of the seamount. The plumes had high turbidity, low pH, strong anomalies in reduced chemicals, and very high levels of hydrogen (figure 5).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Cross-section over the top of Daikoku seamount measured on 14 December 2014 with the results from a CTD tow (black line), showing turbidity anomalies (warm colors indicate high particle concentrations) in the plume. Courtesy of 'Submarine Ring of Fire 2014 – Ironman' expedition, NOAA/PMEL, NSF.

The 2014 bathymetry data revealed two summit craters; the larger one measured 150 m across and 100 m deep on the N side of the summit with a crater floor depth of 452 m below sea level, and the smaller one, about 50 m across on the NE flank, had a crater floor depth of 443 m below sea level. The bathymetry data from 2003 show only one small crater on the N side of the summit about 50 m across with a floor depth of 400 m below sea level (figure 6). The larger pit appeared to be about 70 m wider in 2014 than in 2006.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Bathymetric comparison of data collected at the Daikoku summit during the 2014 expedition (top) and in 2003 (bottom). The summit crater was significantly larger, and confirmed to be hydrothermally active by the CTD tow and midwater data collected by the 2014 expedition. A second crater has also appeared on the NE flank of the volcano. Arrows with numbers represent the depth below sea level (Z) in meters. Courtesy of 'Submarine Ring of Fire 2014 – Ironman' expedition, NSF/NOAA.

On 3 and 4 December 2016, the Schmidt Ocean Institute Research Vessel R/V Falkor traveled to the Mariana back-arc with a multidisciplinary team of scientists to gather evidence of active hydrothermal vents and the life they support. They were able to make two ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) dives at Daikoku and collected data on the seamount and sea life living there. On their first dive they observed (and sampled) a fissure with a sulfur chimney caked with yellow sulfur, emitting white bubbles and particulates in 70°C water (figure 7).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. An active sulfur chimney at Daikoku on 3 December 2016 was videoed and sampled by the Schmidt Ocean Institute expedition. Upper Image: A fissure at Daikoku on 3 December 2016 with a yellow sulfur-caked chimney emitting white bubbles and particulates in 70°C water. Lower Image: The sulfur chimney was sampled by the ROV SuBastian for chemical analysis. Courtesy of Schmidt Ocean Institute, Expedition FK161129.

On their second dive on 4 December 2016, they collected tube worms and crabs, and recorded the formation of "sulfur needles," tadpole-shaped fragments of sulfur that were previously observed in sampled sediments and seen floating in the water column. They appear to form when gas bubbles (probably CO2) rise through molten sulfur, forming a coating of sulfur around the bubble before the gas escapes (figure 8). Their video shows a sulfur chimney caked with yellow sulfur emitting yellow, white, and orange droplets of sulfur.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Tadpole shaped "sulfur needles" coat the side of a sulfur chimney at Daikoku on 4 December 2016 as gas bubbles coated with sulfur rise through the chimney and drip residue around the sides. A video recording was also made of the chimney emitting bubbles (https://schmidtocean.org/cruise-log-post/daikoku-dive-2-sulfur-good/). Courtesy of Schmidt Ocean Institute, Expedition FK161129.

The cruise scientists used the ship's EM302/710 multibeam echosounder to get a 2-m-resolution image of the summit crater, which they combined with water column data to create an image showing both the bathymetry of the volcano and the shape of the hydrothermal plume emitting from the summit (figure 9).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Multibeam echosounder data reveals the topography of the summit at Daikoku on 4 December 2016 as well as the shape of the hydrothermal plume emitting from the summit. Courtesy of Schmidt Ocean Institute, Expedition FK161129.

Geologic Background. The conical summit of Daikoku seamount lies along an elongated E-W ridge SE of Eifuku submarine volcano and rises to within 323 m of the sea surface. It is one of about a dozen displaying hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Izu-Marianas chain. A steep-walled, 50-m-wide cylindrical crater on the north flank, about 75 m below the summit, is at least 135 m deep and was observed to emit cloudy hydrothermal fluid. During a NOAA expedition in 2006, scientists observed a convecting, black pool of liquid sulfur with a partly solidified, undulating sulfur crust at a depth of 420 m below the summit. Gases, particulate with the appearance of smoke, and liquid sulfur were bubbling up from the back edge of the sulfur pool.

Information Contacts: Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA (URL: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/, Cruise logs at: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03fire/logs/summary/summary.html, http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/04fire/logs/april15/april15.html, http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06fire/logs/may4/may4.html, http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/14fire/logs/december14/december14.html); Schmidt Ocean Institute, 555 Bryant Street #374, Palo Alto, CA 94301, USA (URL: https://schmidtocean.org/, https://schmidtocean.org/cruise/searching-life-mariana-back-arc/).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Brief ash eruptions in December 2011, June 2013, March-June 2016, and November 2016

After an eruption in April 2009 (BGVN 34:12), Kerinci was quiet until it erupted again in December 2011. The Indonesian agency responsible for volcano monitoring is the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM). Since mid-December 2011 there have been four instances where there was an emission of ash, qualifying the event as an eruption. These took place in December 2011, June 2013, and twice in 2016. The eruptions in 2016 were separated by five months, so are treated as distinct eruptions.

PVMBG mentioned in its 2015 reports on Kerinci that an eruption on 15 December 2011 generated an ash plume that rose about 600 m above the summit (summit elevation is 3.8 km). No other details were given.

A brief eruption was reported by PVMBG on 2 June 2013, from 0843 to 0848, that generated an ash plume 1 km above the crater. Ashfall as thick as 5 mm was reported in areas to the E, including Tangkil (7.5 km SE). In a Jakarta Post story, a resident of Sungai Rumpun village (about 10 km SE) reported hearing a loud bang and black plumes with a sulfur odor. The article noted that several villages in Gunung Tujuh district (an area that includes the SE flank of the volcano) received heavy ashfall, but it was washed off the crops by rain.

Although PVMBG reported white plumes during 1 February-12 July 2015 that rose 50-300 m and drifted E and W, no clear eruptive activity was noted. Seismicity during this period was dominated by signals indicating emissions and shallow volcanic earthquakes. Climbers who reached the summit around this time (exact dates not reported, images uploaded 17 January 2016) photographed steam plumes (figure 1) and solid lava flows (figure 2) in the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photo of a steam plume rising from the Kerinci summit crater. Date not reported; uploaded 17 January 2016. Courtesy of Bernhard Huber.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photo of the crater floor at Kerinci showing solidified lava flows and steam. Date not reported; uploaded 17 January 2016. Courtesy of Bernhard Huber.

