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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) Eruption and ash plumes begin on 11 January 2020 and continue through April 2020

Soputan (Indonesia) Minor ash emissions during 23 March and 2 April 2020

Heard (Australia) Eruptive activity including a lava flow during October 2019-April 2020

Kikai (Japan) Ash explosion on 29 April 2020

Fuego (Guatemala) Ongoing ash explosions, block avalanches, and intermittent lava flows

Ebeko (Russia) Frequent moderate explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall continue, December 2019-May 2020

Piton de la Fournaise (France) Fissure eruptions in February and April 2020 included lava fountains and flows

Sabancaya (Peru) Daily explosions with ash emissions, large SO2 flux, ongoing thermal anomalies, December 2019-May 2020

Sheveluch (Russia) Lava dome growth and thermal anomalies continue through April 2020, but few ash explosions

Dukono (Indonesia) Numerous ash explosions continue through March 2020

Etna (Italy) Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continue, October 2019-March 2020

Merapi (Indonesia) Explosions produced ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows during October 2019-March 2020



Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kuchinoerabujima

Japan

30.443°N, 130.217°E; summit elev. 657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption and ash plumes begin on 11 January 2020 and continue through April 2020

Kuchinoerabujima encompasses a group of young stratovolcanoes located in the northern Ryukyu Islands. All historical eruptions have originated from the Shindake cone, with the exception of a lava flow that originated from the S flank of the Furudake cone. The most recent previous eruptive period took place during October 2018-February 2019 and primarily consisted of weak explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall. The current eruption began on 11 January 2020 after nearly a year of dominantly gas-and-steam emissions. Volcanism for this reporting period from March 2019 to April 2020 included explosions, ash plumes, SO2 emissions, and ashfall. The primary source of information for this report comes from monthly and annual reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and advisories from the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Activity has been limited to Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater.

Volcanism at Kuchinoerabujima was relatively low during March through December 2019, according to JMA. During this time, SO2 emissions ranged from 100 to 1,000 tons/day. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequently observed throughout the entire reporting period, rising to a maximum height of 1.1 km above the crater on 13 December 2019. Satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 showed gas-and-steam and occasional ash emissions rising from the Shindake crater throughout the reporting period (figure 7). Though JMA reported thermal anomalies occurring on 29 January and continuing through late April 2020, Sentinel-2 imagery shows the first thermal signature appearing on 26 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showed gas-and-steam and ash emissions rising from Kuchinoerabujima. Some ash deposits can be seen on 6 February 2020 (top right). A thermal anomaly appeared on 26 April 2020 (bottom right). Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

An eruption on 11 January 2020 at 1505 ejected material 300 m from the crater and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater rim, extending E, according to JMA. The eruption continued through 12 January until 0730. The resulting ash plumes rose 400 m above the crater, drifting SW while the SO2 emissions measured 1,300 tons/day. Ashfall was reported on Yakushima Island (15 km E). Minor eruptive activity was reported during 17-20 January which produced gray-white plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater. On 23 January, seismicity increased, and an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km altitude, according to a Tokyo VAAC report, resulting in ashfall 2 km NE of the crater. A small explosion was detected on 24 January, followed by an increase in the number of earthquakes during 25-26 January (65-71 earthquakes per day were registered). Another small eruptive event detected on 27 January at 0148 was accompanied by a volcanic tremor and a change in tilt data. During the month of January, some inflation was detected at the base on the volcano and a total of 347 earthquakes were recorded. The SO2 emissions ranged from 200-1,600 tons/day.

An eruption on 1 February 2020 produced an eruption column that rose less than 1 km altitude and extended SE and SW (figure 8), according to the Tokyo VAAC report. On 3 February, an eruption from the Shindake crater at 0521 produced an ash plume that rose 7 km above the crater and ejected material as far as 600 m away. As a result, a pyroclastic flow formed, traveling 900-1,500 m SW. The previous pyroclastic flow that was recorded occurred on 29 January 2019. Ashfall was confirmed in the N part of Yakushima Island with a large amount in Miyanoura (32 km ESE) and southern Tanegashima. The SO2 emissions measured 1,700 tons/day during this event.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Webcam images from the Honmura west surveillance camera of an ash plume rising from Kuchinoerabujima on 1 February 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Weekly bulletin report 509, February 2020).

Intermittent small eruptive events occurred during 5-9 February; field observations showed a large amount of ashfall on the SE flank which included lapilli that measured up to 2 cm in diameter. Additionally, thermal images showed 5-km-long pyroclastic flow deposits on the SW flank. An eruption on 9 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km altitude, drifting SE. On 13 February a small eruption was detected in the Shindake crater at 1211, producing gray-white plumes that rose 300 m above the crater, drifting NE. Small eruptive events also occurred during 20-21 February, resulting in gas-and-steam emissions that rose 200 m above the crater. During the month of February, some horizontal extension was observed since January 2020 using GNSS data. The total number of earthquakes during this month drastically increased to 1225 compared to January. The SO2 emissions ranged from 300-1,700 tons/day.

By 2 March 2020, seismicity decreased, and activity declined. Gas-and-steam emissions continued infrequently for the duration of the reporting period. The SO2 emissions during March ranged from 700-2,100 tons/day, the latter of which occurred on 15 March. Seismicity increased again on 27 March. During 5-8 April 2020, small eruptive events were detected, generating ash plumes that rose 900 m above the crater (figure 9). The SO2 emissions on 6 April reached 3,200 tons/day, the maximum measurement for this reporting period. These small eruptive events continued from 13-20 and 23-25 April within the Shindake crater, producing gray-white plumes that rose 300-800 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Webcam images from the Honmura Nishi (top) and Honmura west (bottom) surveillance cameras of ash plumes rising from Kuchinoerabujima on 6 March and 5 April 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Weekly bulletin report 509, March and April 2020).

Geologic Background. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km W of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shindake, formed after the NW side of Furudake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shindake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furudake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shindake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Soputan (Indonesia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Soputan

Indonesia

1.112°N, 124.737°E; summit elev. 1785 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor ash emissions during 23 March and 2 April 2020

Soputan is a stratovolcano located in the northern arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. Previous eruptive periods were characterized by ash explosions, lava flows, and Strombolian eruptions. The most recent eruption occurred during October-December 2018, which consisted mostly of ash plumes and some summit incandescence (BGVN 44:01). This report updates information for January 2019-April 2020 characterized by two ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions. The primary source of information come from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Activity during January 2019-April 2020 was relatively low; three faint thermal anomalies were observed at the summit at Soputan in satellite imagery for a total of three days on 2 and 4 January, and 1 October 2019 (figure 17). The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) based on analysis of MODIS data detected 12 distal hotspots and six low-power hotspots within 5 km of the summit during August to early October 2019. A single distal thermal hotspot was detected in early March 2020. In March, activity primarily consisted of white to gray gas-and-steam plumes that rose 20-100 m above the crater, according to PVMBG. The Darwin VAAC issued a notice on 23 March 2020 that reported an ash plume rose to 4.3 km altitude; minor ash emissions had been visible in a webcam image the previous day (figure 18). A second notice was issued on 2 April, where an ash plume was observed rising 2.1 km altitude and drifting W.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected a total of three thermal hotspots (bright yellow-orange) at the summit of Soputan on 2 and 4 January and 1 October 2019. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Minor ash emissions were seen rising from Soputan on 22 March 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Geologic Background. The Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano is located SW of Riendengan-Sempu, which some workers have included with Soputan and Manimporok (3.5 km ESE) as a volcanic complex. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Heard (Australia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptive activity including a lava flow during October 2019-April 2020

Heard Island is located on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean and contains Big Ben, a snow-covered stratovolcano with intermittent volcanism reported since 1910. Due to its remote location, visual observations are rare; therefore, thermal anomalies and hotspots detected by satellite-based instruments are the primary source of information. This report updates activity from October 2019 to April 2020.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed three prominent periods of strong thermal anomaly activity during this reporting period: late October 2019, December 2019, and the end of April 2020 (figure 41). These thermal anomalies were relatively strong and occurred within 5 km of the summit. Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported a total of six thermal hotspots during 28 October, 1 November 2019, and 26 April 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Thermal anomalies at Heard from 29 April 2019 through April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were strong and frequent in late October, during December 2019, and at the end of April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Six thermal satellite images ranging from late October 2019 to late March showed evidence of active lava at the summit (figure 42). These images show hot material, possibly a lava flow, extending SW from the summit; a hotspot also remained at the summit. Cloud cover was pervasive during the majority of this reporting period, especially in April 2020, though gas-and-steam emissions were visible on 25 April through the clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Thermal satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben showing strong thermal signatures representing a lava flow in the SW direction from 28 October to 17 December 2019. These thermal anomalies are located NE from Mawson Peak. A faint thermal anomaly is also captured on 26 March 2020. Satellite images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kikai (Japan) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kikai

Japan

30.793°N, 130.305°E; summit elev. 704 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash explosion on 29 April 2020

The Kikai caldera is located at the N end of Japan’s Ryukyu Islands and has been recently characterized by intermittent ash emissions and limited ashfall in nearby communities. On Satsuma Iwo Jima island, the larger subaerial fragment of the Kikai caldera, there was a single explosion with gas-and-steam and ash emissions on 2 November 2019, accompanied by nighttime incandescence (BGVN 45:02). This report covers volcanism from January 2020 through April 2020 with a single-day eruption occurring on 29 April based on reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).

