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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 4 March-10 March 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 4 March-10 March 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) New
Fuego Guatemala New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Villarrica Chile New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued during 2-6 March. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim and plumes rose 1 km above the crater. High-amplitude tremor continued to be detected and infrasound data sometimes indicated eruptions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 March explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 550-850 m above the crater and drifted 10 km NW, W, and SW. Avalanches descended the Santa Teresa (W), Cenizas (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines, and ash fell in nearby areas including Panimache I and II, Morelia, and Santa Sofía. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes observed at night.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 3-10 March the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded between 39 and 211 gas, steam, and ash emissions. Crater incandescence at night sometimes increased coincident with emissions. During 3-4 March there were 45 explosions detected; an explosion at 2004 on 3 March ejected tephra 700 m from the crater onto the NE flank, and other explosions ejected material 100 m onto the flanks. Gas-and-ash plumes drifted NE. On 5 March there were 29 explosions. Ash plumes mostly rose less than 1 km, although one gas, steam, and ash plume rose 3 km and drifted NE. The next day an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 1.2 km and drifted NE. A series of explosions on 7 March produced ash plumes that rose 1-2 km and drifted SW and N. Incandescent tephra was ejected 800 m onto the flanks and ashfall was reported in Ecatzingo (15 km SW). A series of explosions on 8 March produced ash plumes that rose 2 km and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported in Amecameca (20 km NW), Ecatzingo (15 km SW), and Tepextlipa. On 9 March a low-intensity explosion detected at 1014 generated a water vapor, gas, and ash plume. On 10 March two explosions were detected (at 0747 and 0859). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

Based on information from PVMBG and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 March an eruption at Soputan generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 260 km SE and SW. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images. BNPB noted that the eruption occurred at 1709, and produced ash plumes that rose 4.5 km above the crater and drifted E. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2.5 km down the W flank. Minor ashfall was reported in the Silian Raya district, Touluaan, Tombatu, and party in the districts of Pasan and Rataha. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The next day the VAAC noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 95 km SE.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

Based on OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN data, representatives from ONEMI, SERNAGEOMIN, Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil, and others reduced the exclusion zone around Villarrica to 5 km on 5 March. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Alert Level for Villarrica was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) on 6 March, citing that seismicity had declined to below baseline levels and visual observations indicated no active lava lake. During an overflight on 9 March scientists observed subsidence of material in the crater which partially obscured the conduit. Weak degassing was also noted. On 10 March the Alert Level was lowered to Yellow; OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN warned of avalanches of unconsolidated material and maintained an exclusion zone of 3 km.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that seven explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 2-6 March. Incandescence from the crater was periodically visible at night, and inflation continued to be detected. During a field survey conducted on 4 March scientists observed deposits of tephra, up to 2 cm in diameter, in an area 3 km S of Showa Crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.7 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly during 3-5 and 7-8 March. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 2-9 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images and wind models, the Washington VAAC reported that on 4 March an ash plume rose from Colima to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km NE and ENE. The webcam recorded an ash plume rising from the crater and drifting NE later that day. On 5 March the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE. Gas emissions with some possible ash continued to be recorded. An explosion at 1546 on 6 March generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE. Satellite images detected a plume drifting almost 65 km E at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The webcam recorded continuing ash puffs on 7 March drifting NW. A wide ash plume rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and fanned out N and NE. On 9 March the Mexico City MWO reported an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Webcam views indicated that the emission rose higher. Multiple ash emissions were detected later that day, and one was detected on 10 March.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 27 February-6 March moderate seismicity at Karymsky was detected. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting 215 km ENE on 27 February, and ash deposits extending 10-15 km E and SE on 1 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 4-10 March HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small and scattered breakouts within the flow-field margins, upslope of the leading front. These breakouts included a lobe extending to the N, about 1.6 km upslope from Highway 130, and a lobe on the S side of the flow, about 870 m upslope of Malama Market. The most northern lobe of lava remained stalled, about 500 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a Strombolian and Vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 27 February-6 March. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400 km E, SE, and NE. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The magnitude of seismic tremor significantly decreased at 0520 on 9 March, likely signifying the end of the explosive eruption. Only moderate emissions of steam and gas were observed and a thermal anomaly over the summit had been absent for the previous 10 hours. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-6 March explosions from Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and caused ashfall in Monte Claro (S). Lava-dome incandescence was observed at night. Explosions during 7-8 March generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted W. During 9-10 March explosions generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted S and SW, causing ashfall in San Marcos (10 km SW), Palajunoj (18 km SSW), Las Marías, and San Felipe Retalhuleu (27 km SSW). Avalanches descended the E flank of Caliente cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 27 February-6 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions on 28 February and 3 March generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Ust-Kamchatsk, 85 km SE. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly and ash plumes that drifted 600 km E and NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels during 4-10 March. Elevated surface temperatures were sometimes detected in satellite images. Low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 March an eruption at Sinabung generated a plume that rose 3 km above the summit. Satellite images detected an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100-230 km WNW and NW. Later that day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 27 February-6 March. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 27 February, and 1 and 4 March. Ash clouds rose to altitudes of 3-8 km (10,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 400 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
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Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
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Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
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Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)