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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Tinakula (Solomon Islands) Thermal anomalies in satellite data December 2018-June 2019; ship visit January 2019

Piton de la Fournaise (France) Eruptive episodes in February-March and June 2019; multiple fissures and lava flows

Semeru (Indonesia) Decreased activity after October 2018

Heard (Australia) Thermal hotspots continue during October 2018-March 2019 at the summit and on the upper flanks

Dukono (Indonesia) Numerous ash explosions from October 2018 through March 2019

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) Occasional weak phreatic explosions continue through February 2019

Turrialba (Costa Rica) Frequent passive ash emissions continue through February 2019

San Cristobal (Nicaragua) Weak ash explosions in January and March 2019

Semisopochnoi (United States) Minor ash explosions during September and October 2018

Asosan (Japan) Multiple brief ash emission events during April and May 2019; minor ashfall in adjacent villages

Nyamuragira (DR Congo) Lava lake reappears in central crater in April 2018; activity tapers off during April 2019

Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) New explosions with ash plumes from Bromo Cone mid-February-April 2019



Tinakula (Solomon Islands) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Tinakula

Solomon Islands

10.386°S, 165.804°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies in satellite data December 2018-June 2019; ship visit January 2019

Remote Tinakula lies 100 km NE of the Solomon Trench at the N end of the Santa Cruz Islands, which are part of the country of the Solomon Islands located 400 km to the W. It has been uninhabited since an eruption with lava flows and ash explosions in 1971 when the small population was evacuated (CSLP 87-71). The nearest communities live on Te Motu (Trevanion) Island (about 30 km S), Nupani (40 km N), and the Reef Islands (60 km E); residents occasionally report noises from explosions at Tinakula. Ashfall from larger explosions has historically reached these islands. The most recent eruptive episode was a large ash explosion and substantial SO2 plume during 21-26 October 2017; satellite imagery suggested that a flow of some type traveled down the scarp on the W flank. Renewed thermal activity that was recognized in satellite imagery beginning in December 2018 continued intermittently through June 2019 and is covered in this report. Satellite imagery and thermal data are the primary sources of information for this volcano. It is occasionally visited by members of the National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) of the Solomon Islands Government, tourists, and research vessels who are able to capture ground-based information.

Satellite images from December 2018 to February 2019 show thermal anomalies at the summit vent. Excellent ship-based photographs of the island on 24-25 January 2019 provided by a crewmember from the R/V Petrel identify numerous volcanic features and show a steam-and-gas plume at the vent. Satellite images from April and May 2019 show thermal anomalies at both the summit vent and along the W flank scarp suggesting flow activity during that time.

A stream of incandescence on the NW flank of Tinakula in a Sentinel 2 satellite image on 24 October 2017 confirmed that some type of high-temperature flow accompanied the explosions and eruptive activity of 21-25 October 2017 (BGVN 43:02). Satellite imagery during most of 2018 recorded steam plumes drifting in several directions from the summit, but no thermal activity (figure 24). There was no further evidence of activity in satellite visible or thermal data until almost exactly one year later when the MIROVA project recorded two thermal alerts in the third week of October 2018 (figure 25). Satellite images from that week were cloudy and did not confirm any surface activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Tinakula provides valuable information about activity at this remote volcano in the South Pacific. A large explosion with ash plumes and flows occurred during 21-26 October 2017. Top left: a strong E-W linear thermal anomaly suggesting a flow event from the summit was evident on the NW flank on 24 October 2017. Top right: a small steam plume rose from the summit vent on a cloudless 11 February 2018. Bottom left: a dense steam plume drifted SE from the summit vent on 4 September 2018. Bottom right: clouds and dense steam obscure the summit on 24 October 2018, about the same time that MIROVA reported a thermal anomaly. Top left image uses bands 12, 11, 8A, others use 12, 4, 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. The MIROVA project recorded the first thermal anomaly in a year from Tinakula during the third week of October 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The first satellite imagery confirming renewed thermal activity appeared on 8 December 2018, around the same time as a small MIROVA anomaly. After that, several images during January and February 2019 confirmed moderately strong thermal activity at the summit (figure 26). Whether the anomalies were the result of active lava effusion or strong incandescent gases from the summit vent is uncertain.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Thermal anomalies at the summit vent of Tinakula were recorded six times between early December 2018 and early February 2019 with Sentinel-2 satellite images. Top row: 8 December 2018 and 2 January 2019. Middle row: 12 (anomaly is just below date) and 27 January 2019. Bottom row: 1 and 6 February 2019. All images are bands 12, 4, 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Visual confirmation of activity at Tinakula is rare, but the research vessel R/V Petrel sailed past the volcano on 24 and 25 January 2019 and a crewmember provided detailed images of the W flank and vent area. The summit vent is located at the top of a W facing scarp, and steam is frequently observed rising from the vent (figures 27). Recent flows and volcaniclastic deposits were visible in the ravine on the W flank (figures 28 and 29). Fresh-looking lava was also visible near the summit vent on top of older deposits (figure 30). Eroded volcaniclastic deposits near the base of the scarp on the W flank were visible on top of older veined and layered volcanic rocks (figure 31). Crewmembers on the vessel R/V Petrel could clearly see an incandescent glow from the summit crater at night (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. A view from the SW of the W flank of Tinakula on 24-25 January 2019. The summit vent is at the top of a W facing scarp, the steam plume drifted E. Used with permission from Paul G Allen's Vulcan Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. The W flank of Tinakula as seen from the W on 24-25 January 2019. The steam plume drifted E. Recent flows and volcaniclastic deposits appeared dark in the steep ravine on the W face (left side). Used with permission from Paul G Allen's Vulcan Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Steam and gas rose from the summit vent at Tinakula on 24-25 January 2019. Recent lava deposits are visible in front of the plume and in the ravine on the left (the W flank). Used with permission from Paul G Allen's Vulcan Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. The edge of the summit vent of Tinakula on 24-25 January 2019 had recent lava on older deposits; steam and gas is rising from the vent in the background. Used with permission from Paul G Allen's Vulcan Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. The W flank of Tinakula on 24-25 January 2019. Eroded volcaniclastic deposits overlie older veined and layered volcanic rocks. Used with permission from Paul G Allen's Vulcan Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Incandescence was clearly visible from the summit vent at Tinakula on 24-25 January 2019. Used with permission from Paul G Allen's Vulcan Inc.

During April and May 2019, both the MIROVA project and MODVOLC measured a number of thermal anomalies (figure 33) using MODIS satellite data. MODVOLC alerts were issued on 4 and 20 April, and 11, 18, and 27 May. Sentinel-2 satellite images during the period confirmed that a flow on the W flank was a likely source of the thermal energy in addition to the summit vent (figure 34). Thermal anomalies appeared again at the end of June in MIROVA data, but no satellite images showed anomalies at that time.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. The number and intensity of MIROVA thermal anomalies increased at Tinakula during April and May 2019. After a short pause, they returned at the end of June. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 satellite images captured thermal anomalies at the summit and on the W flank of Tinakula during April and May 2019 suggesting the presence of an incandescent flow down the W scarp. Top row: 7 and 22 April 2019 (bands 12, 8, 4). Bottom row: 27 April and 12 May 2019 (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The small 3.5-km-wide island of Tinakula is the exposed summit of a massive stratovolcano at the NW end of the Santa Cruz islands. Similar to Stromboli, it has a breached summit crater that extends from the summit to below sea level. Landslides enlarged this scarp in 1965, creating an embayment on the NW coast. The satellitic cone of Mendana is located on the SE side. The dominantly andesitic volcano has frequently been observed in eruption since the era of Spanish exploration began in 1595. In about 1840, an explosive eruption apparently produced pyroclastic flows that swept all sides of the island, killing its inhabitants. Frequent historical eruptions have originated from a cone constructed within the large breached crater. These have left the upper flanks and the steep apron of lava flows and volcaniclastic debris within the breach unvegetated.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Vulcan Inc. (URL: https://www.vulcan.com/), additional details about the R/V Petrel (URL: https://www.paulallen.com/).


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptive episodes in February-March and June 2019; multiple fissures and lava flows

Short pulses of intermittent eruptive activity have characterized Piton de la Fournaise, the large basaltic shield volcano on La Réunion Island in the western Indian Ocean, for several thousand years. For the last 20 years, frequent effusive basaltic eruptions have occurred on average twice per year. The activity is characterized by lava fountains and lava flows, and occasional explosive eruptions that shower blocks over the summit area and produce ash plumes. Almost all of the recent activity has occurred within the Enclos Fouqué caldera, although past eruptions in 1977, 1986, and 1998 have occurred at vents outside of the caldera. Four separate eruptive episodes were reported during 2018; from 3-4 April, 27 April-1 June, 13 July, and 15 September-1 November (BGVN 43:12, 43:09). Two episodes from 2019 during February-March and June are covered in this report, with information provided primarily by the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) as well as satellite instruments.

Piton de la Fournaise experienced two eruptions during November 2018-June 2019. The first lasted from 18 February to 10 March 2019, and the second episode was 11-13 June. The episode in February-March started consisted of multiple fissures opening on the E flank of the Dolomieu crater on 18 February with lava flows that traveled several hundred meters. After a brief pause, one new fissure opened nearby on 19 February and produced up to 3 million m3 of lava in a little over four days. Although the flow rate then declined, the eruption continued until 10 March. During the last three days, 7-10 March, two new fissures opened nearby and produced large volumes of lava, bringing the total eruptive volume to about 14.5 million m3. After little activity during April and May, a small eruption occurred on the SSE outer slope of Dolomieu crater that lasted for about 48 hours on 11-13 June; multiple small flows traveled about 1,000 m down the steep flank before ceasing. The MIROVA thermal anomaly graph of log radiative power clearly showed the abruptness of the beginning and ends of the last three eruptive episodes at Piton de la Fournaise from August 2018 through June 2019 (figure 165).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 165. The MIROVA graph of thermal energy from Piton de la Fournaise from 30 July 2018 through June 2019 shows the last three eruptive episodes at the volcano. From 15 September through 1 November 2018 fissures and flows were active on the SW flank of Dolomieu crater near Rivals crater (BGVN 43:12). Fissures opened on the E flank of the crater on 18 February 2019, and after a brief pause resumed on 19 February at the foot of Piton Madoré. Lava flows remained active until 10 March 2019. A short episode of lava effusion occurred on 11-12 June 2019 on the SSE outer slope of Dolomieu crater. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during November 2018-March 2019. Following the end of the 15 September-1 November 2018 eruption, seismic activity immediately below the summit remained low (with only 20 shallow and two deep earthquakes during November). The inflationary signal recorded since the beginning of September stopped, and the OVPF deformation networks did not record any significant deformation. There were 35 shallow earthquakes (0-2 km depth) below the summit crater during December, and one deep earthquake. Only 12 shallow earthquakes and one deep earthquake (greater than 2 km below the surface) were reported in January.

OVPF reported an increase in CO2 concentrations beginning in December 2018, and noted the beginning of inflation on 13 February 2019. A seismic swarm of 379 earthquakes accompanied by minor but rapid deformation (less than 1 cm) was reported on 16 February 2019. A new seismic swarm of 208 earthquakes began early on 18 February with a much larger ground deformation (10 cm of elongation of the summit zone). A volcanic tremor indicative of the arrival of magma near the surface began at 0948 that morning. Webcams indicated that eruptive fissures had opened in the NE part of the Enclos Fouqué caldera. The onset of the eruption was marked by a sudden drop in CO2 flux which then stabilized. The eruptive sites were confirmed visually around 1130. Three fissures with actively flowing lava opened on the E flank of Dolomieu Crater; the fountains of lava were less than 30 m high. The front of the longest flow had reached 1,900 m elevation after one hour. The eruption lasted a little over 12 hours and was over by 2200 that evening; it covered about 150-200 m of the hiking trail to the summit.

Seismicity remained high after the event ended, and at 1500 on 19 February 2019 another seismic swarm of 511 deep earthquakes located under the E flank at about 2.5 km depth occurred. It was not accompanied by a significant amount of deformation. At 1710 tremor signals appeared on the observatory seismographs and the first gas plumes and lava ejection were observed at 1750 and 1912, respectively. During an overflight the next day (20 February), OVPF team members observed the new eruptive site at an elevation of 1,800 m at the foot of Piton Madoré. One fissure and one fountain were active at 0620 on 20 February and the flow front was at 1,300 m elevation (figure 166). During the night of 20-21 February the flow front crossed over the "Grandes Pentes" area in the eastern half of the Enclos Fouque (figure 167).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 166. The eruption which began on 19 February 2019 on the E flank of Dolomieu crater at Piton de la Fournaise produced a lava fountain and flow which traveled down at least 500 m of elevation by the next morning when this photo was taken at 0620 local time. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du mercredi 20 février 2019 à 11h00, Heure locale).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 167. The active fissure at Piton de la Fournaise was producing lava fountains and an active flow during the evening of 20 February 2019. Overnight the flow crossed over the "Grandes Pentes" area of the caldera. Photo courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du jeudi 21 février 2019 à 14H00, Heure locale).

OVPF reported on 22 February 2019 that 22 shallow earthquakes had been reported since the eruption began on 19 February. Surface flow rates estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC system (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2.5 and 15 m3/s. The quantity of lava emitted between 19 and 22 February was between 1 and 3 million m3. OVPF observed the growth of an eruptive cone that was filled with a small lava lake producing ejecta during a morning overflight on 22 February. A channelized flow moved downstream from the cone and split into two lobes about 1 km from (and 200 m below) the cone (figure 168). The split in the flow occurred near the Guyanin crater. The N flowing lobe, about 50 m wide, had an actively flowing front located at 1,320 m elevation; the incandescent flow was travelling over a recent flow (likely from the previous night). The S-flowing lobe spread to 200 m wide and split into two tongues 300 m SE of Guyanin crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 168. During an overflight on the morning of 22 February 2019 scientists from OVPF observed a growing spatter cone with a small lava lake at Piton de la Fournaise. A channelized flow moved downstream from the fissure and split into two flows. Photo courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du vendredi 22 février 2019 à 13h30, Heure locale).

Incandescent ejecta from the cone was captured in a webcam image overnight on 22-23 February 2019 (figure 169). The rate of advance of the flow slowed significantly by 24 February, but the intensity of the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant. Mapping of the lava flow on 28 February carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) from satellite data confirmed the slow progress of the flow after 24 February (300 m in 5 days) (figure 170). The flow front was located at 1,200 m elevation, and only the N arm was active; the lava had traveled about 2.2 km from the vent by 28 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 169. Incandescent ejecta from the eruptive cone at Piton de la Fournaise was captured in the webcam in the early hours of 23 February 2019. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du samedi 23 février 2019 à 13h30, Heure locale).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 170. Contours of the lava flows at Piton de la Fournaise from 18-28 February 2019 were determined from satellite data by the OI2 platform (Université Clermont Auvergne), dated 18 (red) and 19 (blue) February (top image); 20 (green), 21 (red), 22 (blue), 27 (turquoise), and 28 (pink) February (bottom image). Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP. Top: Bulletin d'activité du vendredi 22 février 2019 à 13h30 (Heure locale); bottom: Bulletin d'activité du jeudi 28 février 2019 à 16h30 (Heure locale).

Between 28 February and 1 March 2019 a third lobe of lava appeared flowing NE from the vent on the N side of the new flow area; it split into two lobes sometime on 1 March. Very little new lava was recorded on the other lobes. By 4 March the flow rate estimated by satellite data was about 7.5 m3/s. During a site visit on the morning of 5 March OVPF scientists sampled the N lobe of the flow and bombs and tephra near the cone, and acquired infrared and visible images. They noted the continued growth of the cone which still had an open vent at the summit and a base 100 m in diameter. It was 25 m high with a 50-m-wide eruptive vent at the top (figure 171). High-temperature gas emissions and strong Strombolian activity issued from the vent. Steam emissions were present around the base of the cone, suggesting the presence of lava tunnels. A single lobe of lava flowed N from the cone.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 171. The eruptive cone at Piton de la Fournaise on 5 March 2019 had a 100-m-diameter base, 25 m of vertical height, and 50-m-wide vent at the summit. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP, (Bulletin d'activité du mardi 5 mars 2019 à 17h30, Heure locale).

A new fissure that opened about 150 m from the main vent on the NW flank of Piton Madoré was first observed on the morning of 6 March (figure 172); OVPF concluded that it had opened late on 5 March. A small cone was forming and a new flow traveled N from the main eruptive site. At least six new emission points were noted the following morning (7 March) around the Piton Madoré. Poor weather prevented confirmation by aerial reconnaissance that day, but in a site visit on 8 March OVPF scientists determined that the new fissure from 5 March remained active; a small cone about 10 m high had two flow lobes on the W and N sides (figure 173). A fissure that opened on 7 March was located 300 m S of the 19 February vent and oriented E-W. It was very active on the morning of 8 March with two 50-m-high lava fountains (figure 174). Samples collected by OVPF indicated that the vents of 5 and 7 March produced lava of different compositions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 172. A new fissure that opened about 150 m from the main vent on the NW flank of Piton Madoré at Piton de la Fournaise was first observed on the morning of 6 March 2019; OVPF concluded that it had opened late on 5 March. A small cone was forming on the flank of an old one and a new flow traveled N from the main eruptive site. Courtesy of OVPF/IPGP, copyright by Helicopter Coral (Bulletin d'activité du jeudi 7 mars 2019 à 15h00 Heure locale).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 173. The 5 March 2019 fissure at Piton de la Fournaise on the NW flank of Piton Madoré still had two active flow lobes emerging from it and heading N and W on 8 March 2019. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, March 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 174. A fissure that opened on 7 March 2019 at Piton de la Fournaise was located 300 m S of the 19 February vent and oriented E-W. It was very active on the morning of 8 March 2019 with two 50-m-high lava fountains. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, March 2019).

There was a strong increase in the eruptive tremor intensity on 7 March, related to the opening of the two new fissures on 5 and 7 March (figure 175). As a result, the surface flow estimates made from satellite data increased significantly to high values greater than 50 m3/s, with the average values on 7-8 March of around 20-25 m3/s. The increased flow rates resulted in the flows traveling much greater distances. By the morning of 9 March the active flow had reached 650-700 m above sea level. The flow front had traveled about 1 km in 24 hours. Strong seismicity had been increasing under the summit zone for the previous 48 hours. After a phase of very strong surface activity observed overnight on 9-10 March that included lava fountains 50-100 m high (figure 176), surface activity ceased around 0630 on 10 March, and seismic activity decreased significantly. OVPF noted that sudden increases in seismicity and flow rates near the end of an eruption have occurred at about half of the eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise in recent years. Lava volumes emitted on the surface between 18 February and 10 March 2019 were estimated at about 14.5 million m3 (figure 177).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 175. An infrared view of the eruptive site on the E flank of Dolomieu crater at Piton de la Fournaise on 8 March 2019 clearly showed the original fissure from 19 February (bottom right of center), the fissure on Piton Madore that opened on 5 March (right) and the fissures that opened on 7 March (upper, right of center). The combined activity produced significant thermal and seismic activity at the volcano. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF/IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du vendredi 8 mars 2019 à 17h00, Heure locale).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 176. Lava fountains 50-100 m high were the result of very strong surface activity observed overnight on 9-10 March 2019 at Piton de la Fournaise. Surface activity ceased around 0630 on 10 March, and seismic activity decreased significantly. Photo taken on 9 March 2019 around midnight from the RN2. Courtesy of OVPF/IPGP, copyright by A. Finizola LGSR/IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du dimanche 10 mars 2019 à 19h30 Heure locale).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 177. A sudden increase in the flow rate at the end of the 18 February-10 March 2019 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise was recorded by researchers at the Université Clermont Auvergne. OVPF noted this was typical of about half of the eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise. Courtesy of OVPF/IPGP, copyright by HOTVOLC, Université Clermont Auvergne (OVPF Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, March 2019).