Since the last one-day eruption on 2 November 2019, volcanism at Kikai has been relatively low and primarily consisted of 107-170 earthquakes per month and intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions rising up to 1.3 km above the crater summit. Intermittent weak hotspots were observed at night in the summit in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery and webcams, according to JMA (figures 14 and 15).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Weak thermal hotspots (bright yellow-orange) were observed on 7 January (top) and 6 April 2020 (bottom) at Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai). Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Incandescence at night on 10 January 2020 was observed at Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai) in the Iodake crater with the Iwanogami webcam. Courtesy of JMA (An explanation of volcanic activity at Satsuma Iwo Jima, January 2nd year of Reiwa [2020]).

Weak incandescence continued in April 2020. JMA reported SO2 measurements during April were 400-2000 tons/day. A brief eruption in the Iodake crater on 29 April 2020 at 0609 generated a gray-white ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater (figure 16). No ashfall or ejecta was observed after the eruption on 29 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. The Iwanogami webcam captured a brief gray-white ash and steam plume rising above the Iodake crater rim on Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai) on 29 April 2020 at 0609 local time. The plume rose 1 km above the crater summit. Courtesy of JMA (An explanation of volcanic activity at Satsuma Iwo Jima, April 2nd year of Reiwa [2020]).

Geologic Background. Kikai is a mostly submerged, 19-km-wide caldera near the northern end of the Ryukyu Islands south of Kyushu. It was the source of one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions about 6,300 years ago when rhyolitic pyroclastic flows traveled across the sea for a total distance of 100 km to southern Kyushu, and ashfall reached the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. The eruption devastated southern and central Kyushu, which remained uninhabited for several centuries. Post-caldera eruptions formed Iodake lava dome and Inamuradake scoria cone, as well as submarine lava domes. Historical eruptions have occurred at or near Satsuma-Iojima (also known as Tokara-Iojima), a small 3 x 6 km island forming part of the NW caldera rim. Showa-Iojima lava dome (also known as Iojima-Shinto), a small island 2 km E of Tokara-Iojima, was formed during submarine eruptions in 1934 and 1935. Mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during the past few decades from Iodake, a rhyolitic lava dome at the eastern end of Tokara-Iojima.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Fuego (Guatemala) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing ash explosions, block avalanches, and intermittent lava flows

Fuego is a stratovolcano in Guatemala that has been erupting since 2002 with historical eruptions that date back to 1531. Volcanism is characterized by major ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and lahars. The previous report (BGVN 44:10) detailed activity that included multiple ash explosions, ash plumes, ashfall, active lava flows, and block avalanches. This report covers this continuing activity from October 2019 through March 2020 and consists of ash plumes, ashfall, incandescent ejecta, block avalanches, and lava flows. The primary source of information comes from the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Summary of activity October 2019-March 2020. Daily activity persisted throughout October 2019-March 2020 (table 20) with multiple ash explosions recorded every hour, ash plumes that rose to a maximum of 4.8 km altitude each month drifting in multiple directions, incandescent ejecta reaching a 500 m above the crater resulting in block avalanches traveling down multiple drainages, and ashfall affecting communities in multiple directions. The highest rate of explosions occurred on 7 November with up to 25 per hour. Dominantly white fumaroles occurred frequently throughout this reporting period, rising to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and drifting in multiple directions. Intermittent lava flows that reached a maximum length of 1.2 km were observed each month in the Seca (Santa Teresa) and Ceniza drainages (figure 128), but rarely in the Trinidad drainage. Thermal activity increased slightly in frequency and strength in late October and remained relatively consistent through mid-March as seen in the MIROVA analysis of MODIS satellite data (figure 129).

Table 20. Activity summary by month for Fuego with information compiled from INSIVUMEH daily reports.

Month Ash plume heights (km) Ash plume distance (km) and direction Drainages affected by avalanche blocks Villages reporting ashfall
Oct 2019 4.3-4.8 km 10-25 km, W-SW-S-NW Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, El Jute, Honda, and Las Lajas Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Porvenir, Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, San Andrés Osuna, Sangre de Cristo, and San Pedro Yepocapa
Nov 2019 4.0-4.8 km 10-20 km, W-SW-S-NW Seca, Taniluyá, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, and Ceniza Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa
Dec 2019 4.2-4.8 km 10-25 km, W-SW-S-SE-N-NE Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, and Las Lajas Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimaché I and II, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna
Jan 2020 4.3-4.8 km 10-25 km, W-SW-S-N-NE-E Seca, Ceniza, Taniluyá, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas Morelia, Santa Sofía, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimaché I and II, El Porvenir, Finca Palo Verde, Rodeo, La Rochela, Alotenango, El Zapote, Trinidad, La Reina, Ceilán
Feb 2020 4.3-4.8 km 8-25 km, W-SW-S-SE-E-NE-N-NW Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, La Rochela, El Zapote, and San Andrés Osuna Panimache I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Rodeo, La Reina, Alotenango, Yucales, Siquinalá, Santa Lucia, El Porvenir, Finca Los Tarros, La Soledad, Buena Vista, La Cruz, Pajales, San Miguel Dueñas, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Escobar, San Pedro las Huertas, Antigua, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna
Mar 2020 4.3-4.8 km 10-23 km, W-SW-S-SE-N-NW Seca, Ceniza, Trinidad, Taniluyá, Las Lajas, Honda, La Rochela, El Zapote, San Andrés Osuna, Morelia, Panimache, and Santa Sofia San Andrés Osuna, La Rochela, El Rodeo, Chuchu, Panimache I and II, Santa Sofia, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, La Cruz, San Pedro Yepocapa, La Conchita, La Soledad, Alotenango, Aldea la Cruz, Acatenango, Ceilan, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Trinidad, Seca, and Honda
Figure (see Caption) Figure 128. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Fuego between 21 November 2019 and 20 March 2020 showing lava flows (bright yellow-orange) traveling generally S and W from the crater summit. An ash plume can also be seen on 21 November 2019, accompanying the lava flow. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 129. Thermal activity at Fuego increased in frequency and strength (log radiative power) in late October 2019 and remained relatively consistent through February 2020. In early March, there is a small decrease in thermal power, followed by a short pulse of activity and another decline. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during October-December 2019. Activity in October 2019 consisted of 6-20 ash explosions per hour; ash plumes rose to 4.8 km altitude, drifting up to 25 km in multiple directions, resulting in ashfall in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela and San Andrés Osuna. The Washington VAAC issued multiple aviation advisories for a total of nine days in October. Continuous white gas-and-steam plumes reached 4.1-4.4 km altitude drifting generally W. Weak SO2 emissions were infrequently observed in satellite imagery during October and January 2020 (figure 130) Incandescent ejecta was frequently observed rising 200-400 m above the summit, which generated block avalanches that traveled down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute, Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. During 3-7 October lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages, carrying tree branches, tree trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter. During 6-8 and 13 October, active lava flows traveled up to 200 m down the Seca drainage.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 130. Weak SO2 emissions were observed rising from Fuego using the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Top left: 17 October 2019. Top right: 17 November 2019. Bottom left: 20 January 2020. Bottom right: 22 January 2020. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

During November 2019, the rate of explosions increased to 5-25 per hour, the latter of which occurred on 7 November. The explosions resulted in ash plumes that rose 4-4.8 km altitude, drifting 10-20 km in the W direction. Ashfall was observed in Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Multiple Washington VAAC notices were issued for 11 days in November. Continuous white gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 4.5 km altitude drifting generally W. Incandescent ejecta rose 100-500 m above the crater, generating block avalanches in Seca, Taniluyá, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, and Ceniza drainages. Lava flows were observed for a majority of the month into early December measuring 100-900 m long in the Seca and Ceniza drainages.

