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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Sabancaya (Peru) Daily explosions with ash emissions, large SO2 flux, ongoing thermal anomalies, December 2019-May 2020

Sheveluch (Russia) Lava dome growth and thermal anomalies continue through April 2020, but few ash explosions

Dukono (Indonesia) Numerous ash explosions continue through March 2020

Etna (Italy) Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continue, October 2019-March 2020

Merapi (Indonesia) Explosions produced ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows during October 2019-March 2020

Erta Ale (Ethiopia) Continued lava flow outbreaks and thermal anomalies during November 2019 to early April 2020

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) Weak phreatic explosions during August 2019-March 2020; ash and lahars reported in late January

Manam (Papua New Guinea) Minor explosive activity, continued thermal activity, and SO2 emissions, October 2019-March 2020.

Stromboli (Italy) Strombolian activity continues at both summit crater areas, September-December 2019

Semeru (Indonesia) Ash plumes and thermal anomalies continue during September 2019-February 2020

Popocatepetl (Mexico) Dome growth and destruction continues along with ash emissions and ejecta, September 2019-February 2020

Santa Maria (Guatemala) Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continue, September 2019-February 2020



Sabancaya (Peru) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions with ash emissions, large SO2 flux, ongoing thermal anomalies, December 2019-May 2020

Although tephrochronology has dated activity at Sabancaya back several thousand years, renewed activity that began in 1986 was the first recorded in over 200 years. Intermittent activity since then has produced significant ashfall deposits, seismic unrest, and fumarolic emissions. A new period of explosive activity that began in November 2016 has been characterized by pulses of ash emissions with some plumes exceeding 10 km altitude, thermal anomalies, and significant SO2 plumes. Ash emissions and high levels of SO2 continued each week during December 2019-May 2020. The Observatorio Vulcanologico INGEMMET (OVI) reports weekly on numbers of daily explosions, ash plume heights and directions of drift, seismicity, and other activity. The Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issued three or four daily reports of ongoing ash emissions at Sabancaya throughout the period.

The dome inside the summit crater continued to grow throughout this period, along with nearly constant ash, gas, and steam emissions; the average number of daily explosions ranged from 4 to 29. Ash and gas plume heights rose 1,800-3,800 m above the summit crater, and multiple communities around the volcano reported ashfall every month (table 6). Sulfur dioxide emissions were notably high and recorded daily with the TROPOMI satellite instrument (figure 75). Thermal activity declined during December 2019 from levels earlier in the year but remained steady and increased in both frequency and intensity during April and May 2020 (figure 76). Infrared satellite images indicated that the primary heat source throughout the period was from the dome inside the summit crater (figure 77).

Table 6. Persistent activity at Sabancaya during December 2019-May 2020 included multiple daily explosions with ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the summit and drifted in many directions; this resulted in ashfall in communities within 30 km of the volcano. Satellite instruments recorded SO2 emissions daily. Data courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET.

Month Avg. Daily Explosions by week Max plume Heights (m above crater) Plume drift (km) and direction Communities reporting ashfall Min Days with SO2 over 2 DU
Dec 2019 16, 13, 5, 5 2,600-3,800 20-30 NW Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Achoma, Coporaque, Yanque, Chivay, Huambo, Cabanaconde 27
Jan 2020 10, 8, 11, 14, 4 1,800-3,400 30 km W, NW, SE, S Chivay, Yanque, Achoma 29
Feb 2020 8, 11, 20, 19 2,000-2,200 30 km SE, E, NE, W Huambo 29
Mar 2020 14, 22, 29, 18 2,000-3,000 30 km NE, W, NW, SW Madrigal, Lari, Pinchollo 30
Apr 2020 12, 12, 16, 13, 8 2,000-3,000 30 km SE, NW, E, S Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque, Achoma 27
May 2020 15, 14, 6, 16 1,800-2,400 30 km SW, SE, E, NE, W Chivay, Achoma, Maca, Lari, Madrigal, Pinchollo 27
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sulfur dioxide anomalies were captured daily from Sabancaya during December 2019-May 2020 by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Some of the largest SO2 plumes are shown here with dates listed in the information at the top of each image. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Thermal activity at Sabancaya declined during December 2019 from levels earlier in the year but remained steady and increased slightly in frequency and intensity during April and May 2020, according to the MIROVA graph of Log Radiative Power from 23 June 2019 through May 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Sabancaya confirmed the frequent ash emissions and ongoing thermal activity from the dome inside the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020. Top row (left to right): On 6 December 2019 a large plume of steam and ash drifted N from the summit. On 16 December 2019 a thermal anomaly encircled the dome inside the summit caldera while gas and possible ash drifted NW. On 14 April 2020 a very similar pattern persisted inside the crater. Bottom row (left to right): On 19 April an ash plume was clearly visible above dense cloud cover. On 24 May the infrared glow around the dome remained strong; a diffuse plume drifted W. A large plume of ash and steam drifted SE from the summit on 29 May. Infrared images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a), other images use Natural Color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The average number of daily explosions during December 2019 decreased from a high of 16 the first week of the month to a low of five during the last week. Six pyroclastic flows occurred on 10 December (figure 78). Tremors were associated with gas-and-ash emissions for most of the month. Ashfall was reported in Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Achoma, Coporaque, Yanque, and Chivay during the first week of the month, and in Huambo and Cabanaconde during the second week (figure 79). Inflation of the volcano was measured throughout the month. SO2 flux was measured by OVI as ranging from 2,500 to 4,300 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Multiple daily explosions at Sabancaya produced ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the summit. Left image is from 5 December and right image is from 11 December 2019. Note pyroclastic flows to the right of the crater on 11 December. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-49-2019/INGEMMET Semana del 2 al 8 de diciembre de 2019 and RSSAB-50-2019/INGEMMET Semana del 9 al 15 de diciembre de 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Communities to the N and W of Sabancaya recorded ashfall from the volcano the first week of December and also every month during December 2019-May 2020. The red zone is the area where access is prohibited (about a 12-km radius from the crater). Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-22-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 25 al 31 de mayo del 2020).

During January and February 2020 the number of daily explosions averaged 4-20. Ash plumes rose as high as 3.4 km above the summit (figure 80) and drifted up to 30 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Chivay, Yanque, and Achoma on 8 January, and in Huambo on 25 February. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from a low of 1,200 t/d on 29 February to a high of 8,200 t/d on 28 January. Inflation of the edifice was measured during January; deformation changed to deflation in early February but then returned to inflation by the end of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Ash plumes rose from Sabancaya every day during January and February 2020. Left: 11 January. Right: 28 February. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-02-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 06 al 12 de enero del 2020 and RSSAB-09-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 24 de febrero al 01 de marzo del 2020).

Explosions continued during March and April 2020, averaging 8-29 per day. Explosions appeared to come from multiple vents on 11 March (figure 81). Ash plumes rose 3 km above the summit during the first week of March and again the first week of April; they were lower during the other weeks. Ashfall was reported in Madrigal, Lari, and Pinchollo on 27 March and 5 April. On 17 April ashfall was reported in Maca, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque, and Achoma. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from 1,900 t/d on 5 March to 10,700 t/d on 30 March. Inflation at depth continued throughout March and April with 10 +/- 4 mm recorded between 21 and 26 April. Similar activity continued during May 2020; explosions averaged 6-16 per day (figure 82). Ashfall was reported on 6 May in Chivay, Achoma, Maca, Lari, Madrigal, and Pinchollo; heavy ashfall was reported in Achoma on 12 May. Additional ashfall was reported in Achoma, Maca, Madrigal, and Lari on 23 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Explosions at Sabancaya on 11 March 2020 appeared to originate simultaneously from two different vents (left). The plume on 12 April was measured at about 2,500 m above the summit. Courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-11-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 9 al 15 de marzo del 2020 and RSSAB-15-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 6 al 12 de abril del 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Explosions dense with ash continued during May 2020 at Sabancaya. On 11 and 29 May 2020 ash plumes rose from the summit and drifted as far as 30 km before dissipating. Courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya , RSSAB-20-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 11 al 17 de mayo del 2020 and RSSAB-22-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 25 al 31 de mayo del 2020).

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Volcanologico del INGEMMET (Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico), Barrio Magisterial Nro. 2 B-16 Umacollo - Yanahuara Arequipa, Peru (URL: http://ovi.ingemmet.gob.pe); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sheveluch (Russia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome growth and thermal anomalies continue through April 2020, but few ash explosions

The eruption at Sheveluch has continued for more than 20 years, with strong explosions that have produced ash plumes, lava dome growth, hot avalanches, numerous thermal anomalies, and strong fumarolic activity (BGVN 44:05). During this time, there have been periods of greater or lesser activity. The most recent period of increased activity began in December 2018 and continued through October 2019 (BGVN 44:11). This report covers activity between November 2019 to April 2020, a period during which activity waned. The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) and Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

During the reporting period, KVERT noted that lava dome growth continued, accompanied by incandescence of the dome blocks and hot avalanches. Strong fumarolic activity was also present (figure 53). However, the overall eruption intensity waned. Ash plumes sometimes rose to 10 km altitude and drifted downwind over 600 km (table 14). The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), except for 3 November when it was raised briefly to Red (the highest level).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Fumarolic activity of Sheveluch’s lava dome on 24 January 2020. Photo by Y. Demyanchuk; courtesy of KVERT.

Table 14. Explosions and ash plumes at Sheveluch during November 2019-April 2020. Dates and times are UTC, not local. Data courtesy of KVERT and the Tokyo VAAC.

Dates Plume Altitude (km) Drift Distance and Direction Remarks
01-08 Nov 2019 -- 640 km NW 3 November: ACC raised to Red from 0546-0718 UTC before returning to Orange.
08-15 Nov 2019 9-10 1,300 km ESE
17-27 Dec 2019 6.0-6.5 25 km E Explosions at about 23:50 UTC on 21 Dec.
20-27 Mar 2020 -- 45 km N 25 March: Gas-and-steam plume containing some ash.
03-10 Apr 2020 10 km 526 km SE 8 April: Strong explosion at 1910 UTC.
17-24 Apr 2020 -- 140 km NE Re-suspended ash plume.

KVERT reported thermal anomalies over the volcano every day, except for 25-26 January, when clouds obscured observations. During the reporting period, thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm recorded hotspots on 10 days in November, 13 days in December, nine days in January, eight days in both February and March, and five days in April. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected numerous hotspots every month, almost all of which were of moderate radiative power (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Thermal anomalies at Sheveluch continued at elevated levels during November 2019-April 2020, as seen on this MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph for July 2019-April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

High sulfur dioxide levels were occasionally recorded just above or in the close vicinity of Sheveluch by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, but very little drift was observed.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Dukono (Indonesia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Numerous ash explosions continue through March 2020

The ongoing eruption at Dukono is characterized by frequent explosions that send ash plumes to about 1.5-3 km altitude (0.3-1.8 km above the summit), although a few have risen higher. This type of typical activity (figure 13) continued through at least March 2020. The ash plume data below (table 21) were primarily provided by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). During the reporting period of October 2019-March 2020, the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Table 21. Monthly summary of reported ash plumes from Dukono for October 2019-March 2020. The direction of drift for the ash plume through each month was highly variable; notable plume drift each month was only indicated in the table if at least two weekly reports were consistent. Data courtesy of the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG.

Month Plume Altitude (km) Notable Plume Drift
Oct 2019 1.8-3 Multiple
Nov 2019 1.8-2.3 E, SE, NE
Dec 2019 1.8-2.1 E, SE
Jan 2020 1.8-2.1 E, SE, SW, S
Feb 2020 2.1-2.4 S, SW
Mar 2020 1.5-2.3 Multiple
Figure (see Caption) Figure 13.Satellite image of Dukono from Sentinel-2 on 12 November 2019, showing an ash plume drifting E. Image uses natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the reporting period, high levels of sulfur dioxide were only recorded above or near the volcano during 30-31 October and 4 November 2019. High levels were recorded by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on 30 October 2019, in a plume drifting E. The next day high levels were also recorded by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite on 31 October (figure 14) and 4 November 2019, in plumes drifting SE and NE, respectively.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Sulfur dioxide emission on 31 October 2019 drifting E, probably from Dukono, as recorded by the TROPOMI instrument aboard the Sentinel-5P satellite. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Etna (Italy) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continue, October 2019-March 2020

Mount Etna is a stratovolcano located on the island of Sicily, Italy, with historical eruptions that date back 3,500 years. The most recent eruptive period began in September 2013 and has continued through March 2020. Activity is characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava flows, and ash plumes that commonly occur from the summit area, including the Northeast Crater (NEC), the Voragine-Bocca Nuova (or Central) complex (VOR-BN), the Southeast Crater (SEC, formed in 1978), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC, formed in 2011). The newest crater, referred to as the "cono della sella" (saddle cone), emerged during early 2017 in the area between SEC and NSEC. This reporting period covers information from October 2019 through March 2020 and includes frequent explosions and ash plumes. The primary source of information comes from the Osservatorio Etneo (OE), part of the Catania Branch of Italy's Istituo Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica (INGV).

Summary of activity during October 2019-March 2020. Strombolian activity and gas-and-steam and ash emissions were frequently observed at Etna throughout the entire reporting period, according to INGV and Toulouse VAAC notices. Activity was largely located within the main cone (Voragine-Bocca Nuova complex), the Northeast Crater (NEC), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 1, 17, and 19 October, ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km. Due to constant Strombolian explosions, ground observations showed that a scoria cone located on the floor of the VOR Crater had begun to grow in late November and again in late January 2020. A lava flow was first detected on 6 December at the base of the scoria cone in the VOR Crater, which traveled toward the adjacent BN Crater. Additional lava flows were observed intermittently throughout the reporting period in the same crater. On 13 March, another small scoria cone had formed in the main VOR-BN complex due to Strombolian explosions.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows multiple episodes of thermal activity varying in power from 22 June 2019 to March 2020 (figure 286). The power and frequency of these thermal anomalies significantly decreased between August to mid-September. The pulse of activity in mid-September reflected a lava flow from the VOR Crater (BGVN 44:10). By late October through November, thermal anomalies were relatively weaker and less frequent. The next pulse in thermal activity reflected in the MIROVA graph occurred in early December, followed by another shortly after in early January, both of which were due to new lava flows from the VOR Crater. After 9 January the thermal anomalies remained frequent and strong; active lava flows continued through March accompanied by Strombolian explosions, gas-and-steam, SO2, and ash emissions. The most recent distinct pulse in thermal activity was seen in mid-March; on 13 March, another lava flow formed, accompanied by an increase in seismicity. This lava flow, like the previous ones, also originated in the VOR Crater and traveled W toward the BN Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 286. Multiple episodes of varying activity at Etna from 22 June 2019 through March 2020 were reflected in the MIROVA thermal energy data (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during October-December 2019. During October 2019, VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) notices issued by INGV reported ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km on 1, 17, and 19 October. Strombolian explosions occurred frequently. Explosions were detected primarily in the VOR-BN Craters, ejecting coarse pyroclastic material that fell back into the crater area and occasionally rising above the crater rim. Ash emissions rose from the VOR-BN and NEC while intense gas-and-steam emissions were observed in the NSEC (figure 287). Between 10-12 and 14-20 October fine ashfall was observed in Pedara, Mascalucia, Nicolosi, San Giovanni La Punta, and Catania. In addition to these ash emissions, the explosive Strombolian activity contributed to significant SO2 plumes that drifted in different directions (figure 288).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 287. Webcam images of ash emissions from the NE Crater at Etna from the a) CUAD (Catania) webcam on 10 October 2019; b) Milo webcam on 11 October 2019; c) Milo webcam on 12 October 2019; d) M.te Cagliato webcam on 13 October 2019. Courtesy of INGV (Report 42/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 07/10/2019 - 13/10/2019, data emissione 15/10/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 288. Strombolian activity at Etna contributed to significant SO2 plumes that drifted in multiple directions during the intermittent explosions in October 2019. Top left: 1 October 2019. Top right: 2 October 2019. Middle left: 15 October 2019. Middle right: 18 October 2019. Bottom left: 13 November 2019. Bottom right: 1 December 2019. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

The INGV weekly bulletin covering activity between 25 October and 1 November 2019 reported that Strombolian explosions occurred at intervals of 5-10 minutes from within the VOR-BN and NEC, ejecting incandescent material above the crater rim, accompanied by modest ash emissions. In addition, gas-and-steam emissions were observed from all the summit craters. Field observations showed the cone in the crater floor of VOR that began to grow in mid-September 2019 had continued to grow throughout the month. During the week of 4-10 November, Strombolian activity within the Bocca Nuova Crater was accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. The explosions in the VOR Crater occasionally ejected incandescent ejecta above the crater rim (figures 289 and 290). For the remainder of the month Strombolian explosions continued in the VOR-BN and NEC, producing sporadic ash emissions. Isolated and discontinuous explosions in the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) also produced fine ash, though gas-and-steam emissions still dominated the activity at this crater. Additionally, the explosions from these summit craters were frequently accompanied by strong SO2 emissions that drifted in different directions as discrete plumes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 289. Photo of Strombolian activity and crater incandescence in the Voragine Crater at Etna on 15 November 2019. Photo by B. Behncke, taken by Tremestieri Etneo. Courtesy of INGV (Report 47/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 11/11/2019 - 17/11/2019, data emissione 19/11/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 290. Webcam images of summit crater activity during 26-29 November and 1 December 2019 at Etna. a) image recorded by the high-resolution camera on Montagnola (EMOV); b) and c) webcam images taken from Tremestieri Etneo on the southern slope of Etna showing summit incandescence; d) image recorded by the thermal camera on Montagnola (EMOT) showing summit incandescence at the NSEC. Courtesy of INGV (Report 49/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/11/2019 - 01/12/2019, data emissione 03/12/2019).

Frequent Strombolian explosions continued through December 2019 within the VOR-BN, NEC, and NSEC Craters with sporadic ash emissions observed in the VOR-BN and NEC. On 6 December, Strombolian explosions increased in the NSEC; webcam images showed incandescent pyroclastic material ejected above the crater rim. On the morning of 6 December a lava flow was observed from the base of the scoria cone in the VOR Crater that traveled toward the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater. INGV reported that a new vent opened on the side of the saddle cone (NSEC) on 11 December and produced explosions until 14 December.

Activity during January-March 2020. On 9 January 2020 an aerial flight organized by RAI Linea Bianca and the state police showed the VOR Crater continuing to produce lava that was flowing over the crater rim into the BN Crater with some explosive activity in the scoria cone. Explosive Strombolian activity produced strong and distinct SO2 plumes (figure 291) and ash emissions through March, according to the weekly INGV reports, VONA notices, and satellite imagery. Several ash emissions during 21-22 January rose from the vent that opened on 11 December. According to INGV’s weekly bulletin for 21-26 January, the scoria cone in the VOR crater produced Strombolian explosions that increased in frequency and contributed to rapid cone growth, particularly the N part of the cone. Lava traveled down the S flank of the cone and into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater, filling the E crater (BN-2) (figure 292). The NEC had discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic, diffuse ash emissions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 291. Distinct SO2 plumes drifting in multiple directions from Etna were visible in satellite imagery as Strombolian activity continued through March 2020. Top left: 21 January 2020. Top right: 2 February 2020. Bottom left: 10 March 2020. Bottom right: 19 March 2020. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 292. a) A map of the lava field at Etna showing cooled flows (yellow) and active flows (red). The base of the scoria cone is outlined in black while the crater rim is outlined in red. b) Thermal image of the Bocca Nuova and Voragine Craters. The bright orange is the warmest temperature measure in the flow. Courtesy of INGV, photos by Laboratorio di Cartografia FlyeEye Team (Report 10/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/02/2020 - 01/03/2020, data emissione 03/03/2020).