Based on satellite images and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 15 days between 31 March and 9 June 2016 ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.0-4.9 km and drifted N, NW, NE, E, and WSW. On 29 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Photo of Kerinci showing a plume rising from the summit crater on 9 June 2016. Courtesy of Luke Mackin.

Ash plumes were again reported on 15-19, and 21 November 2016 based on observations of satellite data by the Darwin VAAC. The plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km and drifted NE, ENE, SE, and S. On 15 and 17 November they drifted almost 30 km downwind. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), where it has been since September 2007, and PVMBG advised residents and visitors not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Bernhard Huber (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/97278656@N08/, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/); Luke Mackin (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wildsumatra/, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/); Jakarta Post (URL: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/06/02/mt-kerinci-erupts.html).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Mixed explosive and effusive eruption ongoing from August 2015 through March 2017

Klyuchevskoy has been quite active for many decades, with eruptive periods alternating with less active times (BGVN 35:06, 38:07, and 39:10). Recent eruptions took place during August-December 2013, with another period of activity beginning in January 2015 and continuing at least into March 2015 (BGVN 39:10). MODVOLC thermal alert pixels, based on MODIS satellite data, were frequent starting on 3 January but had stopped after 26 February 2015. Moderate activity continued until 10 May 2015, when the eruption that began in January ended. Eruptive activity was again observed in late August 2015, and fluctuating activity has continued through March 2017. The Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is responsible for monitoring this volcano, and is the primary source of information. Times are in UTC (local time is UTC + 12 hours).

Activity during April-July 2015. KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Green, the lowest of four levels, on 6 April 2015, although moderate gas-and-steam activity continued. On 13 April, gas-and-steam emissions increased at 0840, and continued at least through 1215 on 14 April, with incandescence at the summit possibly indicative of renewed Strombolian activity. KVERT raised the ACC from Green to Yellow. Strong gas-and-steam activity continued through the rest of April; the plumes sometimes contained small amounts of ash. Satellite data showed a weak thermal anomaly when not obscured by clouds, and incandescence at the summit was occasionally observed. On 18 April, KVERT reported that Strombolian activity was continuing, and that a webcam had recorded a narrow ash plume rising 1-2 km and drifting 100 km SE; the ACC was raised to Orange. Satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly during 16-17 and 23 April; a gas plume containing a small amount of ash drifted 147 km E on 21 April. On 26 April the ACC was lowered to Yellow; KVERT noted that gas-and-steam activity and tremor continued.

Satellite data showed ash-bearing plumes during 2-5 May that drifted more than 450 km SE, and moderate activity continued through 9 May. The ACC was briefly raised to Orange before again being set at Yellow on 12 May. Moderate activity prevailed though the rest of the month. Satellite data showed occasional gas-and-steam plumes, sometimes containing small amounts of ash; weak thermal anomalies were often observed over the volcano when clouds did not obscure viewing.

On 22 May, KVERT described activity as weak. This remained the case through 27 August 2015. Gas-and-steam emissions continued, and satellite data often showed a thermal anomaly when the volcano was not obscured by clouds. Gas-steam plumes drifted 20 km SE on 26-27 May. On 20 July, the ACC was lowered to Green.

Activity during August 2015-March 2016. On 27 August, KVERT reported that a moderate Strombolian explosion had occurred, which continued into 28 August. At 1544 UTC on 27 August, incandescence of the crater was observed. The ACC was raised to Yellow.

Thereafter, through 17 September 2015, KVERT described activity as moderate, with moderate gas-steam activity. Strombolian explosions occurred on 27-28 August and 8-10 September. Satellite data showed occasional weak thermal anomalies when the volcano was not obscured by clouds. On 13-14 September, a diffuse ash plume rose to about 1.5 km and drifted E.

During 24 September-30 November 2015, KVERT described the activity as a "weak explosive eruption." According to video data, moderate gas-and-steam activity continued and a weak thermal anomaly was sometimes observed when the volcano was not obscured by clouds. Occasionally, incandescence of the summit volcanic crater was noted.

KVERT again described activity as moderate during December 2015-March 2016, with strong gas-steam emissions, although the volcano was usually either quiet or obscured by clouds. KVERT reported thermal anomalies each month, ranging from two during December 2015 to 12 during both January and February 2016. Video often recorded incandescence at the summit during the latter part of December.

Activity during April 2016-November 2016. On 3 April 2016, activity increased with Strombolian explosions. Detection of very frequent thermal anomalies by the MODVOLC system began again on 8 April and continued being reported almost daily through 2 November 2016. Thermal data identified by the MIROVA system showed strong anomalies over the same time period (figure 18). The MIROVA data also indicated a steady increase in radiative power beginning in the second half of May 2016.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Plots of MODIS thermal data detected at Klyuchevskoy during the year ending on 23 March 2017. The data analyzed by the MIROVA system is presented as radiative power (top) and log radiative power (bottom). Courtesy of MIROVA.

Strong gas-steam emissions continued, and plumes extended to about 100 km SE on 10 April and about 55 km NE on 14-15 April. Satellite data by KVERT through June showed persistent intense thermal anomalies when not obscured by clouds. On 24 April, activity increased again. According to video and satellite data, a lava flow began to effuse on the S and SE flank of the volcano (along Apakhonchich chute). An ash plume drifted about 500 km SW on 23-24 April. The ACC was raised to Orange.

The explosive-effusive eruption continued from May through September 2016. Lava continued to effuse along the SE flank. Satellite data showed an ash plume extending 88 km SE on 2 May, up to 80 km E and SE on 13 May and 16 May, 47 km W on 13 June, about 30 km E on 18 June, and 60 km W and E on 27-28 June. Gas-steam plumes drifted about 60 km W and E on 27 and 28 June. On 24 June, at 2115 and 2350 UTC, video data showed two rock collapses into the Apakhonchich chute and ash plumes drifted W, then NW. According to video and satellite data, Strombolian activity of the summit crater continued on 24 June.