The number of explosions in December 2019 decreased compared to November, recording 8-19 per hour with incandescent ejecta rising 100-400 m above the crater. The explosions generated block avalanches that traveled in the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, and Las Lajas drainages throughout the month. Ash plumes continued to rise above the summit crater to 4.8 km drifting up to 25 km in multiple directions. The Washington VAAC issued multiple daily notices almost daily in December. A continuous lava flow observed during 6-15, 21-22, 24, and 26 November through 9 December measured 100-800 m long in the Seca and Ceniza drainages.

Activity during January-March 2020. Incandescent Strombolian explosions continued daily during January 2020, ejecting material up to 100-500 m above the crater. Ash plumes continued to rise to a maximum altitude of 4.8 km, resulting in ashfall in all directions affecting Morelia, Santa Sofía, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimaché I and II, El Porvenir, Finca Palo Verde, Rodeo, La Rochela, Alotenango, El Zapote, Trinidad, La Reina, and Ceilán. The Washington VAAC issued multiple notices for a total of 12 days during January. Block avalanches resulting from the Strombolian explosions traveled down the Seca, Ceniza, Taniluyá, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas drainages. An active lava flow in the Ceniza drainage measured 150-600 m long during 6-10 January.

During February 2020, INSIVUMEH reported a range of 4-16 explosions per hour, accompanied by incandescent material that rose 100-500 m above the crater (figure 131). Block avalanches traveled in the Santa Teresa, Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, La Rochela, El Zapote, and San Andrés Osuna drainages. Ash emissions from the explosions continued to rise 4.8 km altitude, drifting in multiple directions as far as 25 km and resulting in ashfall in the communities of Panimache I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Rodeo, La Reina, Alotenango, Yucales, Siquinalá, Santa Lucia, El Porvenir, Finca Los Tarros, La Soledad, Buena Vista, La Cruz, Pajales, San Miguel Dueñas, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Escobar, San Pedro las Huertas, Antigua, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna. Washington VAAC notices were issued almost daily during the month. Lava flows were active in the Ceniza drainage during 13-20, 23-24, and 26-27 February measuring as long as 1.2 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 131. Incandescent ejecta rose several hundred meters above the crater of Fuego on 6 February 2020, resulting in block avalanches down multiple drainages. Courtesy of Crelosa.

Daily explosions and incandescent ejecta continued through March 2020, with 8-17 explosions per hour that rose up to 500 m above the crater. Block avalanches from the explosions were observed in the Seca, Ceniza, Trinidad, Taniluyá, Las Lajas, Honda, Santa Teresa, La Rochela, El Zapote, San Andrés Osuna, Morelia, Panimache, and Santa Sofia drainages. Accompanying ash plumes rose 4.8 km altitude, drifting in multiple directions mostly to the W as far as 23 km and resulting in ashfall in San Andrés Osuna, La Rochela, El Rodeo, Chuchu, Panimache I and II, Santa Sofia, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, La Cruz, San Pedro Yepocapa, La Conchita, La Soledad, Alotenango, Aldea la Cruz, Acatenango, Ceilan, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Trinidad, Seca, and Honda. Multiple Washington VAAC notices were issued for a total of 15 days during March. Active lava flows were observed from 16-21 March in the Trinidad and Ceniza drainages measuring 400-1,200 m long and were accompanied by weak to moderate explosions. By 23 March, active lava flows were no longer observed.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Crelosa, 3ra. avenida. 8-66, Zona 14. Colonia El Campo, Guatemala Ciudad de Guatemala (URL: http://crelosa.com/, post at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1P4kWqxU2m0&feature=youtu.be).


Ebeko (Russia) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent moderate explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall continue, December 2019-May 2020

The current moderate explosive eruption of Ebeko has been ongoing since October 2016, with frequent ash explosions that have reached altitudes of 1.3-6 km (BGVN 42:08, 43:03, 43:06, 43:12, 44:12). Ashfall is common in Severo-Kurilsk, a town of about 2,500 residents 7 km ESE, where the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) monitor the volcano. During the reporting period, December 2019-May 2020, the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

During December 2019-May 2020, frequent explosions generated ash plumes that reached altitudes of 1.5-4.6 km (table 9); reports of ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk were common. Ash explosions in late April caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk during 25-30 April (figure 24), and the plume drifted 180 km SE on the 29th. There was also a higher level of activity during the second half of May (figure 25), when plumes drifted up to 80 km downwind.

Table 9. Summary of activity at Ebeko, December 2019-May 2020. S-K is Severo-Kurilsk (7 km ESE of the volcano). TA is thermal anomaly in satellite images. In the plume distance column, only plumes that drifted more than 10 km are indicated. Dates based on UTC times. Data courtesy of KVERT.

Date Plume Altitude (km) Plume Distance Plume Directions Other Observations
30 Nov-05 Dec 2019 3 -- NE, E Intermittent explosions.
06-13 Dec 2019 4 -- E Explosions all week. Ashfall in S-K on 10-12 Dec.
15-17 Dec 2019 3 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 16-17 Dec.
22-24 Dec 2019 3 -- NE Explosions.
01-02 Jan 2020 3 30 km N N Explosions. TA over dome on 1 Jan.
03, 05, 09 Jan 2020 2.9 -- NE, SE Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 8 Jan.
11, 13-14 Jan 2020 3 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K.
19-20 Jan 2020 3 -- E Ashfall in S-K on 19 Jan.
24-31 Jan 2020 4 -- E Explosions.
01-07 Feb 2020 3 -- E, S Explosions all week.
12-13 Feb 2020 1.5 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K.
18-19 Feb 2020 2.3 -- SE Explosions.
21, 25, 27 Feb 2020 2.9 -- S, SE, NE Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 22 Feb.
01-02, 05 Mar 2020 2 -- S, E Explosions.
08 Mar 2020 2.5 -- NE Explosions.
13, 17 Mar 2020 2.5 -- NE, SE Bursts of gas, steam, and small amount of ash.
24-25 Mar 2020 2.5 -- NE, W Explosions.
29 Mar-02 Apr 2020 2.2 -- NE, E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 1 Apr. TA on 30-31 Mar.
04-05, 09 Apr 2020 1.5 -- NE Explosions. TA on 5 Apr.
13 Apr 2020 2.5 -- SE Explosions.
18, 20 Apr 2020 -- -- -- TA on 18, 20 Apr.
24 Apr-01 May 2020 3.5 180 km SE on 29 Apr E, SE Explosions all week. Ashfall in S-K on 25-30 Apr.
01-08 May 2020 2.6 -- E Explosions all week. Ashfall in S-K on 3-5 May. TA on 3 May.
08-15 May 2020 4 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 8-12 May. TA during 12-14 May.
14-15, 19-21 May 2020 3.6 80 km SW, S, SE during 14, 20-21 May -- Explosions. TA on same days.
22-29 May 2020 4.6 60 km SE E, SE Explosions all week. Ashfall in S-K on 22, 24 May.
29-31 May 2020 4.5 -- E, S Explosions. TA on 30 May.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Photo of ash explosion at Ebeko at 2110 UTC on 28 April 2020, as viewed from Severo-Kurilsk. Courtesy of KVERT (L. Kotenko).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Satellite image of Ebeko from Sentinel-2 on 27 May 2020, showing a plume drifting SE. Image using natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fissure eruptions in February and April 2020 included lava fountains and flows

Piton de la Fournaise is a massive basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean. Recent volcanism is characterized by multiple fissure eruptions, lava fountains, and lava flows (BGVN 44:11). The activity during this reporting period of November 2019-April 2020 is consistent with the previous eruption, including lava fountaining and lava flows. Information for this report comes from the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) and various satellite data.

Activity during November 2019-January 2020 was relatively low; no eruptive events were detected, according to OVPF. Edifice deformation resumed during the last week in December and continued through January. Seismicity significantly increased in early January, registering 258 shallow earthquakes from 1-16 January. During 17-31 January, the seismicity declined, averaging one earthquake per day.