Significant SO2 plumes were captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5-P satellite throughout the 18 February-10 March eruption (figure 178). After the surface eruption ceased, shallow seismicity continued at a lower rate of about 12 earthquakes per day. The end of the eruption (7-10 March) was accompanied by a marked deflation, interpreted by OVPF as the rapid emptying of the magma reservoir. Following the end of the eruption, inflation resumed for the rest of March but then ceased. Seismicity continued at a lower level during April with an average of six shallow earthquakes per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 178. Multiple days of high DU value SO2 plumes were recorded by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5-P satellite during the 18 February-10 March 2019 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise. Top row: during 18, 21, and 22 February SO2 plumes drifted SE. Middle row: during 23, 24, and 25 February the wind direction changed from SE through S to SW and left a curling trail of SO2. Bottom row: 5, 7, and 8 March showed an increase in SO2 emissions that corresponded with increased seismicity and lava flow output before the eruption ceased.

Activity during May-June 2019. OVPF reported slight inflation near the summit beginning in early May, and an increase in CO2 concentration in the soil near Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes. Strong shallow seismicity reappeared on 27 May 2019 and recurred on 30 and 31 May. Two small seismic swarms were measured on 31 May in the early morning. A new seismic swarm beginning at 0603 on 11 June accompanied by rapid deformation suggested a new eruption was imminent. A tremor near the summit area was first noted at 0635 local time; the webcams indicated a plume of gas, but poor visibility prevented evidence of fresh lava. Around 0930 that morning OVPF confirmed that five fissures had opened on the outer SSE slope of Dolomieu crater at elevations ranging from 2480 to 2025 m (figure 179). The flow fronts were not visible due to weather. Lava fountains under 30 m in height and lava flows were present in the three lowest fissures. The flows traveled rapidly down the steep flank of the crater (figure 180).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 179. Around 0930 on the morning of 11 June 2019 OVPF confirmed that five fissures had opened on the outer SSE slope of Dolomieu crater at Piton de la Fournaise at elevations ranging from 2480 to 2025 m. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF-IPGP and Imazpress (Bulletin d'activité du mardi 11 juin 2019 à 11h00).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 180. Thermal imaging of the 11-12 June 2019 eruptive site at Piton de la Fournaise showed multiple streams of lava traveling rapidly down the steep flank from several fissures on 11 June 2019. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF-IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du mardi 11 juin 2019 à 11h00).

The intensity of the eruptive tremor decreased throughout the day, and by 1530 only the lowest elevation fissure was still active (figure 181). The next afternoon (12 June) images in the OVPF webcam located in Piton des Cascades indicated the flow front was at about 1,200-1,300 m elevation. Seismographs indicated that the eruption stopped around 1200 on 13 June. Poor weather obscured visibility of the flow activity. Seismic activity decreased following the eruption, but appeared to increase again beginning on 21 June, with 10 events detected on 30 June. SO2 plumes were recorded in satellite data on 11 and 12 June 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 181. The intensity of the eruptive activity at Piton de la Fournaise on 11 June 2019 decreased throughout the day, and by 1530 only the lowest elevation fissure was still active. Courtesy of and copyright by OVPF-IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du mardi 11 juin 2019 à 17h45 Heure locale).

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 14 route nationale 3, 27 ème km, 97418 La Plaine des Cafres, La Réunion, France (URL: http://www.ipgp.fr/fr); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Semeru (Indonesia) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Decreased activity after October 2018

The ongoing eruption at Semeru has been characterized by numerous ash explosions and thermal anomalies, but activity apparently diminished in 2018 (BGVN 43:01 and 43:09); this decreased activity continued through at least February 2019. The current report summarizes activity from 24 August 2018 to 28 February 2019.

The Indonesian volcano monitoring agency, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), reported ongoing daily seismicity, dominated by explosion earthquakes and emission-related events from late November through February (figure 35). Ash plumes resulting in aviation advisories by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) were reported on 4, 6-7, and 19 September, and 12 October 2018. The next significant ash plume reported by the VAAC wasn't until 24 February 2019 (table 23).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Seismicity recorded at Semeru during 28 November 2018-26 February 2019. Plot shows explosion earthquakes ('Letusan'), emission-related events ('Hembusan'), felt earthquakes ('Gempa Terasa'), local tectonic events ('Tektonic Lokal'), and distant tectonic events ('Tektonic Jauh'). Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia.

Table 23. Summary of ash plumes at Semeru during 25 August 2018 through February 2019. The summit is at 3,657 m elevation. Data courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Date Plume altitude (km) Plume drift Remarks
04 Sep 2018 4.3 W --
06-07 Sep 2018 4.3 SW --
19 Sep 2018 4 SSW Possible ash-and-steam plume.
12 Oct 2018 4.5 W Discrete eruption.
24 Feb 2019 4.3 W Discrete volcanic ash eruption.

Thermal anomalies using MODIS satellite instruments processed by the MODVOLC algorithm were only recorded on 26, 28, and 30 August 2018, and 22 and 31 October 2018. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system detected numerous hotspots within 5 km of the volcano during August and early September, with a significant decrease in frequency through October (figure 36); only a few scattered hotspots were recorded from November 2018 through February 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. MIROVA plot of thermal anomalies (Log Radiative Power) at Semeru during July 2018-February 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Heard (Australia) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal hotspots continue during October 2018-March 2019 at the summit and on the upper flanks

Heard Island, in the Southern Indian Ocean, includes the large Big Ben stratovolcano and the smaller, apparently inactive, Mt. Dixon. Because of the island's remoteness, satellites are the primary monitoring tool. Big Ben has been active intermittently since 1910, and was active during October 2017-September 2018 (BGVN 43:10). Activity continued during October 2018-March 2019.

Satellite photos using Sentinel Hub showed hotspots every month between October 2018 and March 2019. Because the area was frequently covered by a heavy cloud layer, most of the hotspot signals were partially obscured. Though thermal anomalies are usually seen at summit vents, on 18 October 2018 an anomaly was present about 300 m down the E flank. Similarly, on 1 January 2019, a weak anomaly beginning about 200 m down the NW flank was about 300 m long (figure 40).

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system detected three hotspots, two in October and one in early November 2018, all of low radiative power. There were no MODVOLC alert pixels during this period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Sentinel-2 L1C image of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano on 1 January 2019 one summit hotspot and an elongated thermal anomaly to the NW. Scale bar (bottom right) is 200 m. The photo was taken in atmospheric penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Dukono (Indonesia) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Numerous ash explosions from October 2018 through March 2019

The eruption at Dukono that began in 1933 has showered the area with ash from frequent explosions (BGVN 43:04, 43:12). The Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), is responsible for monitoring this volcano.

This long-term pattern of intermittent ash explosions continued during October 2018-March 2019, with ash plumes rising to between 1.5 and 2.7 km altitude, or about 300-1,500 m above the summit (table 19). Although meteorological clouds often obscured views, satellite imagery captured typical ash plumes on 28 September 2018 (figure 10) and 5 February 2019 (figure 11). Instruments aboard NASA satellites (TROPOMI and OMPS) detected high levels of sulfur dioxide near or directly above the volcano on multiple days during January-March 2019. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Table 19. Monthly summary of reported ash plumes from Dukono for October 2018-March 2019. The direction of drift for the ash plume through each month was highly variable. Data courtesy of the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG.

Month Plume Altitude (km) Notable Plume Drift
Oct 2018 1.5-2.1 --
Nov 2018 1.5-2.1 --
Dec 2018 1.5-2.4 --
Jan 2019 1.8-2.1 --
Feb 2019 1.8-2.7 --
Mar 2019 1.5-2.4 --
Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Satellite image from Sentinel-2 (LC1 natural color) of an ash plume at Dukono on 28 September 2018 with the plume blowing towards the NE. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Satellite image from Sentinel-2 (LC1 natural color) of an ash plume at Dukono on 5 February 2019, with the plume blowing SW. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Occasional weak phreatic explosions continue through February 2019

Intermittent small phreatic explosions from the acid lake of Rincón de la Vieja's active crater has most recently occurred since 2011 (BGVN 42:08, 43:03, and 43:09). This activity continued through at least February 2019. The volcano is monitored by the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), and the information below comes from its weekly bulletins between 18 August 2018 and 28 February 2019. Weather conditions often prevented webcam views and estimates of plume heights. The volcano was in Activity Level 3 throughout the reporting period (volcano erupting, steady state).

According to OVSICORI-UNA, two distinct, 2-minute-long explosions occurred on 31 August 2018 beginning at 0434 and 1305. Several hours after the eruption tremor became continuous but low-frequency long-period (LP) earthquakes ceased. OVSICORI-UNA reported a gas emission late on 7 September. An unconfirmed small phreatic explosion occurred on 11 September at 0634, and another on 17 September at 1014. The seismic record showed continuous background tremor and very sporadic LP earthquakes.

Intermittent background tremor was recorded during the first half of October, along with a few emissions and phreatic explosions. Deformation measurements during October showed a contraction between the N and S of the volcano, with subsidence. On 17 October there was another phreatic explosion, and thereafter tremor disappeared and seismicity decreased. On 23 and 27 October seismic stations signaled additional possible phreatic explosions.

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a series of explosions began at 1945 on 4 November and consisted of at least three 2-minute-long episodes. The next day at 1511 a plume of water vapor and diffuse gas, recorded by a webcam and visible to residents to the N, rose about 100 m above the crater rim and drifted W. On 9 November a 2-minute-long explosion began at 1703. Another explosion on 27 November at 0237 produced a plume of water vapor and gas that rose 600 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. A short 1-minute explosion began at 1054 on 3 December.

Based on OVSICORI-UNA weekly bulletins, activity remained stable in January 2019 with small-amplitude phreatic explosions on 11, 12, and 14 January. More energetic phreatomagmatic explosions on 17 and 20 January produced lahars. Several small-amplitude explosions were detected at the end of the month. During January, a few LPs, no VTs, and intermittent tremor were recorded.

OVSICORI-UNA reported that two small-scale explosions occurred on 1 February, along with possible events at 1906 and 1950 on 5 February and at 0120 on 6 February. An event at 0000 on 6 February was also recorded; the report noted that poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the crater. On 16 and 17 February strong degassing was observed. No LPs were recorded, but two significant VTs were detected on 17 and 22 February near or under the crater.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/).


Turrialba (Costa Rica) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Turrialba

Costa Rica

10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent passive ash emissions continue through February 2019

This report summarizes activity at Turrialba during September 2018-February 2019. During this period there was similar activity as described earlier in 2018 (BGVN 43:09), with occasional ash explosions and numerous, sometimes continuous, periods of gas-and-ash emissions (table 8). Data were provided by the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA).

Table 8. Ash emissions at Turrialba, September 2018-February 2019. Cloudy weather sometimes obscured observations. Maximum plume height is above the crater rim. Information courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Date Time Max plume height Plume drift Remarks
27 Aug-05 Sep 2018 -- 100 m SW, W Continuous gas-and-ash emissions.
06 Sep 2018 -- -- -- Mostly gas, punctuated by small sporadic ash plumes.
10 Sep 2018 1210 300 m NW --
01-13 Sep 2018 -- -- -- Continuous gas-and-ash emissions.
17-18 Sep 2018 -- 300 m SW, NW --
27 Sep 2018 0915 200 m NW --
30 Sep-01 Oct 2018 -- 500 m NW, NE --
03 Oct 2018 -- -- -- Incandescence.
08 Oct 2018 0800 500 m N --
10-16 Oct 2018 -- 1,000 m Various Intermittent emissions; some explosions, including an energetic one on 14 Oct at 1712. Clouds prevented estimate of plume height.
17-23 Oct 2018 -- 200-500 m E, NW, SW Periodic gas-and-ash emissions. Frequent Strombolian events since 5 Oct.
25-30 Oct 2018 -- -- -- Periodic ash emissions when weather conditions allowed observations.
26 Oct 2018 0134 500 m NE Ashfall in neighborhoods of Coronado (San José, 35 km WSW) and San Isidro de Heredia (Heredia, 38 km W).
29 Oct 2018 0231 500 m NW --
30 Oct 2018 1406 500 m W --
24 Oct-01 Nov 2018 -- 500 m -- Continuous emissions.
01-06 Nov 2018 0530-0640 500 m SW --
02 Nov 2018 1523, 1703 500 m -- --
03 Nov 2018 0109 500 m -- Short (2-3 minutes) duration events. Ashfall reported in Coronado.
05 Nov 2018 0620 600 m NW --
06-11 Nov 2018 -- 500 m -- Low-level, continuous gas-and-ash emissions occasionally punctuated by energetic explosions that sent plumes as high as 500 m and caused ashfall in several areas downwind, including Cascajal de Coronado, Desamparados (35 km WSW), San Antonio, Guadalupe (32 km WSW), Sabanilla, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Moravia (31 km WSW), Heredia, and Coronado (San José, 35 km WSW). Weather prevented observations on 12 Nov.
13-19 Nov 2018 -- -- -- Periodic, passive ash emissions visible in webcam images or during cloudy conditions inferred from the seismic data.
22 Nov 2018 0710 100 m W --
23 Nov 2018 -- -- -- Frequent pulses of ash.
23-25 Nov 2018 -- 500 m -- Occasional Strombolian explosions ejected lava bombs deposited near the crater; residents of Cascajal de Coronado reported hearing several booming sounds.
26-27 Nov 2018 -- -- -- Passive emissions with small quantities of ash visible. Minor ashfall in San Jose (Cascajal de Coronado and Dulce Nombre), San Pedro Montes de Oca, and neighborhoods of Heredia.
28 Nov-03 Dec 2018 -- 500 m N, NW, SW Ashfall in Santo Domingo (36 km WSW) on 2 Dec.
05 Dec 2018 -- -- -- Minor emission.
06 Dec 2018 -- -- S Emission.
08 Dec 2018 0749 500 m NW --
09 Dec 2018 -- 1,000 m -- Ashfall in areas of Valle Central.
10 Dec 2018 -- -- -- Emissions periodically observed during periods of clear viewing. Ashfall in Moravia (31 km WSW) and Santa Ana, and residents of Heredia noted a sulfur odor.
11-12 Dec 2018 -- 500 m NW, SW The Tico Times stated some flights were delayed at San Jose airport, 67 km away.
13 Dec 2018 -- -- -- Pulsing ash emissions; ashfall in Guadalupe (32 km WSW) and Valle Central.
14-16 Dec 2018 -- -- W, SW Emissions with diffuse amounts of ash.
05-06 Jan 2019 0815 -- -- Increased after midnight on 6 Jan.
28 Jan-04 Feb 2019 -- -- -- Minor, sporadic ash emissions rose to low heights during most days.
01 Feb 2019 0640 1,500 m NW --
08 Feb 2019 0540 200 m -- Sporadic ash emissions for more than one hour.
11 Feb 2019 -- -- -- Very small ash emission.
13-15 Feb 2019 200-300 m NW, W, SW Almost continuous gas emissions with minor ash content.
15 Feb 2019 1330 1,000 m W --
18 Feb 2019 1310 500 m W --
21 Feb 2019 -- 300 m NW Frequent ash pulses.
22-24 Feb 2019 -- 300 m NW, SW Frequent ash emissions of variable intensity and duration. On 22 Feb ash fell in Santa Cruz (31 km WSW) and Santa Ana, and a sulfur odor was evident in Moravia.
28 Feb 2019 1050 500 m SW Ash pulses.

According to OVSICORI-UNA's annual summary for 2018, a slow decline in activity occurred after the volcano reached its highest emission rate during 2016. Activity during 2018 was consistent with an open system, generating frequent passive ash emissions. The volcano emitted ash on 58% of the days during the year. Some explosions were large enough to eject ballistics more than 400 m around the crater. Typical activity can be seen in a photo from 11 September 2018 (figure 50) and satellite imagery on 7 November 2018 (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Photo of an ash explosion at Turrialba taken on 11 September 2018. Courtesy of Red Sismologica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE), Universidad de Costa Rica.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Sentinel-2 satellite image of an ash emission from Turrialba on 7 November 2018, taken in natural color (gamma adjusted). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During January into early February 2019, passive ash emissions continued irregularly and with less intensity and duration. Emissions sometimes lacked ash. In their report of 4 February 2019, OVSICORI-UNA indicated that passive ash emissions were weak and slow. For the rest of February, they characterized ash emissions as frequent, but of low intensity.

Seismic activity. On 1 November 2018 OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismicity remained high, and involved low-amplitude banded volcanic tremor along with long-period (LP) and volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. In late January-early February 2019, OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismicity remained relatively stable, although a small increase was associated with the hydrothermal system. VT earthquakes were absent, and tremors had decreased in both energy and duration. The number of low-frequency LP volcanic earthquakes remained stable, although they had decreasing amplitudes. No explosions were documented, and emissions were weak and had short durations and very dilute ash content.

Thermal anomalies. No thermal anomalies were recorded during the reporting period using MODIS satellite instruments processed by MODVOLC algorithm. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system detected five scattered hotspots during September-October 2018, none during November-December 2018, and two during January-February 2019. All were within 2 km of the volcano and of low radiative power.

Gas measurements. Significant sulfur dioxide levels near the volcano were recorded by NASA's satellite-borne ozone instruments only on 29 September 2018 (both NPP/OMPS and Aura/OMI instruments) and on 11 February 2019 (Sentinel 5P/TROPOMI instrument). OVSICORI-UNA's gas measuring instruments were compromised in September 2018 through January 2019 due to vandalism. In early February, however, they detected hydrogen sulfide for the first time since 2016.

Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/); Red Sismologica Nacional (RSN) a collaboration between a) the Sección de Sismología, Vulcanología y Exploración Geofísica de la Escuela Centroamericana de Geología de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), and b) the Área de Amenazas y Auscultación Sismológica y Volcánica del Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Costa Rica (URL: https://rsn.ucr.ac.cr/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Costa Rica Star (URL: https://news.co.cr); The Tico Times (URL: https://ticotimes.net).


San Cristobal (Nicaragua) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

San Cristobal

Nicaragua

12.702°N, 87.004°W; summit elev. 1745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak ash explosions in January and March 2019

San Cristóbal has produced occasional weak explosions since 1999, with intermittent gas-and-ash emissions. The only reported explosion during the first half of 2018 was on 22 April, the first since November 2017 (BGVN 43:03). The current report covers activity between 1 August 2018 and 1 May 2019. The volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER).

According to INETER, a series of explosions occurred on 9 January 2019 that lasted several hours. INETER stated that one explosion occurred at 1643; the Washington VAAC's first advisory stated that an explosion occurred at 1145 (local time). The weak explosions, which occurred after a period of heightened seismic activity, generated an ash plume that reached 200 m above the edge of the crater and drifted W. The Washington VAAC reported volcanic ash plumes on 10-11 January extending about 92 km SW, and on 24-25 January extending about 185 km WSW. A low-energy explosion was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March 2019. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW.

Monitoring data reported by INETER (table 6) showed elevated levels of seismicity during October 2018 through January 2019. Sulfur dioxide was also measured at higher levels in January 2019.

Table 6. Monthly sulfur dioxide measurements and seismicity reported at San Cristóbal during August 2018-March 2019. "Most" indicates that type of seismicity was dominant that month. Data courtesy of INETER.

Month Average SO2 Total earthquakes Degassing-type earthquakes Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes
Aug 2018 461 t/d 6,464 6,147 251
Sep 2018 893 t/d 9,659 9,586 73
Oct 2018 269 t/d 11,698 3,509 8,189
Nov 2018 -- 19,593 19,586 7
Dec 2018 -- 30,901 -- Most
Jan 2019 1,286 t/d 11,504 Most Very few
Feb 2019 695 t/d 3,470 Most Very few
Mar 2019 -- 3,882 Most Very few

Geologic Background. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km W of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://webserver2.ineter.gob.ni/vol/dep-vol.html); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html).