According to video data, the eruption intensified on 6 July. Strong explosions sent ash to an altitude of 7.5 km and the plumes drifted about 350 km SW, S, and SE. A large bright thermal anomaly was observed all that week. On 6-7 July, dense ash plumes drifted about 400 km SE and E, and numerous ash plumes were observed thereafter through September. Bursts of volcanic bombs shot up to 200-300 m above the summit crater and up to 50 m above the cinder cone into the Apakhonchich chute along the SE flank. Lava continued to flow on the SE flank along the chute (figure 19). Strong gas-steam activity within two volcanic centers emitted various amounts of ash. On 10, 13 and 15 September, explosions shot ash up to an altitude of 7 km and ash plumes extended for about 50 km SE and NE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Photo of Klyuchevskoy on 25 August 2016 with ash-containing emissions and lava streaming from the cone into the Apakhonchich chute. Courtesy of Denis Bud'kov/Bernard Duick.

During the second week of September, KVERT reported that lava began to effuse on the E and SW flanks. Explosions sent ash up to an altitude of 7.5 km and ash plumes extended for about 530 km in various directions. Small ash layers were observed over Koryaksky and Avachinsky volcanoes on 8 September. On 10, 13, 15, and 20-22 September, explosions sent ash up to an altitude of 6-7 km and ash plumes extended for up to 165 km in various directions. In their 29 September and 6 October reports, KVERT noted that bursts of volcanic ash that rose above the summit crater and cinder cone fell into Apakhonchich chute.

Explosions during the first week of October sent ash to an altitude of 5-6 km and plumes extended about 260 km E. On 7-8 October, gas-steam plumes containing ash drifted about 390 km E and SE. By 13 October, activity had apparently diminished, with moderate gas-steam emissions containing some ash. A weak thermal anomaly was noted on 7 and 12 October.

By 20 October the explosive-effusive activity had returned with a lava flow on the E flank, a large strong thermal anomaly, and strong gas-steam emissions containing various amounts of ash. Explosions sent ash to 5-6 km altitude and plumes extended for about 300 km E, SE, and NW on 14 and 18-19 October. On 20-21 and 23-27 October explosions sent ash up to an altitude of 5-7 km; gas-steam plumes containing ash extended for about 335 km in various directions. On 30-31 October and 1-3 November, explosions sent ash up to an altitude of 5-8 km and gas-steam plumes containing ash extended for about 277 km E and SE. Strong thermal anomalies detected from satellite by the MODIS instrument decreased significantly in strength after 2 November.

On 3-5 November, ash plumes extended up to 116 km E. KVERT's report on 10 November noted that activity had decreased significantly during the previous week. Lava effusion onto the flanks was last noted on 3 November; the next day the thermal anomaly was weaker. Ash plumes were last detected in satellite images during 3-4 November. The ACC was lowered to Yellow on 7 November. However, moderate activity continued and thermal anomalies and Strombolian activity could still be observed. Strong gas-and-steam emissions continued. On 16 November, an ash plume extended up to 85 km NW. KVERT reported a daily thermal anomaly visible in satellite images during 18-25 November.

Activity during December 2016-March 2017. Thermal anomaly data after early November 2016 was not sufficient to cause alerts on MODVOLC, and was seen to be very weak and fluctuating in MIROVA plots before ending completely in mid-February 2017 (see figure 19). On 26 December KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly had been detected and that gas-and-steam plumes sometimes contained small amounts of ash. Over the next few months the ACC was frequently changed between Yellwo and Orange, depending on the ash plume hazard to aviation.

Explosions on 1 January 2017 generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5 km and drifted 114 km SE, resulting in KVERT raising the ACC to Orange. Daily satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 2-6 January. Gas-and-steam emissions sometimes with minor ash, along with thermal anomalies, continued through 20 January. During 9-10 January ash plumes drifted 160 km ESE, and on 22 January an ash plume rose to 5-5.5 km and drifted 45 km E.

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite data during 25 February and 1-3, 5, and 8-9 March. At 1340 on 2 March a gas, steam, and ash plume recorded by the webcam rose to altitudes of 8-9 km and drifted 110 km NE and NW. Explosions on 8 March produced ash plumes that rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted about 20 km NW. As of 24 March gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise from the crater, and a weak thermal anomaly was sometimes identified in satellite images, but no explosions had been detected since 8 March. On 24 March the ACC was lowered to Green.

A gas, steam, and ash plume identified in satellite data on 28 March rose to altitudes of 5-6 km and drifted 108 km ENE, resulting in the ACC being raised to Yellow. Another ash plume the next day that rose to as high as 7.5 km altitude and drifted 75 km SW prompted an Orange ACC status. Additional explosions during 27-30 March generated ash plumes to an altitude of 7 km that drifted 300 km in multiple directions.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Pacaya (Guatemala) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Pacaya

Guatemala

14.382°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2569 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Summary of 2004-2010 eruptions including a fatality in May 2010; lava flows in 2013-2014

Guatemala's Pacaya volcano has a 450-year record of observations of frequent activity, in addition to confirmed radiocarbon dating of eruptions over the last 1,500 years. Its location, approximately 30 km south of the capital of Guatemala City, makes it both a popular tourist attraction as a national park, and a hazard to the several million people that live within 50 km. Activity during the last 50 years has been characterized by extensive lava flows, bomb-laden Strombolian explosions, and large and small ash plumes that have dispersed ash to cities and towns across the region.

This report summarizes activity at Pacaya during the long-lived 2004-2010 eruptive episode, and continues with the details of activity during the next eruption between March 2013 and April 2014. Most of the information is provided by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), the Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED) of Guatemala, and the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), which provides air traffic advisories. Information is also gathered from remote sensing satellite data provided through the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC program and from Google Earth images.

Renewed Strombolian activity was observed on 19 July 2004 after two years of mostly steam emissions, and again in early December 2004. Intermittent Strombolian explosions accompanied near-continuous lava flows down most flanks of MacKenney Cone from December until 11 September 2005. An explosion on 9 March 2006 was the beginning of a new, lengthy episode characterized by extensive lava flows and few significant ash plumes. Multiple strong thermal anomalies were recorded every month from March 2006 through June 2010, excepting December 2006. It climaxed with a major explosion of ash and lava flows during 27- 28 May 2010, and ended with the last Strombolian explosions recorded on 26 October 2010. After two and a half years of quiet, a new period of Strombolian activity began on 5 March 2013, which included intermittent lava flows. This continued until an outbreak of more extensive lava flows during the second half of January 2014. After a final burst of lava flows in early March, a small ash plume on 10 April 2014 was the last reported activity for four months.

