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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 1 February-7 February 2023
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Chikurachki Paramushir Island (Russia) New
East Epi Vanuatu New
Karangetang Sangihe Islands 2018 Nov 25 New
Lascar Northern Chile New
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java New
Ahyi Mariana Islands (USA) 2024 Jan 1 Continuing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2022 Nov 27 Continuing
Fuego South-Central Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kerinci Central Sumatra Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Central Sumatra 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Santa Maria Southwestern Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 19,996 individual reports over 1,215 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 332 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ahyi Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Aira Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Akan Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alaid Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Alu-Dalafilla Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambae Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambang Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Ambrym East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Anatahan Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Antuco Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Arenal Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Askja Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Asosan Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Awu Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Axial Seamount Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Bagana Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Balbi Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Bamus Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Bardarbunga Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Barren Island Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Batur Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Bulusan Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Calbuco Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cameroon Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Chikurachki
KVERT reported that the moderate explosive eruption at Chikurachki that began on 28 January continued through 2 February. Explosions during 28-29 and 31 January and 1-2 February produced ash plumes that rose to as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SE, E, and NE based on satellite data. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 31 January. The Aviation Color Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for East Epi
According to the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) an overflight of Epi was conducted during the afternoon of 31 January. Steam was observed rising from the ocean’s surface above Epi B, water around the eruption site was discolored, and rafts of pumice were floating on the surface following the currents. Several strands of pumice rafts to the SW, NW, and N of Epi B were visible in 2 February Sentinel B satellite images. During 0700-1030 on 7 February residents observed minor, low-level steaming above Epi B. The intensity of steam emissions varied, increasing and decreasing as new lava was erupted from Epi B. Steaming was again reported by residents starting around 0600 on 8 February. The seismic network recorded elevated seismicity during the previous few days.
Sources: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD), Sentinel Hub
Report for Karangetang
PVMBG reported a recent increase in activity at Karangetang. During 1-31 January white-and-gray plumes were occasionally seen rising as high as 150 m from Main Crater (the south crater) and incandescence emanated from the lava dome in Crater II (also called North Crater); weather conditions often prevented visual observations. The number of seismic signals indicating avalanches of material began increasing on 18 January, and then increased again in early February. The number of avalanches from Main Crater increased on 4 February, with material traveling as far as 800 m down the Batuawang (S) and Batang (W) drainages and as far as 1 km W down the Beha (W) drainage. During 1-7 February white plumes rose 50-100 m above both craters.

An eruption began during the evening on 8 February at around 1700. PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and advised the public to generally stay 2.5 km away from Main Crater with an extension to 3.5 km on the S and SE flanks. Photos showed incandescent material at Main Crater and possible lava fountaining. Incandescent material had also descended the flank in at least two directions, and ash plumes rose along their paths. Eruption plumes rose from the summit.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lascar
SERNAGEOMIN reported that a dome-like structure was first visible on the floor of Láscar’s summit crater in 30 January satellite images, after a period of increased seismicity recorded during the previous few days. The structure was 81 m by 93 m in dimension and covered an area of about 5,332 square meters. Seismicity was low during 1-7 February, though levels increased towards the end of the week. The dome was bigger in a 2 February satellite image and covered an area of 6,290 square meters, suggesting an estimated extrusion rate of 308 square meters per day during 30 January-2 February. At 2053 on 4 February a low-level, reddish-colored gas emission rose 200-340 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and SENAPRED warned the public to stay at least 10 km away from the crater. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for San Pedro de Atacama (70 km NW).
