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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 22 February-28 February 2023
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 New
Aniakchak Alaska Peninsula, Alaska New
East Epi Vanuatu New
Karangetang Sangihe Islands 2018 Nov 25 New
Trident Alaska New
Ambae Vanuatu Continuing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) 2016 Dec 5 Continuing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fuego South-Central Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kerinci Central Sumatra Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nyamulagira DR Congo 2018 Apr 18 Continuing
Nyiragongo DR Congo Continuing
Santa Maria Southwestern Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Central Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1270 ± 110 years Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 19,976 individual reports over 1,214 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 332 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ahyi Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Aira Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Akan Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alaid Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Alu-Dalafilla Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambae Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambang Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Ambrym East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Anatahan Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Antuco Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Arenal Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Askja Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Asosan Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Awu Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Axial Seamount Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Bagana Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Balbi Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Bamus Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Bardarbunga Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Barren Island Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Batur Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Bulusan Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Calbuco Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cameroon Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater and Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 13-20 February and incandescence at both craters was visible nightly. Very small eruptive events occurred at Showa Crater. Three explosions and three or four eruptive events were recorded at Minamidake Crater during the week. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the Minamidake Crater rim and large blocks were ejected 600-900 m from the vent. During an overflight on 21 February scientists observed white plumes rising from a vent on the N inner crater wall at Showa Crater and they noted more voluminous emissions compared to the 12 October 2022 overflight. No notable changes at Minamidake Crater were observed. At 1230 on 26 February an eruptive event at Minamidake Crater produced a plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Aniakchak
On 22 February AVO raised the Aviation Color Code for Aniakchak to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) due to a recent increase in the number of earthquakes and a shallowing of those events. Background seismicity was generally characterized as deep (more than 15 km below sea level) long-period events occurring at a rate of about four events per month. Beginning in October 2022 the rate increased, and the earthquakes were located at depths less than 9 km below sea level. The earthquake rate further increased on 31 January and was sustained with dozens of earthquakes detected per day, including a M 3.7 earthquake recorded on 17 February.

Elevated seismicity continued during 23-27 February at a variable rate. Dozens of earthquakes were recorded daily during 22-26 February, though more than one hundred small earthquakes (not all locatable) were detected during 24-25 February. Small earthquakes occurred at the rate of about 10 per hour during 26-28 February. AVO noted that there was no indication that an eruption of Aniakchak was imminent, or that one will occur. Increases in seismic activity have been detected previously at other similar volcanoes, with no subsequent eruptions.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for East Epi
On 23 February the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that minor unrest continued at Epi. Seismicity was sustained though there was only minor manifestation at the water’s surface; steaming at the surface lasting only a few hours at most was occasionally observed. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone, defined as a 2-km radius around the active vent.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Karangetang
According to PVMBG the eruption at Karangetang’s Main Crater (S crater) continued during 22-28 February. Nighttime webcam images posted with daily reports showed incandescent lava flows descending the flanks, though images from 0054 on 26 February and 0026 on 1 March showed only minor incandescence near the summit. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 February ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE based on analyses of satellite imagery and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public were advised to stay 2.5 km away from Main Crater with an extension to 3.5 km on the S and SE flanks.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Trident
An earthquake swarm at Trident began on 24 August 2022 and within about four days the seismic network began detecting episodes of weak seismic tremor and low frequency earthquakes. The events were initially located at depths around 25 km, but then they progressively shallowed to around 5 km by 28 August. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code for Trident to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) on 29 September due to an ongoing seismic swarm. AVO attributed the swarm to moving magma or magmatic fluids and noted that seismic swarms had previously been recorded with no subsequent eruptions. The swarm subsided and on 19 October 2022 AVO lowered both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Green and Normal, respectively, and noted that tremor had been absent since 30 September.

Beginning on 1 January 2023 seismicity again increased with earthquakes occurring at an average rate of about ten per day at depths less than 6 km. The elevated seismicity was sustained, prompting AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 22 February. Dozens of small earthquakes were recorded daily during 23-28 February; the largest event, a M4, was recorded during the morning of 24 February. Trident last erupted during 1953-1974.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ambae
On 23 February the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that the cone in Ambae’s Lake Voui continued to produce emissions consisting of steam, volcanic gases, and possibly occasional ash that drifted downwind. Volcanic earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone, defined as a 2-km radius around the active vents in Lake Voui, and away from drainages during heavy rains.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Bezymianny