Strombolian explosions continued into February 2020, accompanied by ash emissions and lava flows from the previous months (figure 293). During 17-23 February, INGV reported that some subsidence was observed in the central portion of the Bocca Nuova Crater. During 24 February to 1 March, the Strombolian explosions ejected lava from the VOR Crater up to 150-200 m above the vent as bombs fell on the W edge of the VOR crater rim (figure 294). Lava flows continued to move into the W part of the Bocca Nuova Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 293. Webcam images of A) Strombolian activity and B) effusive activity fed by the scoria cone grown inside the VOR Crater at Etna taken on 1 February 2020. C) Thermal image of the lava field produced by the VOR Crater taken by L. Lodato on 3 February (bottom left). Image of BN-1 taken by F. Ciancitto on 3 February in the summit area (bottom right). Courtesy of INGV; Report 06/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 27/01/2020 - 02/02/2020, data emissione 04/02/2020 (top) and Report 07/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 03/02/2020 - 09/02/2020, data emissione 11/02/2020 (bottom).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 294. Photos of the VOR intra-crater scoria cone at Etna: a) Strombolian activity resumed on 25 February 2020 from the SW edge of BN taken by B. Behncke; b) weak Strombolian activity from the vent at the base N of the cone on 29 February 2020 from the W edge of VOR taken by V. Greco; c) old vent present at the base N of the cone, taken on 17 February 2020 from the E edge of VOR taken by B. Behncke; d) view of the flank of the cone, taken on 24 February 2020 from the W edge of VOR taken by F. Ciancitto. Courtesy of INGV (Report 10/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/02/2020 - 01/03/2020, data emissione 03/03/2020).

During 9-15 March 2020 Strombolian activity was detected in the VOR Crater while discontinuous ash emissions rose from the NEC and NSEC. Bombs were found in the N saddle between the VOR and NSEC craters. On 9 March, a small scoria cone that had formed in the Bocca Nuova Crater and was ejecting bombs and lava tens of meters above the S crater rim. The lava flow from the VOR Crater was no longer advancing. A third scoria cone had formed on 13 March NE in the main VOR-BN complex due to the Strombolian explosions on 29 February. Another lava flow formed on 13 March, accompanied by an increase in seismicity. The weekly report for 16-22 March reported Strombolian activity detected in the VOR Crater and gas-and-steam and rare ash emissions observed in the NEC and NSEC (figure 295). Explosions in the Bocca Nuova Crater ejected spatter and bombs 100 m high.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 295. Map of the summit crater area of Etna showing the active vents and lava flows during 16-22 March 2020. Black hatch marks indicate the crater rims: BN = Bocca Nuova, with NW BN-1 and SE BN-2; VOR = Voragine; NEC = North East Crater; SEC = South East Crater; NSEC = New South East Crater. Red circles indicate areas with ash emissions and/or Strombolian activity, yellow circles indicate steam and/or gas emissions only. The base is modified from a 2014 DEM created by Laboratorio di Aerogeofisica-Sezione Roma 2. Courtesy of INGV (Report 13/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 16/03/2020 - 22/03/2020, data emissione 24/03/2020).

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/it/); Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Météo-France, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse cedex, France (URL: http://www.meteo.fr/aeroweb/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Boris Behncke, Sonia Calvari, and Marco Neri, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: https://twitter.com/etnaboris, Image at https://twitter.com/etnaboris/status/1183640328760414209/photo/1).


Merapi (Indonesia) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions produced ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows during October 2019-March 2020

Merapi is a highly active stratovolcano located in Indonesia, just north of the city of Yogyakarta. The current eruption episode began in May 2018 and was characterized by phreatic explosions, ash plumes, block avalanches, and a newly active lava dome at the summit. This reporting period updates information from October 2019-March 2020 that includes explosions, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes, and ashfall. The primary reporting source of activity comes from Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG, the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG) and Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM).

Some ongoing lava dome growth continued in October 2019 in the NE-SW direction measuring 100 m in length, 30 m in width, and 20 m in depth. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequent, reaching a maximum height of 700 m above the crater on 31 October. An explosion at 1631 on 14 October removed the NE-SW trending section of the lava dome and produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater and extended SW for about 2 km (figures 90 and 91). The plume resulted in ashfall as far as 25 km to the SW. According to a Darwin VAAC notice, a thermal hotspot was detected in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. A pyroclastic flow associated with the eruption traveled down the SW flank in the Gendol drainage. During 14-20 October lava flows from the crater generated block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km SW, according to BPPTKG.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. An ash plume rising 3 km above Merapi on 14 October 2019.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Webcam image of an ash plume rising above Merapi at 1733 on 14 October 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG via Jaime S. Sincioco.

At 0621 on 9 November 2019, an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W. Ashfall was observed in the W region as far as 15 km from the summit in Wonolelo and Sawangan in Magelang Regency, as well as Tlogolele and Selo in Boyolali Regency. An associated pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the Gendol drainage on the SE flank. On 12 November aerial drone photographs were used to measure the volume of the lava dome, which was 407,000 m3. On 17 November, an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater, resulting in ashfall as far as 15 km W from the summit in the Dukun District, Magelang Regency (figure 92). A pyroclastic flow accompanying the eruption traveled 1 km down the SE flank in the Gendol drainage. By 30 November low-frequency earthquakes and CO2 gas emissions had increased.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. An ash plume rising 1 km above Merapi on 17 November 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Volcanism was relatively low from 18 November 2019 through 12 February 2020, characterized primarily by gas-and-steam emissions and intermittent volcanic earthquakes. On 4 January a pyroclastic flow was recorded by the seismic network at 2036, but it wasn’t observed due to weather conditions. On 13 February an explosion was detected at 0516, which ejected incandescent material within a 1-km radius from the summit (figure 93). Ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater and drifted NW, resulting in ashfall within 10 km, primarily S of the summit; lightning was also seen in the plume. Ash was observed in Hargobinangun, Glagaharjo, and Kepuharjo. On 19 February aerial drone photographs were used to measure the change in the lava dome after the eruption; the volume of the lava had decreased, measuring 291,000 m3.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Webcam image of an ash plume rising from Merapi at 0516 on 13 February 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia and PVMBG.

An explosion on 3 March at 0522 produced an ash plume that rose 6 km above the crater (figure 94), resulting in ashfall within 10 km of the summit, primarily to the NE in the Musuk and Cepogo Boyolali sub-districts and Mriyan Village, Boyolali (3 km from the summit). A pyroclastic flow accompanied this eruption, traveling down the SSE flank less than 2 km. Explosions continued to be detected on 25 and 27-28 March, resulting in ash plumes. The eruption on 27 March at 0530 produced an ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater, causing ashfall as far as 20 km to the W in the Mungkid subdistrict, Magelang Regency, and Banyubiru Village, Dukun District, Magelang Regency. An associated pyroclastic flow descended the SSE flank, traveling as far as 2 km. The ash plume from the 28 March eruption rose 2 km above the crater, causing ashfall within 5 km from the summit in the Krinjing subdistrict primarily to the W (figure 94).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Images of ash plumes rising from Merapi during 3 March (left) and 28 March 2020 (right). Images courtesy of BPPTKG (left) and PVMBG (right).

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BNPB_Indonesia); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Jamie S. Sincioco, Phillipines (Twitter: @jaimessincioco, Image at https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1227966075519635456/photo/1).


Erta Ale (Ethiopia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Erta Ale

Ethiopia

13.6°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued lava flow outbreaks and thermal anomalies during November 2019 to early April 2020

Erta Ale is a shield volcano located in Ethiopia and contains multiple active pit craters in the summit and southeastern caldera. Volcanism has been characterized by lava flows and large lava flow fields since 2017. Surficial lava flow activity continued within the southeastern caldera during November 2019 until early April 2020; source information was primarily from various satellite data.

The number of days that thermal anomalies were detected using MODIS data in MODVOLC and NASA VIIRS satellite data was notably higher in November and December 2019 (figure 96); the number of thermal anomalies in the Sentinel-2 thermal imagery was substantially lower due to the presence of cloud cover. Across all satellite data, thermal anomalies were identified for 29 days in November, followed by 30 days in December. After December 2019, the number of days thermal anomalies were detected decreased; hotspots were detected for 17 days in January 2020 and 20 days in February. By March, these thermal anomalies became rare until activity ceased. Thermal anomalies were identified during 1-4 March, with weak anomalies seen again during 26 March-8 April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Graph comparing the number of thermal alerts using calendar dates using MODVOLC, NASA VIIRS, and Sentinel-2 satellite data for Erta Ale during November 2019-March 2020. Data courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, NASA Worldview using the “Fire and Thermal Anomalies” layer, and Sentinel Hub Playground.

MIROVA (Middle Infrared Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed frequent strong thermal anomalies from 18 April through December 2019 (figure 97). Between early August 2019 and March 2020, these thermal signatures were detected at distances less than 5 km from the summit. In late December the thermal intensity dropped slightly before again increasing, while at the same time moving slightly closer to the summit. Thermal anomalies then became more intermittent and steadily decreased in power over the next two months.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Two time-series plots of thermal anomalies from Erta Ale from 18 April 2019 through 18 April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system. The top plot (A) shows that the thermal anomalies were consistently strong (measured in log radiative power) and occurred frequently until early January 2020 when both the power and frequency visibly declined. The lower plot (B) shows these anomalies as a function of distance from the summit, including a sudden decrease in distance (measured in kilometers) in early August 2019, reflecting a change in the location of the lava flow outbreak. A smaller distance change can be identified at the end of December 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Unlike the obvious distal breakouts to the NE seen previously (BGVN 44:04 and 44:11), infrared satellite imagery during November-December 2019 showed only a small area with a thermal anomaly near the NE edge of the Southeast Caldera (figure 98). A thermal alert was seen at that location using the MODVOLC system on 28 December, but the next day it had been replaced by an anomaly about 1.5 km WSW near the N edge of the Southeast Caldera where the recent flank eruption episode had been centered between January 2017 and January 2018 (BGVN 43:04). The thermal anomaly that was detected in the summit caldera was no longer visible after 9 January 2020, based on Sentinel-2 imagery. The exact location of lava flows shifted within the same general area during January and February 2020 and was last detected by Sentinel-2 on 4 March. After about two weeks without detectable thermal activity, weak unlocated anomalies were seen in VIIRS data on 26 March and in MODIS data on the MIROVA system four times between 26 March and 8 April. No further anomalies were noted through the rest of April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Erta Ale volcanism between November 2019 and March 2020 showing small lava flow outbreaks (bright yellow-orange) just NE of the southeastern calderas. A thermal anomaly can be seen in the summit crater on 15 November and very faintly on 20 December 2019. Imagery on 19 January 2020 showed a small thermal anomaly near the N edge of the Southeast Caldera where the recent flank eruption episode had been centered between January 2017 and January 2018. The last weak thermal hotspot was detected on 4 March (bottom right). Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide edifice rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the N flank.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak phreatic explosions during August 2019-March 2020; ash and lahars reported in late January

Rincón de la Vieja is a remote volcanic complex in Costa Rica containing an acid lake that has regularly generated weak phreatic explosions since 2011 (BGVN 44:08). The most recent eruptive period occurred during late March-early June 2019, primarily consisting of small phreatic explosions, minor deposits on the N crater rim, and gas-and-steam emissions. The report period of August 2019-March 2020 was characterized by similar activity, including small phreatic explosions, gas-and-steam plumes, ash and lake sediment ejecta, and volcanic tremors. The most significant activity during this time occurred on 30 January, where a phreatic explosion ejected ash and lake sediment above the crater rim, resulting in a pyroclastic flow which gradually turned into a lahar. Information for this reporting period of August 2019-March 2020 comes from the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) using weekly bulletins.

According to OVSICORI-UNA, a small hydrothermal eruption was recorded on 1 August 2019. The seismicity was low with a few long period (LP) earthquakes around 1 August and intermittent background tremor. No explosions or emissions were reported through 11 September; seismicity remained low with an occasional LP earthquake and discontinuous tremor. The summit’s extension that has been recorded since the beginning of June stopped, and no significant deformation was observed in August.

Starting again in September 2019 and continuing intermittently through the reporting period, some deformation was observed at the base of the volcano as well as near the summit, according to OVSICORI-UNA. On 12 September an eruption occurred that was followed by volcanic tremors that continued through 15 September. In addition to these tremors, vigorous sustained gas-and-steam plumes were observed. The 16 September weekly bulletin did not describe any ejecta produced as a result of this event.

During 1-3 October small phreatic eruptions were accompanied by volcanic tremors that had decreased by 5 October. In November, volcanism and seismicity were relatively low and stable; few LP earthquakes were reported. This period of low activity remained through December. At the end of November, horizontal extension was observed at the summit, which continued through the first half of January.

Small phreatic eruptions were recorded on 2, 28, and 29 January 2020, with an increase in seismicity occurring on 27 January. On 30 January at 1213 a phreatic explosion produced a gas column that rose 1,500-2,000 m above the crater, with ash and lake sediment ejected up to 100 m above the crater. A news article posted by the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) noted that this explosion generated pyroclastic flows that traveled down the N flank for more than 2 km from the crater. As the pyroclastic flows moved through tributary channels, lahars were generated in the Pénjamo river, Zanjonuda gorge, and Azufrosa, traveling N for 4-10 km and passing through Buenos Aires de Upala (figure 29). Seismicity after this event decreased, though there were still some intermittent tremors.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Photo of a lahar generated from the 30 January 2020 eruption at Rincon de la Vieja. Photo taken by Mauricio Gutiérrez, courtesy of UCR.

On 17, 24, and 25 February and 11, 17, 19, 21, and 23 March, small phreatic eruptions were detected, according to OVSICORI-UNA. Geodetic measurements observed deformation consisting of horizontal extension and inflation near the summit in February-March. By the week of 30 March, the weekly bulletin reported 2-3 small eruptions accompanied by volcanic tremors occurred daily during most days of the week. None of these eruptions produced solid ejecta, pyroclastic flows, or lahars, according to the weekly OVSICORI-UNA bulletins during February-March 2020.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/, https://www.facebook.com/OVSICORI/); Luis Enrique Brenes Portuguéz, University of Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio Brenes, San José, San Pedro, Costa Rica (URL: https://www.ucr.ac.cr/noticias/2020/01/30/actividad-del-volcan-rincon-de-la-vieja-es-normal-segun-experto.html).


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor explosive activity, continued thermal activity, and SO2 emissions, October 2019-March 2020.

Manam is a basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano that lies 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea; it has a 400-year history of recorded evidence for recurring low-level ash plumes, occasional Strombolian activity, lava flows, pyroclastic avalanches, and large ash plumes from Main and South, the two active summit craters. The current eruption, ongoing since June 2014, produced multiple large explosive eruptions during January-September 2019, including two 15-km-high ash plumes in January, repeated SO2 plumes each month, and another 15.2 km-high ash plume in June that resulted in ashfall and evacuations of several thousand people (BGVN 44:10).

This report covers continued activity during October 2019 through March 2020. Information about Manam is primarily provided by Papua New Guinea's Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), part of the Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM). This information is supplemented with aviation alerts from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). MODIS thermal anomaly satellite data is recorded by the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC thermal alert recording system, and the Italian MIROVA project; sulfur dioxide monitoring is done by instruments on satellites managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Satellite imagery provided by the Sentinel Hub Playground is also a valuable resource for information about this remote location.

A few modest explosions with ash emissions were reported in early October and early November 2019, and then not again until late March 2020. Although there was little explosive activity during the period, thermal anomalies were recorded intermittently, with low to moderate activity almost every month, as seen in the MODIS data from MIROVA (figure 71) and also in satellite imagery. Sulfur dioxide emissions persisted throughout the period producing emissions greater than 2.0 Dobson Units that were recorded in satellite data 3-13 days each month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. MIROVA thermal anomaly data for Manam from 17 June 2019 through March 2020 indicate continued low and moderate level thermal activity each month from August 2019 through February 2020, after a period of increased activity in June and early July 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume in visible satellite imagery moving NW at 3.1 km altitude on 2 October 2019. Weak ash emissions were observed drifting N for the next two days along with an IR anomaly at the summit. RVO reported incandescence at night during the first week of October. Visitors to the summit on 18 October 2019 recorded steam and fumarolic activity at both of the summit craters (figure 72) and recent avalanche debris on the steep slopes (figure 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Steam and fumarolic activity rose from Main crater at Manam on 18 October 2019 in this view to the south from a ridge north of the crater. Google Earth inset of summit shows location of photograph. Courtesy of Vulkanologische Gesellschaft and Claudio Jung, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Volcanic debris covered an avalanche chute on the NE flank of Manam when visited by hikers on 18 October 2019. Courtesy of Vulkanologische Gesellschaft and Claudio Jung, used with permission.

On 2 November, a single large explosion at 1330 local time produced a thick, dark ash plume that rose about 1,000 m above the summit and drifted NW. A shockwave from the explosion was felt at the Bogia Government station located 40 km SE on the mainland about 1 minute later. RVO reported an increase in seismicity on 6 November about 90 minutes before the start of a new eruption from the Main Crater which occurred between 1600 and 1630; it produced light to dark gray ash clouds that rose about 1,000 m above the summit and drifted NW. Incandescent ejecta was visible at the start of the explosion and continued with intermittent strong pulses after dark, reaching peak intensity around 1900. Activity ended by 2200 that evening. The Darwin VAAC reported a discrete emission observed in satellite imagery on 8 November that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted WNW, although ground observers confirmed that no eruption took place; emissions were only steam and gas. There were no further reports of explosive activity until the Darwin VAAC reported an ash emission in visible satellite imagery on 20 March 2020 that rose to 3.1 km altitude and drifted E for a few hours before dissipating.

Although explosive activity was minimal during the period, SO2 emissions, and evidence for continued thermal activity were recorded by satellite instruments each month. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite captured evidence each month of SO2 emissions exceeding two Dobson Units (figure 74). The most SO2 activity occurred during October 2019, with 13 days of signatures over 2.0 DU. There were six days of elevated SO2 each month in November and December, and five days in January 2020. During February and March, activity was less, with smaller SO2 plumes recording more than 2.0 DU on three days each month. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery recorded thermal anomalies at least once from one or both of the summit craters each month between October 2019 and March 2020 (figure 75).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. SO2 emissions at Manam exceeded 2 Dobson Units multiple days each month between October 2019 and March 2020. On 3 October 2019 (top left) emissions were also measured from Ulawun located 700 km E on New Britain island. On 30 November 2019 (top middle), in addition to a plume drifting N from Manam, a small SO2 plume was detected at Bagana on Bougainville Island, 1150 km E. The plume from Manam on 2 December 2019 drifted ESE (top right). On 26 January 2020 the plume drifted over 300 km E (bottom left). The plumes measured on 29 February and 4 March 2020 (bottom middle and right) only drifted a few tens of kilometers before dissipating. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8a) showed thermal anomalies at one or both of Manam’s summit craters each month during October 2019-March 2020. On 17 October 2019 (top left) a bright anomaly and weak gas plume drifted NW from South crater, while a dense steam plume and weak anomaly were present at Main crater. On 25 January 2020 (top right) the gas and steam from the two craters were drifting E; the weaker Main crater thermal anomaly is just visible at the edge of the clouds. A clear image on 5 March 2020 (bottom left) shows weak plumes and distinct thermal anomalies from both craters; on 20 March (bottom right) the anomalies are still visible through dense cloud cover that may include steam from the crater vents as well. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Vulkanologische Gesellschaft (URL: https://twitter.com/vulkanologen/status/1194228532219727874, https://twitter.com/vulkanologen/status/1193788836679225344); Claudio Jung, (URL: https://www.facebook.com/claudio.jung.1/posts/10220075272173895, https://www.instagram.com/jung.claudio/).