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Tengger Caldera
PVMBG reported that activity at Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone increased at 2114 on 3 February and was characterized by crater incandescence, rumbling sounds, and a strong sulfur dioxide odor. The report noted that sometimes-dense white plumes rose as high as 900 m above the summit during the previous week and through 7 February, and that vegetation on the E caldera wall was yellow and withered. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor and deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ahyi
Unrest at Ahyi Seamount continued during 31 January-7 February. Pressure sensors on Wake Island, 2,270 km E of Ahyi Seamount, detected activity during 31 January-1 February and possible activity during 4-6 February. Plumes of discolored water were not identified satellite images, though the image resolutions were too low to detect it. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 30 January-6 February and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 2,000 tons per day on 30 January. An explosion at 1951 on 3 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 500 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported that the eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 1-7 February, characterized by daily emissions of gas, steam, and ash emissions; inclement weather conditions occasionally prevented views. Gas-and-steam emissions were visible rising from the crater on 1 February. Seismicity increased at 0100 on 2 February and was associated with an ash plume that rose 1.3 km above the summit and drifted NW. Later that day emissions containing ash rose as high as 2.5 km and drifted N, NE, and SE. Ashfall was reported in the N part of Parque Nacional Cotopaxi, and in the area of the Tesalia (47 km NNW) and Güitig factories. Ashfall was also reported in the Quito and Mejía regions including in Amaguaña (35 km NNW), Quitumbe (43 km NNW), Conocoto (41 km N), Guamaní, La Ecuatoriana (44 km NNW), Turubamba (43 km NNW), Chillogallo (47 km NNW), La Magdalena, Machachi (24 km NW), Tambillo (32 km NNW), Alóag (28 km NW), and Cutuglahua (35 km NNW). On 3 February ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km and drifted in multiple directions, and ash fell in Amaguaña, La Armenia, Quitumbe, Conocoto, Guamaní, La Ecuatoriana, Turubamba, Chillogallo, La Magdalena, Machachi, Tambillo, Alóag, Cutuglahua, Uyumbicho (30 km NNW), Aloasí (24 km NW), and El Chaupi (24 km WNW). On 4 February ash plumes rose 1.5 km and drifted NNE and SE. Ashfall was noted in Guamaní, Turubamba, Chillogallo, La Ecuatoriana, Quitumbe, Tambillo, Machachi, Aloasí, Aloag, and Conocoto. On 5 February steam-and-gas emissions with low ash content drifted NW. In the afternoon ash emissions rose 200 m and drifted S. Minor gas emissions were visible during 6-7 February. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 26 January-2 February. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 28-29 and 31 January and 1 February generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 31 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that the vents at the NE base of Etna’s SE Crater, in the Valle del Leone at about 2,800 m elevation, continued to feed lava flows during 30 January-5 February. The flow rate was highly variable with an increase on 1 February, a gradual decrease overnight during 1-2 February, and a complete cessation on the morning of 2 February. Later, during the afternoon of 2 February, lava again effused from the vent and traveled over pre-existing flows. The effusion rate started to decrease in the afternoon of 4 February and progressively decreased overnight into 5 February. By the afternoon of 5 February, the flows appeared to be cooling.

Intense gas emissions rose from Bocca Nuova Crater while gas emissions at Northeast Crater (NEC) and Voragine were minimal. Activity at Southeast Crater was characterized by fumarolic activity localized along the crater rim and from the May-June 2022 eruptive vent which also occasionally produced flashes of incandescence at night. Occasional diffuse ash emissions were also visible and rapidly dispersed with the wind.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-12 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 31 January-6 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 20 km SW, WSW, and W. Ashfall was recorded during 2-4 February in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Finca Palo Verde. Daily block avalanches descended various drainages including the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Honda, Las Lajas (SE), and El Jute (ESE), and often reached vegetated areas. Daily shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano and rumbling was often heard. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-200 m above the summit each day. Resuspend ash deposits from high winds during 3-4 February formed “curtains” of ash on the S flank.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin was low during 1-7 February. No activity was observed, though weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam views. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kerinci
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Kerinci was ongoing during 1-7 February. An eruptive event was recorded at 0230 on 3 February but was not visually confirmed. White-and-gray ash plumes were visible later that day rising 100 m above the summit and drifting NE and E. At 0646 on 4 February a gray-to-brown ash plume rose 200 m and drifted E and SE. At 0722 on 5 February a dense brown ash plume rose 200 m and drifted NE and E. White-and-brown emissions rose as high as 150 m on 7 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was reminded to stay 3 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava continued to erupt on Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater floor during 1-7 February. Activity was concentrated in the E half of the crater in a large, perched lava lake with well-defined levees, covering about 10 hectares. A smaller lake to the W was active in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake. Part of the E lake began to crust over on 1 February, forming a crusted isthmus through the center of the lake and two smaller areas of lava on the N and S sides. The lava fountain was located on the S side. Lava in each of the two smaller areas independently circulated in opposite directions from each other. At around 2315 lava fountaining ceased but resumed about 45 minutes later, rising 1-2 m. During 0100-0400 on 2 February lava from the S side flooded across the whole E lake, covering the isthmus, and returning the E lake to the size it was (10 hectares). The W Lake, and two smaller lava ponds in the central and S portions of the crater floor, remained relatively stable, though one of the ponds overflowed. Two small floating islands in the E lake sank during 2-3 February.