Activity during June 2004-September 2005. Renewed periods of near-continuous tremor and frequent long-period earthquakes were recorded during June- August 2004, after the end of visible incandescence from a long-lived lava lake in June 2001. Incandescence was first reported on 14 June 2004, followed by ejection of lava fragments from a vent at the bottom of the central crater of MacKenney Cone on 19 July (BGVN 30:10). Incandescence was observed during the next few months, and tephra was expelled from the cone during 7-9 December 2004.

A sequence of substantial lava flows was first observed by INSIVUMEH in January 2005; strong thermal signatures were initially captured by MODVOLC beginning on 24 December 2004 and persisted until 28 August 2005. During this period, most of the lava flows covered the NW, N, and NE flanks of the central crater, but some extended up to 300 m down the W and SW flanks (figure 62). An INSIVUMEH report from 2008 noted that in March and April 2005 the growth of N-S oriented cracks on the MacKenney Crater created a new vent on the cone's ENE side. In just a few days, the flow field from this vent grew to about 800 m long and curved westward down the N flank, filling much of the depression formed by the cracks in the subsequent months (BGVN 33:08).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Two MODVOLC images of Pacaya showing locations of lava flows during 2005. Upper image shows lava flows during 1-15 April 2005. Flows are located NW, N, and NE of MacKenney Cone as well as to the W in a longer flow. During August 2005 (lower image), active flows were concentrated NE and E of the cone with residual cooling observed to the W and SW. Courtesy of HIGP MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Strombolian explosions reached 100 m above the crater, and avalanches of ejected incandescent blocks produced small ash clouds to low levels during much of 2005. Thermal anomalies ceased at Pacaya after 28 August 2005, although observations by INSIVUMEH of occasional Strombolian activity and ejected bombs were made until 11 September. After that, only weak incandescence was reported in early November and January 2006; a new Strombolian explosion occurred on 9 March 2006.

Activity during 2006-2009. The Strombolian explosions that began on 9 March 2006 ejected material tens of meters above the volcano in pulses of activity lasting 10-30 seconds; on 12 March material rose 250 m above MacKenney Cone. Significant lava flows began in late March, advancing about 150 m from the S and SW edges of the crater. A new flow on 13 April was reported by INSIVUMEH as issuing from a parasitic cone, at the ENE base of the main cone, and was 125 m long by 17 April. During the rest of 2006, lava flows from this vent reached lengths of more than 800 m NW of the summit cone and covered an area N, NE, and NW of the cone, known as the 'meseta' (plateau) popular with visitors to the Park (see figures 39, 40, and 41, BGVN 33:08). The Washington VAAC issued only one ash advisory in 2006, on 28 August, and noted possible ash emissions at 3 km altitude drifting 16 km W.

Throughout 2007, 2008, and 2009, multiple vigorous lava flows traveled in different directions from MacKenney Cone. The new lava flows that emerged from a vent on the ENE flank during March and April 2006 also continued to flow NE and N, and then curved to the W in multiple branches, covering large areas of the plateau between the active cone and the three older cones (Cerro Grande, Cerro Chiquito and Cerro Chino) to the N. These flows were most active through November 2008 (figure 63). Flows down the S and SW flanks continued intermittently and reached lengths of several hundred meters. They were most active between August 2008 and the end of 2009; reaching 800 m long in December 2008. Lava flow volume and explosive activity increased during April 2009; the flows traveled down the S and SW flanks for distances up to 400 m. During July, they traveled as far as 600 m down the flanks, and remained vigorous throughout the rest of the year.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. Location and extent of thermal anomalies from lava flows and Strombolian activity at Pacaya during April and November 2008. Upper image: Thermal anomalies suggest that lava flows during the first half of April 2008 were primarily issuing from a vent on the NE flank and flowing N, NW, and NE, and not originating from MacKenney Cone. Lower image: By November 2008, there were extensive flows from the summit crater flowing W and SW, as well as to areas N of the cone. Courtesy of HIGP MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Strombolian explosions were intermittent during this three year period, only reported a handful of times in January, June, and December 2007, February, May, and July 2008, and March and April 2009, with explosions of material to a few tens of meters above the summit cone. These explosions often created gas plumes reported by INSIVUMEH to altitudes of 2-3 km. They reported that material from explosions in March 2009 enlarged the cones in the summit crater, and vigorous degassing contributed to substantial noise. A small spatter cone, 4 m high, was detected in the S part of the crater in late April.

There were only three series of VAAC reports during 2007-2009, two in 2007 and one in 2008. A small ash plume was observed on 6 April 2007 at 4.6 km altitude that drifted less than 10 km SSE before dissipating. On 17 November 2007 a narrow plume was observed in satellite imagery extending 15-25 km NW of the summit at an altitude of 4.3 km. A brief emission of gas and possible ash was reported on 2 November 2008, but dissipated within three hours.

Activity during 2010. During January 2010, the lava flows that had descended the S, SW, and W flanks of MacKenney Cone since 2006 ceased flowing. Strombolian explosions were observed again in early February and new flows originating from a depression on the NE flank of the cone traveled 400 m down the E and NE flanks toward the meseta. Avalanches of blocks from the flow fronts set fire to local vegetation. Significant tephra explosions reached up to 150 m high in late February and lava flows traveled 800 m E (figure 64). Multiple lava flows on the SW flank of MacKenney cone on 20 May 2010 traveled 1.6 km, farther than previously recorded flows.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. Significant new lava flows at Pacaya can be identified moving E from the NE flank of MacKenney Cone beginning in February 2010 on this map of MODVOLC thermal alerts. The flows that had been active through January to the W and SW were cooling but still produced a thermal signature visible in this MODVOLC image from the second half of March 2010. Courtesy of HIGP MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

This increasing activity culminated in a large Strombolian eruption on 27 and 28 May 2010. On 29 May a 90-m-wide lava flow traveled SSE down the flank at an estimated rate of 100 m per hour and burned three houses on the Pacaya Grande ranch (see details in BGVN 39:05). The eruption was characterized in a report from CONRED as having constant explosions that ejected material 500 m into the air. INSIVUMEH reported a continuing series of explosions 5-10 seconds apart that ejected black ash up to 1 km above the crater on 28 May.