Semisopochnoi (United States) — February 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Semisopochnoi

United States

51.93°N, 179.58°E; summit elev. 1221 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor ash explosions during September and October 2018

The remote Semisopochnoi comprises the uninhabited volcanic island of the same name, ~20 km in diameter, in the Rat Islands group of the western Aleutians (figure 1). Plumes had been reported several times in the 18th and 19th centuries, and most recently observed in April 1987 from Sugarloaf Peak (SEAN 12:04). The volcano is dominated by an 8-km diameter caldera that contains a small lake (Fenner Lake) and a number of post-caldera cones and craters. Monitoring is done by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) using an on-island seismic network along with satellite observations and lightning sensors. An infrasound array on Adak Island, about 200 km E, may detect explosive emissions with a 13 minute delay if atmospheric conditions permit.

On 16 September 2018 increased seismicity was detected at 0831, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Advisory. Retrospective analysis of satellite data acquired on 10 September revealed small ash deposits on the N flank of Mount Cerberus, possibly associated with two bursts of tremor recorded on 8 September (figure 5). This new information, coupled with intensifying seismicity and a strong tremor signal recorded at 1249 on 17 September, resulted in AVO raising the ACC to Orange and the VAL to Watch. Seismicity remained elevated on 18 September with nearly constant tremor recorded by local sensors. At the same time, no ash emissions were observed in cloudy satellite images and no eruptive activity was recorded on regional pressure sensors at Adak.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Minor ash deposits can be seen on the south and west flanks of the N cone of Mount Cerberus, Semisopochnoi Island, in this ESA Sentinel-2 image from 1200 on 10 September 2018. Also note probable minor steam emissions obscuring the crater of the N cone. Image courtesy of AVO.

During 19-25 September 2018 seismicity remained elevated, alternating between periods of continuous and intermittent bursts of tremor. Tremor bursts at 1319 on 21 September and at 1034 on 22 September produced airwaves detected on a regional infrasound array on Adak Island; no ash emissions were identified above the low cloud deck in satellite data, and the infrasound detections likely reflected an atmospheric change instead of volcanic activity.

Seismicity remained elevated during 3-9 October 2018, with intermittent bursts of tremor. No volcanic activity was detected in infrasound or satellite data. On 11 October satellite data indicated partial erosion of a tephra cone in the crater of Cerberus's N cone. A crater lake about 90 m in diameter filled the vent. The data also suggested that the vent had not erupted since 1 October. Seismicity remained elevated and above background levels. The next day AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, noting the recent satellite data results and lack of tremor recorded during the previous week. AVO reported that unrest continued during 11-24 October.

An eruptive event began at 2047 on 25 October 2018, identified based on seismic data; strong volcanic tremor lasted about 20 minutes and was followed by 40 minutes of weak tremor pulses. A weak infrasound signal was detected by instruments on Adak Island. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). A dense meteorological cloud deck prevented observations below 3 km, but a diffuse cloud was observed in satellite data rising briefly above the cloud deck, though it was unclear if it was related to eruptive activity. Tremor ended after the event, and seismicity returned to low levels.

Small explosions were detected by the seismic network at 2110 and 2246 on 26 October 2018, and 0057 and 0603 on 27 October. No ash clouds were identified in satellite data, but the volcano was obscured by high meteorological clouds. Additional small explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data during 28-29 October; no ash clouds were observed in partly-cloudy-to-cloudy satellite images.

AVO reported on 31 October 2018 that unrest continued. Two small explosions were detected, one just before 0400 and the other around 1000. Satellite views were obscured by clouds at the time, and no ash clouds were observed. Unrest continued through 1 November, at which time the satellite link and the seismic line failed. On 21 November the ACC was lowered to Yellow and the VAL was lowered to Advisory.

Geologic Background. Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/).


Asosan (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Asosan

Japan

32.884°N, 131.104°E; summit elev. 1592 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Multiple brief ash emission events during April and May 2019; minor ashfall in adjacent villages

Japan's 24-km-wide Asosan caldera on the island of Kyushu has been active throughout the Holocene. Nakadake has been the most active of 17 central cones within the caldera for 2,000 years. Historical eruptions have been primarily basaltic to basaltic-andesitic ash eruptions, with periodic Strombolian activity, all from Nakadake Crater 1. The most recent major eruptive episode began in late November 2014 and continued through 1 May 2016. Another eruption, with the largest ash plume in 20 years, occurred on 8 October 2016. Asosan remained quiet until renewed activity from Crater 1 began in mid-April 2019; it is covered in this report, through the end of June 2019. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides monthly reports of activity; the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issues aviation alerts reporting on possible ash plumes.

Asosan remained quiet during 2017 and 2018 with steam plumes rising a few hundred meters from Crater 1 and low levels of SO2 emissions; a warm acidic lake was present within the crater. Fumarolic activity from two areas on the S and SW wall of the crater rim generated occasional thermal anomalies in satellite data and incandescence at night. A brief period of increased seismicity was reported in mid-March 2019. An increase in seismic amplitude on 14 April 2019 preceded a small explosion on 16 April; it produced an ash plume which rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted NW. It was followed by additional small explosions on 19 April. A new explosion on 3 May produced minor ashfall in adjacent communities; ash emissions were reported multiple times during May with plumes reaching 1,400 m above the crater rim. No additional ash emissions were reported in June.

Activity during 2017 and 2018. JMA reported that no eruptions occurred during 2017. Amplitudes of volcanic tremor increased somewhat during March but were generally low for the rest of the year. The earthquake hypocenters were mostly located near the active crater at around sea level. SO2 emissions were slightly less than 1,000 tons per day (t/d) from January through April; for the rest of the year they ranged from 600 to 2,500 t/d. The Alert Level had been lowered from 2 to 1 on 7 February 2017 where it remained throughout the year. Steam plumes generally rose no more than 600 m above the active crater rim (figure 42). JMA noted that from January to June they often observed crater incandescence at night with a high-sensitivity surveillance camera; Sentinel-2 satellite images also captured thermal anomalies a few times (figure 43). The green lake inside the crater persisted throughout the year with water temperatures of 50-60°C. Two fumaroles were present with high-temperature gas emissions on the SW and S crater walls. Temperatures at the S crater wall were over 600°C from February to May; they decreased to 320-560°C during the rest of the year (figure 44). Sulfur deposits were visible around the SW crater wall fumarole during July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Steam plumes that rose around 600 m above Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan were typical activity throughout 2017. Images taken with JMA webcam on 9 June (top left), 22 August (top right), 12 November (bottom left), and 20 December (bottom right) 2017. Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Sentinel-2 images captured thermal anomalies at the S rim of the green lake at Asosan's Nakadake Crater 1 on 16 February (left) and 27 May 2017 (right). JMA reported that incandescence was occasionally visible during the night from January-June from the same area. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. High-temperature gas and steam from fumaroles on the S wall of the Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan on 24 August (top) and 17 November 2017 (bottom) were persistent all year, with temperatures ranging from 300 to over 600°C. The green lake inside the crater persisted throughout the year as well with water temperatures of 50-60°C. Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).

The Alert Level did not change at Asosan during 2018, and no eruptions were reported. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between 400 and 1,800 t/d throughout the year. Steam plumes generally rose less than 500 m above the active crater (figure 45); incandescence was observed at night during May-October and sometimes observed in satellite imagery as thermal anomalies (figure 46). The temperature of the green lake inside the crater ranged from 58 to 75°C throughout the year. The thermal anomaly on the S wall of the crater was consistently in the 300-500°C range, and had a high temperature in April of 580°C; in December the high temperature had risen to 738°C (figure 47). A brief increase in the number of isolated tremors occurred during March, with 1,044 reported on 4 March, exceeding the previous maximum of 1,000 on 27 October 2014. Seismicity also increased briefly during June, with more than 400 events reported each day on 8, 18, and 20 June. The Minami Aso village Yoshioka fumarole zone, located about 5 km W of Nakadake Crater 1, continued to produce modest steam plumes throughout 2017 and 2018 (figure 48).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Typical steam plumes at Asosan during 2018 rose around 500 m above the Nakadake Crater 1. Images are from 4 March (top left), 22 July (top right), 17 August (lower left), and 13 September 2018 (lower right). Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Nighttime incandescence was reported by JMA during May-October 2018 from the S rim of Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan; Sentinel-2 satellite images (bands 12, 4, 2) captured thermal anomalies from the same area numerous times during 2018 including on 16 June (top left), 26 July and 19 September (middle row), and 18 and 23 November (bottom row). JMA photographed incandescence at night on 17 July 2018 at the S fumarole area (top right). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground and JMA (Aso volcano Monthly Report for July 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. The "Green Tea Pond" inside Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan had temperatures that ranged from 58 to 75°C during 2018 (top row, 26 March 2018); the thermal anomaly on the S wall of the crater consistently had temperatures measured in the 300-500°C range and the SW fumarole area had somewhat lower temperatures (bottom row, 22 June 2018). Courtesy of JMA (monthly Asosan reports for March, May, and June 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. The Minami Aso village Yoshioka fumarole zone, located about 5 km W of Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan, continued to produce modest steam plumes throughout 2017 and 2018. It is shown here on 20 December 2017 (top) and 12 March 2018 (bottom). Courtesy of JMA (December 2017 and March 2018 monthly volcano reports).

Activity during 2019. Steam plumes rose to 800 m above the crater rim during January 2019. Overall activity increased slightly during February; SO2 emissions peaked at 2,200 t/d early in the month; they ranged from 800 to 1,800 t/d for most of the month. The amplitude of volcanic tremor also increased slightly during February. A further increase in tremor amplitude on 11 March 2019 prompted JMA to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 the following morning. Volcanic tremor amplitude decreased on 15 March; JMA determined that activity had decreased, and the Alert Level was lowered back to 1 on 29 March 2019. The amount of water in the crater decreased significantly between 27 February and 20 March, exposing part of the crater floor.

The surface temperature of the lake rose during the first part of 2019; it was 78°C in February and 84°C in March. Steam plumes rose to 1,200 m above the crater rim during March and April. SO2 emissions rose to 4,500 t/d on 12 March but dropped to a lower range of 1,300-2,400 for the rest of the month. Another surge in SO2 emissions on 12 April 2019 to 3,600 t/d prompted a special report from JMA the following day. SO2 emissions varied from about 1,700 to 4,100 t/d during the month; values remained high during the second half of the month. JMA noted that the color of the water in the lake inside Nakadake Crater 1 changed from green to gray after 4 April. Fountains of muddy water were periodically observed; they reached 15 m high on 9 April. The temperatures of both the lake (82°C) and around the two fumarole areas (S area about 530°C, SW area about 310°C) remained constant during April and similar to March.

A large increase in the amplitude of volcanic tremor early on 14 April 2019 prompted JMA to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 later in the day. The epicenters of the earthquakes were very shallow, located within 1 km beneath the crater. A small eruption occurred at 1828 on 16 April at Nakadake Crater 1; it produced a gray and white plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim and was the first eruption since 8 October 2016 (figure 49). Incandescence was observed inside the crater on 3 and 17 April. The amplitude of seismic tremors decreased on 18 April. Three very small eruptions on 19 April produced ash and steam plumes that rose 500 m above the crater rim. During a site visit that day JMA measured a high-temperature area that produced incandescence from the bottom of the crater at night (figure 50).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. The first eruption since October 2016 at Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan on 16 April 2019 sent an ash plume 200 m above the crater rim (top). Incandescent gas appeared on the crater floor the next day (bottom). Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, April 2019, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Three small explosions on 19 April 2019 at Asosan's Nakadake Crater 1 produced small ash emissions that rose 500 m above the crater rim (top). A strong thermal signal also appeared from the bottom of the crater. Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, April 2019, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).

A new eruption began at 1540 on 3 May that lasted until 0620 on 5 May (figure 51). Initially the ash plume rose 600 m above the crater rim, but a few hours later the volume of ash increased, and the plume reached 2 km above the crater rim for a brief period. Incandescence was visible from the webcam. The Tokyo VAAC reported the ash plume at 3 km altitude drifting SE on 3 May. Later in the day it rose to 3.7 km altitude and drifted SW. During a field survey the following day (4 May) JMA reported a steam and ash plume rising from the center of the active crater. The infrared thermal imaging camera recorded the temperature of the plume at about 500°C (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. An explosion at Asosan's Nakadake Crater 1 on 3 May 2019 produced an ash plume that reached 2 km above the crater rim (top) and incandescence visible from the webcam (bottom). Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, April 2019, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. During a site visit on 4 May 2019, staff from JMA witnessed an ash and steam plume rising from the bottom of Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan (top). The infrared thermal imaging camera recorded the temperature of the plume at about 500°C (bottom). Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, May 2019, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).

Ash fell on the S flank, and a small amount of ashfall on 4 May was confirmed by evidence on a car windshield in Takamori Town (6 km S), Kumamoto Prefecture (figure 53). Ashfall was also reported in Takamori-machi, Minami Aso village (9 km SW), and part of Yamato-cho (25 km SW), also in the Kumamoto Prefecture. SO2 emissions were measured as high as 4,000 t/d on 4 May. Additional explosions with ash plumes were reported from Asosan on 9, 12-16, 29, and 31 May; the plumes rose from 200 to 1,400 m above the crater rim but were not visible in satellite imagery. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5 satellite captured SO2 plumes on 3 and 26 May 2019 (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Ashfall was reported on 4 May 2019 in Takamori Town, Kumamoto Prefecture, from the eruption at Asosan's Nakadake Crater 1 on 3 May 2019. Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, May 2019, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Plumes of SO2 from Asosan were recorded by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite on 3 (left) and 26 (right) May 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Steam plumes rose to 1,700 m above the crater rim during June 2019 (figure 55). During field visits on 6 and 25 June diffuse ash emissions were observed rising from the center of the active crater, but they did not extend significantly above the crater rim (figure 56). The maximum temperature of the plume was measured at about 340°C with a thermal imaging camera. Almost all of the water in the crater bottom had evaporated since early May; incandescence continued to be observed within the crater at night with the high-resolution webcam (figure 57).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Steam plumes rose to 1,700 m above the crater rim at Asosan's Nakadake Crater 1 on 10 June 2019. Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, June 2019, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Plumes of gas and minor ash were visible at Asosan's Nakadake Crater 1 during site visits by JMA on 6 (left) and 25 (right) June 2019. Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, June 2019, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. Incandescent gas was visible from the vent at Asosan's Nakadake Crater 1 on 18 (left) and 25 (right) June 2019. Courtesy of JMA (Aso volcano monthly activity reports, June 2019, Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory, Regional volcano monitoring and warning center).

Geologic Background. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — May 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyamuragira

DR Congo

1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake reappears in central crater in April 2018; activity tapers off during April 2019

The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is part of the western branch of the East African Rift System. Nyamuragira (or Nyamulagira), a high-potassium basaltic shield volcano on the W edge of VVP, includes a lava field that covers over 1,100 km2 and contains more than 100 flank cones in addition to a large central crater (see figure 63, BGVN 42:06). A lava lake that had been active for many years emptied from the central crater in 1938. Numerous flank eruptions were observed after that time, the most recent during November 2011-March 2012 on the NE flank. This was followed by a period of degassing with unusually SO2-rich plumes from April 2012 through April 2014 (BGVN 42:06). The lava lake reappeared during July 2014-April 2016 and November 2016-May 2017, producing a strong thermal signature. After a year of quiet, a new lava lake appeared in April 2018, reported below (through May 2019) with information provided by the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), MONUSCO (the United Nations Organization working in the area), and satellite data and imagery from multiple sources.

Fresh lava reappeared inside the summit crater in mid-April 2018 from a lava lake and adjacent spatter cone. Satellite imagery and very limited ground-based observations suggested that intermittent pulses of activity from both sources produced significant lava flows within the summit crater through April 2019 when the strength of the thermal signal declined significantly. Images from May 2019 showed a smaller but persistent thermal anomaly within the crater.

Activity from October 2017-May 2019. Indications of thermal activity tapered off in May 2017 (BGVN 42:11). On 20 October 2017 OVG released a communication stating that a brief episode of unspecified activity occurred on 17 and 18 October, but the volcano returned to lower activity levels on 20 October. There was no evidence of thermal activity during the month. The volcano remained quiet with no reports of thermal activity until April 2018 (figure 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Sentinel-2 satellite images (bands 12, 4, 2) indicated no thermal activity at Nyamuragira on 19 November (top left), 14 December 2017 (top right) and 18 January 2018 (bottom). However, Nyiragongo (about 13 km SE) had an active lava lake with a gas plume drifting SW on 18 January 2018 (bottom right). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

OVG reported the new lava emissions beginning on 14 April 2018 as appearing from both the lava lake and a small adjacent spatter cone (figure 74). The first satellite image showing thermal activity at the summit appeared on 18 April 2018 (figure 75) and coincided with the abrupt beginning of strong MIROVA thermal signals (figure 76). MODVOLC thermal alerts also first appeared on 18 April 2018. An image of the active crater taken on 9 May 2018 showed the lake filled with fresh lava and two adjacent incandescent spatter cones (figure 77).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Fresh lava reappeared at Nyamuragira's crater during April 2018 from the lava lake (left) and the adjacent small spatter cone (right). Courtesy of OVG (Republique Democratique du Congo, Ministere de la Recherche Scientifique, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Direction Generale Goma, Rapport Avril 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. The first satellite image (bands 12, 4, 2) indicating renewed thermal activity at the Nyamuragira crater appeared on 18 April 2018; the signal remained strong a few weeks later on 3 May 2018. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. A strong thermal signal appeared in the MIROVA graph of Log Radiative Power on 18 April 2018 for Nyamuragira, indicating a return of the lava lake at the summit crater. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Fresh lava filled the lake inside the crater at Nyamuragira on 9 May 2018. Two spatter cones were incandescent with gas emissions. Courtesy of OVG (Republique Democratique du Congo, Ministere de la Recherche Scientifique, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Direction Generale Goma, Rapport Mai 2018).

Satellite images confirmed that ongoing activity from the lava lake remained strong during June -September 2018 (figure 78). A mission to Nyamuragira was carried out by helicopter provided by MONUSCO on 20 July 2018; lava lake activity was observed along with gas emissions from the small spatter cone (figure 79). OVG reported increased volcanic seismicity during 1-3 and 10-17 September 2018, and also during October, located in the crater area, mostly at depths of 0-5 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Sentinel-2 satellite images (bands 12, 4, 2) confirmed that ongoing activity from the lava lake at Nyamuragira remained strong during June-September 2018, likely covering the crater floor with a significant amount of fresh lava. Image are from 12 June (top left), 7 July (top right), 17 July (middle left), 22 July (middle right), 11 August (bottom left), and 20 September (bottom right). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. The crater at Nyamuragira on 20 July 2018 had an active lava lake and adjacent incandescent spatter cone with gas emissions. Courtesy of OVG (Republique Democratique du Congo, Ministere de la Recherche Scientifique, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Direction Generale Goma, Rapport Juillet 2018).

Personnel from OVG and MONUSCO (United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in DR Congo) made site visits on 11 October and 2 November 2018 and concluded that the level of the active lava lake had increased during that time (figure 80). On 2 November OVG measured the height from the base of the active cone to the W rim of the crater as 58 m (figure 81).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. OVG scientists reported a rise in the lake level between site visits to the Nyamuragira crater on 11 October (top) and 2 November 2018 (bottom). Top image courtesy of MONUSCO and Culture Vulcan, bottom image courtesy of OVG (Republique Democratique du Congo, Ministere de la Recherche Scientifique, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Direction Generale Goma, Rapport Octobre 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. On 2 November 2018 scientists from OVG measured the height from the base of the active cone to the W rim of the crater as 58 m. Courtesy of OVG (Republique Democratique du Congo, Ministere de la Recherche Scientifique, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Direction Generale Goma, Rapport Octobre 2018).

