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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 25 October-31 October 2023
Name Country Volcanic Province Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bezymianny Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc 2016 Dec 5 New
Bogoslof United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc New
Bulusan Philippines Eastern Philippine Volcanic Arc New
Home Reef Tonga Tofua Volcanic Arc New
Ioto Japan Ogasawara Volcanic Arc New
Klyuchevskoy Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc New
Reykjanes Iceland Iceland Neovolcanic Rift Zone 2023 Dec 18 New
Slamet Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc New
Aira Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ambrym Vanuatu Vanuatu Volcanic Arc Continuing
Aniakchak United States Alaska Peninsula Volcanic Arc Continuing
East Epi Vanuatu Vanuatu Volcanic Arc Continuing
Ebeko Russia Kuril Volcanic Arc 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Erta Ale Ethiopia Afar Rift Zone 1967 Jul 2 (in or before) ± 182 days Continuing
Fuego Guatemala Central America Volcanic Arc 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Indonesia Halmahera Volcanic Arc 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Mayon Philippines Eastern Philippine Volcanic Arc 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala Central America Volcanic Arc 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Ubinas Peru Andean Central Volcanic Arc 2024 May 6 Continuing
Ulawun Papua New Guinea Bismarck Volcanic Arc Continuing
Villarrica Chile Andean Southern Volcanic Arc 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu Vanuatu Volcanic Arc 1270 ± 110 years Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,274 individual reports over 1,227 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bezymianny
KVERT reported that a daily thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 20-26 October. Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Bogoslof
Unrest continued at Bogoslof during 25-31 October with numerous daily earthquakes recorded in seismic data. No additional signs of unrest were recorded in satellite data. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Bulusan
PHIVOLCS reported that increased seismicity at Bulusan that began on 14 October continued. The seismic network recorded a total of 121 volcanic earthquakes from 0500 on 14 October to 1500 on 25 October. Out of those, 37 were volcano-tectonic events associated with rock fracturing and were located at depths of 1-9 km beneath the NW and SE flanks of the volcano. Ground deformation data from electronic tiltmeter stations continued to record inflation at the S flank, first detected in February, and at the NE flank since September. The Alert Level was raised to 1 (the second level on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to be vigilant within the 2-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Home Reef
The Tonga Geological Services reported that the eruption at Home Reef was ongoing. A total of nine eruptive events were detected in satellite data during 21-30 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale) and mariners were advised to stay 4 km away from the island.
Source: Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga
Report for Ioto
According to a news source, an eruption at Ioto (Iwo-jima) occurred at a vent located about 1 km off the coast of Okinahama, on the SE side the island. During an overflight on 30 October observers recorded explosions every few minutes that ejected dark material about 20 m above the ocean. Ejecta from the vent built a black-colored island and floating pumice was present around the island.
Source: The Mainichi Daily News
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that the Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 20-29 October and a daily bright thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Lava fountains sometimes rose as high as 500 m above the summit and fed lava flows that descended the Apakhonchichsky and Kozyrevsky drainages on the SE and S flanks. Phreatic explosions were sometimes generated from the interaction with lava and glaciers on the flanks and caused collapses of older deposits in the drainages. Plumes of the previously deposited ash generally rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 280 km NE, E, and SE during 22-29 October, though on 23 and 29 October plumes rose as high as 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. Scientists at the Kamchatka Volcanological Station visited the volcano on 28 October and noted that the cinder cone at the summit had grown. They also observed advancing lava on the E flank that extended about 2 km from the summit to 2,700 m elevation, incandescent material being ejected 500 m above the crater, and avalanches in the Apakhonchichsky drainage. Ash plumes rose more than 2 km.

Activity intensified on 31 October. Ash plumes were identified in satellite images rising as high as 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l., prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). Ash plumes had drifted as far as 1,300 km SSE. Dates and times are in UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Kamchatka Volcanological Station
Report for Reykjanes
IMO reported that an intense earthquake swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula began on 24 October. By 1700 on 26 October more than 4,000 earthquakes had been located at depths of 2-6 km. A total of 14 earthquakes had a magnitude over M 3; the largest event, a M 4.5, was recorded at 0818 on 25 October. Most of the activity occurred between Stóra-Skogafell and an area NE of Eldvörp. No ground deformation was recorded, though a single GPS station (FEFC), E of Festarfjall, recorded localized movement to the SE. During 25-26 October the displacement recorded by the FEFC station totaled about 2 cm and movement was also detected at a station in Selatangar. The swarm continued and by 1400 on 27 October more than 5,800 earthquakes had been recorded; a M 4 earthquake occurred at 0402 on 27 October and was located about 2 km N of Grindavík.