Numerous weather clouds prevented the Washington VAAC from determining an altitude of the ash plume until late on 28 May, when it was visible in satellite imagery at about 13 km altitude. Ash plumes drifted 20-30 km NW, causing ashfall as thick as 10 cm in areas downwind, including in Guatemala City, about 30 km NNE. INSIVUMEH reported 5-7 mm of ashfall during 27-28 May at the Aurora International Airport. CONRED reported on 28 May that about 1,600 people had been evacuated from six towns 3-4 km W, NNW, N, and NNE, and that the airport was closed. According to a map posted by CONRED, blocks fell in areas as far as 12 km NE, and ash was reported in areas E of Chinautla, 37 km NNE. Reuters News Agency reported that one person (a reporter) died and three children were missing.

The lava flow moving down the SSE flank of MacKenney Cone was shown by MODVOLC thermal alert pixels that persisted through much of June 2010 (figure 65). The lava flowed to within 450 m of several properties including El Chupadero, located 2-2.5 km S of the crater, and disrupted an access road from El Caracol (3 km SW) and Los Pocitos (5.5 km S).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Thermal alert pixels seen in MODVOLC data show the area of lava flows at Pacaya extending down the SSE flank of MacKenney Cone from the summit and from a vent on the SSE side of the cone during June 2010, damaging property in its path. Courtesy of HIGP MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Intermittent Strombolian activity continued into June 2010, with tephra ejected as high as 700 m above the crater. The lava flows on the SE flank remained active through mid-June and had traveled as far as 3.5 km before cooling. By late June, the cone was primarily emitting white and blue fumarolic plumes to several hundred meters. Significant ash emissions and small pyroclastic flows were again reported during the last two weeks of July, causing an evacuation of 150 people from nearby areas. A Washington VAAC report on 22 July noted a plume at an altitude of 4.1 km drifting N, that produced ashfall within 10 km. Strombolian explosions on 24 and 25 July were strong enough to cause a MODVOLC thermal alert pixel at the summit, and to eject tephra blocks onto the flanks.

The last eruptive events of this multi-year eruption were ash plumes emitted in August and Strombolian activity in October 2010. Small ash plumes rose to 800 m above the crater causing ashfall 5 km away on 2 and 3 August. This was followed by a burst of Strombolian explosions during 21-22 and 26 October. After this, only fumarolic emissions of primarily water vapor were reported at Pacaya until a plume of ash-and-gas was reported by INSIVUMEH on 5 March 2013.

A comparison of a geologic map prepared by INSIVUMEH's Rudiger Escobar Wolf in 2010 (also published in BGVN 39:05) and a Google Earth image from December 2010 readily shows the impact of the extensive flows at Pacaya during the 2006-2010 eruptive episode (figure 66).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Comparison of 2010 geologic map (also published in BGVN 39:05) and a Google Earth image dated 12 December 2010 showing the impact of the lava flows at Pacaya from the 2006-2010 eruption. Geologic map from INSIVUMEH, imagery from Google Earth.

Activity during March 2013-August 2014. Pacaya remained quiet between October 2010 and March 2013 except for intermittent pulses of seismicity and minor water vapor and gas emissions. An increase in explosions was noted beginning late in 2012, but only steam plumes were observed rising less than 500 m above the summit during January and February 2013. A single MODVOLC thermal alert pixel captured on 2 Feb 2013 to the SE of MacKenney Cone is likely the result of agricultural, not volcanic, activity.

The first report of renewed activity was on 5 March 2013 when INSIVUMEH noted that a thin plume of brown ash accompanied the fumarolic plumes, and dispersed to the S. Weak gas-and-ash plumes recurred several more times during March. On 24 April tephra was ejected 25 m high by weak explosions; incandescence and explosions were detected the next day and again on 29 April. Incandescence was regularly observed during May, and more substantial Strombolian activity started on 20 May and carried through to the end of the month. Tephra ejections rose to 25 m above the crater, and continuous explosions a few minutes apart that ejected bombs and generated rumbles, were heard 4 km away. An explosion on 30 May ejected ash and lapilli 200 m above the crater that was then deposited within 400 m of the crater.

Strombolian activity on 27 June 2013 again ejected small amounts of tephra that were deposited on the W flank. An investigation of the summit crater of MacKenney Cone during June determined that a 15 m high cone had been the source of the most recent explosive activity. An increase in seismicity in late July indicated the continued growth of the pyroclastic cone which had risen to 4 m above the crater rim by 24 July, doubling its total height from June to more than 30 m high. Weak explosions and incandescence were observed the next night, and a Strombolian eruption on 30 July lasted for four hours and ejected material 250 m above the cone. A diffuse ash plume drifted 2 km N, causing ashfall in areas downwind, and another ash plume drifted 5 km S. A prominent hot spot at the summit was reported by the Washington VAAC.

During 9 and 10 August seismicity increased again and Strombolian explosions ejected tephra 200 m above MacKenney Crater and onto the flanks, 400 m from the crater, causing small avalanches on the flanks. Another explosion during the night of 14-15 August produced a 300-m-long lava flow that traveled W from MacKenney Crater; new emissions of ash and gases to 500 m above the crater were reported by the Washington VAAC the next day. Tremors and explosions of incandescent material continued through August and the first half of September ejecting material and sending small ash plumes a few kilometers above the cone. Incandescence was reported as visible from the capital to the N by mid-September. Two MODVOLC thermal anomaly pixels were recorded on 30 August and 3 September confirming the increased thermal activity reported by INSIVUMEH.

