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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 13 April-19 April 2016.


















 Activity for the week of 13 April-19 April 2016

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Kerinci Indonesia New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Sangay Ecuador New
Villarrica Chile New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Nevados de Chillan Chile Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported an explosion at Cleveland at 1058 on 16 April was detected by both infrasound (air pressure) and seismic data. AVO raised the Level of Concern Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Seismicity decreased to background levels within an hour of the explosion. Satellite views the next day were obscured by clouds below 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l.; no signs of ash had been detected above that altitude.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Kerinci  | Indonesia  | 1.697°S, 101.264°E  | Elevation 3800 m

Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC stated that on 16 April ash plumes from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that Strombolian explosions and gas-and-steam emission continued to be observed at Klyuchevskoy during 8-15 April. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano, and robust gas-and-steam plumes drifting 100 km SE on 10 April and NE on 14 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

During 13-17 April CENAPRED reported 10-105 emissions from Popocatépetl and as many as two explosions detected daily; some emissions corresponded with increased crater incandescence. Activity increased at 0232 on 18 April. Strombolian activity ejected incandescent fragments 1.6 km onto the NE flank, and ash plumes rose 3 km above the crater and drifted ENE. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Benito Juárez, San Nicolás de los Ranchos, Tianguismanalco, San Martín Texmelucan, and Huejotzingo. Activity decreased over the next few hours; ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted ENE. According to a news article, the airport in Puebla closed due to the ash plumes. During 18-19 April CENAPRED noted 103 emissions an intense crater incandescence. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), ABC News - American Broadcasting Corporation



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

The Washington VAAC reported that on 15 April an intermittent thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images over Sangay. No ash was detected in images, though seismic data indicated activity. On 19 April the Guayaquil MWO indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 3-15 April activity at Villarrica gradually declined after a minor seismic crisis on 3 April, though bursts of seismicity concentrated SE of the main crater suggested possible magma movement at depth. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius around the crater.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 11-15 April the seismic network at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano detected seven eruptions at Showa Crater. An event at 1924 on 17 April generated an ash plume that rose 2.2 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Alaid  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 50.861°N, 155.565°E  | Elevation 2285 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 8-15 April. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. An ash plume drifted about 60 km SE on 9 April, and a gas-and-steam plume drifted 65 km E on 11 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that a very small eruption at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater was detected at 0830 on 16 April. A white plume rose 100 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam images, and notices from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 13 and 15-16 April ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.9-6.4 km (16,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-15 and 18 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported explosions at Fuego during 14-19 April. Ash plumes rose as high as 750 m above the crater and drifted 8-10 km W, SW, and S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 8-15 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 13-19 April. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. The June 27th lava flow, trending NE, continued to be active within 7.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 12-18 April seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by long-period earthquakes, episodes of continuous tremor, and pulses of volcanic tremor associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Thermal anomalies near Arenas Crater were periodically identified in satellite images. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater during the week. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted NW and NE on 12 April. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Nevados de Chillan  | Chile  | 36.868°S, 71.378°W  | Elevation 3180 m

Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that during 1-15 April mostly white vapor emissions rose above Nevados de Chillán's Volcán Arrau dome complex; a small amount of ash was present in the emissions during 7-9 April, rising at most 400 m. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 2-km radius.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 13-19 April IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, volcano-tectonic events, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Crater incandescence was observed at night during 12-13 April. On 13 April a pyroclastic flows traveled 1 km down the E flank, and an ash-and-gas plume rose 2 km. On 18 April a steam-and-ash plume rose 2 km and drifted SW. Crater incandescence during 18-19 April was accompanied by blocks rolling1.5 km down the S and SW flanks. Emissions rose 800 m and drifted NE.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

In a special report from 15 April INSIVUMEH stated that activity at Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, continued at a high level. A loud explosion at 0825 on 15 April was followed by a pyroclastic flow that descended the SE and W flanks of Caliente cone. Collapses of the E and W edges of the crater generated a mushroom-shaped ash cloud that rose 4 km and then drifted 25 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Monte Bello, Loma Linda, Las Marías, San Marcos (10 km SW), and Palajunoj (18 km SSW). Cloud cover obscured views during 16-18 April, though during 17-18 April an ash plume from an explosion rose 700 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in San Marcos Palajunoj. An explosion at 0800 on 19 April generated pyroclastic flows down the SE and W flanks of Caliente cone. Collapses of the E and W edges of the crater generated a mushroom-shaped ash cloud that rose 4.5 km and then drifted 25 km W and SW. Abundant ash fell in the same areas that were affected by the 15-April explosion.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Semeru  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.108°S, 112.922°E  | Elevation 3657 m

Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 April an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 8-15 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (13,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW, NW, and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices, pilot observations, and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion on 14 April, and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 0.1-2.1 km (3,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, E, SE, and S during 15 and 17-19 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

Based on satellite images, wind data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13 and 17-18 April ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 3-3.3 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NE, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)