Seismicity decreased considerably by 1330 on 28 October, though the swarm was ongoing with a total of more than 7,000 earthquakes. Uplift centered around Svartsengi, 1.5 km NW of Mt. Thorbjorn, was clearly evident in satellite radar and GPS data. The uplift had begun at some point the previous day and likely signified a magmatic intrusion at depth. IMO raised the Aviation Color Code for Reykjanes to Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale) at 1518 on 28 October. During 1130 on 29 October to 1130 on 30 October about 1,300 earthquakes occurred at depths of 2-4 km. The largest event was a M 2.7 at 1140 on 29 October. Uplift continued during 28-31 October, though the rates began to decrease. Modeling suggested that magma was accumulating at a depth of about 4 km. An earthquake swarm began at 0840 on 31 October and lasted about two hours. The events were located at depths of 1.5-5 km and indicted that magma was moving.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Slamet
PVMBG reported that daily white emissions rose 50-100 m above Slamet’s summit and drifted S and W during 25-30 October. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 30 October and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 23-30 October, with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. An eruptive period was recorded during 0346-0430 on 24 October; at 0346 a notable ash plume rose as high as 3.4 km above the crater rim and drifted E and ejected large blocks 1-1.3 km from the crater rim. At 0416 an ash plume rose 2.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E. A large amount of ashfall, likely from those events, was observed in Kurokami Town during a field survey later that day. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high on 25 October, averaging 2,200 tons per day. During an aerial observation on 25 October scientists noted that the N side of Showa Crater had slightly enlarged compared to the previous observations on 8 March. A high-temperature geothermal area on the Minamidake Crater floor was also visible. Periods of inflation were recorded in deformation data during 0000-1400 on 26 October and 0100-1600 on 28 October. An eruptive event at 0116 on 30 October produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ambrym
The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported ongoing volcanic earthquakes and tremors at Ambrym during October. Volcanic activity increased for a few hours during 22-23 October and diffuse gas emissions were detected in satellite data on 23 October. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 28 April. VMGD warned the public to stay outside of Permanent Danger Zone A, defined as a 1-km radius around Benbow Crater and a 2-km radius around Marum Crater, and additionally to stay 500 m away from the ground cracks created by the December 2018 eruption.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Aniakchak
AVO reported that on 26 October strong winds in areas NW of Aniakchak and E of Port Heiden dispersed unconsolidated ash up to 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. to the NW. The ash cloud was visible in satellite images and in Port Heiden webcam views. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Normal (the lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale). Equipment failed on 30 October, so AVO could no longer seismically monitor the volcano at an adequate level and determine if activity was at a typical background level. Both the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code were changed to Unassigned.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for East Epi
The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that minor unrest continued at Epi during October. Volcanic seismicity was sustained, though no surficial activity was observed. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone, defined as a 2-km radius around the active submarine vent.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 19-26 October. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l and drifted NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Erta Ale
Eruptive activity at Erta Ale continued during 20-25 October based on satellite data. The four thermal anomalies, located in the N and S pit craters and aligned in a NW-SE direction, were less bright on 25 October relative to the 20 October image.