In late November 2013 INSIVUMEH reported that activity remained unchanged with weak explosions, gas emissions and tephra ejections continuing. Pilots reported that ash plumes rose to 2.7 km and drifted 10 km SW. This continued into early January 2014 when activity at the main crater increased; seismographs recorded constant tremor, and beginning on 11 January, INSIVUMEH observed tephra explosions to 100 m, gas plumes to 600 m, and new craters on the E, S, and W flanks that produced extensive new lava flows. These flows emitted strong thermal anomaly signatures that were captured by MODVOLC for the next two weeks (figure 67).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. MODVOLC thermal alert images from Pacaya on individual days during January 2014 show the extent of new lava from multiple vents on the E, S, and W flanks of MacKenney Cone. The green dot is the summit crater at MacKenney Cone. Clockwise from top left: a) 11 January, thermal signatures N and SW of the summit crater; b) 13 January, the strongest signals are from the SW and SW flanks; c) 19 January, fewer signals suggest a pause in the flows; d) 20 January, renewed flows on the S flank. Courtesy of HIGP MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

At the beginning of this event (on 11 January) CONRED reported evacuations from Villa Canales (14 km NW), El Chupadero (2-2.5 km S), and San Vicente Pacaya (5 km NW). Lava flows had reached 3 km by 13 January. A report on 21 January noted that the S-flank lava flow was 3.6 km long and continued to slowly advance, burning vegetation (figure 68) between the Rodeo and Los Pocitos roads.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. An a'a lava flow at Pacaya burning its way through a forest on 11 January 2014. Courtesy of CONRED.

Volcanologists observed that the cone in MacKenney Crater had been completely destroyed during the January events, leaving a deep crater that produced fumarolic activity. The Washington VAAC noted an ash plume on 11 January that rose to 3.4 km and extended 55 km SSW from the summit. After that, a prominent hot spot was visible but there was no further indication of ash in satellite imagery. Separate Google Earth images captured in December 2013 and April 2014 show the extent of the new lava flows on the S flank of MacKenney Cone (figure 69) during January 2014.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. Two Google Earth images of the S flank of MacKenney Cone at Pacaya before and after lava flows during January 2014. Upper image is dated 30 December 2013. Lower image is dated 9 April 2014. An image dated 30 March also shows the new flows, but was much hazier. Note that the location of MODVOLC thermal alerts in figure 67d matches the location of January 2014 lava flows. Courtesy of Google Earth.

The next episode of activity began with increased gas-and-vapor plumes during 27-28 February 2014 and included ejection of fine pyroclastic material 600 m S and SW from the crater. INSIVUMEH and CONRED noted increased activity on 2 March; at 0515 Strombolian activity at MacKenney Crater ejected material as high as 800 m and lava flows descended the W flank (figure 70). Explosions produced dense ash plumes that initially rose 2.5 km and drifted 15 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in El Rodeo (4 km WSW), Patrocinio (about 5 km W), and Francisco de Sales (5 km N). By the next day, activity had decreased, but lava flows traveled up to 1.3 km S and ejected tephra drifted 600 m S and SW. Small explosions and lava flows continued to be active for the next week. MODVOLC thermal alerts were captured around the summit on 2 and 3 March, but no additional thermal alerts were recorded in 2014. The Washington VAAC also noted emissions of gas and volcanic ash on 2 March that rose to 4.9 km altitude and extended over 200 km W before the end of the day. By 3 March an area of light ash remained 370 km W of the volcano off the southern Mexico coast and dissipated during the day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. The eruption of Pacaya on 2 March 2014. The lava fountain (reddish) can be seen at the summit vent. Courtesy of CONRED.

After INSIVUMEH reported a small ash plume on 10 April 2014, only minor episodes of increased seismicity and steam plumes rising a few tens of meters above the summit were observed through August.

Geologic Background. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. This complex basaltic volcano was constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Av. Hincapié 21-72, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://conred.gob.gt/www/index.php); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Google Earth (URL: https://www.google.com/earth/); Reuters News Agency (URL: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-guatemala-volcano-idUSTRE64R11M20100528?pageNumber=2).


Paluweh (Indonesia) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Paluweh

Indonesia

8.32°S, 121.708°E; summit elev. 875 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Two major pyroclastic flows in February and August 2013; five fatalities on 10 August 2013

Mount Rokatenda, or Paluweh, on the island of Palu'e, lies north of the primary volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island in Indonesia's Lesser Sunda Islands, and has seen infrequent activity in modern times. The previous eruption in 1985 from a summit lava dome spread 3 cm of ash over villages on the W side of the island. This report is a summary of the October 2012 to August 2013 eruption, and an update through 2016 that includes information provided by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC thermal alert reporting system. Numerous news reports also covered the major explosions during 2013.

Two brief periods of increased seismicity in April 2009 and January 2012 were the only recorded activity at Paluweh since 1985, prior to an eruption that began in October 2012 and continued through August 2013. PVMBG noted the beginning of lava dome growth on 8 October. A substantial number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels from MODIS satellite data were first recorded on 11 October 2012 and recurred regularly through 20 July 2013. The first ash plumes were reported by the Darwin VAAC on 11 November 2012 and continued several times each month through May 2013, and then again in late June and during 10-12 August. Plumes generally rose to 2-3 km and drifted between 50 and 100 km in various directions, although a large ash plume on 3 February 2013 rose to higher than 13 km and drifted over 500 km SE, S and SW, briefly impacting air travel in NW Australia. A major explosion on 10 August 2013 created a large pyroclastic flow to the NW from the summit that killed five people on the beach. No further explosions were specifically dated after 12 August 2013, and seismicity gradually decreased over the next several months.

Activity during October 2012-April 2013. PVMBG noted lava dome growth, incandescent avalanches, pyroclastic flows, and ash plumes during October 2012 through January 2013. Ejecta as large as 6 cm in diameter was deposited up to 3 km from the summit, and ashfall affected the entire island, averaging 2 cm thick in places; lahars and ash damaged homes and infrastructure on the island (BGVN 39:01). A large eruption on 2 February 2013, which produced a 13-km-high ash plume the next day, generated a substantial SO2 signature, pyroclastic flows to the S and SW, and avalanches. Residents of eight villages were evacuated and significant ashfall was reported up to 1 mm thick in Ende (60 km S on East Nusa Tenggara Island). Thick ashfall was also reported in Ona (SE part of the island) and thin deposits were reported in other areas of the island to the W, N, and E. During a field expedition on 7 February, PVMBG staff observed that about 25% of the S portion of the dome was lost; the lava-dome volume had been an estimated 5.1 million cubic meters on 13 January, prior to the explosion.

After the large early February 2013 explosion, many intermittent low-level ash emissions continued through the last week in May, with over 175 VAAC reports issued from the Darwin VAAC during the period. NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) identified an ash plume in MODIS satellite images drifting over 440 km SW on 24 March 2013, and discoloration of the seawater from ash W of the island (figure 7).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. NASA image acquired 24 March 2013 with the MODIS instrument shows an ash plume from Paluweh drifting over 440 km SW across Flores Island. Light-colored ash coats the southern third of Paluweh Island, and the ocean to the W of the island is colored turquoise from ash floating near the water's surface. Image posted at http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=80737. Courtesy of NASA, GSFC.

