Report on Kilauea (United States) — 20 March-26 March 2002
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
20 March-26 March 2002
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20 March-26 March 2002. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 20-25 March, the rootless shields remained active at Kilauea and small surface lava flows were visible at the base of the lava fan and on the adjacent coastal flat. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o, and long-period earthquakes and weak tremor continued below Kilauea's caldera. During 21-24 March a small amount of inflation was recorded at Pu`u `O`o, but during most of the report period no deformation was recorded at the volcano.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.