Seismicity remained high during November 2018 but decreased significantly during December. Instrument and access issues in January 2019 prevented accurate assessment of seismicity for the month. The lava lake remained active with periodic surges of thermal activity during November 2018-March 2019 (figure 82). Multiple images show incandescence in multiple places within the crater, suggesting significant fresh overflowing lava.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. The active lava lake at Nyamuragira produced strong thermal signals from November 2018 through March 2019 that were recorded in Sentinel-2 satellite images (bands 12, 4, 2). Several images suggest fresh lava cooling around the rim of the crater in addition to the active lake. A relatively cloud-free day on 19 November 2018 (top left) revealed no clear thermal signal, but a strong signal was recorded on 29 November (top right) despite significant cloud cover. Images from 13 and 28 January 2019 (second row) both showed evidence of incandescent lava in multiple places within the crater. The thermal signal was smaller and focused on the center of the crater on 12 and 27 February 2019 (third row). Images taken on 9 and 19 March 2019 clearly showed incandescent material at the center of the crater and around the rim (bottom row). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 12 April 2019 a Ukrainian Aviation Unit supported by MONUSCO provided support for scientists visiting the crater for observations and seismic analysis. Satellite data confirmed ongoing thermal activity into May, although the strength of the signal appeared to decrease (figure 83). MODVOLC thermal alerts ceased after 8 April, and the MIROVA thermal data also confirmed a decrease in the strength of the thermal signal during April 2019 (figure 84).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Sentinel-2 satellite data (bands 12, 4, 2) confirmed ongoing thermal activity at Nyamuragira into May 2019. The thermal anomalies on 18 April (left) and 3 May (right) 2019 were smaller than those recorded during previous months. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. The MIROVA graph of thermal activity (log radiative power) at Nyamuragira from 16 July 2018 through April 2019 showed near-constant levels of high activity through April 2019 when it declined. This corresponded well with satellite and ground-based observations. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; Katcho Karume, Director; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MONUSCO, United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (URL: https://monusco.unmissions.org/en/, Twitter: @MONUSCO); Cultur Volcan, Journal d'un volcanophile (URL: https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.com), Twitter: @CultureVolcan).


Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) — May 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Tengger Caldera

Indonesia

7.942°S, 112.95°E; summit elev. 2329 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New explosions with ash plumes from Bromo Cone mid-February-April 2019

The 16-km-wide Tengger Caldera in East Java, Indonesia is a massive volcanic complex with numerous overlapping stratovolcanos (figure 11). Mount Bromo is a pyroclastic cone that lies within the large Sandsea Caldera at the northern end of the complex (figure 12) and has erupted more than 20 times during each of the last two centuries. It is part of the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (also a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve) and is frequently visited by tourists. The last eruption from November 2015 to November 2016 produced hundreds of ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km altitude; some of them drifted for hundreds of kilometers before dissipating and briefly disrupted air traffic. Only steam and gas plumes were observed at Mount Bromo from December 2016 to February 2018 when a new series of explosions with ash plumes began; they are covered in this report with information provided by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). Copyrighted ground and drone-based images from Øystein Lund Andersen have been used with permission of the photographer.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. The Tengger Caldera viewed from the north Mount Bromo issuing steam in the foreground and Semeru volcano in the background on 30 September 2018. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Aerial view of the Bromo Cone in Tengger Caldera seen from the west on 30 September 2018. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.

PVMBG lowered the Alert Level at Bromo on 21 October 2016 from III to II near the end of an eruptive episode lasting nearly a year. The last VAAC report was issued on 12 November 2016 (BGVN 41:12) noting that the last ash emission had been observed the previous day drifting NW at 3 km altitude. Throughout 2017 and 2018 Bromo remained at Alert Level II, with no unusual activity described by PVMBG. During 1-2 September 2018, a wildfire in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park burned 65 hectares of savannah (figure 13); the fire produced 12 MODVOLC thermal alerts around the Tengger Caldera rim. No reports of increased volcanic activity were issued by PVMBG during the period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. A wall of fire in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park savanna during 1-2 September 2018 produced thermal alerts that were not related to volcanic activity at the Bromo Cone in Tengger Caldera. Image courtesy of the park authority, reported by Mongabay. MODVOLC thermal alerts courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP).

After slightly more than two years of little activity other than gas and steam plumes, ash emissions resumed from the Bromo Cone on 18 February 2019. After a brief pause, a new explosion on 10 March marked the beginning of a series of near-daily ash emissions that lasted for the rest of March, producing ash plumes that rose to altitudes ranging from 3.0 to 5.2 km and drifted in many different directions. A new series of ash emissions began on 6 April, rising to 3 km and also drifting in multiple directions. Ash emission density decreased during the month; plumes were only rising a few hundred meters above the summit by the end of April and consisted of mostly steam and moderate amounts of ash.

Activity during February-April 2019. PVMBG reported that at 0600 on 18 February 2019 an eruption at Tengger Caldera's Bromo Cone generated a dense white-and-brown ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted WSW. The plume was not visible in satellite imagery, according to the Darwin VAAC. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). After a few weeks of quiet a new explosion on 10 March (local time) produced a white, brown, and gray ash plume that rose 600 m above the summit; the plume was visible in satellite imagery extending SW. Increased tremor amplitude was also reported on 10 March. A new emission the next morning produced similar ash plumes that drifted S, SW, and W at 3 km altitude. On the morning of 12 March (local time) a continuous ash plume was observed in satellite imagery at 3.4 km altitude drifting SW. The plume drifted counterclockwise towards the S, E, and NE throughout the day and continued to drift NE and SE on 13 March. The altitude of the plume was reported at 4.3 km later that day based on a pilot report.

Continuous brown, gray, and black ash emissions were reported by PVMBG during 14-19 March at altitudes ranging from 3 to 3.9 km; they drifted generally NE to NW. Ashfall was noted around the crater and downwind a short distance. The Darwin VAAC reported continuous ash emissions to 5.2 km altitude drifting SE on 20 March. It was initially reported by a pilot and partially discernable in satellite imagery before dissipating. Ongoing ash emissions of variable densities and colors ranging from white to black were intermittently visible in satellite imagery and confirmed in webcam and ground reports at around 3.0 km altitude during 21-25 March (figures 14-17). Ashfall impacted the closest villages to Bromo, including Cemara Lawang (30 km NW), which was covered by a thin layer of ash. A few trees in the area were toppled over by the weight of the ash. The plume altitude increased slightly on 26 March to 3.7-3.9 km, drifting N and NE. The higher altitude plume dissipated early on 28 March, but ash emissions continued at 3.0 km for the rest of the day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Ash drifted NNE from the Bromo Cone in Tengger Caldera on 23 March 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen (drone image), used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Ash drifted N from the Bromo Cone in Tengger Caldera on 23 March 2019. The Batok Cone is on the right, Segera Wedi is behind Bromo, and Semeru is in the far background. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. A few trees toppled from ashfall in the vicinity of the Bromo Cone in Tengger Caldera on 24 March 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Ash plumes from the Bromo Cone in Tengger Caldera on 24 March 2019 caused ashfall in communities as far as 30 km away. View is from the floor of the Sandsea Caldera. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.

After just a few days of quiet, new ash emissions rising to 3.0 km altitude and drifting SE were reported by both PVMBG (from the webcam) and the Darwin VAAC on 6 April 2019. By the next day the continuous ash emissions were drifting N, then E during 8-10 April, and S during 11 and 12 April. A new emission seen in the webcam was reported by the Darwin VAAC on 15 April (UTC) that rose to 3.0 km and drifted W. Ash plumes were intermittently visible in either webcam or satellite imagery until 17 April rising 500-1,000 m above the crater; from 19-25 April only steam plumes were reported rising 300-500 m above the summit. A minor ash emission was reported from the webcam on 26 April that rose to 3.0 km altitude and drifted NE for a few hours before dissipating. PVMBG reported medium density white to gray ash plumes that rose 400-600 m above the crater for the remainder of the month.

Geologic Background. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com); Mongabay, URL: https://news.mongabay.com/2018/09/fires-tear-through-east-java-park-threatening-leopard-habitat/.

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 43, Number 10 (October 2018)

Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Heard (Australia)

Thermal hotspots persist at Mawson Peak, lava flows visible in satellite data November 2017-September 2018

Kadovar (Papua New Guinea)

Intermittent ash plumes; thermal anomalies in the crater and Coastal Vent through September 2018

Karymsky (Russia)

Thermal anomalies and ash explosions during August-September 2018

Ketoi (Russia)

Plume of uncertain composition reported based on satellite data one day in September

Kilauea (United States)

Twenty-four fissures open on the lower East Rift Zone in May 2018; at least 94 structures destroyed

Krakatau (Indonesia)

Strombolian, lava flow, and explosive activities resume, June-October 2018

Lengai, Ol Doinyo (Tanzania)

Effusive activity continues at the summit through August 2018 with small lava flows and spattering confined to the crater

Mayon (Philippines)

Low activity during April-September with some ash plumes and ongoing crater incandescence

Saunders (United Kingdom)

Intermittent thermal pulses and satellite imagery hotspots during September 2016-September 2018

Villarrica (Chile)

Thermal activity increases November-December 2017 and July-August 2018; intermittent incandescence and ash



Heard (Australia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal hotspots persist at Mawson Peak, lava flows visible in satellite data November 2017-September 2018

Remote Heard Island in the southern Indian Ocean is home to the snow-covered Big Ben stratovolcano, which has had confirmed intermittent activity since 1910. The nearest continental landmass, Antarctica, lies over 1,000 km S. Visual confirmation of lava flows on Heard are rare; thermal anomalies and hotspots detected by satellite-based instruments provide the most reliable information about eruptive activity. Thermal alerts reappeared in September 2012 after a four-year hiatus (BGVN 38:01), and have been intermittent since that time. Information comes from instruments on the European Space Agency's (ESA) Sentinel-2 satellite and MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal anomaly data from other satellite instruments. This report reviews evidence for eruptive activity from November 2017 through September 2018.

Satellite observations indicated intermittent hot spots at the summit through 12 December 2017. A few observations in January and February 2018 suggested steam plumes at the summit, but no significant thermal activity. An infrared pixel indicative of renewed thermal activity appeared again on 7 March, and similar observations were made at least twice each month in April and May. Activity increased significantly during June and remained elevated through September 2018 with multiple days of hotspot observations in satellite data each of those months, including images that indicated lava flowing in different directions from Mawson Peak. MODVOLC and MIROVA data also indicated increased thermal activity during June-September 2018.

Activity during October-December 2017. MIROVA thermal anomalies recorded during October 2017 indicated ongoing thermal activity at Heard (figure 32). This was confirmed by Sentinel-2 satellite imagery that revealed hotpots at the summit on ten different days in October (3, 6, 8, 13, 16, 21, 23, 26, 28, and 31), and included images suggesting lava flows descending from the summit in different directions on different days (figure 33).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. MODVOLC thermal alerts indicated significant thermal activity at Heard during October 2017 that tapered off during November. Intermittent signals appeared in December 2017, March, and April 2018, and a strong signal returned in June 2018 that continued through September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano during October 2017 showed strong evidence of active effusive activity. a) 3 October 2017: at least three hot spots were visible through cloud cover at the summit and W of Mawson Peak, suggesting active lava flows. b) 6 October 2017: a small hot spot is visible at the peak with a small steam plume, and a larger hotspot to the NW suggested a still active lava flow. c) 16 October 2017: a small hotspot at the summit and larger hotspots W of the summit were indicative of ongoing flow activity. d) 23 October 2017: a steam plume drifted SE from a small summit hotspot and a larger hotspot to the W suggested a lava lake or active flow. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The MODVOLC thermal alert data showed no further alerts for the year after 22 October 2017, and the MIROVA system anomalies tapered off in mid-November 2017. The Sentinel-2 satellite imagery, however, continued to record intermittent hotspots at and around Mawson Peak, the summit of Big Ben volcano, into December 2017 (figure 34). Hotspots were visible during six days in November (7, 15, 20, 25, 27, and 30) and three days during December (5, 7, and 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed reduced but ongoing thermal activity during November and December 2017. a) 7 November 2017: a steam plume drifts NE from a hotspot at Mawson Peak. b and c) 15 November and 12 December 2017: a small hotspot is distinct at the summit. d) 20 December 2017: a steam plume drifts east from the peak, but no clear hotspot is visible. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during January-May 2018. The satellite images during January and February 2018 were indicative of steam plumes at the summit, but distinct thermal signals reappeared on 7 and 12 March 2018 (figure 35). In spite of extensive cloud cover, the Sentinel-2 imagery also captured thermal signals twice each month in April (4 and 14) and May (9 and 14) (figure 36).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed only steam plumes at the summit during January and February, but hotspots reappeared in March 2018. a) 4 January 2018: a steam plume drifts SE from the summit under clear skies. b) 8 February 2018: a steam plume drifts SE from the summit adjacent to a large cloud on the N side of the volcano. c) 7 March 2018: the first hotspot in about three months is visible at the summit. d) 12 March 2018: a distinct hotspot is visible at Mawson Peak. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed intermittent low-level thermal activity during April and May 2018. a) 4 April 2018: a small hotspot is visible at the summit through a hazy atmosphere. b) 9 May 2018: a distinct hotspot glows from the summit beneath cloud cover. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view(bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during June-September 2018. Thermal signals increased significantly in the satellite data during June 2018. The sizes of the thermal anomalies were bigger, and they were visible at least nine days of the month (3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 18, 23, 25, and 30). Five substantial thermal signals appeared during July (3, 10, 15, 18, and 28); images on 23 June and 3 July distinctly show a lava flow trending NE from the summit (figure 37). MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared in June 2018 on three days (2, 26, and 27) and on four days during July (7, 8, 9, 10) indicating increased activity during this time. The MIROVA thermal signals also showed a substantial increase in early June that peaked in mid-July and remained steady through September 2018 (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed significantly increased thermal activity during June and July 2018. a) 8 June 2018: a substantial hotspot is visible through the cloud cover at the summit of Big Ben. b) 10 June 2018: the darker red hotspot at Mawson Peak was significantly larger than it was earlier in the year. c) 23 June 2018: the first multi-point hotspot since 31 October shows a distinct glow trending NE from the summit. d) 3 July 2018: a trail of hotspots defines a lava flow curving NNE from Mawson Peak. e) 18 July 2018: a second significant hotpot is visible a few hundred meters NE of the summit hotspot indicating a still active flow. f) 28 July 2018: the summit hotspot continued to glow brightly at the end of July, but no second hotspot was visible. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Six images in August (2, 7, 9, 22, 27, 29) showed evidence of active lava at the summit, and suggested flows both NE and SE from the summit that were long enough to cause multiple hotspots (figure 38). During September and early October 2018 the satellite images continued to show multiple hotspots that indicated flow activity tens of meters SE from the summit multiple days of each month (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed lava flow activity in two different directions from the summit during August 2018. a) 2 August 2018: lava flows NE from Mawson Peak while a steam plume drifts E from the summit. b) 9 August 2018: a second hotspot NE of the summit hotspot indicates continued flow activity in the same area observed on 2 August. c and d) 27 and 29 August 2018: a different secondary hotspot appeared SSE from the summit indicating a distinct flow event from the one recorded earlier in August. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano in September and October 2018 showed hotspots indicating active flows SE of the summit on multiple days. a) 3 September 2018: a small hotspot at the summit and a larger hotspot SE of the summit indicated continued flow activity. b) 3 October 2018: a small steam plume drifted east from a small hotspot at the summit and a larger pair of hotspots to the SE indicated continued effusive activity. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Kadovar

Papua New Guinea

3.608°S, 144.588°E; summit elev. 365 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes; thermal anomalies in the crater and Coastal Vent through September 2018

The first confirmed eruption of Kadovar began on 5 January 2018 with dense ash plumes and steam and a lava flow. The eruption continued through February and then slowed during March (BGVN 43:04). This report describes notices of ash plumes from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) and satellite images during April through 1 October 2018.

According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 1.2 km on 10 June. The ash plume was not identified in satellite data. Another ash plume identified by a pilot and in satellite images rose to an altitude of 1.8 km on 20 June and drifted W. An ash plume was visible in satellite images on 28 September drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km. On 1 October an ash plume rose to 2.7 km and drifted W.

Infrared satellite data from Sentinel-2 showed hot spots in the summit crater and at the Coastal Vent along the W shoreline on 10, 15, and 25 April 2018; plumes of brown discolored water were streaming from the western side of the island (figure 18). Similar activity was frequently seen during clear weather in the following months. A steam plume was also often rising from the crater. The Coastal Vent cone was still hot on 8 August, but no infrared anomaly was seen in imagery from 28 August through September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Sentinel-2 natural color satellite image of Kadovar on 10 April 2018. The island is about 1.5 km in diameter. Steam can be seen rising from the summit and the Coastal Vent just off the western shore; both locations show thermal anomalies in infrared imagery. Discolored water plumes extend NE from the island. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of Holocene age. Kadovar is part of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 25 km N of the mouth of the Sepik River. The village of Gewai is perched on the crater rim. A 365-m-high lava dome forming the high point of the andesitic volcano fills an arcuate landslide scarp that is open to the south, and submarine debris-avalanche deposits occur in that direction. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low cliffs along the coast. The youthful island lacks fringing or offshore reefs. No certain historical eruptions are known; the latest activity was a period of heightened thermal phenomena in 1976.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Karymsky (Russia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Karymsky

Russia

54.049°N, 159.443°E; summit elev. 1513 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies and ash explosions during August-September 2018

The most recent eruptive period at Karymsky, on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia, began on 28 April 2018, with thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam emissions, and ash plumes observed through July 2018. The current report discusses activity through September 2018 (table 11). This report was compiled using information from the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT).

KVERT reported ongoing thermal anomalies and intermittent ash plumes over Karymsky during August and September 2018 (table 11). Ash plumes drifted 50 km SE on 7 August, and 40 km S on 25 August. Stronger activity during 10-11 September consisted of continuous dense ash emissions along with explosions that sent plumes 5-6 km high which drifted 860 km NE. Incandescence photographed the next night was attributed to fumarolic activity (figure 41). Ash plumes were identified drifting 365 km E on 22-23 September. The last thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 28 September, and an ash plume was last visible on 30 September.

Table 11. Ash plumes and thermal anomalies at Karymsky, 1 August-30 September 2018. Clouds often obscured the volcano. Data compiled from KVERT reports.

Date Observations
01-07 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume drifted 50 km SE on 7 Aug.
08-14 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies.
25-31 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume drifted 40 km S on 25 Aug.
01-07 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies.
08-15 Sep 2018 Continuous ash emissions on 10 Sep. Explosions during 10-11 Sep with plumes rising 5-6 km that drifted 860 km NE.
16-23 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plumes drifted 365 km E on 22-23 Sep.
24-30 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume on 30 Sep.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Incandescence, attributed to fumarolic activity, was visible above the crater of Karymsky on 12 September 2018. Photo by D. Melnikov; courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS, KVERT).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Karymsky on 30 September 2018 showing a diffuse plume and thermal anomaly in the crater. Top: Natural color view (bands 4, 3, 2). Bottom: Short-wave Infrared view (bands 12, 8A, 4). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were last observed on 31 July 2018. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system detected one hotspot in early August (moderate power), and two hotspots in late September (low power).