Two eruptive events took place during February-April 2020. OVPF reported that the first occurred from 10 to 16 February on the E and SE flanks of the Dolomieu Crater. The second took place during 2-6 April. Both eruptive events began with a sharp increase in seismicity accompanied by edifice inflation, followed by a fissure eruption that resulted in lava fountains and lava flows (figure 193). MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed the two eruptive events occurring during February-April 2020 (figure 194). Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported 72 thermal signatures proximal to the summit crater from 12 February to 6 April. Both of these eruptive events were accompanied by SO2 emissions that were detected by the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI instrument (figures 195 and 196).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 193. Location maps of the lava flows on the E flank at Piton de la Fournaise on 10-16 February 2020 (left) and 2-6 April 2020 (right) as derived from SAR satellite data. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP, OPGC, LMV (Monthly bulletins of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, February and April 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 194. Two significant eruptive events at Piton de la Fournaise took place during February-April 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 195. Images of the SO2 emissions during the February 2020 eruptive event at Piton de la Fournaise detected by the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI satellite. Top left: 10 February 2020. Top right: 11 February 2020. Bottom left: 13 February 2020. Bottom right: 14 February 2020. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 196. Images of the SO2 emissions during the April 2020 eruptive event at Piton de la Fournaise detected by the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI satellite. Left: 4 April 2020. Middle: 5 April 2020. Right: 6 April 2020. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

On 10 February 2020 a seismic swarm was detected at 1027, followed by rapid deformation. At 1050, volcanic tremors were recorded, signaling the start of the eruption. Several fissures opened on the E flank of the Dolomieu Crater between the crater rim and at 2,000 m elevation, as observed by an overflight during 1300 and 1330. These fissures were at least 1 km long and produced lava fountains that rose up to 10 m high. Lava flows were also observed traveling E and S to 1,700 m elevation by 1315 (figures 197 and 198). The farthest flow traveled E to an elevation of 1,400 m. Satellite data from HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) was used to estimate the peak lava flow rate on 11 February at 10 m3/s. By 13 February only one lava flow that was traveling E below the Marco Crater remained active. OVPF also reported the formation of a cone, measuring 30 m tall, surrounded by three additional vents that produced lava fountains up to 15 m high. On 15 February the volcanic tremors began to decrease at 1400; by 16 February at 1412 the tremors stopped, indicating the end of the eruptive event.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 197. Photo of a lava flow and degassing at Piton de la Fournaise on 10 February 2020. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 198. Photos of the lava flows at Piton de la Fournaise taken during the February 2020 eruption by Richard Bouchet courtesy of AFP News Service.

Volcanism during the month of March 2020 consisted of low seismicity, including 21 shallow volcanic tremors and near the end of the month, edifice inflation was detected. A second eruptive event began on 2 April 2020, starting with an increase in seismicity during 0815-0851. Much of this seismicity was located on the SE part of the Dolomieu Crater. A fissure opened on the E flank, consistent with the fissures that were active during the February 2020 event. Seismicity continued to increase in intensity through 6 April located dominantly in the SE part of the Dolomieu Crater. An overflight on 5 April at 1030 showed lava fountains rising more than 50 m high accompanied by gas-and-steam plumes rising to 3-3.5 km altitude (figures 199 and 200). A lava flow advanced to an elevation of 360 m, roughly 2 km from the RN2 national road (figure 199). A significant amount of Pele’s hair and clusters of fine volcanic products were produced during the more intense phase of the eruption (5-6 April) and deposited at distances more than 10 km from the eruptive site (figure 201). It was also during this period that the SO2 emissions peaked (figure 196). The eruption stopped at 1330 after a sharp decrease in volcanic tremors.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 199. Photos of a lava flow (left) and lava fountains (right) at Piton de la Fournaise during the April 2020 eruption. Left: photo taken on 2 April 2020 at 1500. Right: photo taken on 5 April 2020 at 1030. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, April 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 200. Photo of the lava fountains erupting from Piton de la Fournaise on 4 April 2020. Photo taken by Richard Bouchet courtesy of Geo Magazine via Jeannie Curtis.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 201. Photos of Pele’s hair deposited due to the April 2020 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise. Samples collected near the Gîte du volcan on 7 April 2020 (left) and a cluster of Pele’s hair found near the Foc-Foc car park on 9 April 2020 (right). Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, April 2020).

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 14 route nationale 3, 27 ème km, 97418 La Plaine des Cafres, La Réunion, France (URL: http://www.ipgp.fr/fr); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); GEO Magazine (AFP story at URL: https://www.geo.fr/environnement/la-reunion-fin-deruption-au-piton-de-la-fournaise-200397); AFP (URL: https://twitter.com/AFP/status/1227140765106622464, Twitter: @AFP, https://twitter.com/AFP); Jeannie Curtis (Twitter: @VolcanoJeannie, https://twitter.com/VolcanoJeannie).


Sabancaya (Peru) — June 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions with ash emissions, large SO2 flux, ongoing thermal anomalies, December 2019-May 2020

Although tephrochronology has dated activity at Sabancaya back several thousand years, renewed activity that began in 1986 was the first recorded in over 200 years. Intermittent activity since then has produced significant ashfall deposits, seismic unrest, and fumarolic emissions. A new period of explosive activity that began in November 2016 has been characterized by pulses of ash emissions with some plumes exceeding 10 km altitude, thermal anomalies, and significant SO2 plumes. Ash emissions and high levels of SO2 continued each week during December 2019-May 2020. The Observatorio Vulcanologico INGEMMET (OVI) reports weekly on numbers of daily explosions, ash plume heights and directions of drift, seismicity, and other activity. The Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issued three or four daily reports of ongoing ash emissions at Sabancaya throughout the period.

The dome inside the summit crater continued to grow throughout this period, along with nearly constant ash, gas, and steam emissions; the average number of daily explosions ranged from 4 to 29. Ash and gas plume heights rose 1,800-3,800 m above the summit crater, and multiple communities around the volcano reported ashfall every month (table 6). Sulfur dioxide emissions were notably high and recorded daily with the TROPOMI satellite instrument (figure 75). Thermal activity declined during December 2019 from levels earlier in the year but remained steady and increased in both frequency and intensity during April and May 2020 (figure 76). Infrared satellite images indicated that the primary heat source throughout the period was from the dome inside the summit crater (figure 77).

Table 6. Persistent activity at Sabancaya during December 2019-May 2020 included multiple daily explosions with ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the summit and drifted in many directions; this resulted in ashfall in communities within 30 km of the volcano. Satellite instruments recorded SO2 emissions daily. Data courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET.

Month Avg. Daily Explosions by week Max plume Heights (m above crater) Plume drift (km) and direction Communities reporting ashfall Min Days with SO2 over 2 DU
Dec 2019 16, 13, 5, 5 2,600-3,800 20-30 NW Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Achoma, Coporaque, Yanque, Chivay, Huambo, Cabanaconde 27
Jan 2020 10, 8, 11, 14, 4 1,800-3,400 30 km W, NW, SE, S Chivay, Yanque, Achoma 29
Feb 2020 8, 11, 20, 19 2,000-2,200 30 km SE, E, NE, W Huambo 29
Mar 2020 14, 22, 29, 18 2,000-3,000 30 km NE, W, NW, SW Madrigal, Lari, Pinchollo 30
Apr 2020 12, 12, 16, 13, 8 2,000-3,000 30 km SE, NW, E, S Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque, Achoma 27
May 2020 15, 14, 6, 16 1,800-2,400 30 km SW, SE, E, NE, W Chivay, Achoma, Maca, Lari, Madrigal, Pinchollo 27
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sulfur dioxide anomalies were captured daily from Sabancaya during December 2019-May 2020 by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Some of the largest SO2 plumes are shown here with dates listed in the information at the top of each image. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Thermal activity at Sabancaya declined during December 2019 from levels earlier in the year but remained steady and increased slightly in frequency and intensity during April and May 2020, according to the MIROVA graph of Log Radiative Power from 23 June 2019 through May 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Sabancaya confirmed the frequent ash emissions and ongoing thermal activity from the dome inside the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020. Top row (left to right): On 6 December 2019 a large plume of steam and ash drifted N from the summit. On 16 December 2019 a thermal anomaly encircled the dome inside the summit caldera while gas and possible ash drifted NW. On 14 April 2020 a very similar pattern persisted inside the crater. Bottom row (left to right): On 19 April an ash plume was clearly visible above dense cloud cover. On 24 May the infrared glow around the dome remained strong; a diffuse plume drifted W. A large plume of ash and steam drifted SE from the summit on 29 May. Infrared images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a), other images use Natural Color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The average number of daily explosions during December 2019 decreased from a high of 16 the first week of the month to a low of five during the last week. Six pyroclastic flows occurred on 10 December (figure 78). Tremors were associated with gas-and-ash emissions for most of the month. Ashfall was reported in Pinchollo, Madrigal, Lari, Maca, Achoma, Coporaque, Yanque, and Chivay during the first week of the month, and in Huambo and Cabanaconde during the second week (figure 79). Inflation of the volcano was measured throughout the month. SO2 flux was measured by OVI as ranging from 2,500 to 4,300 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Multiple daily explosions at Sabancaya produced ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the summit. Left image is from 5 December and right image is from 11 December 2019. Note pyroclastic flows to the right of the crater on 11 December. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-49-2019/INGEMMET Semana del 2 al 8 de diciembre de 2019 and RSSAB-50-2019/INGEMMET Semana del 9 al 15 de diciembre de 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Communities to the N and W of Sabancaya recorded ashfall from the volcano the first week of December and also every month during December 2019-May 2020. The red zone is the area where access is prohibited (about a 12-km radius from the crater). Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-22-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 25 al 31 de mayo del 2020).