Another NASA-EO image captured on 19 April 2013 shows the extent of ash deposits covering areas of the S and E sides of the summit where the plumes most commonly drift. A delta extending S into the Flores Sea, which was visible in imagery on 12 February and likely created by a pyroclastic flow during the large 2-3 February explosion (figure 8), was also visible.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. NASA-EO image of Paluweh captured 19 April 2013. Note the extent of ash covering the area of the island on the S and E sides of the summit where the plumes usually drift. It also shows a delta extending S into the Flores Sea, also visible in imagery on 12 February (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80422 ) and likely created by a pyroclastic flow during the large 2-3 February explosion. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory (ihttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=80987).

Activity during May-August 2013. There was a three-week break in reported ash plumes between 25 May and 19 June when a low level plume rising to 2.4 km was observed drifting 37 km SE. After this, no further activity was reported until 10 August. A large and deadly explosion took place on 10 August, producing an ash plume that rose to 4.3 km and drifted 130 km W. Details of the explosion are given in BGVN 39:01 and additional information is provided in this report. According to PVMBG, a substantial pyroclastic flow traveled NW from the summit down the Ojaubi drainage towards a village on the beach and killed five fisherman. Rescuers noted that the ground was hot and covered with 10-20 cm of ash. NASA-EO captured images before and after the 10 August 2013 eruption where the path of the pyroclastic flow to the NW is clearly visible (figure 9).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. NASA-EO images of Paluweh (Mt. Rokatenda) on 3 August and 4 September 2013, before and after a large eruption with a deadly pyroclastic flow that traveled NW from the summit to the ocean, killing 5 people at the beach on 10 August. The delta on the S of the island was created during an earlier eruption and pyroclastic flow on 2-3 February 2013. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory ( http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=81986).

Activity during 2014-2016. In April 2014, PVMBG noted that the last major explosion had been on 10 August 2013. The last 2013 ash plume recorded by the Darwin VAAC was on 12 August 2013. Visual observations of occasional eruptive activity were noted until November 2013; small explosion earthquakes were also reported as being last recorded in November. No changes were observed in the lava dome between September 2013 and March 2014. PVMBG lowered the Alert level from III to II (on a scale of 1-4) on 7 April 2014.

No additional reports of activity at Paluweh appeared until late 2015, when PVMBG noted that steam plumes rising 75-200 m above the summit were common between August and October 2015. Seismicity remained low but variable during this time as well. From November 2015 through January 2016, steam plume heights ranged from 5-150 m. Seismicity remained low; earthquakes indicating rock avalanches and fumarolic emissions were the most common type recorded (figure 10). Paluweh remained quiet throughout 2016, although in February 2017 it was still listed by PVMBG at Alert Level II, with a potential for eruptive activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Seismic activity at Paluweh between 1 January 2015 and 13 January 2016. Vertical Axis represents daily number of events for all graphs. Guguran are avalanche events, Hembusan are emission-related events, Vulkanik Dangkal (VB) are shallow volcanic events, Vulkanik Dalam (VA) are deep volcanic events, Tektonik Local are local tectonic events, and Tektonik Jauh are distant tectonic events. Courtesy of PVMBG (Paluweh report, 18 January 2016).

Geologic Background. Paluweh volcano, also known as Rokatenda, forms the 8-km-wide island of Palu'e north of the volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island. The broad irregular summit region contains overlapping craters up to 900 m wide and several lava domes. Several flank vents occur along a NW-trending fissure. The largest historical eruption occurred in 1928, when strong explosive activity was accompanied by landslide-induced tsunamis and lava dome emplacement. Pyroclastic flows in August 2013 resulted in fatalities.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/).


Zhupanovsky (Russia) — April 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Zhupanovsky

Russia

53.589°N, 159.15°E; summit elev. 2899 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Moderate ash plumes continued until 24 March, then an explosion on 20 November 2016

A brief eruption that began on 23 October 2013 was the first reported activity at Zhupanovsky since 1959 (BGVN 39:09). After another eight months of quiet, eruptive activity began again in early June 2014 that was characterized by periods of frequent, moderate, ash-generating explosions that continued through the end of that year (BGVN 39:09). As described below, similar activity continued from January 2015 through 24 March 2016, with periods of strong explosions generating ash plumes as high as 10 km altitude. Another long period of eight months without observed activity was broken by a large eruption on 20 November 2016. No additional activity was reported through March 2017. Most of the data comes from Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reports. Often, the volcano is obscured by clouds. All reported dates are UTC unless otherwise noted (local = -12 hours).

Activity during 2015. According to KVERT, the moderate eruption with explosions generating ash plumes continued into 2015 (table 1). The Aviation Color Code remained Orange (third level on a four-color scale) between 1 January and 15 May 2015. After an explosion on 3 April, explosive activity waned and KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code from Orange to Yellow (second level on a four-color scale) on 16 May. On 9 June 2015, activity increased again, with webcam and satellite images showing an ash plume rising to an altitude of 6 km. The Aviation Color Code was raised on 8 June to Orange.

During an overflight on 16 July, volcanologists observed fresh deposits at the foot of the volcano from collapses of the S section of the active Priemysh Crater that likely occurred on 12 July (figures 7 and 8). Moderate activity at the crater continued through 17 July; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 18 June and to Green on 23 July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Photo of the summit area of Zhupanovsky showing the collapse deposits from the Priemysh cone, 16 July 2015. Photo credit to A. Plechova and V.I. Vernadsky, IGAC RAS. Courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Photo of the southern side of Zhupanovsky showing the collapse deposits from the Priemysh cone, 16 July 2015. Photo credit to A. Plechova and V.I. Vernadsky, IGAC RAS. Courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, KVERT.

On 7 August KVERT reported that explosive activity had ended, but collapses of the S part of the active crater continued. On 6 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5 km and drifted 25-60 km SW, triggering KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. The code was lowered back to Green on 13 August.