Geologic Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Ketoi (Russia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Ketoi

Russia

47.35°N, 152.475°E; summit elev. 1172 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Plume of uncertain composition reported based on satellite data one day in September

Gas-and-steam emissions were previously reported at Ketoi (figure 1) in January, July, and August 2013 (BGVN 40:09). Intense fumarolic activity originating from the same area, the N slope of Pallas Peak, was reported in 1981, 1987, and 1989. Based on a report from the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) using Himawari-8 imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume on 21 September 2018 which drifted to the NE; however, evidence of the plume could not be confirmed by the VAAC from satellite imagery. The original VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) issued by SVERT noted a volcanic cloud without a specific mention of ash, but also remarked that thermal anomalies had been observed on 17 and 20 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Natural color Sentinel-2 satellite image of Ketoi on 18 September 2018. A large freshwater lake can be seen SW of the Pallas Peak andesitic cone, which also hosts a crater lake. Lava flows originating from the younger cone extend primarily N to SW, and a white fumarolic area is immediately NE of the crater. The island is approximately 10 km in diameter. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The circular, 10-km-wide Ketoi island, which rises across the 19-km-wide Diana Strait from Simushir Island, hosts of one of the most complex volcanic structures of the Kuril Islands. The rim of a 5-km-wide Pleistocene caldera is exposed only on the NE side. A younger 1172-m-high stratovolcano forming the NW part of the island is cut by a horst-and-graben structure containing two solfatara fields. A 1.5-km-wide freshwater lake fills an explosion crater in the center of the island. Pallas Peak, a large andesitic cone in the NE part of the caldera, is truncated by a 550-m-wide crater containing a brilliantly colored turquoise crater lake. Lava flows from Pallas Peak overtop the caldera rim and descend nearly 5 km to the SE coast. The first historical eruption of Pallas Peak, during 1843-46, was its largest.

Information Contacts: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Nauki st., 1B, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia, 693022 (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/en/, http://www.imgg.ru/ru/svert/reports); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kilauea (United States) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Twenty-four fissures open on the lower East Rift Zone in May 2018; at least 94 structures destroyed

Kilauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) has been intermittently active for at least two thousand years. Open lava lakes at the summit caldera, and a lava lake and flows from the East Rift Zone, have been almost continuously active since the current eruption began in 1983. A marked increase in seismicity and ground deformation at Pu'u 'O'o Cone on the upper East Rift Zone during the afternoon of 30 April 2018 and the subsequent collapse of its crater floor marked the beginning of the largest lower East Rift Zone eruptive episode in at least 200 years. The daily events of this episode underscored the nature of the interconnected components of the volcanic system. The lava lake level at Halema'uma'u began dropping on 1 May 2018, and fissures first opened on the lower East Rift Zone two days later. The eruptive events of May 2018 (figure 332), the first month of this episode, are described in this report with information provided primarily from the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaii Volcano Observatory (HVO) in the form of daily reports, volcanic activity notices, and abundant photo, map, and video data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 332. A timeline of events at Kilauea for 1-28 May 2018. Blue shaded region includes seismic events greater than M 4.0 and activity at Halema'uma'u crater at the summit. Green shaded area lists activity on the lower East Rift Zone.

Summary of events. During 1-11 May, seismicity propagated eastward from Pu'u 'O'o, indicating the intrusion of magma into the middle and lower East Rift Zone (LERZ). The first surface cracks appeared in the LERZ on 2 May, and the first eruptive fissure opened the next afternoon. Fissures were several hundred meters long and formed a NE-SW trending line near the axis of the LERZ that reached about 4 km in length by 8 May. Three large (greater than M 5) earthquakes shook the island on 4 May. New fissures opened daily, with activity consisting of spattering and lava flows; the largest effusion was a flow from fissure 8 that traveled N for a little over 1 km. By 9 May, 15 fissures had opened in the vicinity of the Leilani Estates subdivision; the residents had been evacuated and numerous structures were destroyed by the flows, spatter, and fissures. Active spattering paused on 10 and 11 May, although strong degassing continued, and many cracks within the fissure zone continued to widen.

The lava lake level in the Overlook vent at Halema'uma'u crater at the summit began to drop slowly on 1 May; the rate of deflationary tilt increased by late the next afternoon. The lake level had dropped about 128 m below the vent rim by 5 May, and satellite data indicated a 10 cm subsidence of the Halema'uma'u crater floor during that time. Rockfalls from the crater walls produced ash plumes above Halema'uma'u, resulting in light ashfall in the summit area. By 8 May the lake level was 295 m below the floor of Halema'uma'u crater. Larger rockfalls caused by the dropping lake level generated larger explosions and ash plumes on 9 May.

New fissures began opening again on 12 May in an area about 1.5 km NE of the previous activity on the LERZ, and over the following 11 days flow activity increased substantially, creating multiple flow channels. The fissure 17 flow reached 2.5 km in length on 15 May. A fast-moving flow from fissure 20 headed 4 km SE on 18 May, traveling over 300 m per hour. The two lobes of the flow reached the SE Puna coast overnight on 19-20 May and were joined by another adjacent flow to the west two days later. Fissures 16-23, all located in the NE half of the fissure zone, were active during 12-23 May.

Steam and ash emissions were persistent at Halema'uma'u crater during 12-23 May; they varied in intensity with abrupt increases associated with large rockfalls into the vent, and ashfall reported more than 50 km from the summit. Strong earthquakes at the summit continued in response to the deflation, causing frequent ground shaking and damage to roads and buildings. A large explosion on 17 May generated the highest ash plume for the period; it reached 9.1 km altitude and drifted NE. Intermittent explosive eruptions continued at the summit, and robust plumes of gas, ash, and steam periodically emerged from the Overlook vent.

Beginning on 24 May, activity on the LERZ shifted back towards the SW part of the fissure zone, again impacting the residents of the Leilani Estates subdivision with reactivation of fissures and new flows. While flows continued to reach the ocean on the SE coast, the volume of lava gradually decreased until the supply of lava ceased by 28 May. During 24-26 May fissures 7 and 21 were feeding a perched lava pond and flows that moved E and N within the subdivision. Overnight on 26-27 May activity increased substantially at fissure 7 with a 30-m-tall spatter rampart, and fountains that reached 70 m high feeding a flow moving N. Large cracks opened into fissure 24 adjacent to the reactivated fissure 8; fast-moving flows traveled W then N through the subdivision. By 28 May the eruptive activity was focused on vigorous fountaining at fissure 8, which supplied a voluminous flow that headed rapidly NE.

Intermittent explosions continued from the summit Overlook vent during 24-28 May as a result of the ongoing subsidence at Halema'uma'u. Ash clouds generally rose to about 3.1 km altitude and drifted SW. Earthquakes in the summit region continued as the summit area subsided and adjusted to the withdrawal of magma.

Activity during 1-11 May 2018. An intrusion of magma began overnight on 30 April-1 May into the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), extending from the vicinity of Pu'u 'O'o eastward at least as far as Highway 130 (15 km E of Pu'u 'O'o). The intrusion began after the collapse of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor on the afternoon of 30 April; about 250 located earthquakes were reported through the afternoon of 1 May, with the locations migrating eastward during the day. The seismicity consisted primarily of small-magnitude (less than M 3) earthquakes at depths of less than 10 km. During a helicopter overflight to Pu'u 'O'o on 1 May, HVO geologists observed a new fissure and crack extending about 1 km uprift (west) from the W flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone (figures 333 and 334). A small amount of lava had erupted from the crack, apparently during the collapse of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. They also noted a few small, sluggish breakouts of the 61g lava flow, likely from lava still moving through the lava-tube system.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 333. HVO geologists observed a fracture on the W flank of Pu'u 'O'o at Kilauea during an overflight on the afternoon of 1 May 2018. The 61g flow field as of 13 April 2018 is shown in pink. The crack that formed on the west side of Pu'u 'O'o on 30 April 2018, during or immediately after the crater floor collapse, is shown as a solid red line. Older Pu'u 'O'o lava flows (1983–2016) are shown in gray. The yellow line is the trace of the active lava tubes. The blue lines over the Pu'u 'O'o flow field are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 2013 digital elevation model (DEM), while the blue lines on the rest of the map are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 1983 DEM. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 334. A new fissure appeared on the W flank of Pu'u 'O'o at Kilauea on 1 May 2018. Top: In this view to the NE, the fissure was visible as a line of white steam extending roughly 1.5 km W of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Photo taken 3 May 2018. Bottom: A telephoto view of a small lava flow (lighter in color) and spatter (blue-gray) that were erupted from a section of the crack on the west flank of Pu'u 'O'o. Photo taken during overflight on 1 May 2018, courtesy of HVO.

Overnight on 1-2 May, earthquakes continued at a high rate in the area from Highway 130 eastward towards Kapoho (32 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o). Many events were felt by residents and there were reports of nearly constant ground vibration in some areas; seismicity generally migrated eastward (figure 335). During the morning of 2 May a GPS station located about 1.5 km SW of Nanawale Estates (24 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o ) began moving toward the north by several centimeters, indicating the approaching magma intrusion. A tiltmeter at Pu'u 'O'o recorded steady, deflationary tilt throughout the day, with several sharp inflation offsets. Some of these offsets corresponded to short-lived ashy plumes rising from the crater. New small ground cracks less than a few centimeters wide developed across some roads in and adjacent to Leilani Estates (23 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 335. Starting on the afternoon of 30 April 2018, magma beneath Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o Cone drained and triggered the collapse of the crater floor. Within hours, earthquakes began migrating east of Pu'u 'O'o, signaling an intrusion of magma along the middle and lower East Rift Zone (ERZ). As of about noon on 2 May there were many reports of earthquakes felt by residents in nearby subdivisions. The orange oval marks the approximate area within which most of the earthquakes were located based on automatic earthquake locations and analysis by seismologists. A GPS device located in Nanawale Estates began moving towards the N on 2 May, and new, small ground cracks were reported in the Leilani Estates area. Courtesy of HVO.

The summit lake level showed very little change immediately after the collapse of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, but tiltmeters at the summit began recording deflationary tilt in the early morning of 1 May. The lava lake level had dropped about 20 m by the afternoon of 2 May when the rate of deflationary tilt increased. By the evening of 3 May, it had dropped an additional 37 m.

At 1030 HST on 3 May 2018 ground shaking from a M 5.0 earthquake south of Pu'u 'O'o caused rockfalls and possibly additional collapse into the Pu'u 'O'o crater (figure 336). A short-lived plume of ash produced by this event rose and dissipated as it drifted SW (figure 337).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 336. Clear weather on 3 May 2018 allowed good airborne observations of the collapse crater in Pu'u 'O'o. This view to the E shows the deep collapse crater that formed on 30 April when magma beneath Pu'u 'O'o drained. For scale, the crater is about 250 m wide. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 337. At 1030 HST on 3 May 2018 ground shaking from a preliminary M 5.0 earthquake south of Pu'u 'O'o caused rockfalls and possibly additional collapse into the Pu'u 'O'o crater on Kilauea's East Rift Zone. A short-lived plume of ash produced by this event rose and dissipated as it drifted SW. USGS photo by Kevan Kamibayashi, courtesy of HVO.

New ground cracks were reported in Leilani Estates late in the afternoon of 3 May. Hot white vapor and blue fumes emanated from an area of cracking in the eastern part of the subdivision. Spatter began erupting from the cracks shortly before 1700 local time. The Hawaii County Civil Defense coordinated the evacuation of the subdivision. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours; lava spread less than 10 m (figure 338).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 338. An eruption from fissure 1 began in the Leilani Estates subdivision at the lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea during the afternoon of 3 May 2018. Hot white vapor and blue fumes emanated from an area of cracking in the eastern part of the subdivision. Spatter began erupting shortly before 1700 HST; lava was confirmed at the surface in the eastern end of the subdivision. According to the Hawai'i County Civil Defense update at 1740 all residents in Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivsions were required to evacuate. View is to the NE on 3 May, courtesy of HVO.

By the morning of 4 May 2018 three fissures had opened in the eastern portion of Leilani Estates; activity consisted primarily of vigorous lava spattering and development of short lava flows (figure 339). Additional eruptive fissures or vents opened during the day, each several hundred meters long (figure 340). Spatter and lava accumulated primarily within a few tens of meters of the vents. Fissure 6 opened on the eastern edge of the subdivision by the afternoon. Between 1130 and 1500 three large earthquakes (M 5.4, M 6.9, and M 5.3) shook the island along with numerous lower-magnitude events. The M 6.9 event at 1232 HST (the largest on the island in 43 years) produced a robust ash plume at Pu'u 'O'o (figure 341), and numerous rockfall events were triggered at both Pu'u 'O'o and Halema'uma'u craters.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 339. Fissure 3 was actively erupting at Leilani and Kaupili Streets in the Leilani Estates subdivision of the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea at 0807 HST on 4 May 2018. Lava on the road was approximately 2 m thick. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 340. Fissure 5 in the lower foreground was actively erupting at 1207 HST on 4 May 2018 in the Leilani Estates subdivision at Kilauea. View is to the SW. Behind fissure 5 are fissures 1, 4, and 3 from front to back. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 341. At 1246 HST on 4 May 2018 a column of reddish-brown ash rose from Pu'u 'O'o crater at Kilauea after a M 6.9 south flank earthquake shook the island. View is to the S with the steaming fissure on the SW flank of the cone visible behind to the right of the ash plume. Courtesy of HVO.

Fissures 7, 8, and 9 opened in the Leilani Estates subdivision on 5 May. Fissure 7 was only active until mid-afternoon (figure 342). Fissure 8 activity included fountaining and occasional bursts of spatter to 100 m as well as building a spatter cone (figure 343); the flow from fissure 9 migrated W. New ground cracks were reported on Highway 130 along the W edge of the subdivision.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 342. Fissure 7 began erupting around dawn on 5 May 2018 at Kilauea and was active for several hours. At the peak of its activity, large bubble bursts occurred at one spot (lower left) in the fissure while spattering was present in other locations. A short lava flow was erupted from the fissure around 0800, moving NE and crossing Hookupu Street (left). View is to the S, emissions in upper right are from fissure 2. Image taken on 5 May 2018, courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 343. Fissure 8 erupted in the evening on 5 May 2018 at Kilauea, located near fissures 2 and 7; it began with small amounts of lava spattering at about 2044 HST. By 2100, lava fountains as high as about 70 m (when this photo was taken) were erupting from the fissure. Courtesy of HVO.

Tiltmeters at the summit continued to record a deflationary trend. Satellite InSAR data showed that between 23 April and 5 May 2018 the summit caldera floor subsided about 10 cm. Corresponding to this deflation, the lava lake in the Overlook vent had dropped about 128 m below the crater rim during that same period. Rockfalls from the crater walls into the retreating lake produced ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater, resulting in light ashfall in the summit area. During 4 and 5 May about 152 M 2 and M 3 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km beneath the summit area. These earthquakes were related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and south flank of the volcano.

Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 1600 on 6 May. By early that afternoon, ten fissures had opened in the Leilani Estates subdivision, but not all were continuing to erupt (figure 344). A lava flow from fissure 8 advanced northward, reaching 1.1 km in length by early evening (figure 345). Deflation continued at the summit with the lava lake dropping at a rate of about 2 m per hour throughout the day, and by evening it had dropped a total of 220 m since 30 April (figure 346).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 344. Between 3 and 6 May 2018 ten fissures opened in the Leilani Estates area of the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea. This thermal map shows the ''a'a flow from fissure 8 spreading northward (top) during an overflight of the area on the afternoon of 6 May. The dark area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the thermal image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas (whitish areas show the active lava flow). The gray linear features are the other fissures (numbered in red). The thermal map was constructed by stitching overlapping oblique thermal images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 345. A lava flow from fissure 8 flowed N on Makamae Street in Leilani Estates at Kilauea at 0932 HST on 6 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 346. The Kilauea summit lava lake began dropping on 1 May 2018, and by the evening of 6 May when this image was taken it was roughly 220 m below the crater rim. This very wide-angle camera view captured the entire north portion of the Overlook crater. Courtesy of HVO.

Two new fissures broke ground in the morning on 7 May. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested area SW of Leilani Estates and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened around noon between fissures 10 and 11. By 1515 both new fissures were inactive but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just W of the highway on trend with the previous fissures (figure 347).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 347. Cracks several centimeters wide had opened along Highway 130 by 0930 HST on 7 May 2018. The highway runs N-S along the W edge of the Leilani Estates subdivision on Kilauea's East Rift Zone, about 15 km E of Pu'u 'O'o. Orange paint was used to outline the cracks. Courtesy of HVO.

By the evening of 8 May 2018, the overall fissure zone was about 4 km long (figure 348), stretching SW-NE across most of the now-evacuated Leilani Estates subdivision; 14 distinct fissures had been mapped, and a lava flow starting from fissure 8 had traveled about 1 km NE from its source. Officials noted that 35 structures had been destroyed. Loud jetting and booming noises were heard from fissure 13 that evening. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent at the summit were intermittently producing small ash plumes that rose several hundred meters above the summit and traveled downwind as the lava lake continued to fall. Based on model data collected in the afternoon, the lake level was about 295 m below the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater by the end of the day on 8 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 348. The 4-km-long fissure zone that began erupting on 3 May 2018 at Kilauea's lower East Rift zone had crossed most of the Leilani Estates subdivision by 1900 on 8 May with 14 distinct fissures within the zone. An ''a'a flow from fissure 8 had traveled about 1 km NE since it emerged on the evening of 5 May. Inset shows numbered locations of each fissure in red. The purple areas are lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.

At 0832 HST on 9 May 2018, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the summit lava lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above Halema'uma'u crater; the ash was blown SSW (figure 349). During the day on 9 May fissure 15 broke ground at the NE edge of the LERZ fissure area and generated a pahoehoe flow about 20 m long. Severe ground cracks associated with fissure 14 were steaming vigorously in the morning (figure 350). During an overflight around 1500 in the afternoon HVO geologists also noticed an area of steaming uprift (west) of Highway 130 at the SW edge of the fissure area. Rates of motion increased late in the morning at a GPS station located 1.5 km SE of Nanawale Estates (about 2 km N of Leilani Estates). The direction of motion was consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the NE).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 349. An ash plume rose from Halema'uma'u crater at the summit of Kilauea around 0830 on 9 May 2018. HVO's interpretation was that the explosion was triggered by a rockfall from the steep walls of the Overlook vent. The photograph was taken at 0829 HST from the Jaggar Museum overlook. Geologists examining the ash deposits on the rim of Halema'uma'u crater found fresh lava fragments ejected from the lava lake. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 350. Severe ground cracks associated with fissure 14 in Leilani Estates at Kilauea were steaming vigorously at 0953 on 9 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.

Strong degassing continued from existing fissures on 10 and 11 May; although active spatter and lava had paused, several cracks within the fissure zone continued to widen (figure 351). A 3D model constructed of thermal images of Pu'u 'O'o crater taken on 11 May indicated that the deepest part of the crater was 350 m below the rim (figure 352). Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park closed to the public on 11 May due to heightened (daily) earthquake activity at the summit, and concerns about a potentially larger summit explosion.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 351. Ground cracks continued to widen near Leilani Estates subdivision at Kilauea on 10 May 2018 even though active spatter and lava flows had paused. At 1354 a geologist inspected a crack that widened considerably during the previous day on Old Kalapana Road. In other areas, new cracks appeared along sections of Highway 130, some with visible escaping fumes. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 352. A clear view into Pu'u 'O'o crater of Kilauea was possible on 11 May 2018. The upper part of the crater had a flared geometry, which narrowed to a deep circular shaft. The deepest part of the crater was about 350 m below the crater rim according to a 3D model constructed from thermal images. The crater is about 250 m wide, and N is to the left. Courtesy of HVO.