Stromboli (Italy) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity continues at both summit crater areas, September-December 2019

Near-constant fountains of lava at Stromboli have served as a natural beacon in the Tyrrhenian Sea for at least 2,000 years. Eruptive activity at the summit consistently occurs from multiple vents at both a north crater area (N area) and a southern crater group (CS area) on the Terrazza Craterica at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a large scarp that runs from the summit down the NW side of the volcano-island (figure 168). Periodic lava flows emerge from the vents and flow down the scarp, sometimes reaching the sea; occasional large explosions produce ash plumes and pyroclastic flows. Thermal and visual cameras that monitor activity at the vents are located on the nearby Pizzo Sopra La Fossa, above the Terrazza Craterica, and at multiple locations on the flanks of the volcano. Detailed information for Stromboli is provided by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) as well as other satellite sources of data; September-December 2019 is covered in this report.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 168. This shaded relief map of Stromboli’s crater area was created from images acquired by drone on 9 July 2019 (In collaboration with GEOMAR drone group, Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany). Inset shows Stromboli Island, the black rectangle indicates the area of the larger image, the black curved and the red hatched lines indicate, respectively, the morphological escarpment and the crater edges. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 50/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 02/12/2019 - 08/12/2019, data emissione 10/12/2019).

Activity was very consistent throughout the period of September-December 2019. Explosion rates ranged from 2-36 per hour and were of low to medium-high intensity, producing material that rose from less than 80 to over 150 m above the vents on occasion (table 7). The Strombolian activity in both crater areas often sent ejecta outside the crater rim onto the Terrazza Craterica, and also down the Sciara del Fuoco towards the coast. After the explosions of early July and late August, thermal activity decreased to more moderate levels that persisted throughout the period as seen in the MIROVA Log Radiative Power data (figure 169). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery supported descriptions of the constant glow at the summit, revealing incandescence at both summit areas, each showing repeating bursts of activity throughout the period (figure 170).

Table 7. Monthly summary of activity levels at Stromboli, September-December 2019. Low-intensity activity indicates ejecta rising less than 80 m, medium-intensity is ejecta rising less than 150 m, and high-intensity is ejecta rising over 200 m above the vent. Data courtesy of INGV.

Month Activity
Sep 2019 Explosion rates varied from 11-36 events per hour and were of low- to medium intensity (producing 80-120 m high ejecta). Lapilli and bombs were typical from the N area, and coarse and finer-grained tephra (lapilli and ash) were most common in the CS area. The Strombolian activity in both crater areas often sent ejecta outside the crater rim onto the terrace, and also down the Sciara del Fuoco towards the coast.
Oct 2019 Typical Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosions rates varied from 2-21 events per hour. Low intensity activity was common in the N area (ejecta less than 80 m high) and low to moderate intensity activity was typical in the CS area, with a few explosions rising over 150 m high. Lapilli and bombs were typical from the N area, and coarse and finer-grained tephra (lapilli and ash) were most common in the CS area. Some of the explosions sent ejecta down the Sciara del Fuoco.
Nov 2019 Typical Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosion rates varied from 11-23 events per hour with ejecta rising usually 80-150 m above the vents. Occasional explosions rose 250 m high. In the N area, explosions were generally low intensity with coarse material (lapilli and bombs). In many explosions, ejecta covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, and some blocks rolled for a few hundred meters before stopping. In the CS area, coarse material was mixed with fine and some explosions sent ejecta onto the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco.
Dec 2019 Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosion rates varied from 12-26 per hour. In the N area, explosion intensity was mainly medium-low (less than 150 m) with coarse ejecta while in the CS area it was usually medium-high (more than 150 m) with both coarse and fine ejecta. In many explosions, debris covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, and some blocks rolled for a few hundred meters before stopping. Spattering activity was noted in the southern vents of the N area.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 169. Thermal activity at Stromboli was high during July-August 2019, when two major explosions occurred. Activity continued at more moderate levels through December 2019 as seen in the MIROVA graph of Log Radiative Power from 8 June through December 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 170. Stromboli reliably produced strong thermal signals from both of the summit vents throughout September-December 2019 and has done so since long before Sentinel-2 satellite imagery was able to detect it. Image dates are (top, l to r) 5 September, 15 October, 20 October, (bottom l to r) 14 November, 14 December 2019, and 3 January 2020. Sentinel-2 imagery uses Atmospheric penetration rendering with bands 12, 11, and 8A, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

After a major explosion with a pyroclastic flow on 28 August 2019, followed by lava flows that reached the ocean in the following days (BGVN 44:09), activity diminished in early September to levels more typically seen in recent times. This included Strombolian activity from vents in both the N and CS areas that sent ejecta typically 80-150 m high. Ejecta from the N area generally consisted of lapilli and bombs, while the material from the CS area was often finer grained with significant amounts of lapilli and ash. The number of explosive events remained high in September, frequently reaching 25-30 events per hour. The ejecta periodically landed outside the craters on the Terrazza Craterica and even traveled partway down the Sciara del Fuoco. An inspection on 7 September by INGV revealed four eruptive vents in the N crater area and five in the S crater area (figure 171). The most active vents in the N area were N1 with mostly ash emissions and N2 with Strombolian explosions rich in incandescent coarse material that sometimes rose well above 150 m in height. In the S area, S1 and S2 produced jets of lava that often reached 100 m high. A small cone was observed around N2, having grown after the 28 August explosion. Between 11 and 13 September aerial surveys with drones produced detailed visual and thermal imagery of the summit (figure 172).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 171. Video of the Stromboli summit taken with a thermal camera on 7 September 2019 from the Pizzo sopra la Fossa revealed four active vents in the N area and five active vents in the S area. Images prepared by Piergiorgio Scarlato, courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 37.2/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 10/09/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 172. An aerial drone survey on 11 September 2019 at Stromboli produced a detailed view of the N and CS vent areas (left) and thermal images taken by a drone survey on 13 September (right) showed elevated temperatures down the Sciara del Fuoco in addition to the vents in the N and CS areas. Images by E. De Beni and M. Cantarero, courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 37.5/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 13/09/2019).

Strombolian activity from the N crater on 28 September and 1 October 2019 produced blocks and debris that rolled down the Sciara del Fuoco and reached the ocean (figure 173). Explosive activity from the CS crater area sometimes produced ejecta over 150 m high (figure 174). A survey on 26 November revealed that a layer of ash 5-10 cm thick had covered the bombs and blocks that were deposited on the Pizzo Sopra la Fossa during the explosions of 3 July and 28 August (figure 175). On the morning of 27 December a lava flow emerged from the CS area and traveled a few hundred meters down the Sciara del Fuoco. The frequency of explosive events remained relatively constant from September through December 2019 after decreasing from higher levels during July and August (figure 176).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 173. Strombolian activity from vents in the N crater area of Stromboli produced ejecta that traveled all the way to the bottom of the Sciara del Fuoco and entered the ocean. Top images taken 28 September 2019 from the 290 m elevation viewpoint by Rosanna Corsaro. Bottom images captured on 1 October from the webcam at 400 m elevation. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 39.0/2019 and Rep. No. 40.3, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 29/09/2019 and 02/10/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 174. Ejecta from Strombolian activity at the CS crater area of Stromboli rose over 150 m on multiple occasions. The webcam located at the 400 m elevation site captured this view of activity on 8 November 2019. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 45.5/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Giornaliero del 08/11/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 175. The Pizzo Sopra la Fossa area at Stromboli was covered with large blocks and pyroclastic debris on 6 September 2019, a week after the major explosion of 28 August (top). By 26 November, 5-10 cm of finer ash covered the surface; the restored webcam can be seen at the far right edge of the Pizzo (bottom). Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 49/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/11/2019 - 01/12/2019, data emissione 03/12/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 176. The average hourly frequency of explosive events at Stromboli captured by surveillance cameras from 1 June 2019 through 5 January 2020 remained generally constant after the high levels seen during July and August. The Total value (blue) is the sum of the average daily hourly frequency of all explosive events produced by active vents.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy, (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/en/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Semeru (Indonesia) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes and thermal anomalies continue during September 2019-February 2020

Semeru is a stratovolcano located in East Java, Indonesia containing an active Jonggring-Seloko vent at the Mahameru summit. Common activity has consisted of ash plumes, pyroclastic flows and avalanches, and lava flows that travel down the SE flank. This report updates volcanism from September 2019 to February 2020 using primary information from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

The dominant activity at Semeru for this reporting period consists of ash plumes, which were frequently reported by the Darwin VAAC. An eruption on 10 September 2019 produced an ash plume rising 4 km altitude drifting WNW, as seen in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. Ash plumes continued to rise during 13-14 September. During the month of October the Darwin VAAC reported at least six ash plumes on 13, 14, 17-18, and 29-30 October rising to a maximum altitude of 4.6 km and moving primarily S and SW. Activity in November and December was relatively low, dominated mostly by strong and frequent thermal anomalies.

Volcanism increased in January 2020 starting with an eruption on 17 and 18 January that sent a gray ash plume up to 4.6 km altitude (figure 38). Eruptions continued from 20 to 26 January, producing ash plumes that rose up to 500 m above the crater that drifted in different directions. For the duration of the month and into February, ash plumes occurred intermittently. On 26 February, incandescent ejecta was ejected up to 50 m and traveled as far as 1000 m. Small sulfur dioxide emissions were detected in the Sentinel 5P/TROPOMI instrument during 25-27 February (figure 39). Lava flows during 27-29 February extended 200-1,000 m down the SE flank; gas-and-steam and SO2 emissions accompanied the flows. There were 15 shallow volcanic earthquakes detected on 29 February in addition to ash emissions rising 4.3 km altitude drifting ESE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Ash plumes rising from the summit of Semeru on 17 (left) and 18 (right) January 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia and via Ø.L. Andersen's Twitter feed (left).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Small SO2 plumes from Semeru were detected by the Sentinel 5P/TROPOMI instrument during 25 (left) and 26 (right) February 2020. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed relatively weak and intermittent thermal anomalies occurring during May to August 2019 (figure 40). The frequency and power of these thermal anomalies significantly increased during September to mid-December 2019 with a few hotspots occurring at distances greater than 5 km from the summit. These farther thermal anomalies to the N and NE of the volcano do not appear to be caused by volcanic activity. There was a brief break in activity during mid-December to mid-January 2020 before renewed activity was detected in early February 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Thermal anomalies were relatively weak at Semeru during 30 April 2019-August 2019, but significantly increased in power and frequency during September to early December 2019. There was a break in activity from mid-December through mid-January 2020 with renewed thermal anomalies around February 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The MODVOLC algorithm detected 25 thermal hotspots during this reporting period, which took place during 25 September, 18 and 21 October 2019, 29 January, and 11, 14, 16, and 23 February 2020. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery shows intermittent hotspots dominantly in the summit crater throughout this reporting period (figure 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected intermittent thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) at the summit of Semeru, which included some lava flows in late January to early February 2020. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com).


Popocatepetl (Mexico) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Popocatepetl

Mexico

19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dome growth and destruction continues along with ash emissions and ejecta, September 2019-February 2020

Frequent historical eruptions have been reported from Mexico's Popocatépetl going back to the 14th century. Activity increased in the mid-1990s after about 50 years of quiescence, and the current eruption, ongoing since January 2005, has included numerous episodes of lava-dome growth and destruction within the 500-m-wide summit caldera. Multiple emissions of steam and gas occur daily, rising generally 1-3 km above the summit at about 5,400 m elevation; many contain small amounts of ash. Larger, more explosive events with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta landing on the flanks occur frequently. Activity through August 2019 was typical of the ongoing eruption with near-constant emissions of water vapor, gas, and minor ash, as well as multiple explosions with ash plumes and incandescent blocks scattered on the flanks (BGVN 44:09). This report covers similar activity from September 2019 through February 2020. Information comes from daily reports provided by México's Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED); ash plumes are reported by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Satellite visible and thermal imagery and SO2 data also provide helpful observations of activity.

Activity summary. Activity at Popocatépetl during September 2019-February 2020 continued at the high levels that have been ongoing for many years, characterized by hundreds of daily low-intensity emissions that included steam, gas, and small amounts of ash, and periods with multiple daily minor and moderate explosions that produce kilometer-plus-high ash plumes (figure 140). The Washington VAAC issued multiple daily volcanic ash advisories with plume altitudes around 6 km for many, although some were reported as high as 8.2 km. Hundreds of minutes of daily tremor activity often produced ash emissions as well. Incandescent ejecta landed 500-1,000 m from the summit frequently. The MIROVA thermal anomaly data showed near-constant moderate to high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 141).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 140. Emissions continued at a high rate from Popocatépetl throughout September 2019-February 2020. Daily low-intensity emissions numbered usually in the hundreds (blue, left axis), while less frequent minor (orange) and moderate (green) explosions, plotted on the right axis, occurred intermittently through November 2019, and increased again during February 2020. Data was compiled from CENAPRED daily reports.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 141. MIROVA log radiative power thermal data for Popocatépetl from 1 May 2019 through February 2020 showed a constant output of moderate energy the entire time. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured with satellite instruments many days of each month from September 2019 thru February 2020. The intensity and drift directions varied significantly; some plumes remained detectable hundreds of kilometers from the volcano (figure 142). Plumes were detected almost daily in September, and on most days in October. They were measured at lower levels but often during November, and after pulses in early and late December only small plumes were visible during January 2020. Intermittent larger pulses returned in February. Dome growth and destruction in the summit crater continued throughout the period. A small dome was observed inside the summit crater in late September. Dome 85, 210-m-wide, was observed inside the summit crater in early November. Satellite imagery captured evidence of dome growth and ash emissions throughout the period (figure 143).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 142. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Popocatépetl were frequent from September 2019 through February 2020. Plumes drifted SW on 7 September (top left), 30 October (top middle), and 21 February (bottom right). SO2 drifted N and NW on 26 November (top right). On 2 December (bottom left) a long plume of sulfur dioxide hundreds of kilometers long drifted SW over the Pacific Ocean while the drift direction changed to NW closer to the volcano. The SO2 plumes measured in January (bottom center) were generally smaller than during the other months covered in this report. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 143. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Popocatépetl during November 2019-February 2020 provided evidence for ongoing dome growth and explosions with ash emissions. Top left: a ring of incandescence inside the summit crater on 8 November 2019 was indicative of the growth of dome 85 observed by CENAPRED. Top middle: incandescence on 8 December inside the summit crater was typical of that observed many times during the period. Top right: a dense, narrow ash plume drifted N from the summit on 17 January 2020. Bottom left: Snow cover made ashfall on 6 February easily visible on the E flank. On 11 February, the summit crater was incandescent and nearly all the snow was covered with ash. Bottom right: a strong thermal anomaly and ash emission were captured on 21 February. Bottom left and top right images use Natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); other images use Atmospheric penetration rendering to show infrared signal (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during September-November 2019. On 1 September 2019 minor ashfall was reported in the communities of Atlautla, Ozumba, Juchitepec, and Tenango del Aire in the State of Mexico. The ash plumes rose less than 2 km above the summit and incandescent ejecta traveled less than 100 m from the summit crater. Twenty-two minor and three moderate explosions were recorded on 4-5 September along with minor ashfall in Juchitepec, Tenango del Aire, Tepetlixpa, and Atlautla. During a flyover on 5 September, officials did not observe a dome within the crater, and the dimensions remained the same as during the previous visit (350 m in diameter and 150 m deep) (figure 144). Ashfall was reported in Tlalmanalco and Amecameca on 6 September. The following day incandescent ejecta was visible on the flanks near the summit and ashfall was reported in Amecameca, Ayapango, and Tenango del Aire. The five moderate explosions on 8 September produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the summit, and incandescent ejecta on the flanks. Explosions on 10 September sent ejecta 500 m from the crater. Eight explosions during 20-21 September produced ejecta that traveled up to 1.5 km down the flanks (figure 145). During an overflight on 27 September specialists from the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED ) of the National Coordination of Civil Protection and researchers from the Institute of Geophysics of UNAM observed a new dome 30 m in diameter; the overall crater had not changed size since the overflight in early September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 144. CENAPRED carried out overflights of Popocatépetl on 5 (left) and 27 September (right) 2019; the crater did not change in size, but a new dome 30 m in diameter was visible on 27 September. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Sobrevuelo al volcán Popocatépetl, 05 y 27 de septiembre).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 145. Ash plumes at Popocatépetl on 19 (left) and 20 (right) September 2019 rose over a kilometer above the summit before dissipating. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 19 y 20 de septiembre).

Fourteen explosions were reported on 2 October 2019. The last one produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and sent incandescent ejecta down the E slope (figure 146). Ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Atlautla Ozumba, Ayapango and Ecatzingo in the State of Mexico. Explosions on 3 and 4 October also produced ash plumes that rose between 1 and 2 km above the summit and sent ejecta onto the flanks. Additional incandescent ejecta was reported on 6, 7, 15, and 19 October. The communities of Amecameca, Tenango del Aire, Tlalmanalco, Cocotitlán, Temamatla, and Tláhuac reported ashfall on 10 October; Amecameca reported more ashfall on 12 October. On 22 October slight ashfall appeared in Amecameca, Tenango del Aire, Tlalmanalco, Ayapango, Temamatla, and Atlautla.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 146. Incandescent ejecta at Popocatépetl traveled down the E slope on 2 October 2019 (left); an ash plume two days later rose 2 km above the summit (right). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 2 y 4 de octubre).

During 2-3 November 2019 there was 780 minutes of tremor reported in four different episodes. The seismicity was accompanied by ash emissions that drifted W and NW and produced ashfall in numerous communities, including Amecameca, Juchitepec, Ozumba, Tepetlixpa, and Atlautla in the State of México, in Ayapango and Cuautla in the State of Morelos, and in the municipalities of Tlahuac, Tlalpan, and Xochimilco in Mexico City. A moderate explosion on 4 November sent incandescent ejecta 2 km down the slopes and produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NW. Minor ashfall was reported in Tlalmanalco, Amecameca, and Tenango del Aire, State of Mexico. Similar ash plumes from explosions occurred the following day. Scientists from CENAPRED and the Institute of Geophysics of UNAM observed dome number 85 during an overflight on 5 November 2019. It had a diameter of 210 m and was 80 m thick, with an irregular surface (figure 147). Multiple explosions on 6 and 7 November produced incandescent ejecta; a moderate explosion late on 11 November produced ejecta that traveled 1.5 km from the summit and produced an ash plume 2 km high (figure 148). A lengthy period of constant ash emission that drifted E was reported on 18 November. A moderate explosion on 28 November sent incandescent fragments 1.5 km down the slopes and ash one km above the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 147. A new dome was visible inside the summit crater at Popocatépetl during an overflight on 5 November 2019. It had a diameter of 210 m and was 80 m thick. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Sobrevuelo al volcán Popocatépetl, 05 de noviembre).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 148. Ash emissions and explosions with incandescent ejecta continued at Popocatépetl during November 2019. The ash plume on 1 November changed drift direction sharply a few hundred meters above the summit (left). Incandescent ejecta traveled 1.5 km down the flanks on 11 November (right). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 1 y 12 de noviembre).

Activity during December 2019-February 2020. Throughout December 2019 weak emissions of steam and gas were reported daily, sometimes with minor amounts of ash, and minor explosions were only reported on 21 and 27 December. On 21 December two new high-resolution webcams were installed around Popocatépetl, one 5 km from the crater at the Tlamacas station, and the second in San Juan Tianguismanalco, 20 km away. Ash emissions and incandescent ejecta 800 m from the summit were observed on 25 December (figure 149). Incandescence at night was reported during 27-29 December.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 149. Incandescent ejecta moved 800 m down the flanks of Popocatépetl during explosions on 25 December 2019 (left); weak emissions of steam, gas, and minor ash were visible on 27 December and throughout the month. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 25 y 27 de diciembre).

Continuous emissions of water vapor and gas with low ash content were typical daily during January 2020. A moderate explosion on 9 January produced an ash plume that rose 3 km from the summit and drifted NE. In addition, incandescent ejecta traveled 1 km from the crater rim. A minor explosion on 21 January produced a 1.5-km-high plume with low ash content and incandescent ejecta that fell near the crater (figure 150). The first of two explosions late on 27 January produced ejecta that traveled 500 m and a 1-km-high ash plume. Constant incandescence was observed overnight on 29-30 January.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 150. Although fewer explosions were recorded at Popocatépetl during January 2020, activity continued. An ash plume on 19 January rose over a kilometer above the summit (top left). A minor explosion on 21 January produced a 1.5-km-high plume with low ash content and incandescent ejecta that fell near the crater (top right). Smaller emissions with steam, gas, and ash were typical many days, including on 22 (bottom left) and 31 (bottom right) January 2019. Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl 19, 21, 22 y 31 de enero).

