Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico) — 4 April-10 April 2001
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 4 April-10 April 2001
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2001. Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 4 April-10 April 2001. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The CENAPRED reported that during the previous two weeks activity increased at Popocatépetl. Seismographs detected episodes of harmonic tremor totaling up to 8 hours per day, two tectono-volcanic earthquakes per day with magnitudes up to 2.3, and high-frequency tremor. This activity is related to the emplacement of a new lava dome, which was first observed on 14 March, that could produce explosive activity. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.
Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.