Activity during 12-23 May 2018. Minor spattering resumed from a new fissure (16) that opened about 0645 on 12 May around 1.5 km NE of fissure 15, at the NE end of the existing vent system (figure 353). It produced a lava flow that traveled about 230 m before stalling in the early afternoon. A steady, vigorous plume of steam and variable amounts of ash rose from the Overlook vent and drifted SW. Over the course of the day, rockfalls from the steep enclosing crater walls at the summit crater periodically generated small ash clouds mixed with water vapor. These ash clouds rose only about a hundred meters above the ground, a few generating very localized ashfall downwind.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 353. Fissure 16 opened in the morning on 12 May 2018 at around 0830 HST; it was located about 1.3 km NE of fissure 15, visible at the top left. The fissure is also located 500 m NE of the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) site (green piping, top right). View is uprift to the SW. Photograph courtesy of Hawai`i County Fire Department and HVO.

A plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, rose from the Overlook vent within Halema'uma'u for much of the day on 13 May 2018. That morning, a new outbreak was reported about 0.5 km NE of fissure 16. Aerial observations of this new fissure (17) indicated it was at least several hundred meters long and produced spatter rising tens of meters into the air. By late in the day, activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosions of spatter bombs, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally NE at the downrift (NE) end of the new fissure system. As of about 1900 on 13 May, one lobe was 2 m thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132 (figure 354). A smaller fissure 18, a few hundred meters S of 17, was weakly active late in the day. A new fissure (19) was spotted early on 14 May producing a sluggish lava flow. By 1430 on 14 May, fissure 17 was producing a lava flow extending about 1.7 km from the fissure (figure 355).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 354. Fissures 15-19 opened along the fissure zone NE of Leilani Estates between 9 and 14 May 2018 on Kilauea's East Rift Zone. As of the early morning on 14 May, lava from fissure 17 had traveled about 1.2 km, roughly ESE parallel to the rift zone, and was turning slightly S; at 0830 HST, the flow was about 0.9 km S of Highway 132. Fissure 18, which became active late on 13 May, and fissure 19, which opened early on 14 May, were both weakly active. Updated at 1430 on 14 May, this map shows the location of the front of the fissure 17 flow at that time. The flow is following a path of steepest descent (blue line), immediately south of the 1955 ''a'a flow boundary. Shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 355. A thermal map of the NE end of the fissure system on the lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea as of 1430 on 14 May 2018 shows the active fissure 17 flow extending about 1.7 km from the fissure. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the thermal image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The thermal map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique thermal images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.

Activity on the LERZ on 15 May 2018 was concentrated at fissure 17 with intermittent spattering at fissure 18; the fissure 17 flow continued to slowly advance ESE reaching a length of nearly 2.5 km in the early morning (figures 356 and 357). A new fissure (20) opened up SW of fissure 18 and produced two small pads of lava. During the morning, ash emissions from the Overlook vent inside Halema'uma'u varied greatly in intensity with abrupt increases likely associated with large rockfalls deep into the vent (figure 358). Ashfall was reported as far away as Discovery Harbor (55 km SW), Pahala (30 km SW), at locations along Highway 11 from Pahala to Volcano, and in the Ka'u Desert section of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park near the summit. NWS radar and pilot reports indicated the top of the ash cloud ranged from 3.0 to 3.7 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 356. The 2.5-km-long fissure 17 lava flow on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone at 0844 on 15 May 2018 was an active ''a'a flow moving ESE from fissure 17, which was visible as low lava fountains in the middle of the photo. Highway 132 appears on the right side of the photograph; the view is toward the W. Photograph courtesy of the Hawai`i County Fire Department and HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 357. Highly viscous (sticky) lava oozed from the edge of the ''a'a flow spreading slowly ESE from fissure 17 at Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone on 15 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 358. Activity at Halema'uma'u crater at Kilauea increased in the morning of 15 May 2018 to include the nearly continuous emission of ash with intermittent stronger pulses that formed occasional higher plumes 1-2 km above the summit. At about 0900 HST the plume was drifting SW with the tradewinds toward the Ka`u Desert. The dark area to the right of the ash column rising from the Overlook vent is ash falling from the cloud. Courtesy of HVO.

On the morning of 16 May dense ballistic blocks up to 60 cm across were found in the parking lot a few hundred meters from Halema'uma'u crater, reflecting the most energetic explosions to date. Strong earthquakes within the summit continued in response to ongoing deflation and lava column drop. By the afternoon of 16 May the floor of the larger Kilauea Caldera had dropped 90 cm from the ongoing deflation, stressing faults around the caldera and causing multiple earthquakes. Employees at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, and nearby residents reported frequent ground shaking and damage to roads and buildings. The decision was made to evacuate HVO's office building on Uekahuna Bluff overlooking Halema'uma'u Crater. Low-level eruption of lava continued from multiple points along the NE end of the active fissure system on the lower East Rift Zone, but spattering generally decreased in vigor throughout the day.

At about 0415 on 17 May an explosion from the Overlook vent produced a volcanic cloud that reached 9.1 km altitude and drifted NE. Traces of ash fell with rain on the Volcano Golf Course, in Volcano Village, and in other areas immediately around the summit (figure 359). Subsequent continued emissions reached 3.7 km altitude; vog or volcanic air pollution produced by volcanic gas was reported in Pahala. After the explosion, seismic levels increased gradually throughout the day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 359. At 0745 on 17 May 2018 the view of Halema'uma'u crater at Kilauea from the visitor viewing area in front of the Jaggar Muesum at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park included a light coating of ash on the Park's interpretative sign caused by ashfall after significant explosive events the previous day. Note the contrast of the mostly-steam plume rising from the Overlook vent in the background with the eruption column that emerged during explosive activity in May 1924 (shown in the middle photograph on the sign). Courtesy of HVO.

At the LERZ, fissures 18, 19, and 20 reactivated during the afternoon of 17 May, and a new fissure opened (21) between fissures 7 and 3 (figure 360). Ground cracks continued to open and widen around Leilani Estates, several with both horizontal and vertical offsets (figures 361 and 362). An area 50-90 m wide, parallel to and N of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, dropped slightly, forming a depression that pahoehoe flows from fissures 20 and 21 began filling. Fissure 22 opened just downrift of fissure 19.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 360. Fissure 21 opened between fissures 3 and 7 on 17 May 2018 on the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea. Around 1500 an aerial view of the fissure showed fountaining and a lava flow expanding outward from the fissure. View is toward the west. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 361. SW-trending en-echelon ground cracks dissected and offset NW-trending Pohoiki Road around 0700 on 17 May 2018 as seen during an overflight by HVO of the eruptive fissure area at Kilauea's East Rift Zone. Cracks continued to open and widen, many with both horizontal and vertical offsets. These cracks were caused by the underlying intrusion of magma into the lower East Rift Zone. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 362. HVO geologists examined widening cracks on Nohea Street in Leilani Estates at Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone on 17 May 2018. These cracks had expanded significantly during the previous day. Courtesy of HVO.

Spattering continued on 18 May 2018 from fissures 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, and new fissure 22. Pahoehoe lava flows were also erupted from fissures 17, 18, and 20 (figure 363). During the afternoon, fissure 17 was actively spattering fragments as high as 100 m, and the flow was active but had not covered new ground (figure 364). A flow from fissure 18 had traveled approximately 1 km SE. The graben area N of the fissures was still being filled by pahoehoe flows from fissures 20 and 21; fissure 15 produced a flow that crossed Pohoiki Road. Later in the afternoon a fast-moving pahoehoe flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled SE, moving over 300 m per hour. By late that evening, the flow had three main lobes; the easternmost was E of Pohoiki Road moving about 200 m per hour while the westernmost was near Malamaki Road and moving about 40 m per hour. At the summit, for much of the day, a steady steam plume rose from the Overlook vent. Several minor emissions of ash were observed in web cameras; no significant explosions and no earthquakes greater than M 3.5 had occurred in the previous 24 hours. At 2358 local time, however, a short-lived explosion from Halema'uma'u created an ash cloud that reached up to 3.1 km altitude and was carried SW by the wind.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 363. By the early afternoon of 18 May 2018, fissures 21, 4, 15, 22, 20, 18, and 17 (SW to NE) were all erupting with either pahoehoe flows, fountaining, or spatter on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone. Shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 364. The line of fountains on fissure 17 coalesced into a large fountain sending lava fragments 50 m into the air in the morning on 18 May 2018 at the lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea; small bits of spatter reached 100 m high. Courtesy of HVO.

The rate of lava eruption increased overnight on 18-19 May; fountaining continued at fissure 17, and fissures 16 and 20 merged into a continuous line of spatter and fountaining. Two flows from this consolidated fissure complex were wide, very active, and advancing southward at rates up to 300 m per hour (figures 365 and 366). Flows from fissures 17 and 18 were also still active but advancing slowly, and fissure 18 had stalled by the end of the day. By mid-afternoon on 19 May the two fast-moving flows had joined about a kilometer from the coast and continued to flow southward (figure 367). The GPS instrument located on the NE side of Leilani Estates was no longer moving. While earthquake activity continued, it had not moved farther downrift in the previous few days.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 365. Channelized lava flows originating from a merged, elongated fountaining source between fissures 16 and 20 in Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone split into two flows that both traveled rapidly S as seen at 0737 on 19 May 2018. This view to the SW also showed the steaming line of fissures on the lower East Rift Zone that continued SW of the fountaining source. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 366. 'A'a lava flows emerged from the elongated fissure 16-20 at Kilauea to form several channels. The flow direction is from upper center to the lower left of image. Incandescence from the second flow is visible in the upper left. Image taken around 0818 on 19 May 2018 during a helicopter overflight of Kilauea's lower East Rift zone by HVO geoscientists. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 367. Around 1215 on 19 May 2018 the two primary lava-flow fronts originating from the fissure 20-22 area on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone were about to merge as they flowed SE. The flow front position based on a later update at 1840 is shown by the red circle. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the thermal image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The thermal map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique thermal images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.

The two flows from the fissure 20 complex entered the ocean at two points along the SE Puna coast overnight on 19-20 May (figure 368). Soon after, a crack opened under the E lava channel diverting some of the lava into underground voids (figure 369) and reducing the amount of lava flowing into the ocean. Spattering continued from fissures 6 and 17 during the day on 20 May. Fissure 23 first appeared at 1100 on 20 May, at the NE corner of the Leilani Estates subdivision near fissures 4 and 14, about 2 km SW of fissure 20; it was only active during 19-20 May. Volcanic gas emissions tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from the fissure 20 complex; satellite instruments measured a major increase in SO2 emissions on 19 May (figure 370). Intermittent explosive eruptions continued at the summit, and plumes of gas and steam periodically emerged from the Overlook vent and drifted SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 368. The fissure 20 complex flows from Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone reached the ocean overnight during 19-20 May 2018, as seen in this image from an HVO overflight in the early morning on 20 May. Dense white plumes of "laze" (short for "lava haze") formed as lava entered the ocean. Laze is formed as lava boils seawater. The process leads to a series of chemical reactions that result in the formation of a billowing white cloud composed of a mixture of condensed seawater steam, hydrochloric acid gas, and tiny shards of volcanic glass. This mixture has the stinging and corrosive properties of dilute battery acid and is hazardous to breathe. Because laze can be blown downwind, its corrosive effects can extend far beyond the actual ocean entry area. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 369. Lava from the eastern channel of the fissure 20 complex flowed into a crack in the ground that opened on the morning of 20 May 2018. The resulting decrease in lava volume caused the easternmost channel of lava and the eastern ocean entry to be less vigorous than the western entry point. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 370. SO2 emissions increased substantially at Kilauea when the rate of lava emission increased significantly on 19 May 2018 on the lower East Rift Zone. The OMI instrument on the Aura satellite measured 8.2 Dobson Units (DU) of atmospheric SO2 on 3 May, the day fissure 1 opened, and 18.11 DU on 19 May when the flow rates increased at the fissure 20 complex. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

The most vigorous eruptive activity during 21-23 May in the lower East Rift Zone, was concentrated in the middle portion of the system of fissures, primarily between fissure 20 on the NE and fissure 23 on the SW (figure 371). Fountaining 50 m high from fissure 22 was feeding the channelized flow reaching the coast (figure 372). Fissure 6 reactivated with spattering and a short flow on 21 May. Fissure 17, at the NE end of the fissure system was only weakly active. On 22 May lava fountains continued from fissures 6 and 22, with fissures 19 and 5 also active; a new area of fountaining also appeared near fissure 23. Fountaining from fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates and blue methane was observed burning in road cracks overnight on 22-23 May (figure 373). Observers noted that the height of the perched lava pond forming on the NW side of fissures 5 and 6 had reached 11 m above the ground level.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 371. By 20 May 2018, two lava flows from fissures 20 and 22 in the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea had coalesced and reached the ocean. Activity at the fissure 17 flow had diminished significantly. The most vigorous eruptive activity during 21-23 May 2018 was concentrated in the middle portion of the system of fissures, primarily between fissure 20 on the NE and fissure 23 on the SW. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 372. HVO geologists reported fountaining from fissure 22 as 50 m high on 21 May 2018 at Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 373. Blue flames of methane emerged from ground and road cracks on 22 May 2018. This early morning photo was taken on Kahukai Street in the Leilani Estates subdivision at Kilauea looking SE, with an active lava flow from fissure 13 behind the blue flames. Photo by L. DeSmither, courtesy of HVO.

By 23 May, fountains from fissures 5, 6 (figure 374), 13, and 19 were feeding a flow advancing to the S, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22 (figure 375); it reached the ocean late in the afternoon, creating multiple entry points that produced occasional small explosions. Small ash emissions from the Overlook vent occurred frequently during 21-23 May (figure 376). Fissure 8 reactivated briefly in the morning of 23 May and erupted two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 374. Fissure 6 in the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea built a lava berm across Pohoiki Road as seen on 23 May 2018. Flows from fissure 6 and adjacent fissures formed a flow parallel to an earlier flow that traveled SE reaching the coast that afternoon. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 375. Multiple channels of lava flowed SE from the fissure zone at Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone to the sea on 23 May 2018. Overflows from the channels spread out over existing, older flows; note the large agriculture buildings as indicators of the scale of the flows. The visible haze is sulfur dioxide gas from the fissures. Photo taken by J. Ozbolt, Hilo Civil Air Patrol, courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 376. A pulse of ash rose from Halema'uma'u on 23 May 2018 as part of semi-continuous emissions at Kilauea's summit. Ash could be seen falling from the plume as it was blown downwind around 1528 HST on 23 May. USGS photo by I. Johanson, courtesy of HVO.

Activity during 24-28 May 2018. Overnight on 23-24 May field crews observed that fissure areas 2, 7, 8, 3, 14, and 21 had reactivated and were spattering (figure 377). Fissure 22 continued to erupt lava flowing SE to the coast (figure 378). Fissures 7 and 21 were feeding a perched lava pond and pahoehoe flow that advanced eastward later that afternoon. An explosion from the summit Overlook vent just after 1800 on 24 May produced an ash cloud that rose to 3.1 km altitude and had more ash than most recent explosions (figure 379). The National Weather Service Nexrad radar tracked the cloud for 15-20 minutes; moderate trade winds were blowing to the SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 377. Reactivation of fissures 2, 7, 8, 3, 14, and 21 was noted on 24 May 2018 at the lower East Rift Zone at Kilauea. Fissures 7 and 21 were feeding a perched lava pond and pahoehoe flow. Several ocean entries were also active from the channelized flow down the SE flank sourced from the region of fissures 6-20. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 378. During HVO's overflight in the morning of 24 May 2018, the fissure 22 fountain was not as high as several days earlier, but was still erupting significant lava that was flowing to the SE Puna coast at Kilauea. USGS photo by M. Patrick, courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 379. An explosion was detected from the summit Overlook Crater at Kilauea just after 1800 on 24 May 2018 that produced an ash cloud that rose to 3.1 km altitude, carrying more ash than most recent explosions. This view to the SW is from the caldera rim near Volcano House where USGS scientists were stationed to track the ongoing summit explosions. Courtesy of HVO.

By 25 May, the two flows from fissure 22 and fissures 6 and 13 were still reaching the ocean with two entry points (figure 380); fissures 7 and 21 were feeding a flow that continued to slowly advance NE, covering several streets in Leilani Estates (figure 381). By the next day, the flow front of fissure 21 had become an 'a'a flow and was continuing to move NE (figure 382), reaching the PGV (Puna Geothermal Venture) property by late afternoon on 26 May. Fissure 7 was feeding a flow that had turned S toward the coast, and at dusk the lava was cascading into the Pawaii crater, adjacent to the western margin of the fissure 6 flow that fed one of the ocean entries. On the W side of fissure 7 a perched pahoehoe flow broke out around 0400 on 26 May, feeding short flows to the W. Multiple small eruptions continued to occur at the summit, most ejecting ash to under 3.1 km altitude. One of the largest occurred about 1617 on 25 May sending ash as high as 3.7 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 380. Fissures 6 (left) and 13 (right) at midday on 25 May 2018 on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone, with lava flows merging into one channel that flows SE into the ocean. Note plume in distance at the ocean entries (top left). Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 381. Reactivated fissures 7 and 21 within the Leilani Estates subdivision at Kilauea were feeding new flows moving NE towards the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) property during 25 and 26 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 382. An 'a'a flow, erupted from fissure 21 at Kilauea was approximately 3-4 m high at the flow front and slowly advancing to the NE in the Leilani Estates subdivision around 1030 HST on 26 May 2018. Courtesy of HVO.

Overnight during 26-27 May fissure 17 was the source of multiple booming gas emissions. Fissure 7 activity increased overnight, producing a large spatter rampart over 30 m tall from fountains reaching 50-70 m high (figure 383). The fountains fed two perched channels, the N channel, 8-15 m thick, fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property; the S channel was a flow advanced SE. Large cracks were observed overnight near fissure 9 which developed into fissure 24. Fissure 8 had three vents active overnight on 26-27 May that were spattering and flaming; they had doubled in size over the previous 24 hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 383. Pahoehoe lava advanced rapidly W from fissure 7 on Leilani Avenue in Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone on 27 May 2018. Activity had increased overnight, with lava fountains reaching 50 to 60 m high. Courtesy of HVO.

The fissure 21 'a'a flow continued to advance NE onto PGV property but at a slower pace on 27 May. By the end of the day, fissures 7 and 8 were the most active, fountaining and feeding lava flows that advanced NE onto PGV property. At about 1900 HST a fast-moving lava flow broke from this area and advanced rapidly to the N and W through the eastern portion of Leilani Estates, causing additional evacuations. Activity had noticeably diminished from fissures 22 and 13, and the supply of lava to the channel flowing to the sea had ceased by the next day, 28 May. Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook vent at the summit. Observations from the ground and by UAV during the previous week documented retreat of the Overlook vent wall due to collapse of the steep enclosing walls and rim. Trade winds carried the ash clouds primarily SW.

Fissure 8 fed a fast-moving flow early on 28 May that moved N along the margin of the existing fissure 7 flow before turning E and crossing out of Leilani Estates (figure 384). Flow activity from fissure 8 diminished abruptly midday and a few other fissures reactivated briefly with fissure 7/21 having the tallest fountains. Vigorous fountaining resumed at fissure 8 late in the afternoon, spawning a flow that traveled an estimated 20 m per hour to the NE over the flow of the previous day; fountains were 50-60 m tall (figure 385). During the evening, fissures 16, 18, 22, 13, and 20 were also active, with flows moving S from fissures 16/18. Pele's hair from vigorous fountaining of fissure 8 was being transported downwind, and there were reports of some strands falling in Pahoa. Residents were warned to minimize exposure to Pele's hair, which could cause skin and eye irritation similar to exposure to volcanic ash. Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the vent within Halema'uma'u crater. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake occurred at 1739 HST on the Koa'e fault zone south of the caldera. Earthquakes in the summit region continued as the area subsided and adjusted to the withdrawal of magma.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 384. A fast-moving flow from fissure 8 moved N and then E out of Leilani Estates on 28 May 2018 marking a new phase in the 2018 Kilauea eruption. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 385. Fissure 8 on Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone reactivated after a brief pause on the afternoon of 28 May 2018 with lava fountains that reached heights of 60 m and fed a lava flow that advanced rapidly to the NE. Courtesy of HVO.