A moderate explosion on 5 February 2020 produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NNE. Explosions on 10 and 13 February sent ejecta 500 m down the flanks (figure 151). During an overflight on 18 February scientists noted that the internal crater maintained a diameter of 350 m and its approximate depth was 100-150 m; the crater was covered by tephra. For most of the second half of February the volcano had a continuous emission of gases with minor amounts of ash. In addition, multiple explosions produced ash plumes that rose 400-1,200 m above the crater and drifted in several different directions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 151. Ash emissions and explosions continued at Popocatépetl during February 2020. Dense ash drifted near the snow-covered summit on 6 February (top left). Incandescent ejecta traveled 500 m down the flanks on 13 February (top right). Ash plumes billowed from the summit on 18 and 22 February (bottom row). Courtesy of CENAPRED (Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl, 6, 15, 18 y 22 de febrero).

Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.

Information Contacts: Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED), Av. Delfín Madrigal No.665. Coyoacan, México D.F. 04360, México (URL: http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/), Daily Report Archive http://www.cenapred.unam.mx:8080/reportesVolcanGobMX/BuscarReportesVolcan); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Santa Maria (Guatemala) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Santa Maria

Guatemala

14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continue, September 2019-February 2020

The dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex on the W flank of Guatemala's Santa María volcano has been growing and actively erupting since 1922. Ash explosions, pyroclastic, and lava flows have emerged from Caliente, the youngest of the four vents in the complex, for more than 40 years. A lava dome that appeared within the summit crater of Caliente in October 2016 has continued to grow, producing frequent block avalanches down the flanks. Daily explosions with ash plumes and block avalanches continued during September 2019-February 2020, the period covered in this report, with information primarily from Guatemala's INSIVUMEH (Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia e Hidrologia) and the Washington VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center).

Constant fumarolic activity with steam and gas persisted from the Caliente dome throughout September 2019-February 2020. Explosions occurred multiple times per day, producing ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.1-3.5 km and usually drifted a few kilometers before dissipating. Several lahars during September and October carried volcanic blocks, ash, and debris down major drainages. Periodic ashfall was reported in communities within 10 km of the volcano. An increase in thermal activity beginning in November (figure 101) resulted in an increased number of observations of incandescence visible at night from the summit of Caliente through February 2020. Block avalanches occurred daily on the flanks of the dome, often reaching the base, stirring up small clouds of ash that drifted downwind.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. The MIROVA project graph of thermal activity at Santa María from 12 May 2019 through February 2020 shows a gradual increase in thermal energy beginning in November 2019. This corresponds to an increase in the number of daily observations of incandescence at the summit of the Caliente dome during this period. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Constant steam and gas fumarolic activity rose from the Caliente dome, drifting W, usually rising to 2.8-3.0 km altitude during September 2019. Multiple daily explosions with ash plumes rising to 2.9-3.4 km altitude drifted W or SW over the communities of San Marcos, Loma Linda Palajunoj, and Monte Claro (figure 102). Constant block avalanches fell to the base of the cone on the NE and SE flanks. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery on 10 September at 3.1 km altitude drifting W. On 14 September another plume was spotted moving WSW at 4.6 km altitude which dissipated quickly; the webcam captured another plume on 16 September. Ashfall on 27 September reached about 1 km from the volcano; it reached 1.5 km on 29 September. Lahars descended the Rio Cabello de Ángel on 2 and 24 September (figure 102). They were about 15 m wide, and 1-3 m deep, carrying blocks 1-2 m in diameter.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. A lahar descended the Rio Cabello de Ángel at Santa Maria and flowed into the Rio Nima 1 on 24 September 2019. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 21 al 27 de septiembre de 2019).

Througout October 2019, degassing of steam with minor gases occurred from the Caliente summit, rising to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and generally drifting SW. Weak explosions took place 1-5 times per hour, producing ash plumes that rose to 3.2-3.5 km altitude. Ashfall was reported in Monte Claro on 2 October. Nearly constant block avalanches descended the SE and S flanks, disturbing recent layers of fine ash and producing local ash clouds. Moderate explosions on 11 October produced ash plumes that rose to 3.5 km altitude and drifted W and SW about 1.5 km towards Río San Isidro (figure 103). The following day additional plumes drifted a similar distance to the SE. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission visible in satellite imagery at 4.9 km altitude on 13 October drifting NNW. Ashfall was reported in Parcelamiento Monte Claro on 14 October. Some of the block avalanches observed on 14 October on the SE, S, and SW flanks were incandescent. Ash drifted 1.5 km W and SW on 17 October. Ashfall was reported near la finca Monte Claro on 25 and 28 October. A lahar descended the Río San Isidro, a tributary of the Río El Tambor on 7 October carrying blocks 1-2 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. It was about 16 m wide and 1-2 m deep. Additional lahars descended the rio Cabello de Angel on 23 and 24 October. They were about 15 m wide and 2 m deep, and carried ash and blocks 1-2 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. Daily ash plumes were reported from the Caliente cone at Santa María during October 2019, similar to these from 30 September (left) and 11 October 2019 (right). Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 28 de septiembre al 04 de octubre de 2019; Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 05 al 11 de octubre de 2019).

During November 2019, steam plumes rose to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and generally drifted E. There were 1-3 explosions per hour; the ash plumes produced rose to altitudes of 3.1-3.5 km and often drifted SW, resulting in ashfall around the volcanic complex. Block avalanches descended the S and SW flanks every day. On 4 November ashfall was reported in the fincas (ranches) of El Faro, Santa Marta, El Viejo Palmar, and Las Marías, and the odor of sulfur was reported 10 km S. Incandescence was observed at the Caliente dome during the night of 5-6 November. Ash fell again in El Viejo Palmar, fincas La Florida, El Faro, and Santa Marta (5-6 km SW) on 7 November. Sulfur odor was also reported 8-10 km S on 16, 19, and 22 November. Fine-grained ash fell on 18 November in Loma Linda and San Marcos Palajunoj. On 29 November strong block avalanches descended in the SW flank, stirring up reddish ash that had fallen on the flanks (figure 104). The ash drifted up to 20 km SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. Ash plumes rose from explosions multiple times per day at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito complex during November 2019, and block avalanches stirred up reddish clouds of ash that drifted for many kilometers. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH. Left, 11 November 2019, from Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 09 al 15 de noviembre de 2019. Right, 29 November 2019 from BOLETÍN VULCANOLÓGICO ESPECIAL BESTG# 106-2019, Guatemala 29 de noviembre de 2019, 10:50 horas (Hora Local).

White steam plumes rising to 2.9-3.0 km altitude drifted SE most days during December 2019. One to three explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose to 3.1-3.5 km altitude and drifted W and SW producing ashfall on the flanks. Several strong block avalanches sent material down the SW flank. Ash from the explosions drifted about 1.5 km SW on 3 and 7 December. The Washington VAAC reported a small ash emission that rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted WSW on 8 December, and another on 13 December that rose to 4.3 km altitude. Ashfall was reported up to 10 km S on 24 December. Incandescence was reported at the dome by INSIVUMEH eight times during the month, significantly more than during the recent previous months (figure 105).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Strong thermal anomalies were visible in Sentinel-2 imagery at the summit of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex on 19 December 2019. Image uses Atmospheric Penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during January 2020 was similar to that during previous months. White plumes of steam rose from the Caliente dome to altitudes of 2.7-3.0 km and drifted SE; one to three explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose to 3.2-3.4 km altitude and generally drifted about 1.5 km SW before dissipating. Frequent block avalanches on the SE flank caused smaller plumes that drifted SSW often over the ranches of San Marcos and Loma Linda Palajunoj. On 28 January ash plumes drifted W and SW over the communities of Calaguache, El Nuevo Palmar, and Las Marías. In addition to incandescence observed at the crater of Caliente dome at least nine times, thermal anomalies in satellite imagery were detected multiple times from the block avalanches on the S flank (figure 106).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Incandescence at the summit and in the block avalanches on the S flank of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex was visible in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 8 and 13 January 2020. Atmospheric penetration rendering images (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 4.6 km altitude drifting W on 3 February 2020. INSIVUMEH reported constant steam degassing that rose to 2.9-3.0 km altitude and drifted SW. In addition, 1-3 weak to moderate explosions per hour produced ash plumes to 3.1-3.5 km altitude that drifted about 1 km SW. Small amounts of ashfall around the volcano’s perimeter was common. The ash plumes on 5 February drifted NE over Santa María de Jesús. On 8 February the ash plumes drifted E and SE over the communities of Calaguache, El Nuevo Palmar, and Las Marías. Block avalanches on the S and SE flanks of Caliente dome continued, creating small ash clouds on the flank. Incandescence continued frequently at the crater and was also observed on the S flank in satellite imagery (figure 107).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 107. Incandescence at the summit and on the S flank of the Caliente cone at Santa María’s Santiaguito’s complex was frequent during February 2020, including on 2 (left) and 17 (right) February 2020 as seen in Sentinel-2 imagery. Atmostpheric Penetration rendering imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank, and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four vents, with activity progressing W towards the most recent, Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/ ); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 43, Number 10 (October 2018)

Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Heard (Australia)

Thermal hotspots persist at Mawson Peak, lava flows visible in satellite data November 2017-September 2018

Kadovar (Papua New Guinea)

Intermittent ash plumes; thermal anomalies in the crater and Coastal Vent through September 2018

Karymsky (Russia)

Thermal anomalies and ash explosions during August-September 2018

Ketoi (Russia)

Plume of uncertain composition reported based on satellite data one day in September

Kilauea (United States)

Twenty-four fissures open on the lower East Rift Zone in May 2018; at least 94 structures destroyed

Krakatau (Indonesia)

Strombolian, lava flow, and explosive activities resume, June-October 2018

Lengai, Ol Doinyo (Tanzania)

Effusive activity continues at the summit through August 2018 with small lava flows and spattering confined to the crater

Mayon (Philippines)

Low activity during April-September with some ash plumes and ongoing crater incandescence

Saunders (United Kingdom)

Intermittent thermal pulses and satellite imagery hotspots during September 2016-September 2018

Villarrica (Chile)

Thermal activity increases November-December 2017 and July-August 2018; intermittent incandescence and ash



Heard (Australia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal hotspots persist at Mawson Peak, lava flows visible in satellite data November 2017-September 2018

Remote Heard Island in the southern Indian Ocean is home to the snow-covered Big Ben stratovolcano, which has had confirmed intermittent activity since 1910. The nearest continental landmass, Antarctica, lies over 1,000 km S. Visual confirmation of lava flows on Heard are rare; thermal anomalies and hotspots detected by satellite-based instruments provide the most reliable information about eruptive activity. Thermal alerts reappeared in September 2012 after a four-year hiatus (BGVN 38:01), and have been intermittent since that time. Information comes from instruments on the European Space Agency's (ESA) Sentinel-2 satellite and MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal anomaly data from other satellite instruments. This report reviews evidence for eruptive activity from November 2017 through September 2018.

Satellite observations indicated intermittent hot spots at the summit through 12 December 2017. A few observations in January and February 2018 suggested steam plumes at the summit, but no significant thermal activity. An infrared pixel indicative of renewed thermal activity appeared again on 7 March, and similar observations were made at least twice each month in April and May. Activity increased significantly during June and remained elevated through September 2018 with multiple days of hotspot observations in satellite data each of those months, including images that indicated lava flowing in different directions from Mawson Peak. MODVOLC and MIROVA data also indicated increased thermal activity during June-September 2018.

Activity during October-December 2017. MIROVA thermal anomalies recorded during October 2017 indicated ongoing thermal activity at Heard (figure 32). This was confirmed by Sentinel-2 satellite imagery that revealed hotpots at the summit on ten different days in October (3, 6, 8, 13, 16, 21, 23, 26, 28, and 31), and included images suggesting lava flows descending from the summit in different directions on different days (figure 33).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. MODVOLC thermal alerts indicated significant thermal activity at Heard during October 2017 that tapered off during November. Intermittent signals appeared in December 2017, March, and April 2018, and a strong signal returned in June 2018 that continued through September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano during October 2017 showed strong evidence of active effusive activity. a) 3 October 2017: at least three hot spots were visible through cloud cover at the summit and W of Mawson Peak, suggesting active lava flows. b) 6 October 2017: a small hot spot is visible at the peak with a small steam plume, and a larger hotspot to the NW suggested a still active lava flow. c) 16 October 2017: a small hotspot at the summit and larger hotspots W of the summit were indicative of ongoing flow activity. d) 23 October 2017: a steam plume drifted SE from a small summit hotspot and a larger hotspot to the W suggested a lava lake or active flow. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The MODVOLC thermal alert data showed no further alerts for the year after 22 October 2017, and the MIROVA system anomalies tapered off in mid-November 2017. The Sentinel-2 satellite imagery, however, continued to record intermittent hotspots at and around Mawson Peak, the summit of Big Ben volcano, into December 2017 (figure 34). Hotspots were visible during six days in November (7, 15, 20, 25, 27, and 30) and three days during December (5, 7, and 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed reduced but ongoing thermal activity during November and December 2017. a) 7 November 2017: a steam plume drifts NE from a hotspot at Mawson Peak. b and c) 15 November and 12 December 2017: a small hotspot is distinct at the summit. d) 20 December 2017: a steam plume drifts east from the peak, but no clear hotspot is visible. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during January-May 2018. The satellite images during January and February 2018 were indicative of steam plumes at the summit, but distinct thermal signals reappeared on 7 and 12 March 2018 (figure 35). In spite of extensive cloud cover, the Sentinel-2 imagery also captured thermal signals twice each month in April (4 and 14) and May (9 and 14) (figure 36).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed only steam plumes at the summit during January and February, but hotspots reappeared in March 2018. a) 4 January 2018: a steam plume drifts SE from the summit under clear skies. b) 8 February 2018: a steam plume drifts SE from the summit adjacent to a large cloud on the N side of the volcano. c) 7 March 2018: the first hotspot in about three months is visible at the summit. d) 12 March 2018: a distinct hotspot is visible at Mawson Peak. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed intermittent low-level thermal activity during April and May 2018. a) 4 April 2018: a small hotspot is visible at the summit through a hazy atmosphere. b) 9 May 2018: a distinct hotspot glows from the summit beneath cloud cover. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view(bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during June-September 2018. Thermal signals increased significantly in the satellite data during June 2018. The sizes of the thermal anomalies were bigger, and they were visible at least nine days of the month (3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 18, 23, 25, and 30). Five substantial thermal signals appeared during July (3, 10, 15, 18, and 28); images on 23 June and 3 July distinctly show a lava flow trending NE from the summit (figure 37). MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared in June 2018 on three days (2, 26, and 27) and on four days during July (7, 8, 9, 10) indicating increased activity during this time. The MIROVA thermal signals also showed a substantial increase in early June that peaked in mid-July and remained steady through September 2018 (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed significantly increased thermal activity during June and July 2018. a) 8 June 2018: a substantial hotspot is visible through the cloud cover at the summit of Big Ben. b) 10 June 2018: the darker red hotspot at Mawson Peak was significantly larger than it was earlier in the year. c) 23 June 2018: the first multi-point hotspot since 31 October shows a distinct glow trending NE from the summit. d) 3 July 2018: a trail of hotspots defines a lava flow curving NNE from Mawson Peak. e) 18 July 2018: a second significant hotpot is visible a few hundred meters NE of the summit hotspot indicating a still active flow. f) 28 July 2018: the summit hotspot continued to glow brightly at the end of July, but no second hotspot was visible. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Six images in August (2, 7, 9, 22, 27, 29) showed evidence of active lava at the summit, and suggested flows both NE and SE from the summit that were long enough to cause multiple hotspots (figure 38). During September and early October 2018 the satellite images continued to show multiple hotspots that indicated flow activity tens of meters SE from the summit multiple days of each month (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed lava flow activity in two different directions from the summit during August 2018. a) 2 August 2018: lava flows NE from Mawson Peak while a steam plume drifts E from the summit. b) 9 August 2018: a second hotspot NE of the summit hotspot indicates continued flow activity in the same area observed on 2 August. c and d) 27 and 29 August 2018: a different secondary hotspot appeared SSE from the summit indicating a distinct flow event from the one recorded earlier in August. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano in September and October 2018 showed hotspots indicating active flows SE of the summit on multiple days. a) 3 September 2018: a small hotspot at the summit and a larger hotspot SE of the summit indicated continued flow activity. b) 3 October 2018: a small steam plume drifted east from a small hotspot at the summit and a larger pair of hotspots to the SE indicated continued effusive activity. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Kadovar

Papua New Guinea

3.608°S, 144.588°E; summit elev. 365 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes; thermal anomalies in the crater and Coastal Vent through September 2018

The first confirmed eruption of Kadovar began on 5 January 2018 with dense ash plumes and steam and a lava flow. The eruption continued through February and then slowed during March (BGVN 43:04). This report describes notices of ash plumes from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) and satellite images during April through 1 October 2018.

According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 1.2 km on 10 June. The ash plume was not identified in satellite data. Another ash plume identified by a pilot and in satellite images rose to an altitude of 1.8 km on 20 June and drifted W. An ash plume was visible in satellite images on 28 September drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km. On 1 October an ash plume rose to 2.7 km and drifted W.

Infrared satellite data from Sentinel-2 showed hot spots in the summit crater and at the Coastal Vent along the W shoreline on 10, 15, and 25 April 2018; plumes of brown discolored water were streaming from the western side of the island (figure 18). Similar activity was frequently seen during clear weather in the following months. A steam plume was also often rising from the crater. The Coastal Vent cone was still hot on 8 August, but no infrared anomaly was seen in imagery from 28 August through September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Sentinel-2 natural color satellite image of Kadovar on 10 April 2018. The island is about 1.5 km in diameter. Steam can be seen rising from the summit and the Coastal Vent just off the western shore; both locations show thermal anomalies in infrared imagery. Discolored water plumes extend NE from the island. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of Holocene age. It is part of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 25 km N of the mouth of the Sepik River. Prior to an eruption that began in 2018, a lava dome formed the high point of the andesitic volcano, filling an arcuate landslide scarp open to the south; submarine debris-avalanche deposits occur in that direction. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low cliffs along the coast. The youthful island lacks fringing or offshore reefs. A period of heightened thermal phenomena took place in 1976. An eruption began in January 2018 that included lava effusion from vents at the summit and at the E coast.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Karymsky (Russia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Karymsky

Russia

54.049°N, 159.443°E; summit elev. 1513 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies and ash explosions during August-September 2018

The most recent eruptive period at Karymsky, on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia, began on 28 April 2018, with thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam emissions, and ash plumes observed through July 2018. The current report discusses activity through September 2018 (table 11). This report was compiled using information from the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT).

KVERT reported ongoing thermal anomalies and intermittent ash plumes over Karymsky during August and September 2018 (table 11). Ash plumes drifted 50 km SE on 7 August, and 40 km S on 25 August. Stronger activity during 10-11 September consisted of continuous dense ash emissions along with explosions that sent plumes 5-6 km high which drifted 860 km NE. Incandescence photographed the next night was attributed to fumarolic activity (figure 41). Ash plumes were identified drifting 365 km E on 22-23 September. The last thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 28 September, and an ash plume was last visible on 30 September.

Table 11. Ash plumes and thermal anomalies at Karymsky, 1 August-30 September 2018. Clouds often obscured the volcano. Data compiled from KVERT reports.