During January and February 2020 the number of daily explosions averaged 4-20. Ash plumes rose as high as 3.4 km above the summit (figure 80) and drifted up to 30 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Chivay, Yanque, and Achoma on 8 January, and in Huambo on 25 February. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from a low of 1,200 t/d on 29 February to a high of 8,200 t/d on 28 January. Inflation of the edifice was measured during January; deformation changed to deflation in early February but then returned to inflation by the end of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Ash plumes rose from Sabancaya every day during January and February 2020. Left: 11 January. Right: 28 February. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-02-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 06 al 12 de enero del 2020 and RSSAB-09-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 24 de febrero al 01 de marzo del 2020).

Explosions continued during March and April 2020, averaging 8-29 per day. Explosions appeared to come from multiple vents on 11 March (figure 81). Ash plumes rose 3 km above the summit during the first week of March and again the first week of April; they were lower during the other weeks. Ashfall was reported in Madrigal, Lari, and Pinchollo on 27 March and 5 April. On 17 April ashfall was reported in Maca, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque, and Achoma. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from 1,900 t/d on 5 March to 10,700 t/d on 30 March. Inflation at depth continued throughout March and April with 10 +/- 4 mm recorded between 21 and 26 April. Similar activity continued during May 2020; explosions averaged 6-16 per day (figure 82). Ashfall was reported on 6 May in Chivay, Achoma, Maca, Lari, Madrigal, and Pinchollo; heavy ashfall was reported in Achoma on 12 May. Additional ashfall was reported in Achoma, Maca, Madrigal, and Lari on 23 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Explosions at Sabancaya on 11 March 2020 appeared to originate simultaneously from two different vents (left). The plume on 12 April was measured at about 2,500 m above the summit. Courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-11-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 9 al 15 de marzo del 2020 and RSSAB-15-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 6 al 12 de abril del 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Explosions dense with ash continued during May 2020 at Sabancaya. On 11 and 29 May 2020 ash plumes rose from the summit and drifted as far as 30 km before dissipating. Courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya , RSSAB-20-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 11 al 17 de mayo del 2020 and RSSAB-22-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 25 al 31 de mayo del 2020).

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Volcanologico del INGEMMET (Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico), Barrio Magisterial Nro. 2 B-16 Umacollo - Yanahuara Arequipa, Peru (URL: http://ovi.ingemmet.gob.pe); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sheveluch (Russia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome growth and thermal anomalies continue through April 2020, but few ash explosions

The eruption at Sheveluch has continued for more than 20 years, with strong explosions that have produced ash plumes, lava dome growth, hot avalanches, numerous thermal anomalies, and strong fumarolic activity (BGVN 44:05). During this time, there have been periods of greater or lesser activity. The most recent period of increased activity began in December 2018 and continued through October 2019 (BGVN 44:11). This report covers activity between November 2019 to April 2020, a period during which activity waned. The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) and Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

During the reporting period, KVERT noted that lava dome growth continued, accompanied by incandescence of the dome blocks and hot avalanches. Strong fumarolic activity was also present (figure 53). However, the overall eruption intensity waned. Ash plumes sometimes rose to 10 km altitude and drifted downwind over 600 km (table 14). The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), except for 3 November when it was raised briefly to Red (the highest level).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Fumarolic activity of Sheveluch’s lava dome on 24 January 2020. Photo by Y. Demyanchuk; courtesy of KVERT.

Table 14. Explosions and ash plumes at Sheveluch during November 2019-April 2020. Dates and times are UTC, not local. Data courtesy of KVERT and the Tokyo VAAC.

Dates Plume Altitude (km) Drift Distance and Direction Remarks
01-08 Nov 2019 -- 640 km NW 3 November: ACC raised to Red from 0546-0718 UTC before returning to Orange.
08-15 Nov 2019 9-10 1,300 km ESE
17-27 Dec 2019 6.0-6.5 25 km E Explosions at about 23:50 UTC on 21 Dec.
20-27 Mar 2020 -- 45 km N 25 March: Gas-and-steam plume containing some ash.
03-10 Apr 2020 10 km 526 km SE 8 April: Strong explosion at 1910 UTC.
17-24 Apr 2020 -- 140 km NE Re-suspended ash plume.

KVERT reported thermal anomalies over the volcano every day, except for 25-26 January, when clouds obscured observations. During the reporting period, thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm recorded hotspots on 10 days in November, 13 days in December, nine days in January, eight days in both February and March, and five days in April. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected numerous hotspots every month, almost all of which were of moderate radiative power (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Thermal anomalies at Sheveluch continued at elevated levels during November 2019-April 2020, as seen on this MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph for July 2019-April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

High sulfur dioxide levels were occasionally recorded just above or in the close vicinity of Sheveluch by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, but very little drift was observed.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Dukono (Indonesia) — May 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Numerous ash explosions continue through March 2020

The ongoing eruption at Dukono is characterized by frequent explosions that send ash plumes to about 1.5-3 km altitude (0.3-1.8 km above the summit), although a few have risen higher. This type of typical activity (figure 13) continued through at least March 2020. The ash plume data below (table 21) were primarily provided by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). During the reporting period of October 2019-March 2020, the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Table 21. Monthly summary of reported ash plumes from Dukono for October 2019-March 2020. The direction of drift for the ash plume through each month was highly variable; notable plume drift each month was only indicated in the table if at least two weekly reports were consistent. Data courtesy of the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG.

Month Plume Altitude (km) Notable Plume Drift
Oct 2019 1.8-3 Multiple
Nov 2019 1.8-2.3 E, SE, NE
Dec 2019 1.8-2.1 E, SE
Jan 2020 1.8-2.1 E, SE, SW, S
Feb 2020 2.1-2.4 S, SW
Mar 2020 1.5-2.3 Multiple
Figure (see Caption) Figure 13.Satellite image of Dukono from Sentinel-2 on 12 November 2019, showing an ash plume drifting E. Image uses natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the reporting period, high levels of sulfur dioxide were only recorded above or near the volcano during 30-31 October and 4 November 2019. High levels were recorded by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on 30 October 2019, in a plume drifting E. The next day high levels were also recorded by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite on 31 October (figure 14) and 4 November 2019, in plumes drifting SE and NE, respectively.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Sulfur dioxide emission on 31 October 2019 drifting E, probably from Dukono, as recorded by the TROPOMI instrument aboard the Sentinel-5P satellite. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Etna (Italy) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continue, October 2019-March 2020

Mount Etna is a stratovolcano located on the island of Sicily, Italy, with historical eruptions that date back 3,500 years. The most recent eruptive period began in September 2013 and has continued through March 2020. Activity is characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava flows, and ash plumes that commonly occur from the summit area, including the Northeast Crater (NEC), the Voragine-Bocca Nuova (or Central) complex (VOR-BN), the Southeast Crater (SEC, formed in 1978), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC, formed in 2011). The newest crater, referred to as the "cono della sella" (saddle cone), emerged during early 2017 in the area between SEC and NSEC. This reporting period covers information from October 2019 through March 2020 and includes frequent explosions and ash plumes. The primary source of information comes from the Osservatorio Etneo (OE), part of the Catania Branch of Italy's Istituo Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica (INGV).