KVERT indicated that activity remained low until 27 November 2015 when, based on satellite images, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-6 km and drifted 285 km E. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. IVS FED RAS (Institute Volcanology and Seismology Far East Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences) observers noted an ash explosion at 0356 on 30 November (UTC); the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported that the resulting ash plume rose to an altitude of 9 km. Pyroclastic flow deposits 15.5 km long were observed on the S flank after the 30 November event.

According to KVERT, activity decreased after a partial collapse of the S central sector on 27 and 30 November 2015. Satellite images detected a very weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 4 and 7 December. Moderate levels of fumarolic activity continued. On 10 December the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. By early-to-mid December 2015, only moderate levels of fumarolic activity were observed. On 17 December the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

KVERT reported that thermal anomalies occurred frequently during the reporting period; often they were obscured by clouds. The only MODVOLC thermal alerts, based on MODIS anomalies, during the reporting period were during March-June 2015: on 7 March, 8 March (2 pixels), 15 March (2 pixels), 21 March (2 pixels), 20 May, and 16 June.

Table 1. Summary of reported activity at Zhupanosky, January 2015-March 2016. Data is from webcam images, satellite images, and visual observations. On many days, clouds obscured visibility. Courtesy of KVERT and Tokyo VAAC.

Date (UTC) Plume height (km) Plume drift Thermal anomaly Other
2015 Jan 6 -- 50 km E -- --
2015 Jan 11-12 5 40 km SW 12 Jan --
2015 Jan 17-21 -- 300 km SW, E 17-20 Jan --
2015 Jan 22, 25-26 5-6 160 km SW, SE 23, 25-27 Jan --
2015 Jan 30-6 Feb -- -- Daily --
2015 Feb 6, 9 3 65 km W Daily --
2015 Feb 15-19 3-3.5 200 km W, SE 14-15,18 Feb --
2015 Feb 20-27 3-3.5 250 km E, SE 20-22, 25-26 Feb --
2015 Feb 27-6 Mar 3-8 400 km E 27 Feb, 1 Mar --
2015 Mar 7-8 6-7 333 km E (7, 10 Mar), 232 km NE (8 Mar) 7-10 Mar --
2015 Mar 12, 15 7 350 km NE, S 14-17 Mar Incandescence on 15 Mar
2015 Mar 25 8 100 km ENE Daily --
2015 Mar 27-2 Apr -- -- 26, 30 Mar, 2 Apr --
2015 Apr 3 -- 25 km SE -- --
2015 Apr 9 -- -- 9 Apr --
2015 Apr 10-17 -- -- 16-17 Apr --
2015 Apr 23-1 May -- -- 23, 25, 28 Apr --
2015 May 1-8 -- -- 3, 5 May --
2015 May 8-15 -- -- 14 May --
2015 May 20-23 -- 470 km E 23 May --
2015 Jun 7-9 6 95 km S, 250 km SE 8-9 June --
2015 Jun 12-19 -- 150 km W 16 June --
2015 Jul 3-10 -- SW on 6 July -- --
2015 Jul 12 10 1,100 km SE -- Ashfall at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (12 Jul)
2015 Jul 14 2 60 km S -- --
2015 Aug 6 5 25-60 km SW -- --
2015 Nov 27 6-7 300 km E, SE Over volcano --
2015 Nov 30 9 300 km E, SE Over both volcano and pyroclastic flow Pyroclastic flow deposits 15.5 km long observed on S flank
2015 Dec 3-4 -- -- Over pyroclastic flow --
2015 Dec 5-7 -- -- 7 Dec --
2016 Jan 19-21 7-8 80 km NE, 36 km W 19, 21 Jan Plume 150 km long observed 50 km NE
2016 Jan 24 8 235 km NNE 23 Jan --
2016 Jan 29-5 Feb -- -- 30 Jan --
2016 Feb 5, 7, 9, 11 7 546 km E, N 5,9-11 Feb --
2016 Feb 12-13 7; 10; 1 2 km E; 50-200 km SE, E; 600 km E, NE; 288 km ESE 12-13 Feb Aviation Color Code raised to Red.
2016 Mar 24 8 8 x 10 km ash cloud 134 km NW at 3.5-4 km altitude -- --

Activity during 2016. The eruption pattern of fluctuating activity levels continued into 2016. Based on visual observations, KVERT reported that at 1636 on 19 January 2016 (UTC), an explosion generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7-8 km and drifted 20 km E (figure 9). The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Photo of the ash column rising from Zhupanovsky, 19 January 2016. Still image taken from webcam video. Courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, KVERT.

Moderate steam-and-gas activity continued during 5 February-18 March. An explosion at 2029 on 12 February (UTC) was recorded by a video camera and generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km and drifted E. A larger explosion visually observed a minute later generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10 km and drifted 50 km SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red for several hours. In a report issued at 2334 (UTC), KVERT noted that only moderate amounts of gas and steam rose from the volcano; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Ash from the earlier explosions drifted E over Kronotsky Bay and NW. A few hours later, an ash plume was detected in satellite images rising 1 km above the volcano and drifting 288 km E.

The Tokyo VAAC recorded an explosion at 1320 on 24 March (UTC) that generated an ash plume which rose to an altitude of 8 km. After the explosion, no further activity was observed. A very weak thermal anomaly was detected over the volcano in satellite images on 1 and 10 April. The Aviation Color Code was thus lowered to Yellow on 13 April. The last thermal anomaly detection in a satellite image was on 10 April. However, moderate fumarolic activity continued. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green on 16 June.

At 1429 on 20 November 2016 a webcam recorded ash plumes rising to altitudes of 6-8 km and drifting 73 km E (figure 10); the Aviation Color Code was raised from Green to Orange. No further activity was observed, and on 22 November the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Photo of the ash column rising from Zhupanovsky and extending E, 20 November 2016. Still image taken from webcam video. Courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, KVERT.

Geologic Background. The Zhupanovsky volcanic massif consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes along a WNW-trending ridge. The elongated volcanic complex was constructed within a Pliocene-early Pleistocene caldera whose rim is exposed only on the eastern side. Three of the stratovolcanoes were built during the Pleistocene, the fourth is Holocene in age and was the source of all of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions. An early Holocene stage of frequent moderate and weak eruptions from 7000 to 5000 years before present (BP) was succeeded by a period of infrequent larger eruptions that produced pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption took place about 800-900 years BP. Historical eruptions have consisted of relatively minor explosions from the third cone.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports