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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 27 December-2 January 2024
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Lewotobi Indonesia 2023 Dec 23 New
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 New
Ahyi United States Continuing
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ambae Vanuatu Continuing
Bulusan Philippines Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Heard Australia 2012 Sep 5 ± 4 days Continuing
Ibu Indonesia 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Russia Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Poas Costa Rica 2023 Dec 1 Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin United States Continuing
Stromboli Italy 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Ulawun Papua New Guinea Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1270 ± 110 years Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that seismicity at Lewotobi had increased on 12 December and was followed by the emergence of “tornillo” earthquakes indicating fluid movement at depth. An eruption occurred on 23 December at Laki-laki and lasted about 24 minutes. A 160-m-long fissure on the upper NW flank was visible afterwards and it emitted dense white plumes that rose 300 m. At 0253 on 28 December an observer noted a dense white-and-gray ash plume that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted NW. On 1 January the amplitude of continuous tremors increased. A new vent opened along a fissure located on the upper SSE flank and produced a white, gray, and black ash plume that rose 1-1.5 km above the summit. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) at 1600 and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the Perempuan and Laki-laki craters and an additional 4 km from the NNW and SSE flanks of Laki-laki. At 0454 on 2 January a gray-to-brown ash plume rose 1.5 km above the summit and drifted SW and W.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 27 December 2023-2 January 2024, though fog and rain occasionally prevented visual observations of the summit. At 1205 on 27 December a dense gray ash plume rose 1.5 km above the summit and drifted SW and W. Ash plumes rose 500-700 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, and W during 31 December 2023-1 January 2024. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ahyi
A plume of discolored water in the vicinity of Ahyi Seamount was observed in satellite images on 1 January. The plume possibly signified underwater volcanic activity but that interpretation could not be confirmed because pressure sensors at Wake Island were not operational; more distant sensors did not record any activity. Both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Unassigned.
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 25 December 2023-1 January 2024, with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. Small eruptive events were occasionally recorded during the week. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ambae
On 28 December the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that steam-and-gas emissions at Ambae were ongoing based on satellite images. Ashfall was reported in the N parts of the island during 19-21 December, coincident with strong SE trade winds. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone, defined as a 2-km radius around the active vents in Lake Voui, and away from drainages during heavy rains.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Bulusan
In a special advisory, PHIVOLCS reported that from 2100 on 29 December 2023 to 2100 on 2 January 2024 the seismic network at Bulusan recorded a total of 116 volcanic earthquakes. Out of those, 110 were volcano-tectonic events associated with rock fracturing at depths of 2-6 km beneath the S flank of the volcano; the other six were low-frequency events associated with fluid movement. Gas emissions from the summit crater were at weak-to-moderate levels. Ground deformation data from electronic tiltmeter stations continued to record inflation at the S flank since February 2023. The Alert Level remained at 1 (the second level on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to be vigilant within the 2-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 27 December 2023-2 January 2024. Daily, dense, white-and-gray ash-and-gas plumes rose 700-2,800 m above the summit and drifted N, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 21-28 December. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 22-23 and 25-26 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Fuego during 27 December 2023-2 January 2024. Explosions were recorded daily, averaging 5-20 per hour on most days where counts were reported. The explosions generated ash-and-gas plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 30 km NW, N, NE, and E. Ashfall was reported on most of the days in areas downwind including Alotenango (8 km ENE), Ciudad Vieja (14 km NE), Parramos (18 km NNE), Sumpango (25 km NE), San Lucas (28 km NE), Sacatepéquez (18 km ENE), La Reunión (7 km SE), Alotenango (8 km ENE), La Antigua (18 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Cayetano. Weak rumbling sounds and shock waves were recorded daily and shook structures within a 10-km radius. Explosions caused daily block avalanches that descended various drainages including the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), and Las Lajas (SE). The explosions ejected incandescent material 200-300 m above the summit on most of the days.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that a 24 December radar image of Great Sitkin showed continuing growth of a thick flow in the summit crater; effusion likely continued during 27 December 2023-2 January 2024. Weather clouds often obscured views of the volcano. Minor steaming from the active flow field was identified in a webcam images during a break in cloud cover during 31 December-1 January. Seismicity was low. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Heard
A 29 December satellite image of Heard Island’s Big Ben volcano showed a thermal anomaly at the summit that was elongated to the SW. The anomaly narrowed and terminated at an area that was about 1 km from the summit, suggesting the presence of a lava flow.
Source: Sentinel Hub
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 27-31 December. Daily white-and-gray ash emissions that were sometimes dense rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted SE and S. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
An explosive Strombolian eruption began at Klyuchevskoy on 27 December and a bright thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. On 30 December an ash plume rose as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 195 km NW based on satellite and webcam images. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). On 31 December explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 230 km WNW. A thermal anomaly persisted through 1 January, though explosions were not detected; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 27 December 2023-2 January 2024. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 250-400 m during 27-28 December, 31 December, and 1 January, and drifted NW, E, NW, and SE. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 100-600 m above the summit on the other days and drifted W, NW, NE, and E. Incandescent lava was occasionally ejected about the vent. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 22-28 December. The SW lava dome produced a total of 102 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks; 16 traveled S as far as 1.5 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and the other 86 traveled SW as far as 1.9 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images were due to continuing collapses of material. The volume of the SW dome was an estimated 2,948,100 cubic meters and the dome in the main crater was an estimated 2,358,400 cubic meters based on 20 December aerial photos. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported that small phreatic eruptions at Poás continued to be observed. Phreatic eruptions at 1922 and 1926 on 25 December and at 0235 on 26 December ejected material 50 m above the lake surface. At 1535 on 27 December a small phreatic event ejected a plume of water and sediment 100 m above the lake and produced a steam-and-gas plume that rose 500 m. Events recorded at 0117 on 29 December, as well as at 0500, 1034, and 1530 on 30 December, ejected sediment, water, and gas no higher than 200 m above the lake.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported continued unrest at Rincón de la Vieja during 26 December 2023-1 January 2024. Small phreatic eruptions were detected through the week with steam-and-gas plumes rising no higher than 1 km above the crater rim. Tall, dense plumes of steam and gas that were occasionally continuous were visible on some of the days. The Alert Level remained at Level 3, Orange, the third level on a four-level scale.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito lava dome complex during 26 December 2023-2 January 2024 with lava extrusion at Caliente dome. Incandescence from the dome was visible during most nights and early mornings. Explosions occurring at a rate of 1-4 per hour on most days generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the dome and drifted as far as 25 km in multiple directions. The explosions produced block avalanches on the dome’s S, SE, and E flanks in addition to generating short-range pyroclastic flows on the W, SW, and S flanks. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Llanos del Pinal (6 km NNE), Santa María de Jesús (5 km SE), Calaguaché (9 km S), Loma Linda (7 km W), and Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) on a few of the days. During 31 December-1 January block-and-ash or pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3 km down the flank.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 27 December 2023-2 January 2024. White-and-gray ash plumes that were sometimes dense rose 700-800 m above the summit and drifted S and SW during 27-28 December, 31 December, and 1 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 21-29 December. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
On 2 January AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Shishaldin to Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second color on a four-color scale), noting that activity had declined over the past two months since the last significant explosive event on 3 November. Small explosions continued to be periodically detected in infrasound data, though no new deposits inside or outside the crater had recently been observed. Surface temperatures detected in satellite data were low, suggesting that no fresh lava was present in the summit crater. Steaming from the crater continued to be observed in webcam images.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that eruptive activity continued at Stromboli during 25-31 December. Webcam images showed Strombolian activity at three vents in Area N (one at N1 and two at N2), within the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and from two vents at S2 in Area C-S (South-Central Crater) in the crater terrace. The average daily totals of explosions at both Area N and Area C-S vents were at normal levels with explosions ejecting mixtures of ash, bombs, and lapilli. Spattering occurred at S2, and at N2 during 27-30 December. A series of six explosions and a brief period of lava fountaining were recorded during 2252-2257 on 30 December. The first explosion was very large and ejected pyroclastic material onto the Sciara del Fuoco. The following five explosions were smaller than the first, but still larger than average. The Dipartimento della Protezione Civile maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-level scale).
Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Dipartimento della Protezione Civile
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 25 December 2023-1 January 2024. No explosions were detected, though large blocks were ejected as far as 300 m from the vent. Eruption plumes rose 1-1.6 km above the crater rim during 27-28 December, 30 December, and 1 January, and drifted SW, S, SE, and E. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW), though dates were not specified. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ulawun
According to the Darwin VAAC a webcam image at Ulawun showed a pyroclastic flow descending a flank at 1230 on 31 December. An ash plume possibly rose to 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE based on similar previous plumes and weather models; weather clouds prevented satellite views.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Yasur
On 28 December the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued during December at a level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (the middle level on a scale of 0-4). Recent satellite observations indicated an increase in steam, gas, and ash emissions from the summit crater. Explosions continued, with some ejecting bombs that landed back in and around the crater. The public was reminded to not enter the restricted area within 600 m around the boundaries of the Permanent Exclusion Zone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)