Summary of activity during October 2019-March 2020. Strombolian activity and gas-and-steam and ash emissions were frequently observed at Etna throughout the entire reporting period, according to INGV and Toulouse VAAC notices. Activity was largely located within the main cone (Voragine-Bocca Nuova complex), the Northeast Crater (NEC), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 1, 17, and 19 October, ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km. Due to constant Strombolian explosions, ground observations showed that a scoria cone located on the floor of the VOR Crater had begun to grow in late November and again in late January 2020. A lava flow was first detected on 6 December at the base of the scoria cone in the VOR Crater, which traveled toward the adjacent BN Crater. Additional lava flows were observed intermittently throughout the reporting period in the same crater. On 13 March, another small scoria cone had formed in the main VOR-BN complex due to Strombolian explosions.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows multiple episodes of thermal activity varying in power from 22 June 2019 to March 2020 (figure 286). The power and frequency of these thermal anomalies significantly decreased between August to mid-September. The pulse of activity in mid-September reflected a lava flow from the VOR Crater (BGVN 44:10). By late October through November, thermal anomalies were relatively weaker and less frequent. The next pulse in thermal activity reflected in the MIROVA graph occurred in early December, followed by another shortly after in early January, both of which were due to new lava flows from the VOR Crater. After 9 January the thermal anomalies remained frequent and strong; active lava flows continued through March accompanied by Strombolian explosions, gas-and-steam, SO2, and ash emissions. The most recent distinct pulse in thermal activity was seen in mid-March; on 13 March, another lava flow formed, accompanied by an increase in seismicity. This lava flow, like the previous ones, also originated in the VOR Crater and traveled W toward the BN Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 286. Multiple episodes of varying activity at Etna from 22 June 2019 through March 2020 were reflected in the MIROVA thermal energy data (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during October-December 2019. During October 2019, VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) notices issued by INGV reported ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km on 1, 17, and 19 October. Strombolian explosions occurred frequently. Explosions were detected primarily in the VOR-BN Craters, ejecting coarse pyroclastic material that fell back into the crater area and occasionally rising above the crater rim. Ash emissions rose from the VOR-BN and NEC while intense gas-and-steam emissions were observed in the NSEC (figure 287). Between 10-12 and 14-20 October fine ashfall was observed in Pedara, Mascalucia, Nicolosi, San Giovanni La Punta, and Catania. In addition to these ash emissions, the explosive Strombolian activity contributed to significant SO2 plumes that drifted in different directions (figure 288).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 287. Webcam images of ash emissions from the NE Crater at Etna from the a) CUAD (Catania) webcam on 10 October 2019; b) Milo webcam on 11 October 2019; c) Milo webcam on 12 October 2019; d) M.te Cagliato webcam on 13 October 2019. Courtesy of INGV (Report 42/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 07/10/2019 - 13/10/2019, data emissione 15/10/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 288. Strombolian activity at Etna contributed to significant SO2 plumes that drifted in multiple directions during the intermittent explosions in October 2019. Top left: 1 October 2019. Top right: 2 October 2019. Middle left: 15 October 2019. Middle right: 18 October 2019. Bottom left: 13 November 2019. Bottom right: 1 December 2019. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

The INGV weekly bulletin covering activity between 25 October and 1 November 2019 reported that Strombolian explosions occurred at intervals of 5-10 minutes from within the VOR-BN and NEC, ejecting incandescent material above the crater rim, accompanied by modest ash emissions. In addition, gas-and-steam emissions were observed from all the summit craters. Field observations showed the cone in the crater floor of VOR that began to grow in mid-September 2019 had continued to grow throughout the month. During the week of 4-10 November, Strombolian activity within the Bocca Nuova Crater was accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. The explosions in the VOR Crater occasionally ejected incandescent ejecta above the crater rim (figures 289 and 290). For the remainder of the month Strombolian explosions continued in the VOR-BN and NEC, producing sporadic ash emissions. Isolated and discontinuous explosions in the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) also produced fine ash, though gas-and-steam emissions still dominated the activity at this crater. Additionally, the explosions from these summit craters were frequently accompanied by strong SO2 emissions that drifted in different directions as discrete plumes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 289. Photo of Strombolian activity and crater incandescence in the Voragine Crater at Etna on 15 November 2019. Photo by B. Behncke, taken by Tremestieri Etneo. Courtesy of INGV (Report 47/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 11/11/2019 - 17/11/2019, data emissione 19/11/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 290. Webcam images of summit crater activity during 26-29 November and 1 December 2019 at Etna. a) image recorded by the high-resolution camera on Montagnola (EMOV); b) and c) webcam images taken from Tremestieri Etneo on the southern slope of Etna showing summit incandescence; d) image recorded by the thermal camera on Montagnola (EMOT) showing summit incandescence at the NSEC. Courtesy of INGV (Report 49/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/11/2019 - 01/12/2019, data emissione 03/12/2019).

Frequent Strombolian explosions continued through December 2019 within the VOR-BN, NEC, and NSEC Craters with sporadic ash emissions observed in the VOR-BN and NEC. On 6 December, Strombolian explosions increased in the NSEC; webcam images showed incandescent pyroclastic material ejected above the crater rim. On the morning of 6 December a lava flow was observed from the base of the scoria cone in the VOR Crater that traveled toward the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater. INGV reported that a new vent opened on the side of the saddle cone (NSEC) on 11 December and produced explosions until 14 December.

Activity during January-March 2020. On 9 January 2020 an aerial flight organized by RAI Linea Bianca and the state police showed the VOR Crater continuing to produce lava that was flowing over the crater rim into the BN Crater with some explosive activity in the scoria cone. Explosive Strombolian activity produced strong and distinct SO2 plumes (figure 291) and ash emissions through March, according to the weekly INGV reports, VONA notices, and satellite imagery. Several ash emissions during 21-22 January rose from the vent that opened on 11 December. According to INGV’s weekly bulletin for 21-26 January, the scoria cone in the VOR crater produced Strombolian explosions that increased in frequency and contributed to rapid cone growth, particularly the N part of the cone. Lava traveled down the S flank of the cone and into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater, filling the E crater (BN-2) (figure 292). The NEC had discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic, diffuse ash emissions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 291. Distinct SO2 plumes drifting in multiple directions from Etna were visible in satellite imagery as Strombolian activity continued through March 2020. Top left: 21 January 2020. Top right: 2 February 2020. Bottom left: 10 March 2020. Bottom right: 19 March 2020. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 292. a) A map of the lava field at Etna showing cooled flows (yellow) and active flows (red). The base of the scoria cone is outlined in black while the crater rim is outlined in red. b) Thermal image of the Bocca Nuova and Voragine Craters. The bright orange is the warmest temperature measure in the flow. Courtesy of INGV, photos by Laboratorio di Cartografia FlyeEye Team (Report 10/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/02/2020 - 01/03/2020, data emissione 03/03/2020).

Strombolian explosions continued into February 2020, accompanied by ash emissions and lava flows from the previous months (figure 293). During 17-23 February, INGV reported that some subsidence was observed in the central portion of the Bocca Nuova Crater. During 24 February to 1 March, the Strombolian explosions ejected lava from the VOR Crater up to 150-200 m above the vent as bombs fell on the W edge of the VOR crater rim (figure 294). Lava flows continued to move into the W part of the Bocca Nuova Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 293. Webcam images of A) Strombolian activity and B) effusive activity fed by the scoria cone grown inside the VOR Crater at Etna taken on 1 February 2020. C) Thermal image of the lava field produced by the VOR Crater taken by L. Lodato on 3 February (bottom left). Image of BN-1 taken by F. Ciancitto on 3 February in the summit area (bottom right). Courtesy of INGV; Report 06/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 27/01/2020 - 02/02/2020, data emissione 04/02/2020 (top) and Report 07/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 03/02/2020 - 09/02/2020, data emissione 11/02/2020 (bottom).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 294. Photos of the VOR intra-crater scoria cone at Etna: a) Strombolian activity resumed on 25 February 2020 from the SW edge of BN taken by B. Behncke; b) weak Strombolian activity from the vent at the base N of the cone on 29 February 2020 from the W edge of VOR taken by V. Greco; c) old vent present at the base N of the cone, taken on 17 February 2020 from the E edge of VOR taken by B. Behncke; d) view of the flank of the cone, taken on 24 February 2020 from the W edge of VOR taken by F. Ciancitto. Courtesy of INGV (Report 10/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/02/2020 - 01/03/2020, data emissione 03/03/2020).