By 26 May 2018, flows on the lower East Rift Zone had destroyed at least 82 structures including 41 homes since the beginning of May. Twelve more were destroyed on 27 and 28 May as flows continued to move across the region, according to USA Today. By 29 May, activity on the lower East Rift Zone was focused on the vigorous eruption of lava from fissure 8 advancing rapidly downslope towards the NE and Highway 132.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey, PO Box 51, Hawai'i National Park, HI 96718, USA (URL: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); USA Today (URL: https://www.kiiitv.com/article/news/nation-now/hawaii-lava-flow-destroys-12-more-homes-as-Kilauea -volcano-continues-exploding/465-afd62fc3-91d2-4764-9eb9-c3dee473033d).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian, lava flow, and explosive activities resume, June-October 2018

Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, Indonesia experienced a major caldera collapse, likely in 535 CE, that formed a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands (see inset figure 23, BGVN 36:08). Remnants of this volcano coalesced to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island which collapsed during the 1883 eruption. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. The most recent event was a brief episode of Strombolian activity, ash plumes, and a lava flow during the second half of February 2017. Activity resumed in late June 2018 and continued through early October, the period covered in this report. Information is provided primarily by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, referred to as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG). Aviation reports are provided by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and photographs came from several social media sources and professional photographers.

After the brief event during February 2017, Anak Krakatau remained quiet for about 15 months. PVMBG kept the Alert Level at II, noting no significant changes until mid-June 2018. Increased seismicity on 18 June was followed by explosions with ash plumes beginning on 21 June. Intermittent ash emissions were accompanied by Strombolian activity with large blocks of incandescent ejecta that traveled down the flanks to the ocean throughout July. Explosions were reported as short bursts of seismic activity, repeating multiple times in a day, and producing dense black ash plumes that rose a few hundred meters from the summit. Similar activity continued throughout August, with the addition of a lava flow visible on the S flank that reached the ocean during 4-5 August. Generally increased activity in September resulted in the highest ash plumes of the period, up to 4.9 km altitude on 8 September; high-intensity explosions were heard tens of kilometers away during 9-10 September. PVMBG reported significantly increased numbers of daily explosions during the second half of the month. The thermal signature recorded in satellite data also increased during September, and a large SO2 plume was recorded in satellite data on 23 September.

Activity during June-July 2018. PVMBG noted an increase in seismic activity beginning on 18 June 2018. Foggy conditions hampered visual observations during 19-20 June, but on 21 June gray plumes were observed rising 100-200 m above the summit (figure 41). Two ash plumes were reported on 25 June; the first rose to about 1 km altitude and drifted N, and the second rose to 600 m altitude and drifted S (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Anak Krakatau began a new eruptive episode on 21 June 2018 with an ash plume that rose 200 m above the summit. Photo by undisclosed source, courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen‏.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. The first of two ash plumes rose to about 1 km altitude and drifted N from Anak Krakatau on 25 June 2018; the first events after about 18 months of no activity were reported on 21 June. Courtesy of PVMBG (Eruption Information on Mt. Anak Krakatau, June 25, 2018).

Incandescence was observed at the summit during 1-2 July 2018, and two ash emissions were reported in VONA's (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) on 3 July. PVMBG reported that during 4-5 July there were four additional ash-producing events, each lasting between 30 and 41 seconds. The last three of these events produced ash plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N and NW. The Darwin VAAC reported essentially continuous ash emissions during 3-9 July drifting generally W and SW at about 1.2 km altitude (figure 43). They were intermittently visible in satellite imagery when not obscured by meteoric clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. A dense gray ash plume rose several hundred meters above Anak Krakatau on 7 July 2018 (local time) while large volcanic bombs traveled down the flanks. Photo by Sam Hidayat, courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen‏.

Ash plumes were again observed by the Darwin VAAC in satellite imagery beginning on 13 July 2018 at 1.2 km altitude drifting NW. They were essentially continuous until they gradually decreased and dissipated early on 17 July, rising to 1.2-1.5 km altitude and drifting W, clearly visible in satellite imagery several times during the period. Satellite imagery revealed hotspots several times during July; they ranged from small pixels at the summit (9 July) to clear flow activity down the SE flank on multiple days (12, 19, and 24 July) (figure 44). In the VONA's reported by PVMBG during 15-17 July, they noted intermittent explosions that lasted around 30-90 seconds each. PVMBG reported a black ash plume 500 m above the summit drifting N during the afternoon of 16 July. The Darwin VAAC continued to report ash emission to 1.2-1.5 km altitude during 18-19 July, moving in several different directions; Strombolian activity sent incandescent ejecta in all directions on 19 July (figure 45). During 25-26 July the Darwin VAAC noted continuous minor ash emissions drifting SW at 1.2 km altitude, and a hotspot visible in infrared imagery.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery clearly documented the repeated thermal activity at Anak Krakatau throughout July 2018. a) 9 July 2018: a small hotspot was visible at the summit and an ash plume drifted NW. b) 12 July 2018: a much larger hotspot showed a distinct flow down the SE flank. c) 19 July 2018: even under partly cloudy skies, incandescent ejecta is visible on the S flank. d) 24 July 2018: incandescent lava had almost reached the SE coast. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Strombolian activity sent incandescent ejecta down all the flanks and into the sea at Anak Krakatau on 19 July 2018, as seen from the island of Rakata (5 km SE). Courtesy of Reuters / Stringer.

Activity during August-early October 2018. A series of at least nine explosions took place on 2 August 2018 between 1333 and 1757 local time. They ranged from 13 to 64 seconds long, and produced ash plumes that drifted N. The Darwin VAAC reported minor ash observed in imagery at around 2 km altitude for much of the day. In a special report, PVMBG noted a black ash plume 500 m above sea level drifting N at 1757 local time. Continued explosive activity was reported by local observers during the early nighttime hours of 3 August (figure 46).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. A dark ash plume rose 100-200 m from Anak Krakatau during the early morning hours of 3 August 2018, and incandescent ejecta rolled down the flanks. Tens of explosions were heard in Serang (80 km E) and Lampung (80 km N). Courtesy of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho.

The Darwin VAAC reported continuous ash emissions rising to 1.8 km altitude and drifting E on 5 August, clearly visible in satellite imagery, along with a strong hotspot. The ash plume drifted SE then S the next day before dissipating. PVMBG reported incandescence visible during the nights of 5-15 August. Photographer Øystein Lund Andersen visited Krakatau during 4-6 August 2018 and recorded Strombolian activity, lava bomb ejecta, and a lava flow entering the ocean (figures 47-50).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Strombolian explosions sent incandescent ejecta skyward, and blocks of debris down the flanks of Anak Krakatau on 5 August 2018 as captured in this drone photograph. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Large volcanic bombs flew out from the summit vent of Anak Krakatau while a dark gray plume of ash rose a few hundred meters on 5 August 2018 in this drone photograph. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. A blocky lava flow traveled down the S flank of Anak Krakatau on 5 August 2018 in this closeup image taken by a drone. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Views of Anak Krakatau from the SE showed Strombolian activity and incandescent lava (upper photo) and steam from the lava flowing into the ocean and dark ash emissions from the summit (lower photo) on 5 August 2018. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.

Emissions were reported intermittently drifting W on 11, 14, and 16 August at 1.2-1.5 km altitude. Video of explosions on 12 August with large bombs and dark ash plumes were captured by photographer James Reynolds (Earth Uncut TV). PVMBG reported black ash plumes drifting N at 500 m above the summit on 17 and 18 August after explosions that lasted 1-2 minutes each. The Darwin VAAC also reported ash plumes rising to 1.2 km altitude on 17-18 drifting NE. VONA's were issued during 22-23 August reporting at least three explosions that lasted 30-40 seconds and produced ash plumes that drifted N and NE. The Darwin VAAC reported the plume on 22 August as originating from a vent below the summit. PVMBG noted that a dark plume on 23 August drifted NE at about 700 m above the summit. During 27-30 August, the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes intermittently visible in satellite imagery extending SW at 1.2-1.5 km altitude.

Ash plumes drifting N and NW were visible in satellite imagery during 3-4 September at 1.2-1.5 km altitude. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume moving NW and W at 4.9 km altitude on 8 September, the highest plume noted for the report period. The following day, the plume height had dropped to 1.5 km altitude, and was clearly observed drifting W in satellite imagery. A hotspot was reported on 12 September. During the night of 9-10 September PVMBG reported bursts of incandescent material rising 100-200 m above the peak, with explosions that rattled windows at the Anak Krakatau PGA Post, located 42 km from the volcano. Ash plumes continued to be observed through 13 September. The Darwin VAAC reported continuous ash emissions to 1.8 km altitude drifting W and NW on 16-17 September (figure 51). The ash plume was no longer visible on 18 September, but a hotspot remained discernable in satellite data through 20 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. On 16 September 2018 a dark ash plume rose several hundred meters above Anka Krakatau as incandescent lava flowing down the SE flank to the sea created steam plumes. Courtesy of Thibaud Plaquet.

PVMBG reported incandescence at the summit and gray and black ash plumes on 20 September that rose 500 m above the summit. A low-level ash emission was reported drifting S on 21 September and confirmed in the webcam. Four VONA's were issued that day, reporting explosions at 0221, 0827, 2241, and 2248, lasting from 72-115 seconds each. PVMBG subsequently reported observing 44 explosions with black ash plumes rising 100-600 m above the summit, and incandescence at night on 21 September. Ash emissions continued on 22 September at 1.5 km altitude, with a secondary explosion rising to 2.4 km altitude drifting W. The plume height was based on and infrared temperature measurement of 12 degrees C. Later in the day, an additional plume was observed in satellite imagery at 3.7 km altitude drifting N. PVMBG reported observations of 56 explosions, with 200-300 m high (above the summit) black ash plumes and incandescence at night on 22 September. Observations from nearby Rakata Island on 22 September indicated that tephra from incandescent explosions of the previous night mostly fell on the flanks, but some reached the sea. A lava flow on the SSE flank had also reached the ocean (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Activity at Krakatau during 22-23 September 2018 included substantial Strombolian explosions, a dark ash plume, lava flows, and large volcanic bombs traveling nearly to the ocean. Photo courtesy of Malmo Travel.

By 23 September 2018, a single plume was observed at 2.1 km altitude drifting WNW. A glow at the summit was visible in the webcam that day, and a hotspot was seen in satellite imagery the next day as observations of an ash plume drifting W at 2.1 km continued. A significant SO2 plume was captured in satellite data on 23 September (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. A significant SO2 plume dispersed NW of Krakatau (lower right corner) on 23 September 2018 after a surge in activity was observed the previous two days. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

On 24 September, PVMBG reported black ash plumes rising 1,000 m above the summit, incandescence at the summit, and lava flowing 300 m down the S flank observed in the webcam during the night. An ash plume was observed by the Darwin VAAC drifting WSW and then W on 25-26 September at 2.1 km altitude, lowering slightly to 1.8 km the following day, and to 1.2 km on 28 September. Continuous ash emissions were observed through 29 September. A new emission was reported on 30 September drifting SW at 1.8 km altitude. Ash emissions were observed daily by the Darwin VAAC from the 1st to at least 5 October at 2.1 km altitude drifting W. A large hotspot near the summit was noted on 3 October. The thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from late June into early October 2018, as recorded in infrared satellite data by the MIROVA project, confirmed the visual observations of increased activity that included Strombolian explosions, lava flows, ash plumes, and incandescent ejecta witnessed by ground observers during the period (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. The MIROVA project graph of thermal activity at Krakatau from 12 February through early October 2018 showed the increasing thermal signature that appeared in late June at the onset of renewed explosive activity, the first since February 2017. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN); Øystein Lund Andersen? (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com); Reuters Latam (Twitter: @ReutersLatam, URL: http://www.reuters.com/); James Reynolds, Earth Uncut TV (Twitter: @EarthUncutTV, URL: https://www.earthuncut.tv/, Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UD3SLWtuPZs); Thibaud Plaquet (Instagram: tibomvm, URL: https://www.instagram.com/tibomvm/); Malmo Travel (Instagram: malmo.travel, URL: https://www.instagram.com/malmo.travel/).


Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Tanzania

2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Effusive activity continues at the summit through August 2018 with small lava flows and spattering confined to the crater

Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano on Earth currently erupting carbonatite lavas. Activity is based in the crater offset to the N about 100 m below the summit, where hornitos (small cones) and pit craters produce lava flows and spattering. After displaying effusive activity in the north crater since at least 1983, it became filled and lava began overflowing in 1998. The eruption transitioned to significant explosive activity in September 2007 through March 2008 that cleared out and recreated the crater (figure 175). Since then, intermittent effusive carbonatite eruptions have continued. This report summarizes observed activity from August 2014 through August 2018, including observations by visitors and satellite data (figure 176).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 175. The northern summit crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai on 29-30 November 2017. The crater is ~100-125 m deep and ~175-190 m in diameter at the vertical crater wall, and 260-300 m wide at the crater rim. Top: orthorectified photography showing the light-colored crater floor with dark spots indicating the locations of recently active vents. Bottom: Shaded relief of the crater. Courtesy of M. Kervyn and Antoine Dille at Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 176. Selected satellite imagery showing typical activity at Ol Doinyo Lengai during 2017-18. These Sentinel-2 thermal (left) and true color (right) satellite images show the active areas indicated by elevated thermal activity (bright orange) and darker gray-black areas on the crater floor. The dark fresh lavas rapidly cool to a light brown-white color. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Lava fountaining was seen by geologists on 5 July 2014 (BGVN 39:07). A tourist report on Trip Advisor for an unknown date in July 2014 described potential fumarolic activity, while another report that month did not note any activity. No clear reports are known describing activity between August 2014 and May 2015. On 20 June 2015 an Earth Sciences group from the University of Glasgow and University of Dodoma, including volcanologist David Brown, visited the crater (figure 177). They observed minor eruptive activity consisting of gentle spattering at one of the mounds. Evidence of this activity continuing through August is seen in Landsat satellite images (figure 178).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 177. The active Ol Doinyo Lengai crater on 20 June 2015 showing the cone along the western wall (top) and the northern wall (bottom). Photos courtesy of David Brown, University of Glasgow.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 178. Landsat-8 satellite images show color variations on the Ol Doinyo Lengai active crater floor. Darker areas may indicate activity and changing morphology during July through August 2015. Landsat-8 true-color pansharpened images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Only one Sentinel-2 thermal image (out of 22 cloud-free images) contained elevated temperatures during 2016. The image showed activity in the northern part of the crater. Landsat-8 true color images show color variations on the crater floor in October 2016 indicating activity at that time (figure 179).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 179. Landsat-8 images showing color variations on the Ol Doinyo Lengai active crater floor indicating activity in October 2016. Landsat-8 true-color pansharpened images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 29-30 November 2017, a French-Belgium team including M. Kervyn conducted a summit morphology study. Accounts from previous visitors in September-October 2017 reported significant activity in the large half-cone with regular emission of spatter from the summit vent. They observed significant fumarolic activity and the remnants of rockfalls in the crater. Several secondary vents were visible on the side of the large half-cone along the western wall, but no activity was witnessed at this time (figure 180). Active spattering was occurring from a lava pool within a vent in the north-central part of the crater where spattering up to 10 m above the vent continued for several hours (figure 181). A circular cavity in the north-central part of the crater contained a lava pool that had partially crusted over. Darker surfaces suggested recent activity from several vents in the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 180. The ~50-m-high half-cone that formed by a vent along the western wall of the Ol Doinyo Lengai north crater as seen on 29-30 November 2017. Several secondary vents were observed at the foot of the cone. In the lower right of the image, several pit structures are visible along the northern part of the crater. Photo courtesy of M. Kervyn, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 181. Sporadic activity from an active vent in the northern-central part of the Ol Doinyo Lengai active crater was observed for two hours on 30 November 2017. Explosions were regularly heard emanating from the laval pool and jets of spatter were observed reaching up to 10 m above the crater and depositing on the wall and edges of the pit crater. Courtesy of M. Kervyn, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images acquired during 2017 show intermittent activity in the crater (figure 182). Out of 21 cloud-free images, 13 contained elevated thermal signatures between April through December. The locations of the activity move around the crater, indicating that the center of activity was variable through time. Lava pond activity was also noted in early December 2017 by Gian Schachenmann, documented with photos taken during an overflight and posted at Volcano Discovery.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 182. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing areas of high temperatures (bright orange to red) in the summit crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai through 2017. The hotpots show where current or very recent activity has occurred at the time of the satellite image acquisition. The active area moves around the crater throughout the year. False color (Urban) images (bands 14, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 1-2 July 2018, K. A. Laxton and F. Boschetty from University College London visited the summit, accompanied by local guides Papakinye Lemolo Ngayeni, Amadeus Mtui, and Ignas Mtui. Vigorous fumarolic activity was observed near the summit, with sulfur deposits and acrid-smelling gases. A small lava flow was observed that had cooled and turned from black to white by later that day. A pool of lava was observed inside a small hornito in the southern area of the crater floor (figure 183). A small cluster of hornitos were developing in the southern area of the crater and one produced a lava flow on 2 July (figure 184).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 183. View of the crater floor at Ol Doinyo Lengai on 1 July 2018. Small inactive carbonatite flows that emanated from the collapse scar and flank vent on the NW hornito. An active hornito with a lava pool is visible in the center-bottom of the image and a semi-collapsed hornito is visible in the bottom-right. Courtesy of K. A. Laxton, University College London.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 184. A view inside the active Ol Doinyo Lengai crater on 2 July 2018. New natrocarbonate flows are visible in the S and SE of the crater floor and one degassing vent is visible and one active vent is visible in the lower part of the image. A second lava flow from a vent just out of this view below the rim produced a lava flow that covered one third of the crater floor. Annotated image courtesy of K. A. Laxton, University College London.

A video taken by Patrick Marcel in August 2018 showed a recent lava flow that had occurred from a vent at the base of the crater wall and an active flow over-spilling from an active lava pond (figure 185). Throughout 2018, there were 18 out of 24 Sentinel-2 thermal cloud-free images which contained areas of elevated thermal activity. Like 2017, the 2018 activity was located in different areas around the crater (figure 186).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 185. Scenes captured from a video taken in August 2018 show activity on the Ol Doinyo Lengai crater floor. A recent faded flow along the crater floor edge can be seen in the upper images and the active black lava lake with an active lava flow is seen in all images. Courtesy of Patrick Marcel.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 186. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing areas of high temperatures (bright orange to red) in the summit crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai through 2018. The hotpots show where current or very recent activity has occurred at the time of the image acquisition. Similar to activity in 2017, the active area moves around the crater throughout the year. False color (Urban) images (bands 14, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: Matthieu Kervyn, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Geography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium (URL: http://we.vub.ac.be/en/matthieu-kervyn-de-meerendre); Kate Laxton and Felix Boschetty, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom (URL: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/earth-sciences/people/research-students/kate-laxton); Patrick Marcel (URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqxuYOEFNLk); David Brown, School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom (URL: https://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/ges/staff/davidbrown/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Gian Schachenmann, Volcano Discovery (URL: https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/nl/photos/ol-doinyo-lengai/dec2017/crater.html); Trip Advisor (URL: https://www.tripadvisor.com with initial search term 'Ol Doinyo Lengai').