Source: Sentinel Hub
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that, in general, 2-7 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 24-31 October, though the rate of explosions was not noted on some of the days. The explosions generated ash-and-gas plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 30 km mainly SW and W. Ashfall was reported on most of the days in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km W), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Palo Verde (10 km WSW). Weak rumbling and shock waves were recorded daily. Explosions caused daily block avalanches that descended various drainages including the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute (ESE), and Las Lajas (SE), sometimes reaching vegetated areas. The explosions ejected incandescent material 100-300 m above the summit on most of the days.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion likely continued at Great Sitkin during 25-31 October, producing a thick flow in the summit crater that mainly expanded E. Seismicity was characterized as low with only a few daily earthquakes recorded by the seismic network. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 24-27 October, indicative of the eruption of lava. Weather clouds sometimes obscured views. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 25-31 October. Daily white-and-gray ash emissions rose 200-1,000 m above the summit and drifted NW, NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Krakatau
In a press release PVMBG reported that there was a significant increase in seismicity at Krakatau on 28 October, indicating the movement of magma towards the surface. Deformation measurements showed inflation at two of the stations since April and at one of the stations since September. White gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 25-31 October. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 350-500 m above the summit and W and NW during 26-27 and 29 October. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 300-400 m and drifted W and NW on the other days during the week. Webcam images captured at 2102 on 25 October and 2224 on 26 October showed incandescent material being ejected above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that slow lava effusion at Mayon’s summit crater continued during 11-17 October. The lengths of the lava flow in the Mi-Isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages remained at 2.8 km, 3.4 km, and 1.1 km, respectively. Collapses at the lava dome produced incandescent rockfalls and occasional pyroclastic density currents (PDCs, or pyroclastic flows) that descended the flanks as far as 4 km. Each day the seismic network recorded 97-226 rockfall events and 40-137 volcanic earthquakes mostly characterized as tremor events that each lasted 1-72 minutes. There were 48-53 daily PDC events during 25-26 October and 1-4 daily PDC events during the rest of the week. Sulfur dioxide emissions, measured almost daily, averaged between 600 and 1,257 tonnes per day, with the highest value recorded on 29 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS recommended that civil aviation authorities advise pilots to avoid flying close to the summit.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito lava dome complex during 24-31 October with lava extrusion at Caliente dome. Incandescence from the dome was visible during most nights and early mornings, and occasionally from the lava flow on the upper WSW flank. Daily weak-to-moderate explosions occurring at a rate of 1-4 per hour generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the dome and drifted W and SW. Explosions produced block-and-ash flows that descended the SW, S, SE, and E flanks of Caliente dome and were occasionally accompanied by small pyroclastic flows.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 19-26 October. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 20, 23-24, and 26 October; weather clouds obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that unrest at Shishaldin continued during 25-31 October with observations suggesting ongoing degassing of magma at shallow levels beneath the summit. Seismicity was elevated, consisting of seismic tremor and small, low-frequency earthquakes, though activity had begun to slowly decline after the last explosive event on 3 October. Minor steam emissions were visible in webcam images during 24-25 October. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 28-29 October, though they did not indicate lava at the surface. On 31 October the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 23-30 October. Eruptive events during 25-27 and 29-30 October generated plumes that rose as high as 1.9 km above the crater rim and drifted SE, S, and SW and ejected large blocks as far as 400 m from the vent. Ash fell in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that the eruption at Ubinas continued during 23-29 October at low-to-moderate levels. There were daily averages of 175 volcano-tectonic earthquakes indicating rock fracturing and 17 long-period earthquakes signifying the movement of gas and magma. Daily gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. At 0043 on 27 October an ash, gas, and steam emission rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted SE and E. A minor thermal anomaly on the crater floor was visible. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the crater.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Ulawun
Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that variable amounts of white steam emissions rose from Ulawun’s summit crater during 1-28 October and drifted SE; small volumes of blue vapor were visible on 18 October. Low-level seismicity, characterized by small continuous volcanic tremors recorded during the last week of September, continued through the first week of October. Small, discrete, low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and short-duration sub-continuous volcanic tremors emerged on 8 October and fluctuated at low-to-moderate levels through 28 October. The pattern of seismicity again changed on 28 October when both low-frequency and high-frequency earthquakes were detected. Though activity was forecasted to remain low, RVO noted that some of the seismic patterns were similar to those observed before the 14 and 25 September eruptions; RVO recommended that the Alert Level be raised to Stage 2 (on the four-level scale).
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 0700 on 31 October an ash-and-gas plume rose 260 m above Villarrica’s crater rim. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Yellow (the third level on a four-level scale) according to SERNAGEOMIN and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. SENAPRED maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and Panguipulli.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Sistema y Servicio Nacional de Prevención y Repuesta Ante Desastres (SENAPRED)
Report for Yasur
The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a high level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (the middle level on a scale of 0-4) during October. Recent satellite observations indicated an increase in steam, gas, and ash emissions from the summit crater. Explosions continued, with some ejecting bombs that landed back in and around the crater. A significant landslide occurred inside the vent on 10 October. The public was reminded to not enter the restricted area within 600 m around the boundaries of the Permanent Exclusion Zone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)