During 9-15 March 2020 Strombolian activity was detected in the VOR Crater while discontinuous ash emissions rose from the NEC and NSEC. Bombs were found in the N saddle between the VOR and NSEC craters. On 9 March, a small scoria cone that had formed in the Bocca Nuova Crater and was ejecting bombs and lava tens of meters above the S crater rim. The lava flow from the VOR Crater was no longer advancing. A third scoria cone had formed on 13 March NE in the main VOR-BN complex due to the Strombolian explosions on 29 February. Another lava flow formed on 13 March, accompanied by an increase in seismicity. The weekly report for 16-22 March reported Strombolian activity detected in the VOR Crater and gas-and-steam and rare ash emissions observed in the NEC and NSEC (figure 295). Explosions in the Bocca Nuova Crater ejected spatter and bombs 100 m high.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 295. Map of the summit crater area of Etna showing the active vents and lava flows during 16-22 March 2020. Black hatch marks indicate the crater rims: BN = Bocca Nuova, with NW BN-1 and SE BN-2; VOR = Voragine; NEC = North East Crater; SEC = South East Crater; NSEC = New South East Crater. Red circles indicate areas with ash emissions and/or Strombolian activity, yellow circles indicate steam and/or gas emissions only. The base is modified from a 2014 DEM created by Laboratorio di Aerogeofisica-Sezione Roma 2. Courtesy of INGV (Report 13/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 16/03/2020 - 22/03/2020, data emissione 24/03/2020).

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/it/); Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Météo-France, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse cedex, France (URL: http://www.meteo.fr/aeroweb/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Boris Behncke, Sonia Calvari, and Marco Neri, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: https://twitter.com/etnaboris, Image at https://twitter.com/etnaboris/status/1183640328760414209/photo/1).


Merapi (Indonesia) — April 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions produced ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows during October 2019-March 2020

Merapi is a highly active stratovolcano located in Indonesia, just north of the city of Yogyakarta. The current eruption episode began in May 2018 and was characterized by phreatic explosions, ash plumes, block avalanches, and a newly active lava dome at the summit. This reporting period updates information from October 2019-March 2020 that includes explosions, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes, and ashfall. The primary reporting source of activity comes from Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG, the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG) and Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM).

Some ongoing lava dome growth continued in October 2019 in the NE-SW direction measuring 100 m in length, 30 m in width, and 20 m in depth. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequent, reaching a maximum height of 700 m above the crater on 31 October. An explosion at 1631 on 14 October removed the NE-SW trending section of the lava dome and produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater and extended SW for about 2 km (figures 90 and 91). The plume resulted in ashfall as far as 25 km to the SW. According to a Darwin VAAC notice, a thermal hotspot was detected in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. A pyroclastic flow associated with the eruption traveled down the SW flank in the Gendol drainage. During 14-20 October lava flows from the crater generated block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km SW, according to BPPTKG.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. An ash plume rising 3 km above Merapi on 14 October 2019.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Webcam image of an ash plume rising above Merapi at 1733 on 14 October 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG via Jaime S. Sincioco.

At 0621 on 9 November 2019, an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W. Ashfall was observed in the W region as far as 15 km from the summit in Wonolelo and Sawangan in Magelang Regency, as well as Tlogolele and Selo in Boyolali Regency. An associated pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the Gendol drainage on the SE flank. On 12 November aerial drone photographs were used to measure the volume of the lava dome, which was 407,000 m3. On 17 November, an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater, resulting in ashfall as far as 15 km W from the summit in the Dukun District, Magelang Regency (figure 92). A pyroclastic flow accompanying the eruption traveled 1 km down the SE flank in the Gendol drainage. By 30 November low-frequency earthquakes and CO2 gas emissions had increased.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. An ash plume rising 1 km above Merapi on 17 November 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Volcanism was relatively low from 18 November 2019 through 12 February 2020, characterized primarily by gas-and-steam emissions and intermittent volcanic earthquakes. On 4 January a pyroclastic flow was recorded by the seismic network at 2036, but it wasn’t observed due to weather conditions. On 13 February an explosion was detected at 0516, which ejected incandescent material within a 1-km radius from the summit (figure 93). Ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater and drifted NW, resulting in ashfall within 10 km, primarily S of the summit; lightning was also seen in the plume. Ash was observed in Hargobinangun, Glagaharjo, and Kepuharjo. On 19 February aerial drone photographs were used to measure the change in the lava dome after the eruption; the volume of the lava had decreased, measuring 291,000 m3.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Webcam image of an ash plume rising from Merapi at 0516 on 13 February 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia and PVMBG.

An explosion on 3 March at 0522 produced an ash plume that rose 6 km above the crater (figure 94), resulting in ashfall within 10 km of the summit, primarily to the NE in the Musuk and Cepogo Boyolali sub-districts and Mriyan Village, Boyolali (3 km from the summit). A pyroclastic flow accompanied this eruption, traveling down the SSE flank less than 2 km. Explosions continued to be detected on 25 and 27-28 March, resulting in ash plumes. The eruption on 27 March at 0530 produced an ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater, causing ashfall as far as 20 km to the W in the Mungkid subdistrict, Magelang Regency, and Banyubiru Village, Dukun District, Magelang Regency. An associated pyroclastic flow descended the SSE flank, traveling as far as 2 km. The ash plume from the 28 March eruption rose 2 km above the crater, causing ashfall within 5 km from the summit in the Krinjing subdistrict primarily to the W (figure 94).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Images of ash plumes rising from Merapi during 3 March (left) and 28 March 2020 (right). Images courtesy of BPPTKG (left) and PVMBG (right).

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BNPB_Indonesia); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Jamie S. Sincioco, Phillipines (Twitter: @jaimessincioco, Image at https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1227966075519635456/photo/1).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 27, Number 11 (November 2002)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Colima (Mexico)

New lava flows emitted during February through at least December 2002

Etna (Italy)

Witnesses saw N- and S-flank eruptions begin at around 0200 on 27 October

Fournaise, Piton de la (France)

Fissure eruption 16 November-3 December sent lava to the sea

Ijen (Indonesia)

Above-background seismicity through at least 8 December 2002

Kilauea (United States)

Inflation-deflation episodes and lava flows through 2 December 2002

Klyuchevskoy (Russia)

Above-background seismicity June-November 2002

Lewotobi (Indonesia)

Explosion on 12 October 2002, the first reported activity since July 1999

Miyakejima (Japan)

High SO2 fluxes, minor ash eruptions continue through November 2002

Papandayan (Indonesia)

Large explosive eruption with landslide and lahars begins 11 November 2002

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

May-June quiet; late 2002 explosions send ash to ~4 km altitude

Reventador (Ecuador)

Strong, sudden 3 November eruption; 8-km-long pyroclastic flow



Colima (Mexico) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New lava flows emitted during February through at least December 2002

New lava flows began at Colima on 14 February 2002 (BGVN 27:05). The lavas traveled from the central crater proceeding down the SW flank until May (areas 1 and 2 on figure 62). During June-December 2002, three small lava flows developed (areas 3-5 on figure 62). The latter three flows were first noted on 21 June; the mean rate of lava emission was very low, ~0.1 m3/s. Flow 3 stopped on 12 July; flows 4 and 5 continued their activity into at least mid-December. Pulses of higher lava emission occurred during the eruption of flows 4 and 5 (19 July and 10 November 2002, respectively).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Sketch of the February-December 2002 lava flows (1-5) on Colima's SW flanks. Three new lava flows (3-5) are shown by dashed lines. Courtesy of Observatorio Vulcanológico de la Universidad de Colima.

Seismicity varied significantly during January-December 2002 (figure 63). June-December pulses in emission and lava-flow velocity were associated with numerous rockfalls and elevated seismicity. Periods of elevated seismicity and lava emission took place on 14 February (pulse I), 21 June (II), 19 July (III), and 10 November (IV).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. Colima's inferred daily number of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (upper curves, labeled R) and small explosions (lower curve, dashed and labeled E). Both these estimates were based on seismic data received 1.7 km from the crater (at station Soma). Strong seismic noise occurred during 18 March to 14 May, preventing accurate rockfall estimation. Arrows with Roman numerals (I-IV) identify pulses in seismicity and lava emission. Intervals labeled T1-T3 indicate periods when tremor continued 12 to 24 hours per day. Courtesy of Observatorio Vulcanológico de la Universidad de Colima.