During 2-7 February the E lake, the W lake, and the two small lava ponds remained active and stable. The lava fountain continued to be active, though during 4-5 February bursts of activity caused the fountain to double in height. A second small lava fountain was temporarily active near the first fountain during 0300-0700 on 5 February. Starting at around 2100 on 5 February through 0900 on 6 February a large breakout occurred on the N portion of the crater floor covering an area equal to or slightly larger than the E lava lake. A smaller breakout S of the E lake occurred around 0000 on 6 February. The large breakout continued to be active on 6 February but was only weakly active by 7 February. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok was ongoing during 1-7 February. Incandescence above the crater was visible in a 1 February webcam image. White-and-gray plumes rose as high as 400 m above the crater rim and drifted E and SE on 1 and 5 February. White plumes of variable densities were visible on other days of the week. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Marapi continued during 1-7 February. White-and-gray emissions rose as high as 200 m and drifted in various directions during 1-2 and 4 February; white steam plumes were visible on 3 February. White-and-brown plumes rose as high as 400 m on 6 February. Weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 27 January-2 February and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced six lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.8 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Kali Bebeng drainage); occasional avalanche sounds were recorded. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in webcam images. At 0710 on 8 February a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km down the Boyong drainage on the SW flank. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangup, Musuk, and Mriyan. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 31 January-6 February. Effusion from Caliente cone fed lava flows that descended the San Isidro and Zanjón Seco drainages on the W and SW flanks; the longest part of the lava flow was 4.4 km on 15 January. Incandescence from the dome and the lava flows was visible nightly. Block-and-ash flows from the dome, and from both the ends and sides of the flows, descended the S, SW, and W flanks almost daily. “Curtains” of ash sometimes rose several hundred meters along their paths. Explosions were generally weak-to-moderate in size and produced gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash that rose several hundred meters above the complex. Explosions and accompanying rumbling were heard in El Palmar (12 km SSW) during 3-4 February. Ashfall from both explosions and block-and-ash flows was reported in the Monte Claro (S), El Faro, and La Florida (6 km S), Santa Marta, and El Viejo Palmar (11 km S) ranches during 3-4 February.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 1-7 February. White-and-gray ash plumes that were somewhat dense rose 300-700 m above the summit and drifted N, NE, S, and SW. One of the ash plumes, recorded at 0729 on 1 February, was a dense white-and-gray plume that rose 700 m and drifted NE. At 0700 on 2 February an ash plume rose 600 m and drifted NE. On 3 February white-and-gray plumes rose 100-300 m and drifted S, SW, W, and N. An eruptive event at 1242 on 5 February produced a white, gray, and brown ash plume that rose around 1.5 km and drifted N. Webcam images showed a pyroclastic flow descending the SE flank and ash plumes rising its path. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi’s Mount Young continued during 1-7 February. Seismicity was elevated and daily weak tremor was recorded. Minor steam emissions were visible in webcam images during 3-7 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 26 January-2 February was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A persistent thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images, and minor ash plumes from explosions and lava-dome collapses drifted 70 km NE on 27 and 31 January and 2 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 30 January-6 February with a total of seven explosions recorded by the seismic network. The explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 400 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was observed nightly. Occasional ashfall and rumbling noises were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)