Date Observations
01-07 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume drifted 50 km SE on 7 Aug.
08-14 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies.
25-31 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume drifted 40 km S on 25 Aug.
01-07 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies.
08-15 Sep 2018 Continuous ash emissions on 10 Sep. Explosions during 10-11 Sep with plumes rising 5-6 km that drifted 860 km NE.
16-23 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plumes drifted 365 km E on 22-23 Sep.
24-30 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume on 30 Sep.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Incandescence, attributed to fumarolic activity, was visible above the crater of Karymsky on 12 September 2018. Photo by D. Melnikov; courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS, KVERT).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Karymsky on 30 September 2018 showing a diffuse plume and thermal anomaly in the crater. Top: Natural color view (bands 4, 3, 2). Bottom: Short-wave Infrared view (bands 12, 8A, 4). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were last observed on 31 July 2018. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system detected one hotspot in early August (moderate power), and two hotspots in late September (low power).

Geologic Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Ketoi (Russia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Ketoi

Russia

47.35°N, 152.475°E; summit elev. 1172 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Plume of uncertain composition reported based on satellite data one day in September

Gas-and-steam emissions were previously reported at Ketoi (figure 1) in January, July, and August 2013 (BGVN 40:09). Intense fumarolic activity originating from the same area, the N slope of Pallas Peak, was reported in 1981, 1987, and 1989. Based on a report from the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) using Himawari-8 imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume on 21 September 2018 which drifted to the NE; however, evidence of the plume could not be confirmed by the VAAC from satellite imagery. The original VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) issued by SVERT noted a volcanic cloud without a specific mention of ash, but also remarked that thermal anomalies had been observed on 17 and 20 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Natural color Sentinel-2 satellite image of Ketoi on 18 September 2018. A large freshwater lake can be seen SW of the Pallas Peak andesitic cone, which also hosts a crater lake. Lava flows originating from the younger cone extend primarily N to SW, and a white fumarolic area is immediately NE of the crater. The island is approximately 10 km in diameter. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The circular, 10-km-wide Ketoi island, which rises across the 19-km-wide Diana Strait from Simushir Island, hosts of one of the most complex volcanic structures of the Kuril Islands. The rim of a 5-km-wide Pleistocene caldera is exposed only on the NE side. A younger 1172-m-high stratovolcano forming the NW part of the island is cut by a horst-and-graben structure containing two solfatara fields. A 1.5-km-wide freshwater lake fills an explosion crater in the center of the island. Pallas Peak, a large andesitic cone in the NE part of the caldera, is truncated by a 550-m-wide crater containing a brilliantly colored turquoise crater lake. Lava flows from Pallas Peak overtop the caldera rim and descend nearly 5 km to the SE coast. The first historical eruption of Pallas Peak, during 1843-46, was its largest.

Information Contacts: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Nauki st., 1B, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia, 693022 (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/en/, http://www.imgg.ru/ru/svert/reports); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kilauea (United States) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Twenty-four fissures open on the lower East Rift Zone in May 2018; at least 94 structures destroyed

Kilauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) has been intermittently active for at least two thousand years. Open lava lakes at the summit caldera, and a lava lake and flows from the East Rift Zone, have been almost continuously active since the current eruption began in 1983. A marked increase in seismicity and ground deformation at Pu'u 'O'o Cone on the upper East Rift Zone during the afternoon of 30 April 2018 and the subsequent collapse of its crater floor marked the beginning of the largest lower East Rift Zone eruptive episode in at least 200 years. The daily events of this episode underscored the nature of the interconnected components of the volcanic system. The lava lake level at Halema'uma'u began dropping on 1 May 2018, and fissures first opened on the lower East Rift Zone two days later. The eruptive events of May 2018 (figure 332), the first month of this episode, are described in this report with information provided primarily from the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaii Volcano Observatory (HVO) in the form of daily reports, volcanic activity notices, and abundant photo, map, and video data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 332. A timeline of events at Kilauea for 1-28 May 2018. Blue shaded region includes seismic events greater than M 4.0 and activity at Halema'uma'u crater at the summit. Green shaded area lists activity on the lower East Rift Zone.

Summary of events. During 1-11 May, seismicity propagated eastward from Pu'u 'O'o, indicating the intrusion of magma into the middle and lower East Rift Zone (LERZ). The first surface cracks appeared in the LERZ on 2 May, and the first eruptive fissure opened the next afternoon. Fissures were several hundred meters long and formed a NE-SW trending line near the axis of the LERZ that reached about 4 km in length by 8 May. Three large (greater than M 5) earthquakes shook the island on 4 May. New fissures opened daily, with activity consisting of spattering and lava flows; the largest effusion was a flow from fissure 8 that traveled N for a little over 1 km. By 9 May, 15 fissures had opened in the vicinity of the Leilani Estates subdivision; the residents had been evacuated and numerous structures were destroyed by the flows, spatter, and fissures. Active spattering paused on 10 and 11 May, although strong degassing continued, and many cracks within the fissure zone continued to widen.

The lava lake level in the Overlook vent at Halema'uma'u crater at the summit began to drop slowly on 1 May; the rate of deflationary tilt increased by late the next afternoon. The lake level had dropped about 128 m below the vent rim by 5 May, and satellite data indicated a 10 cm subsidence of the Halema'uma'u crater floor during that time. Rockfalls from the crater walls produced ash plumes above Halema'uma'u, resulting in light ashfall in the summit area. By 8 May the lake level was 295 m below the floor of Halema'uma'u crater. Larger rockfalls caused by the dropping lake level generated larger explosions and ash plumes on 9 May.

New fissures began opening again on 12 May in an area about 1.5 km NE of the previous activity on the LERZ, and over the following 11 days flow activity increased substantially, creating multiple flow channels. The fissure 17 flow reached 2.5 km in length on 15 May. A fast-moving flow from fissure 20 headed 4 km SE on 18 May, traveling over 300 m per hour. The two lobes of the flow reached the SE Puna coast overnight on 19-20 May and were joined by another adjacent flow to the west two days later. Fissures 16-23, all located in the NE half of the fissure zone, were active during 12-23 May.

Steam and ash emissions were persistent at Halema'uma'u crater during 12-23 May; they varied in intensity with abrupt increases associated with large rockfalls into the vent, and ashfall reported more than 50 km from the summit. Strong earthquakes at the summit continued in response to the deflation, causing frequent ground shaking and damage to roads and buildings. A large explosion on 17 May generated the highest ash plume for the period; it reached 9.1 km altitude and drifted NE. Intermittent explosive eruptions continued at the summit, and robust plumes of gas, ash, and steam periodically emerged from the Overlook vent.

Beginning on 24 May, activity on the LERZ shifted back towards the SW part of the fissure zone, again impacting the residents of the Leilani Estates subdivision with reactivation of fissures and new flows. While flows continued to reach the ocean on the SE coast, the volume of lava gradually decreased until the supply of lava ceased by 28 May. During 24-26 May fissures 7 and 21 were feeding a perched lava pond and flows that moved E and N within the subdivision. Overnight on 26-27 May activity increased substantially at fissure 7 with a 30-m-tall spatter rampart, and fountains that reached 70 m high feeding a flow moving N. Large cracks opened into fissure 24 adjacent to the reactivated fissure 8; fast-moving flows traveled W then N through the subdivision. By 28 May the eruptive activity was focused on vigorous fountaining at fissure 8, which supplied a voluminous flow that headed rapidly NE.

Intermittent explosions continued from the summit Overlook vent during 24-28 May as a result of the ongoing subsidence at Halema'uma'u. Ash clouds generally rose to about 3.1 km altitude and drifted SW. Earthquakes in the summit region continued as the summit area subsided and adjusted to the withdrawal of magma.

Activity during 1-11 May 2018. An intrusion of magma began overnight on 30 April-1 May into the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), extending from the vicinity of Pu'u 'O'o eastward at least as far as Highway 130 (15 km E of Pu'u 'O'o). The intrusion began after the collapse of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor on the afternoon of 30 April; about 250 located earthquakes were reported through the afternoon of 1 May, with the locations migrating eastward during the day. The seismicity consisted primarily of small-magnitude (less than M 3) earthquakes at depths of less than 10 km. During a helicopter overflight to Pu'u 'O'o on 1 May, HVO geologists observed a new fissure and crack extending about 1 km uprift (west) from the W flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone (figures 333 and 334). A small amount of lava had erupted from the crack, apparently during the collapse of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. They also noted a few small, sluggish breakouts of the 61g lava flow, likely from lava still moving through the lava-tube system.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 333. HVO geologists observed a fracture on the W flank of Pu'u 'O'o at Kilauea during an overflight on the afternoon of 1 May 2018. The 61g flow field as of 13 April 2018 is shown in pink. The crack that formed on the west side of Pu'u 'O'o on 30 April 2018, during or immediately after the crater floor collapse, is shown as a solid red line. Older Pu'u 'O'o lava flows (1983–2016) are shown in gray. The yellow line is the trace of the active lava tubes. The blue lines over the Pu'u 'O'o flow field are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 2013 digital elevation model (DEM), while the blue lines on the rest of the map are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 1983 DEM. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 334. A new fissure appeared on the W flank of Pu'u 'O'o at Kilauea on 1 May 2018. Top: In this view to the NE, the fissure was visible as a line of white steam extending roughly 1.5 km W of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Photo taken 3 May 2018. Bottom: A telephoto view of a small lava flow (lighter in color) and spatter (blue-gray) that were erupted from a section of the crack on the west flank of Pu'u 'O'o. Photo taken during overflight on 1 May 2018, courtesy of HVO.

Overnight on 1-2 May, earthquakes continued at a high rate in the area from Highway 130 eastward towards Kapoho (32 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o). Many events were felt by residents and there were reports of nearly constant ground vibration in some areas; seismicity generally migrated eastward (figure 335). During the morning of 2 May a GPS station located about 1.5 km SW of Nanawale Estates (24 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o ) began moving toward the north by several centimeters, indicating the approaching magma intrusion. A tiltmeter at Pu'u 'O'o recorded steady, deflationary tilt throughout the day, with several sharp inflation offsets. Some of these offsets corresponded to short-lived ashy plumes rising from the crater. New small ground cracks less than a few centimeters wide developed across some roads in and adjacent to Leilani Estates (23 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 335. Starting on the afternoon of 30 April 2018, magma beneath Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o Cone drained and triggered the collapse of the crater floor. Within hours, earthquakes began migrating east of Pu'u 'O'o, signaling an intrusion of magma along the middle and lower East Rift Zone (ERZ). As of about noon on 2 May there were many reports of earthquakes felt by residents in nearby subdivisions. The orange oval marks the approximate area within which most of the earthquakes were located based on automatic earthquake locations and analysis by seismologists. A GPS device located in Nanawale Estates began moving towards the N on 2 May, and new, small ground cracks were reported in the Leilani Estates area. Courtesy of HVO.

The summit lake level showed very little change immediately after the collapse of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, but tiltmeters at the summit began recording deflationary tilt in the early morning of 1 May. The lava lake level had dropped about 20 m by the afternoon of 2 May when the rate of deflationary tilt increased. By the evening of 3 May, it had dropped an additional 37 m.

At 1030 HST on 3 May 2018 ground shaking from a M 5.0 earthquake south of Pu'u 'O'o caused rockfalls and possibly additional collapse into the Pu'u 'O'o crater (figure 336). A short-lived plume of ash produced by this event rose and dissipated as it drifted SW (figure 337).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 336. Clear weather on 3 May 2018 allowed good airborne observations of the collapse crater in Pu'u 'O'o. This view to the E shows the deep collapse crater that formed on 30 April when magma beneath Pu'u 'O'o drained. For scale, the crater is about 250 m wide. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 337. At 1030 HST on 3 May 2018 ground shaking from a preliminary M 5.0 earthquake south of Pu'u 'O'o caused rockfalls and possibly additional collapse into the Pu'u 'O'o crater on Kilauea's East Rift Zone. A short-lived plume of ash produced by this event rose and dissipated as it drifted SW. USGS photo by Kevan Kamibayashi, courtesy of HVO.

New ground cracks were reported in Leilani Estates late in the afternoon of 3 May. Hot white vapor and blue fumes emanated from an area of cracking in the eastern part of the subdivision. Spatter began erupting from the cracks shortly before 1700 local time. The Hawaii County Civil Defense coordinated the evacuation of the subdivision. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours; lava spread less than 10 m (figure 338).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 338. An eruption from fissure 1 began in the Leilani Estates subdivision at the lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea during the afternoon of 3 May 2018. Hot white vapor and blue fumes emanated from an area of cracking in the eastern part of the subdivision. Spatter began erupting shortly before 1700 HST; lava was confirmed at the surface in the eastern end of the subdivision. According to the Hawai'i County Civil Defense update at 1740 all residents in Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivsions were required to evacuate. View is to the NE on 3 May, courtesy of HVO.

By the morning of 4 May 2018 three fissures had opened in the eastern portion of Leilani Estates; activity consisted primarily of vigorous lava spattering and development of short lava flows (figure 339). Additional eruptive fissures or vents opened during the day, each several hundred meters long (figure 340). Spatter and lava accumulated primarily within a few tens of meters of the vents. Fissure 6 opened on the eastern edge of the subdivision by the afternoon. Between 1130 and 1500 three large earthquakes (M 5.4, M 6.9, and M 5.3) shook the island along with numerous lower-magnitude events. The M 6.9 event at 1232 HST (the largest on the island in 43 years) produced a robust ash plume at Pu'u 'O'o (figure 341), and numerous rockfall events were triggered at both Pu'u 'O'o and Halema'uma'u craters.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 339. Fissure 3 was actively erupting at Leilani and Kaupili Streets in the Leilani Estates subdivision of the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea at 0807 HST on 4 May 2018. Lava on the road was approximately 2 m thick. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 340. Fissure 5 in the lower foreground was actively erupting at 1207 HST on 4 May 2018 in the Leilani Estates subdivision at Kilauea. View is to the SW. Behind fissure 5 are fissures 1, 4, and 3 from front to back. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 341. At 1246 HST on 4 May 2018 a column of reddish-brown ash rose from Pu'u 'O'o crater at Kilauea after a M 6.9 south flank earthquake shook the island. View is to the S with the steaming fissure on the SW flank of the cone visible behind to the right of the ash plume. Courtesy of HVO.

Fissures 7, 8, and 9 opened in the Leilani Estates subdivision on 5 May. Fissure 7 was only active until mid-afternoon (figure 342). Fissure 8 activity included fountaining and occasional bursts of spatter to 100 m as well as building a spatter cone (figure 343); the flow from fissure 9 migrated W. New ground cracks were reported on Highway 130 along the W edge of the subdivision.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 342. Fissure 7 began erupting around dawn on 5 May 2018 at Kilauea and was active for several hours. At the peak of its activity, large bubble bursts occurred at one spot (lower left) in the fissure while spattering was present in other locations. A short lava flow was erupted from the fissure around 0800, moving NE and crossing Hookupu Street (left). View is to the S, emissions in upper right are from fissure 2. Image taken on 5 May 2018, courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 343. Fissure 8 erupted in the evening on 5 May 2018 at Kilauea, located near fissures 2 and 7; it began with small amounts of lava spattering at about 2044 HST. By 2100, lava fountains as high as about 70 m (when this photo was taken) were erupting from the fissure. Courtesy of HVO.

Tiltmeters at the summit continued to record a deflationary trend. Satellite InSAR data showed that between 23 April and 5 May 2018 the summit caldera floor subsided about 10 cm. Corresponding to this deflation, the lava lake in the Overlook vent had dropped about 128 m below the crater rim during that same period. Rockfalls from the crater walls into the retreating lake produced ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater, resulting in light ashfall in the summit area. During 4 and 5 May about 152 M 2 and M 3 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km beneath the summit area. These earthquakes were related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and south flank of the volcano.

Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 1600 on 6 May. By early that afternoon, ten fissures had opened in the Leilani Estates subdivision, but not all were continuing to erupt (figure 344). A lava flow from fissure 8 advanced northward, reaching 1.1 km in length by early evening (figure 345). Deflation continued at the summit with the lava lake dropping at a rate of about 2 m per hour throughout the day, and by evening it had dropped a total of 220 m since 30 April (figure 346).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 344. Between 3 and 6 May 2018 ten fissures opened in the Leilani Estates area of the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea. This thermal map shows the ''a'a flow from fissure 8 spreading northward (top) during an overflight of the area on the afternoon of 6 May. The dark area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the thermal image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas (whitish areas show the active lava flow). The gray linear features are the other fissures (numbered in red). The thermal map was constructed by stitching overlapping oblique thermal images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 345. A lava flow from fissure 8 flowed N on Makamae Street in Leilani Estates at Kilauea at 0932 HST on 6 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 346. The Kilauea summit lava lake began dropping on 1 May 2018, and by the evening of 6 May when this image was taken it was roughly 220 m below the crater rim. This very wide-angle camera view captured the entire north portion of the Overlook crater. Courtesy of HVO.

Two new fissures broke ground in the morning on 7 May. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested area SW of Leilani Estates and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened around noon between fissures 10 and 11. By 1515 both new fissures were inactive but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just W of the highway on trend with the previous fissures (figure 347).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 347. Cracks several centimeters wide had opened along Highway 130 by 0930 HST on 7 May 2018. The highway runs N-S along the W edge of the Leilani Estates subdivision on Kilauea's East Rift Zone, about 15 km E of Pu'u 'O'o. Orange paint was used to outline the cracks. Courtesy of HVO.

By the evening of 8 May 2018, the overall fissure zone was about 4 km long (figure 348), stretching SW-NE across most of the now-evacuated Leilani Estates subdivision; 14 distinct fissures had been mapped, and a lava flow starting from fissure 8 had traveled about 1 km NE from its source. Officials noted that 35 structures had been destroyed. Loud jetting and booming noises were heard from fissure 13 that evening. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent at the summit were intermittently producing small ash plumes that rose several hundred meters above the summit and traveled downwind as the lava lake continued to fall. Based on model data collected in the afternoon, the lake level was about 295 m below the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater by the end of the day on 8 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 348. The 4-km-long fissure zone that began erupting on 3 May 2018 at Kilauea's lower East Rift zone had crossed most of the Leilani Estates subdivision by 1900 on 8 May with 14 distinct fissures within the zone. An ''a'a flow from fissure 8 had traveled about 1 km NE since it emerged on the evening of 5 May. Inset shows numbered locations of each fissure in red. The purple areas are lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.

At 0832 HST on 9 May 2018, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the summit lava lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above Halema'uma'u crater; the ash was blown SSW (figure 349). During the day on 9 May fissure 15 broke ground at the NE edge of the LERZ fissure area and generated a pahoehoe flow about 20 m long. Severe ground cracks associated with fissure 14 were steaming vigorously in the morning (figure 350). During an overflight around 1500 in the afternoon HVO geologists also noticed an area of steaming uprift (west) of Highway 130 at the SW edge of the fissure area. Rates of motion increased late in the morning at a GPS station located 1.5 km SE of Nanawale Estates (about 2 km N of Leilani Estates). The direction of motion was consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the NE).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 349. An ash plume rose from Halema'uma'u crater at the summit of Kilauea around 0830 on 9 May 2018. HVO's interpretation was that the explosion was triggered by a rockfall from the steep walls of the Overlook vent. The photograph was taken at 0829 HST from the Jaggar Museum overlook. Geologists examining the ash deposits on the rim of Halema'uma'u crater found fresh lava fragments ejected from the lava lake. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 350. Severe ground cracks associated with fissure 14 in Leilani Estates at Kilauea were steaming vigorously at 0953 on 9 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.

Strong degassing continued from existing fissures on 10 and 11 May; although active spatter and lava had paused, several cracks within the fissure zone continued to widen (figure 351). A 3D model constructed of thermal images of Pu'u 'O'o crater taken on 11 May indicated that the deepest part of the crater was 350 m below the rim (figure 352). Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park closed to the public on 11 May due to heightened (daily) earthquake activity at the summit, and concerns about a potentially larger summit explosion.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 351. Ground cracks continued to widen near Leilani Estates subdivision at Kilauea on 10 May 2018 even though active spatter and lava flows had paused. At 1354 a geologist inspected a crack that widened considerably during the previous day on Old Kalapana Road. In other areas, new cracks appeared along sections of Highway 130, some with visible escaping fumes. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 352. A clear view into Pu'u 'O'o crater of Kilauea was possible on 11 May 2018. The upper part of the crater had a flared geometry, which narrowed to a deep circular shaft. The deepest part of the crater was about 350 m below the crater rim according to a 3D model constructed from thermal images. The crater is about 250 m wide, and N is to the left. Courtesy of HVO.