Mayon (Philippines) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Mayon

Philippines

13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2462 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Low activity during April-September with some ash plumes and ongoing crater incandescence

Mayon is a frequently active volcano in the Philippines that produces ash plumes, lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. In early 2018, eruptive activity included lava fountaining that reached 700 m above the summit, and lava flows that traveled down the flanks and collapsed to produce pyroclastic flows (figure 39). Lava fountaining and lava flows decreased then ceased towards late March. Lava effusion was last detected on 18 March 2018, and the last pyroclastic flow for this eruptive episode occurred on 27 March 2018 (see BVGN 43:04). The hazard status for was lowered from alert level 4 to 3 (on a scale of 0 to 5) on 6 March 2018 due to decreased seismicity and degassing; the level was lowered again to 2 on 29 March. This report summarizes the activity during April through September 2018 and is based on daily bulletins issued by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the lava flow activity at Mayon during January through March 2018. Three lava flow lobes flowed down the Mi-isi, Bonga-Buyuan, and Basud channels, and are shown in bright orange/red in these images. These are false color images created using bands 12, 11, 4, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The hazard status remained on Alert level 2 (increasing unrest) throughout the reporting period. Activity was minimal with low seismicity (zero to four per day) and a total of 19 rockfall events throughout the entire period. White to light-brown plumes that reached a maximum of 1 km above the crater were observed almost every day from April through September (figure 40). Two short-lived light brown plumes were noted on 27 and 28 August and both reached 200 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. An emission of white steam-and-gas at Mayon and a dilute brown plume that reached 200 m above the crater was seen on 24 May 2018. Courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

On the days that sulfur dioxide was measured, the amount ranged from 436 to 2,800 tons per day (figure 41). Mayon remains inflated relative to 2010 baselines but the edifice has experienced deflation since 20 February, a period of inflation from 2-14 April, and slight inflation of the mid-slopes beginning 5 May, which then became more pronounced beginning 25 June. No other notable inflation or deflation was described throughout the reporting period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Measurements of sulfur dioxide output at Mayon during 1 April-30 September 2018. Data courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

Incandescence at the summit was observed almost every night (when weather permitted) from April through to the end of September 2018, and this elevated crater temperature is also seen in satellite thermal imagery (figure 42). Thermal satellite data showed a slight increase in output during April through to June, although not as high as the earlier 2018 activity, with a decline in thermal output starting in July (figure 43).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image showing an elevated thermal signature in the crater of Mayon and a steam-and-gas plume on 15 May 2018. Similar indications of activity in the crater were frequently imaged on cloud-free days from April through September. This is a false color image created using bands 12, 11, 4, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS thermal data for the year ending 11 October 2018 at Mayon. An elevated period of activity reflecting the lava flows in January through March is notable, followed by a second period of lower intensity activity during May into June, then a prolonged period of reduced activity through to the end of the reporting period; the August anomaly was not at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Beautifully symmetrical Mayon, which rises above the Albay Gulf NW of Legazpi City, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple edifice has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. A violent eruption in 1814 killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.

Information Contacts: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Department of Science and Technology, University of the Philippines Campus, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (URL: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Saunders (United Kingdom) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Saunders

United Kingdom

57.8°S, 26.483°W; summit elev. 843 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal pulses and satellite imagery hotspots during September 2016-September 2018

Historical observations of eruptive activity on ice-covered Mount Michael stratovolcano on Saunders Island in the South Sandwich Islands were not recorded until the early 19th century at this remote site in the southernmost Atlantic Ocean. With the advent of satellite observation technology, indications of more frequent eruptive activity have become apparent. The last confirmed eruption evidenced by MODVOLC thermal alerts was during August-October 2015 (BGVN 41:02). Limited thermal anomaly data and satellite imagery since then have indicated intermittent activity through September 2018. Information for this report comes from MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal anomaly data and Sentinel-2, Landsat, and NASA Terra satellite imagery.

Evidence for thermal activity at Mount Michael tapered off in MIROVA data from October 2015 through January 2016. MODVOLC thermal alerts reappeared on 28 September 2016 and recurred intermittently through 6 January 2017. Low-level MIROVA thermal signals appeared in June and September-November 2017. During January-September 2018, evidence for some type of thermal or eruptive activity was recorded from either MODVOLC, MIROVA, or satellite imagery each month except for May and June.

Although MODVOLC thermal alerts at Mount Michael ended on 8 October 2015, the MIROVA radiative power data showed intermittent pulses of decreasing energy into early January 2016 (figure 10, BGVN 41:02). At a high-latitude, frequently cloud-covered site such as Saunders Island, this could be indicative of continued eruptive activity. A white plume in low resolution NASA's Terra satellite data was spotted drifting away from Saunders in April 2016, but no thermal activity was reported. The only high-confidence data available from April 2016 through May 2017 is from the MODVOLC thermal alert system, which recorded two thermal alerts on 28 September 2016, one the next day, one on 30 October, and eight alerts on four days in November. Activity continued into January 2017 with one alert on 17 December 2016, and six alerts on 2 and 6 January 2017 (figure 11).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Seventeen MODVOLC thermal alerts between 28 September 2016 and 6 January 2017 were the best evidence available for eruptive activity on Saunders Island from April 2016 through May 2017. Courtesy of MODVOLC.

A low-level log radiative power MIROVA signal appeared in early June 2017; two more signals appeared in September 2017, one in early October and one in late November (figure 12). Additional signals plotted as more than 5 km from the source may or may not reflect activity from the volcano. Steam plumes were visible in NASA Terra satellite images drifting away from the island in August, October, and December 2017, but no thermal signatures were captured.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. The MIROVA log radiative power graph for Mount Michael on Saunders Island from 25 May-30 December 2017 showed intermittent heat sources that indicated possible eruptive activity each month except July and December. Location uncertainty makes the distinction between greater and less than 5 km summit distance unclear.

More sources of evidence for activity became available in 2018 with the addition of the Sentinel-2 satellite data during the months of February-April and September. Multiple thermal signals appeared from MIROVA in January 2018 (figure 13), and the first Sentinel-2 satellite image showed a distinct hotspot at the summit on 10 February (figure 14).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. MIROVA thermal data for January-September 2018 indicated intermittent thermal anomaly signals in January, March, April, and July-September (top). A Sentinel-2 image with a hotspot was captured on 23 September, the same day as the MIROVA thermal signal (bottom). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. A Sentinel-2 image of Saunders Island on 10 February 2018 revealed a distinct hotspot and small steam plume rising from the summit crater of Mount Michael. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A MODVOLC thermal alert appeared on 26 March 2019 followed by a significant hotspot signal in Sentinel-2 imagery on 29 March (figure 15). The hotspot was still present along with a substantial steam plume on 3 April 2018. Sentinel-2 imagery on 11 April revealed a large steam plume and cloud cover, but no hotspot.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Hotspots in Sentinel-2 imagery on 29 March and 3 April 2018 indicated eruptive activity at Mount Michael on Saunders Island. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

MIROVA thermal signals appeared in mid-July and mid-August 2018 (figure 13) but little satellite imagery was available to confirm any thermal activity. The next clear signal of eruptive activity was evident in a Sentinel-2 image as a hotspot at the summit on 23 September. A small MIROVA signal was recorded the same day (figure 13, bottom). A few days later, on 28 September 2018, a Landsat 8 image showed a clear streak of dark-gray ash trending NW from the summit of Mount Michael (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Satellite imagery confirmed eruptive activity at Mount Michael on Saunders Island in late September 2018. Top: a hotpot in a Sentinel-2 image on 23 September coincided with a MIROVA thermal signal (see figure 13); Bottom: A Landsat 8 image on 28 September has a distinct dark gray streak trending NW from the summit indicating a fresh ash deposit. The lighter gray area SW of the summit is likely a shadow. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view, (bands 12, 11, and 8A), Landsat 8 image with pansharpened image processing, both courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Saunders Island is a volcanic structure consisting of a large central edifice intersected by two seamount chains, as shown by bathymetric mapping (Leat et al., 2013). The young constructional Mount Michael stratovolcano dominates the glacier-covered island, while two submarine plateaus, Harpers Bank and Saunders Bank, extend north. The symmetrical Michael has a 500-m-wide summit crater and a remnant of a somma rim to the SE. Tephra layers visible in ice cliffs surrounding the island are evidence of recent eruptions. Ash clouds were reported from the summit crater in 1819, and an effusive eruption was inferred to have occurred from a N-flank fissure around the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. A low ice-free lava platform, Blackstone Plain, is located on the north coast, surrounding a group of former sea stacks. A cluster of parasitic cones on the SE flank, the Ashen Hills, appear to have been modified since 1820 (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990). Vapor emission is frequently reported from the summit crater. Recent AVHRR and MODIS satellite imagery has revealed evidence for lava lake activity in the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground, (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Villarrica (Chile) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Villarrica

Chile

39.42°S, 71.93°W; summit elev. 2847 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal activity increases November-December 2017 and July-August 2018; intermittent incandescence and ash

Historical eruptions at Chile's Villarrica, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. An intermittently active lava lake at the summit has been the source of explosive activity, incandescence, and thermal anomalies for several decades. A large explosion on 3 March 2015 included a 9-km-altitude ash plume; significant thermal anomalies from intermittent Strombolian activity at the lava lake and small ash emissions have continued since that time. Sporadic but reduced activity during November 2017-August 2018 is covered in this report, with information provided primarily by the Southern Andes Volcano Observatory (Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur, OVDAS), part of Chile's National Service of Geology and Mining (Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, SERNAGEOMIN), and Projecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), part of the Fundacion Volcanes de Chile, a research group that studies volcanoes across Chile.

Seismicity increased during the second half of November 2017, along with observations of increased incandescence at night from occasional explosions inside the summit crater. Satellite instruments measured a brief surge of thermal activity from late November through early December. The next episode of increased activity occurred in the second half of February 2018 with minor satellite thermal data and webcam views of incandescence. A slow but sustained increase in energy was recorded during March 2018; sporadic incandescence was reported a few times each month between March and May, but observations indicated that the lava lake level was over 100 m below the crater rim. Satellite and webcam observations of incandescence increased in frequency and intensity during June; sporadic ash emissions were noted during mid- and late July. Continuous incandescence was observed in webcams during August 2018; satellite thermal data identified an abrupt rise in thermal energy in late July that remained at a low level into early September 2018.

Activity during November 2017-January 2018. OVDAS reported that during November 2017, the webcams near the summit showed evidence of low-intensity, predominantly white degassing to low altitudes (100 m above the summit). Nighttime incandescence associated with occasional explosions inside the crater were typical. They also noted that long-period (LP) seismicity increased in both energy amplitude and frequency during the last few days of the month. A gradual increase in RSAM values began on 15 November with a continuous tremor signal. A magnitude 4.1 event occurred on 24 November located 2.6 km ESE of the summit at a depth of 1.8 km. A single MODVOLC thermal alert was reported on 28 November. According to POVI the lava lake on the crater floor subsided 8 m between 10 and 20 November (figure 55); during the second half of the month they documented 50-m-high lava fountains, spatter on the crater rim, incandescent jets, and fresh ashfall on the snow cover around the crater rim (figures 56 and 57).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. The SW part of the crater floor at Villarrica subsided about 8 m between 10 and 20 November 2017. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. During the second half of November 2017, POVI documented 50 m high lava fountains, spatter on the crater rim, incandescent jets, and fresh ashfall on the snow cover around the crater rim at Villarrica. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. A sample of reticulite or basaltic pumice collected on 28 November 2017 from the summit of Villarrica. It is a highly vesiculated scoria, with greater than 98% porosity. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

On 5 December 2017, SERNAGEOMIN raised the Alert Level at Villarrica from Green to Yellow (on a 4-level scale), noting a progressive increase in seismic and thermal energy since 15 November. They increased the restricted radius from 500 to 1,000 m from the summit crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported low-intensity degassing during the first half of December 2017, mostly white, and rising not more than 650 m above the crater. Incandescence was visible on clear nights, with occasional explosions that remained below the crater rim. They reported that increased surficial activity was visible during the first few days of December, followed by a decrease in activity (figure 58). POVI images at the end of December (figure 59) showed that the lake level had dropped more than 45 m between 5 and 27 December 2017. Seismicity also decreased throughout the month, reaching its lowest level of the year at the end of December.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. POVI reported that on 9 December 2017 at Villarrica the level of the lake at the bottom of the crater was stable at about 70 m below the rim, and five days had passed with no observations of lava ejecta in the webcams. Images by Víctor Marfull, courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. The lava lake at Villarrica subsided more than 45 m between 5 and 27 December 2017 when this image was taken. Seismic activity also decreased significantly throughout December, reaching its lowest level of the year. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

On 6 January 2018 SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Green, noting a reduced thermal signal, low-level white degassing rising less than 300 m above the crater, and only occasional nighttime incandescence associated with explosions below the crater rim during the second half of December. POVI noted that the drop in seismicity at the end of December corresponded to the end of a 17-month-long period of increased seismicity (figure 60).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. The drop in seismicity at the end of December 2017 suggested the end to a 17-month-long period of increased seismicity that began in July 2016 after a similar decrease in activity at the end of June 2016. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

Activity during February-August 2018. Activity remained low at Villarrica during January 2018. Steam plumes rose less than 550 m above the crater and no thermal activity was apparent. After about six weeks of low activity, Sentinel-2 images indicated an increase in thermal activity between 5 and 18 February 2018 (figure 61). The Villarrica webcam also recorded incandescence at the summit for the first time in two months on 25 February 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. After about six weeks of low activity at Villarrica, Sentinel-2 images indicated an increase in thermal activity between 5 and 18 February 2018. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

While SERNAGEOMIN reported only white degassing to less than 50 m above the summit in March 2018, POVI noted that seismic instruments recorded a slow but sustained increase in released energy. The lava lake was not visible and remained more than 110 m below the crater rim; a small spatter event was detected by a webcam on 7 March 2018 (figure 62). Sporadic incandescence, including on 13 and 20 March, was captured with a webcam located in Pucón, about 16 km N of the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. The surface of the lava lake at the summit of Villarrica remained more than 110 m below the crater rim on 6 March 2018. A small spatter of lava was detected by one of the POVI cameras on 7 March 2018, but little other activity was recorded. A slow but sustained increase in seismic energy was evident in the seismic amplitude data (inset). Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

A research effort in mid-March 2018 by Liu et al. (2019) to capture gas emissions close to the vent using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) demonstrated good agreement between gas ratios obtained from simultaneous UAS- and ground-based multi-GAS acquisitions. The UAS measurements, however, taken from the young, less diluted gas plume revealed additional short-term patterns that reflected active degassing through discrete, audible gas exhalations (figures 63 and 64).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. A research expedition to Villarrica on 20 and 21 March 2018 demonstrated the effectiveness of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in measuring gas emissions close to an active vent. a) This view to the SE shows Lanin and Quetrapillan volcanoes in the distance behind the summit of Villarrica. (b, c) The lava level was extremely low in the conduit during the measurement campaign, with the lake surface only visible as several pixels in aerial imagery. (d) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) were launched from a sheltered plateau on the N rim of the crater, with the multi-GAS station visible on the eastern rim. (e, top right) Location map of the region, showing the position of UV camera. The green shaded region delimits the extent of the national park. Inset: Aerial map of the summit region shown in (d); the summit crater is ~200 m in diameter. (e, bottom left) Two instrumented multi-rotor vehicles were used in the campaign, the Vulcan octocopter with multi-GAS (left) and DJI Phantom 3 Pro with Aeris gas sensor (right). (f) Vulcan UAS in flight on 20 March 2018. UAV = Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Taken from Figure 1 of Liu et al. (2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. A comparison between contemporaneous proximal UAV and crater rim SO2 measurements at Villarrica. (a) The same-scaled axis highlights the magnitude of plume dilution between the proximal measurements from the UAV made directly above the conduit and those made at the crater rim only 100 m downwind. (b) When the time series are displayed on individually scaled axes it is apparent that even considering the temporal offset imposed by the downwind travel time, the periodic component of the proximal UAV trace is indistinguishable in the crater rim data. Taken from Figure 6 of Liu et al. (2019).

A minor collapse of the crater wall caused a small plume of ash that rose a short distance above the summit on 29 March 2018. POVI's time-lapse webcams located in Pucón captured the event. Overnight on 1-2 April, sporadic incandescence was observed in the webcams and in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. SERNAGEOMIN reported a single MIROVA alert signal on 13 April and an abrupt fall of the seismic signal on 27 April. The POVI webcam captured the brightest incandescence since mid-December 2017 on 3 May 2018. SERNAGEOMIN reported incandescence at the summit again on 23 May, and two thermal alerts on 22 and 25 May 2018.

While gas emissions remained less than 150 m above the summit during June 2018, observations of incandescence at night increased and were reported on 14, 18, 24, and 28 June, and were accompanied by satellite thermal signals on 14 and 24 June. Sporadic ash emissions that reached 400 m above the summit were reported by SERNAGEOMIN during July. The POVI webcam in Pucón captured an ash emission on 16 July 2018 that left ash and pyroclastic debris around the crater rim (figures 65 and 66). A second emission was recorded on 18 July;the Sentinel-2 satellite recorded the largest summit thermal signature since 10 December 2017 the same day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. A steam and ash emission at Villarrica on 16 July 2018 was captured by the POVI webcam. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Ash and pyroclastic debris were deposited around the inside rim of the crater at Villarrica on 16 July 2018. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

Activity continued to increase during July 2018; POVI photographed significant incandescence at the summit on 19 July and again on 25, 29, and 30 July after a period of cloudy weather. ESA's Sentinel-2 camera measured the largest heat area on the summit since August 2015 on 30 July (figure 67). As a result, the interior of the crater lost much of its snow cover and ice (figure 68). Ash and lapilli were visible in satellite imagery on the eastern edges of the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. On July 30 2018 ESA's Copernicus program satellite, Sentinel-2, measured the largest heat area on the summit of Villarrica since August 2015. Due to the heat, the interior of the crater had lost much of its snow cover and ice. Ash and lapilli stand out on the eastern edges of the crater. Left: terrestrial images (objective 120 mm, 0.0001 lux), center: Sentinel-2, filters bands 8, 4 and 3; Right: Sentinel-2, filters bands 12, 11 and 4. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Sequential images of the Sentinel-2 satellite (ESA), with filters of bands 8, 4, and 3, illustrate the evolution of the heat surface emitted by the lava pit, and the decrease in snow and ice within and around the crater rim between 8 July and 2 August 2018. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

SERNAGEOMIN reported continuous incandescence at the summit during August nights when the weather was clear. POVI noted on 31 August 2018 that the lake level had not changed during the month and was about 75 m below the inner W rim of the crater. The lake level remained unchanged during the first 10 days of September 2018 as well (figure 69).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. The lava lake level at the bottom of the summit crater of Villarrica was unchanged during the first 10 days of September 2018. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

The thermal signature in the MIROVA graph for the period from October 2017 through August 2018 showed two clear increases in thermal energy between late November and mid-December 2017, and again from mid-June through August 2018 (figure 70). These corresponded well with MODVOLC thermal alert data which recorded one alert on 28 November 2017, 10 alerts during 2-11 December 2017, and five alerts between 30 July and 2 August 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. MIROVA thermal anomaly graph of log radiative power at Villarrica from 28 September 2017 through August 2018 shows two clear increases in activity, one in mid-November through mid-December 2017 and a second longer-lived phase that began in June 2018, peaked in late July-early August, and remained steady throughout the month of August. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Reference: Liu, E. J., Wood, K., Mason, E., Edmonds, M., Aiuppa, A., Giudice, G., Bitetto, M., Francofonte, V., Burrow, S., Richardson, T., Watson, M., Pering, T.D., Wilkes, T.C., McGonigle, A.J.S., Velasquez, G., Melgarejo, C., and Bucarey, C., 2019. Dynamics of outgassing and plume transport revealed by proximal unmanned aerial system (UAS) measurements at Volcán Villarrica, Chile. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GC007692

Geologic Background. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI) (URL: http://www.povi.cl/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).