KVERT reported that during 17-23 February a daily thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported that the eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 22-28 February, characterized by almost daily emissions of gas, steam, and ash; inclement weather conditions occasionally prevented views. Gas-and-steam emissions rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted W during 21-22 February. Weather clouds prevented visual observations of the volcano during most of 23 February, though by the late afternoon and into the next morning steam emissions with low ash content were seen rising 500 m and drifted SW. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 500 m and drifted W on 25 February. Several emissions of gas, steam, and ash rose as high as 2.4 km and drifted SE on 26 February. During periodic breaks in weather clouds, continuous emissions of gas, steam, and ash sere seen rising as high as 1.5 km and drifting E and SE. Minor amounts of ash fell in the province of Pichincha in Rumiñahui (61 km N), Rumipamba Vallecito, Conocoto (41 km N), El Pedregal (60 km N), Guamaní (42 km NNW), Quitumbe (41 km NNW), La Ecuatoriana (44 km NNW), Chillogallo (47 km NNW), Urubamba (Santo Tomas, 40 km NNW), La Magdalena (Barrio Nuevo, Villaflora, 48 km NNW) and San Bartolo. At 1430 on 28 February an ash plume rose 500 m and drifted SW. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE), Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 16-23 February. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 21 February. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions on 22 February generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-10 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 22-28 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 30 km NW, W, and SW. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations on 22 February. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit each day, and daily shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano. Daily block avalanches descended various drainages including the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Honda, Las Lajas (SE), and El Jute (ESE), and often reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was recorded almost daily in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Finca la Asunción, Finca Palo Verde, and La Soledad (11 km N).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin was confirmed by recent satellite images. A radar image from 19 February showed advancement of the E lobe of the flow field. Additionally, a smaller lobe to the S was advancing towards the crater rim where lava previously spilled down the SW flank in 2021-2022. Lava effusion in the summit crater was visible in 24 and 26 February satellite images. Seismicity was very low 22-28 February with a few local earthquakes detected during 22-23 and 24-25 February. Weather cloud cover sometimes prevented webcam and satellite views. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kerinci
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Kerinci was ongoing during 22-28 February. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 50-150 m above the crater rim and drifted W and E on 26 February. The next day white-and-brown ash plumes rose as high as 150 m and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was reminded to stay 3 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that the eruption on the floor of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater continued during 22-28 February but at a decreased rate. The E and central vents were not erupting. The western lake in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake remained active but with weak lava flows. A small amount of lava is circulating within the lake with intermittent crustal overturns; the lake is mostly crusted over. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 17-23 February and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 11 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.7 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Bebeng and Boyong drainages). No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in webcam images. An avalanche from the weathered and altered 1998 lava wall was visible in webcam images on 10 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nyamulagira
The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that the lava lake on Nyamulagira’s crater floor continued to be active during 13-19 February. Seismicity was generally low, characterized by a few long-period earthquakes located up to 15 km deep along the large fracture connecting the Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo. High concentrations of carbon dioxide were measured in the Mazuku areas, and in an area to the W of a camp in the Lac Vert district in Bulengo; OVG warned residents to stay away from those areas.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)
Report for Nyiragongo
The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that the lava lake on Nyiragongo’s crater floor continued to be active during 13-19 February; faint glow emanated from the crater on 15 February. Seismicity was generally low, characterized by a few long-period earthquakes located up to 15 km deep along the large fracture connecting the Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo. A seismic station near the volcano registered a minor increase in the intensity of signals on 17 February. High concentrations of carbon dioxide were measured in the Mazuku areas, and in an area to the W of a camp in the Lac Vert district in Bulengo; OVG warned residents to stay away from those areas. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 22-28 February. Effusion from Caliente dome fed lava flows that slowly descended the San Isidro and Zanjón Seco drainages on the W and SW flanks. Incandescence from the dome and the lava flows was visible nightly. Block-and-ash flows from the dome, and from both the ends and sides of the flows, descended the S, SW, and W flanks almost daily. Ash plumes from the avalanches and from occasional explosions at the summit rose a few hundred meters high; during 22-23 February ash plumes rose 700 m above the summit and drifted WNW.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 22-28 February. Dense white-and-gray ash plumes rose 300-1,000 m above the summit and drifted N, NE, and E on 22 February. Weather conditions mostly prevented visual observations during the rest of the week, though at 0705 on 23 February a dense white-and-gray ash plume was seen rising to 1 km and drifting SE. The seismic network recorded an eruptive event at 0404 on 26 February; no emissions were observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 100 m away from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 16-23 February. During a field visit to the volcano on 25 February Kamchatka Volcano Station scientists observed and photographed the dome and saw incandescent debris avalanches on the originating at the dome’s summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Kamchatka Volcanological Station
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that both explosive and effusive activity at Stromboli occurred during 20-26 February at two vents in Area N, within the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and at least two vents in the Area C-S (South-Central Crater area) in the crater terrace area. Explosions at vents N1 and N2 in Area N were variable in intensity and ejected coarse material (bombs and lapilli) 80-150 m at a rate of 2-7 explosions per hour. Spattering occasionally occurred at N2 vents during 20-24 February and was sometimes intense. Explosive activity at S2 in the Central-South area (CS) ejected fine-to-coarse material as high as 150 m above the vent at a rate of 1-7 explosions per hour. At around 0700 on 27 February lava overflowed vents in Area N and produced lava flows and at around midnight intense spattering in the same area was visible. Spattering continued at least through 2100 on 28 February; the lava flows were cooling, though some areas were hot due to accumulated material.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 20-27 February. A total of 20 explosions were recorded, sending ash plumes as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejecting large blocks as far as 400 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Occasional ashfall and rumbling noises were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
The eruption at Villarrica was ongoing during 22-28 February. Low-intensity gas emissions rose from the crater on 22 February. Long-period earthquakes recorded at 1056 and 1301 on 27 February were associated with ash plumes that rose 300 m above the crater rim. Several additional minor ash emissions were visible during 1056-1320. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) according to SERNAGEOMIN. ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Yasur
On 23 February the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a high level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (the middle level on a scale of 0-4). Recent observations confirmed that low-to-moderate explosions continued, ejecting bombs that landed back into the crater and producing ash, gas, and steam emissions. The larger explosions occasionally ejected material outside of the crater. The public was reminded to not enter the restricted area within 600 m around the cone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)