Report on Kilauea (United States) — 3 October-9 October 2001
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
3 October-9 October 2001
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2001. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 October-9 October 2001. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During the week, lava continued to flow into the ocean at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry and at the new Kamoamoa entry and surface lava flows were visible above and on the Pulama pali. The overall size of the E Kupapa`u entry diminished, while activity was divided into two distinct areas at the Kamoamoa entry; one to the E and one to the W. By 8 October lava was only emitted from the W Kamoamoa entry area. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate-to-low levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Background tremor at Pu`u `O`o was interrupted at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor. Besides small deflation at Kilauea's summit on 28 September, tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.