Activity during 12-23 May 2018. Minor spattering resumed from a new fissure (16) that opened about 0645 on 12 May around 1.5 km NE of fissure 15, at the NE end of the existing vent system (figure 353). It produced a lava flow that traveled about 230 m before stalling in the early afternoon. A steady, vigorous plume of steam and variable amounts of ash rose from the Overlook vent and drifted SW. Over the course of the day, rockfalls from the steep enclosing crater walls at the summit crater periodically generated small ash clouds mixed with water vapor. These ash clouds rose only about a hundred meters above the ground, a few generating very localized ashfall downwind.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 353. Fissure 16 opened in the morning on 12 May 2018 at around 0830 HST; it was located about 1.3 km NE of fissure 15, visible at the top left. The fissure is also located 500 m NE of the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) site (green piping, top right). View is uprift to the SW. Photograph courtesy of Hawai`i County Fire Department and HVO.

A plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, rose from the Overlook vent within Halema'uma'u for much of the day on 13 May 2018. That morning, a new outbreak was reported about 0.5 km NE of fissure 16. Aerial observations of this new fissure (17) indicated it was at least several hundred meters long and produced spatter rising tens of meters into the air. By late in the day, activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosions of spatter bombs, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally NE at the downrift (NE) end of the new fissure system. As of about 1900 on 13 May, one lobe was 2 m thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132 (figure 354). A smaller fissure 18, a few hundred meters S of 17, was weakly active late in the day. A new fissure (19) was spotted early on 14 May producing a sluggish lava flow. By 1430 on 14 May, fissure 17 was producing a lava flow extending about 1.7 km from the fissure (figure 355).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 354. Fissures 15-19 opened along the fissure zone NE of Leilani Estates between 9 and 14 May 2018 on Kilauea's East Rift Zone. As of the early morning on 14 May, lava from fissure 17 had traveled about 1.2 km, roughly ESE parallel to the rift zone, and was turning slightly S; at 0830 HST, the flow was about 0.9 km S of Highway 132. Fissure 18, which became active late on 13 May, and fissure 19, which opened early on 14 May, were both weakly active. Updated at 1430 on 14 May, this map shows the location of the front of the fissure 17 flow at that time. The flow is following a path of steepest descent (blue line), immediately south of the 1955 ''a'a flow boundary. Shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 355. A thermal map of the NE end of the fissure system on the lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea as of 1430 on 14 May 2018 shows the active fissure 17 flow extending about 1.7 km from the fissure. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the thermal image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The thermal map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique thermal images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.

Activity on the LERZ on 15 May 2018 was concentrated at fissure 17 with intermittent spattering at fissure 18; the fissure 17 flow continued to slowly advance ESE reaching a length of nearly 2.5 km in the early morning (figures 356 and 357). A new fissure (20) opened up SW of fissure 18 and produced two small pads of lava. During the morning, ash emissions from the Overlook vent inside Halema'uma'u varied greatly in intensity with abrupt increases likely associated with large rockfalls deep into the vent (figure 358). Ashfall was reported as far away as Discovery Harbor (55 km SW), Pahala (30 km SW), at locations along Highway 11 from Pahala to Volcano, and in the Ka'u Desert section of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park near the summit. NWS radar and pilot reports indicated the top of the ash cloud ranged from 3.0 to 3.7 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 356. The 2.5-km-long fissure 17 lava flow on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone at 0844 on 15 May 2018 was an active ''a'a flow moving ESE from fissure 17, which was visible as low lava fountains in the middle of the photo. Highway 132 appears on the right side of the photograph; the view is toward the W. Photograph courtesy of the Hawai`i County Fire Department and HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 357. Highly viscous (sticky) lava oozed from the edge of the ''a'a flow spreading slowly ESE from fissure 17 at Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone on 15 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 358. Activity at Halema'uma'u crater at Kilauea increased in the morning of 15 May 2018 to include the nearly continuous emission of ash with intermittent stronger pulses that formed occasional higher plumes 1-2 km above the summit. At about 0900 HST the plume was drifting SW with the tradewinds toward the Ka`u Desert. The dark area to the right of the ash column rising from the Overlook vent is ash falling from the cloud. Courtesy of HVO.

On the morning of 16 May dense ballistic blocks up to 60 cm across were found in the parking lot a few hundred meters from Halema'uma'u crater, reflecting the most energetic explosions to date. Strong earthquakes within the summit continued in response to ongoing deflation and lava column drop. By the afternoon of 16 May the floor of the larger Kilauea Caldera had dropped 90 cm from the ongoing deflation, stressing faults around the caldera and causing multiple earthquakes. Employees at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, and nearby residents reported frequent ground shaking and damage to roads and buildings. The decision was made to evacuate HVO's office building on Uekahuna Bluff overlooking Halema'uma'u Crater. Low-level eruption of lava continued from multiple points along the NE end of the active fissure system on the lower East Rift Zone, but spattering generally decreased in vigor throughout the day.

At about 0415 on 17 May an explosion from the Overlook vent produced a volcanic cloud that reached 9.1 km altitude and drifted NE. Traces of ash fell with rain on the Volcano Golf Course, in Volcano Village, and in other areas immediately around the summit (figure 359). Subsequent continued emissions reached 3.7 km altitude; vog or volcanic air pollution produced by volcanic gas was reported in Pahala. After the explosion, seismic levels increased gradually throughout the day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 359. At 0745 on 17 May 2018 the view of Halema'uma'u crater at Kilauea from the visitor viewing area in front of the Jaggar Muesum at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park included a light coating of ash on the Park's interpretative sign caused by ashfall after significant explosive events the previous day. Note the contrast of the mostly-steam plume rising from the Overlook vent in the background with the eruption column that emerged during explosive activity in May 1924 (shown in the middle photograph on the sign). Courtesy of HVO.

At the LERZ, fissures 18, 19, and 20 reactivated during the afternoon of 17 May, and a new fissure opened (21) between fissures 7 and 3 (figure 360). Ground cracks continued to open and widen around Leilani Estates, several with both horizontal and vertical offsets (figures 361 and 362). An area 50-90 m wide, parallel to and N of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, dropped slightly, forming a depression that pahoehoe flows from fissures 20 and 21 began filling. Fissure 22 opened just downrift of fissure 19.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 360. Fissure 21 opened between fissures 3 and 7 on 17 May 2018 on the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea. Around 1500 an aerial view of the fissure showed fountaining and a lava flow expanding outward from the fissure. View is toward the west. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 361. SW-trending en-echelon ground cracks dissected and offset NW-trending Pohoiki Road around 0700 on 17 May 2018 as seen during an overflight by HVO of the eruptive fissure area at Kilauea's East Rift Zone. Cracks continued to open and widen, many with both horizontal and vertical offsets. These cracks were caused by the underlying intrusion of magma into the lower East Rift Zone. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 362. HVO geologists examined widening cracks on Nohea Street in Leilani Estates at Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone on 17 May 2018. These cracks had expanded significantly during the previous day. Courtesy of HVO.

Spattering continued on 18 May 2018 from fissures 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, and new fissure 22. Pahoehoe lava flows were also erupted from fissures 17, 18, and 20 (figure 363). During the afternoon, fissure 17 was actively spattering fragments as high as 100 m, and the flow was active but had not covered new ground (figure 364). A flow from fissure 18 had traveled approximately 1 km SE. The graben area N of the fissures was still being filled by pahoehoe flows from fissures 20 and 21; fissure 15 produced a flow that crossed Pohoiki Road. Later in the afternoon a fast-moving pahoehoe flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled SE, moving over 300 m per hour. By late that evening, the flow had three main lobes; the easternmost was E of Pohoiki Road moving about 200 m per hour while the westernmost was near Malamaki Road and moving about 40 m per hour. At the summit, for much of the day, a steady steam plume rose from the Overlook vent. Several minor emissions of ash were observed in web cameras; no significant explosions and no earthquakes greater than M 3.5 had occurred in the previous 24 hours. At 2358 local time, however, a short-lived explosion from Halema'uma'u created an ash cloud that reached up to 3.1 km altitude and was carried SW by the wind.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 363. By the early afternoon of 18 May 2018, fissures 21, 4, 15, 22, 20, 18, and 17 (SW to NE) were all erupting with either pahoehoe flows, fountaining, or spatter on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone. Shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 364. The line of fountains on fissure 17 coalesced into a large fountain sending lava fragments 50 m into the air in the morning on 18 May 2018 at the lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea; small bits of spatter reached 100 m high. Courtesy of HVO.

The rate of lava eruption increased overnight on 18-19 May; fountaining continued at fissure 17, and fissures 16 and 20 merged into a continuous line of spatter and fountaining. Two flows from this consolidated fissure complex were wide, very active, and advancing southward at rates up to 300 m per hour (figures 365 and 366). Flows from fissures 17 and 18 were also still active but advancing slowly, and fissure 18 had stalled by the end of the day. By mid-afternoon on 19 May the two fast-moving flows had joined about a kilometer from the coast and continued to flow southward (figure 367). The GPS instrument located on the NE side of Leilani Estates was no longer moving. While earthquake activity continued, it had not moved farther downrift in the previous few days.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 365. Channelized lava flows originating from a merged, elongated fountaining source between fissures 16 and 20 in Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone split into two flows that both traveled rapidly S as seen at 0737 on 19 May 2018. This view to the SW also showed the steaming line of fissures on the lower East Rift Zone that continued SW of the fountaining source. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 366. 'A'a lava flows emerged from the elongated fissure 16-20 at Kilauea to form several channels. The flow direction is from upper center to the lower left of image. Incandescence from the second flow is visible in the upper left. Image taken around 0818 on 19 May 2018 during a helicopter overflight of Kilauea's lower East Rift zone by HVO geoscientists. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 367. Around 1215 on 19 May 2018 the two primary lava-flow fronts originating from the fissure 20-22 area on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone were about to merge as they flowed SE. The flow front position based on a later update at 1840 is shown by the red circle. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the thermal image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The thermal map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique thermal images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.

The two flows from the fissure 20 complex entered the ocean at two points along the SE Puna coast overnight on 19-20 May (figure 368). Soon after, a crack opened under the E lava channel diverting some of the lava into underground voids (figure 369) and reducing the amount of lava flowing into the ocean. Spattering continued from fissures 6 and 17 during the day on 20 May. Fissure 23 first appeared at 1100 on 20 May, at the NE corner of the Leilani Estates subdivision near fissures 4 and 14, about 2 km SW of fissure 20; it was only active during 19-20 May. Volcanic gas emissions tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from the fissure 20 complex; satellite instruments measured a major increase in SO2 emissions on 19 May (figure 370). Intermittent explosive eruptions continued at the summit, and plumes of gas and steam periodically emerged from the Overlook vent and drifted SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 368. The fissure 20 complex flows from Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone reached the ocean overnight during 19-20 May 2018, as seen in this image from an HVO overflight in the early morning on 20 May. Dense white plumes of "laze" (short for "lava haze") formed as lava entered the ocean. Laze is formed as lava boils seawater. The process leads to a series of chemical reactions that result in the formation of a billowing white cloud composed of a mixture of condensed seawater steam, hydrochloric acid gas, and tiny shards of volcanic glass. This mixture has the stinging and corrosive properties of dilute battery acid and is hazardous to breathe. Because laze can be blown downwind, its corrosive effects can extend far beyond the actual ocean entry area. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 369. Lava from the eastern channel of the fissure 20 complex flowed into a crack in the ground that opened on the morning of 20 May 2018. The resulting decrease in lava volume caused the easternmost channel of lava and the eastern ocean entry to be less vigorous than the western entry point. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 370. SO2 emissions increased substantially at Kilauea when the rate of lava emission increased significantly on 19 May 2018 on the lower East Rift Zone. The OMI instrument on the Aura satellite measured 8.2 Dobson Units (DU) of atmospheric SO2 on 3 May, the day fissure 1 opened, and 18.11 DU on 19 May when the flow rates increased at the fissure 20 complex. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

The most vigorous eruptive activity during 21-23 May in the lower East Rift Zone, was concentrated in the middle portion of the system of fissures, primarily between fissure 20 on the NE and fissure 23 on the SW (figure 371). Fountaining 50 m high from fissure 22 was feeding the channelized flow reaching the coast (figure 372). Fissure 6 reactivated with spattering and a short flow on 21 May. Fissure 17, at the NE end of the fissure system was only weakly active. On 22 May lava fountains continued from fissures 6 and 22, with fissures 19 and 5 also active; a new area of fountaining also appeared near fissure 23. Fountaining from fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates and blue methane was observed burning in road cracks overnight on 22-23 May (figure 373). Observers noted that the height of the perched lava pond forming on the NW side of fissures 5 and 6 had reached 11 m above the ground level.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 371. By 20 May 2018, two lava flows from fissures 20 and 22 in the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea had coalesced and reached the ocean. Activity at the fissure 17 flow had diminished significantly. The most vigorous eruptive activity during 21-23 May 2018 was concentrated in the middle portion of the system of fissures, primarily between fissure 20 on the NE and fissure 23 on the SW. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 372. HVO geologists reported fountaining from fissure 22 as 50 m high on 21 May 2018 at Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 373. Blue flames of methane emerged from ground and road cracks on 22 May 2018. This early morning photo was taken on Kahukai Street in the Leilani Estates subdivision at Kilauea looking SE, with an active lava flow from fissure 13 behind the blue flames. Photo by L. DeSmither, courtesy of HVO.

By 23 May, fountains from fissures 5, 6 (figure 374), 13, and 19 were feeding a flow advancing to the S, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22 (figure 375); it reached the ocean late in the afternoon, creating multiple entry points that produced occasional small explosions. Small ash emissions from the Overlook vent occurred frequently during 21-23 May (figure 376). Fissure 8 reactivated briefly in the morning of 23 May and erupted two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 374. Fissure 6 in the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea built a lava berm across Pohoiki Road as seen on 23 May 2018. Flows from fissure 6 and adjacent fissures formed a flow parallel to an earlier flow that traveled SE reaching the coast that afternoon. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 375. Multiple channels of lava flowed SE from the fissure zone at Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone to the sea on 23 May 2018. Overflows from the channels spread out over existing, older flows; note the large agriculture buildings as indicators of the scale of the flows. The visible haze is sulfur dioxide gas from the fissures. Photo taken by J. Ozbolt, Hilo Civil Air Patrol, courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 376. A pulse of ash rose from Halema'uma'u on 23 May 2018 as part of semi-continuous emissions at Kilauea's summit. Ash could be seen falling from the plume as it was blown downwind around 1528 HST on 23 May. USGS photo by I. Johanson, courtesy of HVO.

Activity during 24-28 May 2018. Overnight on 23-24 May field crews observed that fissure areas 2, 7, 8, 3, 14, and 21 had reactivated and were spattering (figure 377). Fissure 22 continued to erupt lava flowing SE to the coast (figure 378). Fissures 7 and 21 were feeding a perched lava pond and pahoehoe flow that advanced eastward later that afternoon. An explosion from the summit Overlook vent just after 1800 on 24 May produced an ash cloud that rose to 3.1 km altitude and had more ash than most recent explosions (figure 379). The National Weather Service Nexrad radar tracked the cloud for 15-20 minutes; moderate trade winds were blowing to the SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 377. Reactivation of fissures 2, 7, 8, 3, 14, and 21 was noted on 24 May 2018 at the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea. Fissures 7 and 21 were feeding a perched lava pond and pahoehoe flow. Several ocean entries were also active from the channelized flow down the SE flank sourced from the region of fissures 6-20. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 378. During HVO's overflight in the morning of 24 May 2018, the fissure 22 fountain was not as high as several days earlier, but was still erupting significant lava that was flowing to the SE Puna coast at Kilauea. USGS photo by M. Patrick, courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 379. An explosion was detected from the summit Overlook Crater at Kilauea just after 1800 on 24 May 2018 that produced an ash cloud that rose to 3.1 km altitude, carrying more ash than most recent explosions. This view to the SW is from the caldera rim near Volcano House where USGS scientists were stationed to track the ongoing summit explosions. Courtesy of HVO.

By 25 May, the two flows from fissure 22 and fissures 6 and 13 were still reaching the ocean with two entry points (figure 380); fissures 7 and 21 were feeding a flow that continued to slowly advance NE, covering several streets in Leilani Estates (figure 381). By the next day, the flow front of fissure 21 had become an 'a'a flow and was continuing to move NE (figure 382), reaching the PGV (Puna Geothermal Venture) property by late afternoon on 26 May. Fissure 7 was feeding a flow that had turned S toward the coast, and at dusk the lava was cascading into the Pawaii crater, adjacent to the western margin of the fissure 6 flow that fed one of the ocean entries. On the W side of fissure 7 a perched pahoehoe flow broke out around 0400 on 26 May, feeding short flows to the W. Multiple small eruptions continued to occur at the summit, most ejecting ash to under 3.1 km altitude. One of the largest occurred about 1617 on 25 May sending ash as high as 3.7 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 380. Fissures 6 (left) and 13 (right) at midday on 25 May 2018 on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone, with lava flows merging into one channel that flows SE into the ocean. Note plume in distance at the ocean entries (top left). Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 381. Reactivated fissures 7 and 21 within the Leilani Estates subdivision at Kilauea were feeding new flows moving NE towards the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) property during 25 and 26 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 382. An 'a'a flow, erupted from fissure 21 at Kilauea was approximately 3-4 m high at the flow front and slowly advancing to the NE in the Leilani Estates subdivision around 1030 HST on 26 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.

Overnight during 26-27 May fissure 17 was the source of multiple booming gas emissions. Fissure 7 activity increased overnight, producing a large spatter rampart over 30 m tall from fountains reaching 50-70 m high (figure 383). The fountains fed two perched channels, the N channel, 8-15 m thick, fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property; the S channel was a flow advanced SE. Large cracks were observed overnight near fissure 9 which developed into fissure 24. Fissure 8 had three vents active overnight on 26-27 May that were spattering and flaming; they had doubled in size over the previous 24 hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 383. Pahoehoe lava advanced rapidly W from fissure 7 on Leilani Avenue in Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone on 27 May 2018. Activity had increased overnight, with lava fountains reaching 50 to 60 m high. Courtesy of HVO.

The fissure 21 'a'a flow continued to advance NE onto PGV property but at a slower pace on 27 May. By the end of the day, fissures 7 and 8 were the most active, fountaining and feeding lava flows that advanced NE onto PGV property. At about 1900 HST a fast-moving lava flow broke from this area and advanced rapidly to the N and W through the eastern portion of Leilani Estates, causing additional evacuations. Activity had noticeably diminished from fissures 22 and 13, and the supply of lava to the channel flowing to the sea had ceased by the next day, 28 May. Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook vent at the summit. Observations from the ground and by UAV during the previous week documented retreat of the Overlook vent wall due to collapse of the steep enclosing walls and rim. Trade winds carried the ash clouds primarily SW.

Fissure 8 fed a fast-moving flow early on 28 May that moved N along the margin of the existing fissure 7 flow before turning E and crossing out of Leilani Estates (figure 384). Flow activity from fissure 8 diminished abruptly midday and a few other fissures reactivated briefly with fissure 7/21 having the tallest fountains. Vigorous fountaining resumed at fissure 8 late in the afternoon, spawning a flow that traveled an estimated 20 m per hour to the NE over the flow of the previous day; fountains were 50-60 m tall (figure 385). During the evening, fissures 16, 18, 22, 13, and 20 were also active, with flows moving S from fissures 16/18. Pele's hair from vigorous fountaining of fissure 8 was being transported downwind, and there were reports of some strands falling in Pahoa. Residents were warned to minimize exposure to Pele's hair, which could cause skin and eye irritation similar to exposure to volcanic ash. Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the vent within Halema'uma'u crater. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake occurred at 1739 HST on the Koa'e fault zone south of the caldera. Earthquakes in the summit region continued as the area subsided and adjusted to the withdrawal of magma.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 384. A fast-moving flow from fissure 8 moved N and then E out of Leilani Estates on 28 May 2018 marking a new phase in the 2018 Kilauea eruption. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 385. Fissure 8 on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone reactivated after a brief pause on the afternoon of 28 May 2018 with lava fountains that reached heights of 60 m and fed a lava flow that advanced rapidly to the NE. Courtesy of HVO.

By 26 May 2018, flows on the lower East Rift Zone had destroyed at least 82 structures including 41 homes since the beginning of May. Twelve more were destroyed on 27 and 28 May as flows continued to move across the region, according to USA Today. By 29 May, activity on the lower East Rift Zone was focused on the vigorous eruption of lava from fissure 8 advancing rapidly downslope towards the NE and Highway 132.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey, PO Box 51, Hawai'i National Park, HI 96718, USA (URL: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); USA Today (URL: https://www.kiiitv.com/article/news/nation-now/hawaii-lava-flow-destroys-12-more-homes-as-Kilauea -volcano-continues-exploding/465-afd62fc3-91d2-4764-9eb9-c3dee473033d).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian, lava flow, and explosive activities resume, June-October 2018

Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, Indonesia experienced a major caldera collapse, likely in 535 CE, that formed a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands (see inset figure 23, BGVN 36:08). Remnants of this volcano coalesced to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island which collapsed during the 1883 eruption. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. The most recent event was a brief episode of Strombolian activity, ash plumes, and a lava flow during the second half of February 2017. Activity resumed in late June 2018 and continued through early October, the period covered in this report. Information is provided primarily by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, referred to as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG). Aviation reports are provided by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and photographs came from several social media sources and professional photographers.

After the brief event during February 2017, Anak Krakatau remained quiet for about 15 months. PVMBG kept the Alert Level at II, noting no significant changes until mid-June 2018. Increased seismicity on 18 June was followed by explosions with ash plumes beginning on 21 June. Intermittent ash emissions were accompanied by Strombolian activity with large blocks of incandescent ejecta that traveled down the flanks to the ocean throughout July. Explosions were reported as short bursts of seismic activity, repeating multiple times in a day, and producing dense black ash plumes that rose a few hundred meters from the summit. Similar activity continued throughout August, with the addition of a lava flow visible on the S flank that reached the ocean during 4-5 August. Generally increased activity in September resulted in the highest ash plumes of the period, up to 4.9 km altitude on 8 September; high-intensity explosions were heard tens of kilometers away during 9-10 September. PVMBG reported significantly increased numbers of daily explosions during the second half of the month. The thermal signature recorded in satellite data also increased during September, and a large SO2 plume was recorded in satellite data on 23 September.

Activity during June-July 2018. PVMBG noted an increase in seismic activity beginning on 18 June 2018. Foggy conditions hampered visual observations during 19-20 June, but on 21 June gray plumes were observed rising 100-200 m above the summit (figure 41). Two ash plumes were reported on 25 June; the first rose to about 1 km altitude and drifted N, and the second rose to 600 m altitude and drifted S (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Anak Krakatau began a new eruptive episode on 21 June 2018 with an ash plume that rose 200 m above the summit. Photo by undisclosed source, courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen‏.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. The first of two ash plumes rose to about 1 km altitude and drifted N from Anak Krakatau on 25 June 2018; the first events after about 18 months of no activity were reported on 21 June. Courtesy of PVMBG (Eruption Information on Mt. Anak Krakatau, June 25, 2018).

Incandescence was observed at the summit during 1-2 July 2018, and two ash emissions were reported in VONA's (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) on 3 July. PVMBG reported that during 4-5 July there were four additional ash-producing events, each lasting between 30 and 41 seconds. The last three of these events produced ash plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N and NW. The Darwin VAAC reported essentially continuous ash emissions during 3-9 July drifting generally W and SW at about 1.2 km altitude (figure 43). They were intermittently visible in satellite imagery when not obscured by meteoric clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. A dense gray ash plume rose several hundred meters above Anak Krakatau on 7 July 2018 (local time) while large volcanic bombs traveled down the flanks. Photo by Sam Hidayat, courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen‏.

Ash plumes were again observed by the Darwin VAAC in satellite imagery beginning on 13 July 2018 at 1.2 km altitude drifting NW. They were essentially continuous until they gradually decreased and dissipated early on 17 July, rising to 1.2-1.5 km altitude and drifting W, clearly visible in satellite imagery several times during the period. Satellite imagery revealed hotspots several times during July; they ranged from small pixels at the summit (9 July) to clear flow activity down the SE flank on multiple days (12, 19, and 24 July) (figure 44). In the VONA's reported by PVMBG during 15-17 July, they noted intermittent explosions that lasted around 30-90 seconds each. PVMBG reported a black ash plume 500 m above the summit drifting N during the afternoon of 16 July. The Darwin VAAC continued to report ash emission to 1.2-1.5 km altitude during 18-19 July, moving in several different directions; Strombolian activity sent incandescent ejecta in all directions on 19 July (figure 45). During 25-26 July the Darwin VAAC noted continuous minor ash emissions drifting SW at 1.2 km altitude, and a hotspot visible in infrared imagery.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery clearly documented the repeated thermal activity at Anak Krakatau throughout July 2018. a) 9 July 2018: a small hotspot was visible at the summit and an ash plume drifted NW. b) 12 July 2018: a much larger hotspot showed a distinct flow down the SE flank. c) 19 July 2018: even under partly cloudy skies, incandescent ejecta is visible on the S flank. d) 24 July 2018: incandescent lava had almost reached the SE coast. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Strombolian activity sent incandescent ejecta down all the flanks and into the sea at Anak Krakatau on 19 July 2018, as seen from the island of Rakata (5 km SE). Courtesy of Reuters / Stringer.

Activity during August-early October 2018. A series of at least nine explosions took place on 2 August 2018 between 1333 and 1757 local time. They ranged from 13 to 64 seconds long, and produced ash plumes that drifted N. The Darwin VAAC reported minor ash observed in imagery at around 2 km altitude for much of the day. In a special report, PVMBG noted a black ash plume 500 m above sea level drifting N at 1757 local time. Continued explosive activity was reported by local observers during the early nighttime hours of 3 August (figure 46).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. A dark ash plume rose 100-200 m from Anak Krakatau during the early morning hours of 3 August 2018, and incandescent ejecta rolled down the flanks. Tens of explosions were heard in Serang (80 km E) and Lampung (80 km N). Courtesy of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho.

The Darwin VAAC reported continuous ash emissions rising to 1.8 km altitude and drifting E on 5 August, clearly visible in satellite imagery, along with a strong hotspot. The ash plume drifted SE then S the next day before dissipating. PVMBG reported incandescence visible during the nights of 5-15 August. Photographer Øystein Lund Andersen visited Krakatau during 4-6 August 2018 and recorded Strombolian activity, lava bomb ejecta, and a lava flow entering the ocean (figures 47-50).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Strombolian explosions sent incandescent ejecta skyward, and blocks of debris down the flanks of Anak Krakatau on 5 August 2018 as captured in this drone photograph. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Large volcanic bombs flew out from the summit vent of Anak Krakatau while a dark gray plume of ash rose a few hundred meters on 5 August 2018 in this drone photograph. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. A blocky lava flow traveled down the S flank of Anak Krakatau on 5 August 2018 in this closeup image taken by a drone. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Views of Anak Krakatau from the SE showed Strombolian activity and incandescent lava (upper photo) and steam from the lava flowing into the ocean and dark ash emissions from the summit (lower photo) on 5 August 2018. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.

Emissions were reported intermittently drifting W on 11, 14, and 16 August at 1.2-1.5 km altitude. Video of explosions on 12 August with large bombs and dark ash plumes were captured by photographer James Reynolds (Earth Uncut TV). PVMBG reported black ash plumes drifting N at 500 m above the summit on 17 and 18 August after explosions that lasted 1-2 minutes each. The Darwin VAAC also reported ash plumes rising to 1.2 km altitude on 17-18 drifting NE. VONA's were issued during 22-23 August reporting at least three explosions that lasted 30-40 seconds and produced ash plumes that drifted N and NE. The Darwin VAAC reported the plume on 22 August as originating from a vent below the summit. PVMBG noted that a dark plume on 23 August drifted NE at about 700 m above the summit. During 27-30 August, the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes intermittently visible in satellite imagery extending SW at 1.2-1.5 km altitude.

Ash plumes drifting N and NW were visible in satellite imagery during 3-4 September at 1.2-1.5 km altitude. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume moving NW and W at 4.9 km altitude on 8 September, the highest plume noted for the report period. The following day, the plume height had dropped to 1.5 km altitude, and was clearly observed drifting W in satellite imagery. A hotspot was reported on 12 September. During the night of 9-10 September PVMBG reported bursts of incandescent material rising 100-200 m above the peak, with explosions that rattled windows at the Anak Krakatau PGA Post, located 42 km from the volcano. Ash plumes continued to be observed through 13 September. The Darwin VAAC reported continuous ash emissions to 1.8 km altitude drifting W and NW on 16-17 September (figure 51). The ash plume was no longer visible on 18 September, but a hotspot remained discernable in satellite data through 20 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. On 16 September 2018 a dark ash plume rose several hundred meters above Anak Krakatau as incandescent lava flowing down the SE flank to the sea created steam plumes. Courtesy of Thibaud Plaquet.

PVMBG reported incandescence at the summit and gray and black ash plumes on 20 September that rose 500 m above the summit. A low-level ash emission was reported drifting S on 21 September and confirmed in the webcam. Four VONA's were issued that day, reporting explosions at 0221, 0827, 2241, and 2248, lasting from 72-115 seconds each. PVMBG subsequently reported observing 44 explosions with black ash plumes rising 100-600 m above the summit, and incandescence at night on 21 September. Ash emissions continued on 22 September at 1.5 km altitude, with a secondary explosion rising to 2.4 km altitude drifting W. The plume height was based on and infrared temperature measurement of 12 degrees C. Later in the day, an additional plume was observed in satellite imagery at 3.7 km altitude drifting N. PVMBG reported observations of 56 explosions, with 200-300 m high (above the summit) black ash plumes and incandescence at night on 22 September. Observations from nearby Rakata Island on 22 September indicated that tephra from incandescent explosions of the previous night mostly fell on the flanks, but some reached the sea. A lava flow on the SSE flank had also reached the ocean (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Activity at Krakatau during 22-23 September 2018 included substantial Strombolian explosions, a dark ash plume, lava flows, and large volcanic bombs traveling nearly to the ocean. Photo courtesy of Malmo Travel.

By 23 September 2018, a single plume was observed at 2.1 km altitude drifting WNW. A glow at the summit was visible in the webcam that day, and a hotspot was seen in satellite imagery the next day as observations of an ash plume drifting W at 2.1 km continued. A significant SO2 plume was captured in satellite data on 23 September (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. A significant SO2 plume dispersed NW of Krakatau (lower right corner) on 23 September 2018 after a surge in activity was observed the previous two days. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

On 24 September, PVMBG reported black ash plumes rising 1,000 m above the summit, incandescence at the summit, and lava flowing 300 m down the S flank observed in the webcam during the night. An ash plume was observed by the Darwin VAAC drifting WSW and then W on 25-26 September at 2.1 km altitude, lowering slightly to 1.8 km the following day, and to 1.2 km on 28 September. Continuous ash emissions were observed through 29 September. A new emission was reported on 30 September drifting SW at 1.8 km altitude. Ash emissions were observed daily by the Darwin VAAC from the 1st to at least 5 October at 2.1 km altitude drifting W. A large hotspot near the summit was noted on 3 October. The thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from late June into early October 2018, as recorded in infrared satellite data by the MIROVA project, confirmed the visual observations of increased activity that included Strombolian explosions, lava flows, ash plumes, and incandescent ejecta witnessed by ground observers during the period (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. The MIROVA project graph of thermal activity at Krakatau from 12 February through early October 2018 showed the increasing thermal signature that appeared in late June at the onset of renewed explosive activity, the first since February 2017. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com); Reuters Latam (Twitter: @ReutersLatam, URL: http://www.reuters.com/); James Reynolds, Earth Uncut TV (Twitter: @EarthUncutTV, URL: https://www.earthuncut.tv/, Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UD3SLWtuPZs); Thibaud Plaquet (Instagram: tibomvm, URL: https://www.instagram.com/tibomvm/); Malmo Travel (Instagram: malmo.travel, URL: https://www.instagram.com/malmo.travel/).


Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Tanzania

2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Effusive activity continues at the summit through August 2018 with small lava flows and spattering confined to the crater

Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano on Earth currently erupting carbonatite lavas. Activity is based in the crater offset to the N about 100 m below the summit, where hornitos (small cones) and pit craters produce lava flows and spattering. After displaying effusive activity in the north crater since at least 1983, it became filled and lava began overflowing in 1998. The eruption transitioned to significant explosive activity in September 2007 through March 2008 that cleared out and recreated the crater (figure 175). Since then, intermittent effusive carbonatite eruptions have continued. This report summarizes observed activity from August 2014 through August 2018, including observations by visitors and satellite data (figure 176).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 175. The northern summit crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai on 29-30 November 2017. The crater is ~100-125 m deep and ~175-190 m in diameter at the vertical crater wall, and 260-300 m wide at the crater rim. Top: orthorectified photography showing the light-colored crater floor with dark spots indicating the locations of recently active vents. Bottom: Shaded relief of the crater. Courtesy of M. Kervyn and Antoine Dille at Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 176. Selected satellite imagery showing typical activity at Ol Doinyo Lengai during 2017-18. These Sentinel-2 thermal (left) and true color (right) satellite images show the active areas indicated by elevated thermal activity (bright orange) and darker gray-black areas on the crater floor. The dark fresh lavas rapidly cool to a light brown-white color. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Lava fountaining was seen by geologists on 5 July 2014 (BGVN 39:07). A tourist report on Trip Advisor for an unknown date in July 2014 described potential fumarolic activity, while another report that month did not note any activity. No clear reports are known describing activity between August 2014 and May 2015. On 20 June 2015 an Earth Sciences group from the University of Glasgow and University of Dodoma, including volcanologist David Brown, visited the crater (figure 177). They observed minor eruptive activity consisting of gentle spattering at one of the mounds. Evidence of this activity continuing through August is seen in Landsat satellite images (figure 178).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 177. The active Ol Doinyo Lengai crater on 20 June 2015 showing the cone along the western wall (top) and the northern wall (bottom). Photos courtesy of David Brown, University of Glasgow.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 178. Landsat-8 satellite images show color variations on the Ol Doinyo Lengai active crater floor. Darker areas may indicate activity and changing morphology during July through August 2015. Landsat-8 true-color pansharpened images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Only one Sentinel-2 thermal image (out of 22 cloud-free images) contained elevated temperatures during 2016. The image showed activity in the northern part of the crater. Landsat-8 true color images show color variations on the crater floor in October 2016 indicating activity at that time (figure 179).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 179. Landsat-8 images showing color variations on the Ol Doinyo Lengai active crater floor indicating activity in October 2016. Landsat-8 true-color pansharpened images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 29-30 November 2017, a French-Belgium team including M. Kervyn conducted a summit morphology study. Accounts from previous visitors in September-October 2017 reported significant activity in the large half-cone with regular emission of spatter from the summit vent. They observed significant fumarolic activity and the remnants of rockfalls in the crater. Several secondary vents were visible on the side of the large half-cone along the western wall, but no activity was witnessed at this time (figure 180). Active spattering was occurring from a lava pool within a vent in the north-central part of the crater where spattering up to 10 m above the vent continued for several hours (figure 181). A circular cavity in the north-central part of the crater contained a lava pool that had partially crusted over. Darker surfaces suggested recent activity from several vents in the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 180. The ~50-m-high half-cone that formed by a vent along the western wall of the Ol Doinyo Lengai north crater as seen on 29-30 November 2017. Several secondary vents were observed at the foot of the cone. In the lower right of the image, several pit structures are visible along the northern part of the crater. Photo courtesy of M. Kervyn, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 181. Sporadic activity from an active vent in the northern-central part of the Ol Doinyo Lengai active crater was observed for two hours on 30 November 2017. Explosions were regularly heard emanating from the laval pool and jets of spatter were observed reaching up to 10 m above the crater and depositing on the wall and edges of the pit crater. Courtesy of M. Kervyn, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images acquired during 2017 show intermittent activity in the crater (figure 182). Out of 21 cloud-free images, 13 contained elevated thermal signatures between April through December. The locations of the activity move around the crater, indicating that the center of activity was variable through time. Lava pond activity was also noted in early December 2017 by Gian Schachenmann, documented with photos taken during an overflight and posted at Volcano Discovery.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 182. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing areas of high temperatures (bright orange to red) in the summit crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai through 2017. The hotpots show where current or very recent activity has occurred at the time of the satellite image acquisition. The active area moves around the crater throughout the year. False color (Urban) images (bands 14, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 1-2 July 2018, K. A. Laxton and F. Boschetty from University College London visited the summit, accompanied by local guides Papakinye Lemolo Ngayeni, Amadeus Mtui, and Ignas Mtui. Vigorous fumarolic activity was observed near the summit, with sulfur deposits and acrid-smelling gases. A small lava flow was observed that had cooled and turned from black to white by later that day. A pool of lava was observed inside a small hornito in the southern area of the crater floor (figure 183). A small cluster of hornitos were developing in the southern area of the crater and one produced a lava flow on 2 July (figure 184).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 183. View of the crater floor at Ol Doinyo Lengai on 1 July 2018. Small inactive carbonatite flows that emanated from the collapse scar and flank vent on the NW hornito. An active hornito with a lava pool is visible in the center-bottom of the image and a semi-collapsed hornito is visible in the bottom-right. Courtesy of K. A. Laxton, University College London.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 184. A view inside the active Ol Doinyo Lengai crater on 2 July 2018. New natrocarbonate flows are visible in the S and SE of the crater floor and one degassing vent is visible and one active vent is visible in the lower part of the image. A second lava flow from a vent just out of this view below the rim produced a lava flow that covered one third of the crater floor. Annotated image courtesy of K. A. Laxton, University College London.

A video taken by Patrick Marcel in August 2018 showed a recent lava flow that had occurred from a vent at the base of the crater wall and an active flow over-spilling from an active lava pond (figure 185). Throughout 2018, there were 18 out of 24 Sentinel-2 thermal cloud-free images which contained areas of elevated thermal activity. Like 2017, the 2018 activity was located in different areas around the crater (figure 186).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 185. Scenes captured from a video taken in August 2018 show activity on the Ol Doinyo Lengai crater floor. A recent faded flow along the crater floor edge can be seen in the upper images and the active black lava lake with an active lava flow is seen in all images. Courtesy of Patrick Marcel.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 186. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing areas of high temperatures (bright orange to red) in the summit crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai through 2018. The hotpots show where current or very recent activity has occurred at the time of the image acquisition. Similar to activity in 2017, the active area moves around the crater throughout the year. False color (Urban) images (bands 14, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: Matthieu Kervyn, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Geography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium (URL: http://we.vub.ac.be/en/matthieu-kervyn-de-meerendre); Kate Laxton and Felix Boschetty, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom (URL: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/earth-sciences/people/research-students/kate-laxton); Patrick Marcel (URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqxuYOEFNLk); David Brown, School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom (URL: https://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/ges/staff/davidbrown/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Gian Schachenmann, Volcano Discovery (URL: https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/nl/photos/ol-doinyo-lengai/dec2017/crater.html); Trip Advisor (URL: https://www.tripadvisor.com with initial search term 'Ol Doinyo Lengai').


Mayon (Philippines) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Mayon

Philippines

13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2462 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Low activity during April-September with some ash plumes and ongoing crater incandescence

Mayon is a frequently active volcano in the Philippines that produces ash plumes, lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. In early 2018, eruptive activity included lava fountaining that reached 700 m above the summit, and lava flows that traveled down the flanks and collapsed to produce pyroclastic flows (figure 39). Lava fountaining and lava flows decreased then ceased towards late March. Lava effusion was last detected on 18 March 2018, and the last pyroclastic flow for this eruptive episode occurred on 27 March 2018 (see BVGN 43:04). The hazard status for was lowered from alert level 4 to 3 (on a scale of 0 to 5) on 6 March 2018 due to decreased seismicity and degassing; the level was lowered again to 2 on 29 March. This report summarizes the activity during April through September 2018 and is based on daily bulletins issued by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the lava flow activity at Mayon during January through March 2018. Three lava flow lobes flowed down the Mi-isi, Bonga-Buyuan, and Basud channels, and are shown in bright orange/red in these images. These are false color images created using bands 12, 11, 4, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The hazard status remained on Alert level 2 (increasing unrest) throughout the reporting period. Activity was minimal with low seismicity (zero to four per day) and a total of 19 rockfall events throughout the entire period. White to light-brown plumes that reached a maximum of 1 km above the crater were observed almost every day from April through September (figure 40). Two short-lived light brown plumes were noted on 27 and 28 August and both reached 200 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. An emission of white steam-and-gas at Mayon and a dilute brown plume that reached 200 m above the crater was seen on 24 May 2018. Courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

On the days that sulfur dioxide was measured, the amount ranged from 436 to 2,800 tons per day (figure 41). Mayon remains inflated relative to 2010 baselines but the edifice has experienced deflation since 20 February, a period of inflation from 2-14 April, and slight inflation of the mid-slopes beginning 5 May, which then became more pronounced beginning 25 June. No other notable inflation or deflation was described throughout the reporting period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Measurements of sulfur dioxide output at Mayon during 1 April-30 September 2018. Data courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

Incandescence at the summit was observed almost every night (when weather permitted) from April through to the end of September 2018, and this elevated crater temperature is also seen in satellite thermal imagery (figure 42). Thermal satellite data showed a slight increase in output during April through to June, although not as high as the earlier 2018 activity, with a decline in thermal output starting in July (figure 43).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image showing an elevated thermal signature in the crater of Mayon and a steam-and-gas plume on 15 May 2018. Similar indications of activity in the crater were frequently imaged on cloud-free days from April through September. This is a false color image created using bands 12, 11, 4, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS thermal data for the year ending 11 October 2018 at Mayon. An elevated period of activity reflecting the lava flows in January through March is notable, followed by a second period of lower intensity activity during May into June, then a prolonged period of reduced activity through to the end of the reporting period; the August anomaly was not at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Beautifully symmetrical Mayon, which rises above the Albay Gulf NW of Legazpi City, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple edifice has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. A violent eruption in 1814 killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.

Information Contacts: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Department of Science and Technology, University of the Philippines Campus, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (URL: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Saunders (United Kingdom) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Saunders

United Kingdom

57.8°S, 26.483°W; summit elev. 843 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal pulses and satellite imagery hotspots during September 2016-September 2018

Historical observations of eruptive activity on ice-covered Mount Michael stratovolcano on Saunders Island in the South Sandwich Islands were not recorded until the early 19th century at this remote site in the southernmost Atlantic Ocean. With the advent of satellite observation technology, indications of more frequent eruptive activity have become apparent. The last confirmed eruption evidenced by MODVOLC thermal alerts was during August-October 2015 (BGVN 41:02). Limited thermal anomaly data and satellite imagery since then have indicated intermittent activity through September 2018. Information for this report comes from MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal anomaly data and Sentinel-2, Landsat, and NASA Terra satellite imagery.

Evidence for thermal activity at Mount Michael tapered off in MIROVA data from October 2015 through January 2016. MODVOLC thermal alerts reappeared on 28 September 2016 and recurred intermittently through 6 January 2017. Low-level MIROVA thermal signals appeared in June and September-November 2017. During January-September 2018, evidence for some type of thermal or eruptive activity was recorded from either MODVOLC, MIROVA, or satellite imagery each month except for May and June.

Although MODVOLC thermal alerts at Mount Michael ended on 8 October 2015, the MIROVA radiative power data showed intermittent pulses of decreasing energy into early January 2016 (figure 10, BGVN 41:02). At a high-latitude, frequently cloud-covered site such as Saunders Island, this could be indicative of continued eruptive activity. A white plume in low resolution NASA's Terra satellite data was spotted drifting away from Saunders in April 2016, but no thermal activity was reported. The only high-confidence data available from April 2016 through May 2017 is from the MODVOLC thermal alert system, which recorded two thermal alerts on 28 September 2016, one the next day, one on 30 October, and eight alerts on four days in November. Activity continued into January 2017 with one alert on 17 December 2016, and six alerts on 2 and 6 January 2017 (figure 11).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Seventeen MODVOLC thermal alerts between 28 September 2016 and 6 January 2017 were the best evidence available for eruptive activity on Saunders Island from April 2016 through May 2017. Courtesy of MODVOLC.

A low-level log radiative power MIROVA signal appeared in early June 2017; two more signals appeared in September 2017, one in early October and one in late November (figure 12). Additional signals plotted as more than 5 km from the source may or may not reflect activity from the volcano. Steam plumes were visible in NASA Terra satellite images drifting away from the island in August, October, and December 2017, but no thermal signatures were captured.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. The MIROVA log radiative power graph for Mount Michael on Saunders Island from 25 May-30 December 2017 showed intermittent heat sources that indicated possible eruptive activity each month except July and December. Location uncertainty makes the distinction between greater and less than 5 km summit distance unclear.

More sources of evidence for activity became available in 2018 with the addition of the Sentinel-2 satellite data during the months of February-April and September. Multiple thermal signals appeared from MIROVA in January 2018 (figure 13), and the first Sentinel-2 satellite image showed a distinct hotspot at the summit on 10 February (figure 14).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. MIROVA thermal data for January-September 2018 indicated intermittent thermal anomaly signals in January, March, April, and July-September (top). A Sentinel-2 image with a hotspot was captured on 23 September, the same day as the MIROVA thermal signal (bottom). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. A Sentinel-2 image of Saunders Island on 10 February 2018 revealed a distinct hotspot and small steam plume rising from the summit crater of Mount Michael. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A MODVOLC thermal alert appeared on 26 March 2019 followed by a significant hotspot signal in Sentinel-2 imagery on 29 March (figure 15). The hotspot was still present along with a substantial steam plume on 3 April 2018. Sentinel-2 imagery on 11 April revealed a large steam plume and cloud cover, but no hotspot.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Hotspots in Sentinel-2 imagery on 29 March and 3 April 2018 indicated eruptive activity at Mount Michael on Saunders Island. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

MIROVA thermal signals appeared in mid-July and mid-August 2018 (figure 13) but little satellite imagery was available to confirm any thermal activity. The next clear signal of eruptive activity was evident in a Sentinel-2 image as a hotspot at the summit on 23 September. A small MIROVA signal was recorded the same day (figure 13, bottom). A few days later, on 28 September 2018, a Landsat 8 image showed a clear streak of dark-gray ash trending NW from the summit of Mount Michael (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Satellite imagery confirmed eruptive activity at Mount Michael on Saunders Island in late September 2018. Top: a hotpot in a Sentinel-2 image on 23 September coincided with a MIROVA thermal signal (see figure 13); Bottom: A Landsat 8 image on 28 September has a distinct dark gray streak trending NW from the summit indicating a fresh ash deposit. The lighter gray area SW of the summit is likely a shadow. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view, (bands 12, 11, and 8A), Landsat 8 image with pansharpened image processing, both courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Saunders Island is a volcanic structure consisting of a large central edifice intersected by two seamount chains, as shown by bathymetric mapping (Leat et al., 2013). The young constructional Mount Michael stratovolcano dominates the glacier-covered island, while two submarine plateaus, Harpers Bank and Saunders Bank, extend north. The symmetrical Michael has a 500-m-wide summit crater and a remnant of a somma rim to the SE. Tephra layers visible in ice cliffs surrounding the island are evidence of recent eruptions. Ash clouds were reported from the summit crater in 1819, and an effusive eruption was inferred to have occurred from a N-flank fissure around the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. A low ice-free lava platform, Blackstone Plain, is located on the north coast, surrounding a group of former sea stacks. A cluster of parasitic cones on the SE flank, the Ashen Hills, appear to have been modified since 1820 (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990). Analysis of satellite imagery available since 1989 (Gray et al., 2019; MODVOLC) suggests frequent eruptive activity (when weatehr conditions allow), volcanic clouds, steam plumes, and thermal anomalies indicative of a persistent, or at least frequently active, lava lake in the summit crater. Due to this observational bias, there has been a presumption when defining eruptive periods that activity has been ongoing unless there is no evidence for at least 10 months.

Information Contacts: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground, (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Villarrica (Chile) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Villarrica

Chile

39.42°S, 71.93°W; summit elev. 2847 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal activity increases November-December 2017 and July-August 2018; intermittent incandescence and ash

Historical eruptions at Chile's Villarrica, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. An intermittently active lava lake at the summit has been the source of explosive activity, incandescence, and thermal anomalies for several decades. A large explosion on 3 March 2015 included a 9-km-altitude ash plume; significant thermal anomalies from intermittent Strombolian activity at the lava lake and small ash emissions have continued since that time. Sporadic but reduced activity during November 2017-August 2018 is covered in this report, with information provided primarily by the Southern Andes Volcano Observatory (Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur, OVDAS), part of Chile's National Service of Geology and Mining (Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, SERNAGEOMIN), and Projecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), part of the Fundacion Volcanes de Chile, a research group that studies volcanoes across Chile.

Seismicity increased during the second half of November 2017, along with observations of increased incandescence at night from occasional explosions inside the summit crater. Satellite instruments measured a brief surge of thermal activity from late November through early December. The next episode of increased activity occurred in the second half of February 2018 with minor satellite thermal data and webcam views of incandescence. A slow but sustained increase in energy was recorded during March 2018; sporadic incandescence was reported a few times each month between March and May, but observations indicated that the lava lake level was over 100 m below the crater rim. Satellite and webcam observations of incandescence increased in frequency and intensity during June; sporadic ash emissions were noted during mid- and late July. Continuous incandescence was observed in webcams during August 2018; satellite thermal data identified an abrupt rise in thermal energy in late July that remained at a low level into early September 2018.

Activity during November 2017-January 2018. OVDAS reported that during November 2017, the webcams near the summit showed evidence of low-intensity, predominantly white degassing to low altitudes (100 m above the summit). Nighttime incandescence associated with occasional explosions inside the crater were typical. They also noted that long-period (LP) seismicity increased in both energy amplitude and frequency during the last few days of the month. A gradual increase in RSAM values began on 15 November with a continuous tremor signal. A magnitude 4.1 event occurred on 24 November located 2.6 km ESE of the summit at a depth of 1.8 km. A single MODVOLC thermal alert was reported on 28 November. According to POVI the lava lake on the crater floor subsided 8 m between 10 and 20 November (figure 54); during the second half of the month they documented 50-m-high lava fountains, spatter on the crater rim, incandescent jets, and fresh ashfall on the snow cover around the crater rim (figures 55 and 56).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. The SW part of the crater floor at Villarrica subsided about 8 m between 10 and 20 November 2017. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. During the second half of November 2017, POVI documented 50 m high lava fountains, spatter on the crater rim, incandescent jets, and fresh ashfall on the snow cover around the crater rim at Villarrica. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. A sample of reticulite or basaltic pumice collected on 28 November 2017 from the summit of Villarrica. It is a highly vesiculated scoria, with greater than 98% porosity. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

On 5 December 2017, SERNAGEOMIN raised the Alert Level at Villarrica from Green to Yellow (on a 4-level scale), noting a progressive increase in seismic and thermal energy since 15 November. They increased the restricted radius from 500 to 1,000 m from the summit crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported low-intensity degassing during the first half of December 2017, mostly white, and rising not more than 650 m above the crater. Incandescence was visible on clear nights, with occasional explosions that remained below the crater rim. They reported that increased surficial activity was visible during the first few days of December, followed by a decrease in activity (figure 57). POVI images at the end of December (figure 58) showed that the lake level had dropped more than 45 m between 5 and 27 December 2017. Seismicity also decreased throughout the month, reaching its lowest level of the year at the end of December.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. POVI reported that on 9 December 2017 at Villarrica the level of the lake at the bottom of the crater was stable at about 70 m below the rim, and five days had passed with no observations of lava ejecta in the webcams. Images by Víctor Marfull, courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. The lava lake at Villarrica subsided more than 45 m between 5 and 27 December 2017 when this image was taken. Seismic activity also decreased significantly throughout December, reaching its lowest level of the year. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

On 6 January 2018 SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Green, noting a reduced thermal signal, low-level white degassing rising less than 300 m above the crater, and only occasional nighttime incandescence associated with explosions below the crater rim during the second half of December. POVI noted that the drop in seismicity at the end of December corresponded to the end of a 17-month-long period of increased seismicity (figure 59).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. The drop in seismicity at the end of December 2017 suggested the end to a 17-month-long period of increased seismicity that began in July 2016 after a similar decrease in activity at the end of June 2016. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

Activity during February-August 2018. Activity remained low at Villarrica during January 2018. Steam plumes rose less than 550 m above the crater and no thermal activity was apparent. After about six weeks of low activity, Sentinel-2 images indicated an increase in thermal activity between 5 and 18 February 2018 (figure 60). The Villarrica webcam also recorded incandescence at the summit for the first time in two months on 25 February 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. After about six weeks of low activity at Villarrica, Sentinel-2 images indicated an increase in thermal activity between 5 and 18 February 2018. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

While SERNAGEOMIN reported only white degassing to less than 50 m above the summit in March 2018, POVI noted that seismic instruments recorded a slow but sustained increase in released energy. The lava lake was not visible and remained more than 110 m below the crater rim; a small spatter event was detected by a webcam on 7 March 2018 (figure 61). Sporadic incandescence, including on 13 and 20 March, was captured with a webcam located in Pucón, about 16 km N of the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. The surface of the lava lake at the summit of Villarrica remained more than 110 m below the crater rim on 6 March 2018. A small spatter of lava was detected by one of the POVI cameras on 7 March 2018, but little other activity was recorded. A slow but sustained increase in seismic energy was evident in the seismic amplitude data (inset). Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

A research effort in mid-March 2018 by Liu et al. (2019) to capture gas emissions close to the vent using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) demonstrated good agreement between gas ratios obtained from simultaneous UAS- and ground-based multi-GAS acquisitions. The UAS measurements, however, taken from the young, less diluted gas plume revealed additional short-term patterns that reflected active degassing through discrete, audible gas exhalations (figures 62 and 63).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. A research expedition to Villarrica on 20 and 21 March 2018 demonstrated the effectiveness of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in measuring gas emissions close to an active vent. a) This view to the SE shows Lanin and Quetrapillan volcanoes in the distance behind the summit of Villarrica. (b, c) The lava level was extremely low in the conduit during the measurement campaign, with the lake surface only visible as several pixels in aerial imagery. (d) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) were launched from a sheltered plateau on the N rim of the crater, with the multi-GAS station visible on the eastern rim. (e, top right) Location map of the region, showing the position of UV camera. The green shaded region delimits the extent of the national park. Inset: Aerial map of the summit region shown in (d); the summit crater is ~200 m in diameter. (e, bottom left) Two instrumented multi-rotor vehicles were used in the campaign, the Vulcan octocopter with multi-GAS (left) and DJI Phantom 3 Pro with Aeris gas sensor (right). (f) Vulcan UAS in flight on 20 March 2018. UAV = Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Taken from Figure 1 of Liu et al. (2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. A comparison between contemporaneous proximal UAV and crater rim SO2 measurements at Villarrica. (a) The same-scaled axis highlights the magnitude of plume dilution between the proximal measurements from the UAV made directly above the conduit and those made at the crater rim only 100 m downwind. (b) When the time series are displayed on individually scaled axes it is apparent that even considering the temporal offset imposed by the downwind travel time, the periodic component of the proximal UAV trace is indistinguishable in the crater rim data. Taken from Figure 6 of Liu et al. (2019).

A minor collapse of the crater wall caused a small plume of ash that rose a short distance above the summit on 29 March 2018. POVI's time-lapse webcams located in Pucón captured the event. Overnight on 1-2 April, sporadic incandescence was observed in the webcams and in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. SERNAGEOMIN reported a single MIROVA alert signal on 13 April and an abrupt fall of the seismic signal on 27 April. The POVI webcam captured the brightest incandescence since mid-December 2017 on 3 May 2018. SERNAGEOMIN reported incandescence at the summit again on 23 May, and two thermal alerts on 22 and 25 May 2018.

While gas emissions remained less than 150 m above the summit during June 2018, observations of incandescence at night increased and were reported on 14, 18, 24, and 28 June, and were accompanied by satellite thermal signals on 14 and 24 June. Sporadic ash emissions that reached 400 m above the summit were reported by SERNAGEOMIN during July. The POVI webcam in Pucón captured an ash emission on 16 July 2018 that left ash and pyroclastic debris around the crater rim (figures 64 and 65). A second emission was recorded on 18 July;the Sentinel-2 satellite recorded the largest summit thermal signature since 10 December 2017 the same day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. A steam and ash emission at Villarrica on 16 July 2018 was captured by the POVI webcam. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Ash and pyroclastic debris were deposited around the inside rim of the crater at Villarrica on 16 July 2018. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

Activity continued to increase during July 2018; POVI photographed significant incandescence at the summit on 19 July and again on 25, 29, and 30 July after a period of cloudy weather. ESA's Sentinel-2 camera measured the largest heat area on the summit since August 2015 on 30 July (figure 66). As a result, the interior of the crater lost much of its snow cover and ice (figure 67). Ash and lapilli were visible in satellite imagery on the eastern edges of the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. On July 30 2018 ESA's Copernicus program satellite, Sentinel-2, measured the largest heat area on the summit of Villarrica since August 2015. Due to the heat, the interior of the crater had lost much of its snow cover and ice. Ash and lapilli stand out on the eastern edges of the crater. Left: terrestrial images (objective 120 mm, 0.0001 lux), center: Sentinel-2, filters bands 8, 4 and 3; Right: Sentinel-2, filters bands 12, 11 and 4. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Sequential images of the Sentinel-2 satellite (ESA), with filters of bands 8, 4, and 3, illustrate the evolution of the heat surface emitted by the lava pit, and the decrease in snow and ice within and around the crater rim between 8 July and 2 August 2018. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

SERNAGEOMIN reported continuous incandescence at the summit during August nights when the weather was clear. POVI noted on 31 August 2018 that the lake level had not changed during the month and was about 75 m below the inner W rim of the crater. The lake level remained unchanged during the first 10 days of September 2018 as well (figure 68).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. The lava lake level at the bottom of the summit crater of Villarrica was unchanged during the first 10 days of September 2018. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

The thermal signature in the MIROVA graph for the period from October 2017 through August 2018 showed two clear increases in thermal energy between late November and mid-December 2017, and again from mid-June through August 2018 (figure 69). These corresponded well with MODVOLC thermal alert data which recorded one alert on 28 November 2017, 10 alerts during 2-11 December 2017, and five alerts between 30 July and 2 August 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. MIROVA thermal anomaly graph of log radiative power at Villarrica from 28 September 2017 through August 2018 shows two clear increases in activity, one in mid-November through mid-December 2017 and a second longer-lived phase that began in June 2018, peaked in late July-early August, and remained steady throughout the month of August. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Reference: Liu, E. J., Wood, K., Mason, E., Edmonds, M., Aiuppa, A., Giudice, G., Bitetto, M., Francofonte, V., Burrow, S., Richardson, T., Watson, M., Pering, T.D., Wilkes, T.C., McGonigle, A.J.S., Velasquez, G., Melgarejo, C., and Bucarey, C., 2019. Dynamics of outgassing and plume transport revealed by proximal unmanned aerial system (UAS) measurements at Volcán Villarrica, Chile. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GC007692

Geologic Background. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI) (URL: http://www.povi.cl/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

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Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

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