With the appearance of lava flows on 21 June, the number of rockfalls sharply increased, and then stabilized at 250-300 per day after the July pulse (lava pulse III). The June-December stage of the eruption was accompanied by numerous small gas explosions and periods of low-amplitude volcanic tremor. Tremor episodes lasting 12-24 hours/day are marked as T2 and T3 on figure 63. These tremor episodes were not associated with observable changes in volcanic activity.

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the high point of the complex) on the north and the historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of late-Pleistocene cinder cones is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, producing thick debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions have destroyed the summit (most recently in 1913) and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanológico de la Universidad de Colima, Colima, Col., 28045, México.


Etna (Italy) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Witnesses saw N- and S-flank eruptions begin at around 0200 on 27 October

After the violent flank eruption of July-August 2001, Mount Etna was rather calm for more than 10 months, except for usual fumes from the four summit craters [and minor ash emissions]. In the first days of July 2002 weak magmatic activity resumed sporadically at the NE Crater with ejection of bombs that fell on the outer slopes of the cone. On 12 September explosions occurred every 2 or 3 minutes and were violent enough to throw large spatter as far as the northern rim of the Voragine (Central Crater). However, there were many days without explosive activity and, at other times, the NE Crater emitted large clouds of brownish ash. Although a magnitude 3.7 earthquake had struck the northern flank of the volcano on 22 September, subsequent days were so calm that, to these contributors, the following events came as quite a surprise.

As the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) previously reported (BGVN 27:10), a seismic swarm began to shake Etna late during the evening of 26 October 2002. One observer, Maurice Aubert, happened to be in a hotel on the northern flank (at Piano Provenzana, 1,816 m elevation). There the seismic shocks were distinctly felt after midnight and rapidly reached hazardous levels. Hours later, at 0205 on 27 October, lava fountains began to play along a fissure 1-2 km up slope, but decreased at 0220 when lava flows expanded downwards.

The seismic intensity of earthquakes felt the night of the 26th ranged from II to VII or perhaps VIII. The approximate timing and seismic intensity was recorded as follows at 0030, II; at 0140, VI; at 0200, VI; at 0320, VII; and at 0343, VII or VIII. Maurice Aubert and his group hastily retreated shortly after 0320, exiting while cracks were developing through the mountain road. The last of the above-reported intensities was felt during their departure, when a strong earthquake shook their car.

Vents at ~2,700 m elevation on the southern flank (on the Piano del Lago) are here called the S2700 vents. These new S-flank vents lay just SE of the ancient cone of Monte Frumento Supino and ~800 m NW of the Laghetto cone, which appeared in 2001.

Watching the S2700 vents, Giuseppe Scarpinati saw two lava fountains develop after 0200, together with a large ash plume that drifted S. The eruptive phenomena were accompanied by strong detonations and rumblings together with continuous earthquakes that were felt in Acireale, a town at Etna's southeastern foot.

Lava flows from the northern vents invaded and over ran the flat area containing tourist facilities at Piano Provenzana and proceeded as two branches downwards through the pine trees towards Linguaglossa, a village ~10 km to the NE. The greatest damage was not the loss of all tourist facilities at Piano Provenzana, but was instead due to heavy ashfall S of the volcano, which led to closing of the Catania airport on the afternoon of 27 October.

On the morning of 28 October the S fissure had developed at least three explosive vents. A 100-to-200-m-high lava fountain, ~200 m downslope, fed lava flows that extended by more than 2 km toward the uninhabited area of Monte Nero degli Zappini (figures 97 and 98). During the day, however, the effusive activity significantly decreased, and on 29 October the lava fronts virtually stopped on the southern side, although violent degassing at the upper end of the fissure continued unabated. Sustained release of high pressure gas fed a voluminous SE-directed ash plume that reached to more than 5 km altitude. At the same time on the 29th, a large plume of white vapor was emitted at the summit from the central crater vents (Bocca Nuova, Voragine) and the NE Crater. The SE crater, the main site of the 2001 eruption, remained entirely calm.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Southern vents of Etna at 2,700 m elevation as seen during daylight on the morning of 28 October 2002 (taken from 2,500 m elevation looking N). The white plume on the right comes from the lava vent, and the plume in the left background is from the summit craters. Courtesy of J.C. Tanguy.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Southern vents of Etna as photographed from the SW in the early afternoon of 28 October 2002. From left to right the image shows the summit craters emitting white vapor, the cone of Mt. Frumento Supino, the S2700 explosive vents giving off a dark column, the lower lava vent emitting a faint white plume, new lava flows (dark narrow band), 2001 cone, and Montagnola cone. Courtesy of J.C. Tanguy.

Strong earthquakes on 29 October caused damage on the lower E flank of the mountain, particularly at Santa Venerina where some 1,000 people were left homeless. The main shock was recorded by Jean-Claude Tanguy in the SE region of the volcano (Trecastagni) at 17 seconds after 1102 (± 5 sec). Horizontal ground motions there lasted 7 to 8 seconds. The INGV reported the seismic event as M 4.4, located 8-9 km beneath Santa Venerina. Other strong shocks at 1739 and 1814 (M 4.0 and 4.1) caused walls to collapse along the road between Zafferana and Milo.

On 30 October soon after midday the Bocca Nuova vent began to emit large clouds of brownish ash. This activity culminated between 1310 and 1320, and the ash cloud merged into the still large, dark ash plume from the southern lateral vents. However, Strombolian explosive activity was still vigorous at the main explosive center, which included a group of about six vents near 2,000 m elevation (called the N2000 vents). These vents, which produced photogenic activity into the night (figure 99), lie just to the E of an old cinder cone known as Monte Ponte di Ferro (at 2,040 m elevation). Here the accumulation of pyroclasts had built a spatter rampart ~200 m long and 30 to 40 m high, the upper part of which reached 2,035 m elevation (± 5 m, measured from Mt. Ponte di Ferro using both altimeter and inclinometer).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. A night photograph of Etna's N2000 vents showing the brilliant glow of lava fountains and associated spatter. Taken on 30 October 2002 from Mt. Ponte di Ferro looking E. Courtesy of J.C. Tanguy.

On 31 October the wind gradually shifted from the N to the W and then SW, so that ashfall from S2700 vents affected localities NE of the volcano including Reggio di Calabria, whose airport also had to be closed. At the northern vents the lava effusion was on a waning stage, but violent explosions from the two upper vents of the N2000 group threw blocks of ancient material amid juvenile tephra (figure 100).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. Outbursts began to wane at Etna's N2000 vents on the evening of 31 October 2002, but substantial explosions continued at the upper two N2000 vents. The photograph was taken looking southward, towards Etna's summit, from the lower NE rift zone at the eastern base of the northern Monte Nero (crater of the 1646 eruption at 2,049 m elevation; but easily confused with the S-flank feature of the same name). On the photo's right-center area lies a more brightly lit uplands region that leads to the summit of NE Crater, which is emitting a dense plume of white smoke. From left to right in the darker foreground lie the new spatter ramparts, with incandescent lava lumps at the middle vent, and dark ash and block explosions at the two upper vents, and the upper part of the eruptive fissure (small white fumes, far right) located between about 2200 and 2500 m elevation. Courtesy of J.C. Tanguy.

On 1 November all activity ceased on the northern side except for very small residual lava flows, but the S2700 upper vent appeared to enter a phase of sustained explosive activity resembling a small subplinian column that continued to cause disruptions around the volcano. It was not until 12 November at 1340 that the activity abruptly changed to typical Strombolian explosions of liquid lava clots with loud detonations. On 13 November at about 1600 a small lava flow began to trickle from the lower base of the S2700 cone. The lava effusion increased on 14 November, expanding downwards along the 27-28 October flows. Meanwhile ash emission recommenced at the S2700 crater.

This kind of eruption style is quite unusual at Mount Etna. The authors suggest that it could indicate that a considerable amount of magma has intruded into the S rift zone, which would account for strong degassing without any significant lava effusion between 2 and 13 November.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Jean-Claude Tanguy, University of Paris 6 & Institut de Physique du Globe, 94107 St. Maur des Fossés, France; Maurice Aubert, University of Clermont-Ferrand, Department of Geology, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand, France; Roberto Clocchiatti, CNRS-CEN Saclay, Lab. Pierre Süe, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France; Santo La Delfa and Giuseppe Patané, University of Catania, Department of Geological Sciences, Corso Italia 55, 95129 Catania, Italy; Giuseppe Scarpinati,via Muggia 7, 95024 Acireale, Italy.


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fissure eruption 16 November-3 December sent lava to the sea

After 3 months of high seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise and three small seismic crises, a strong seismic crisis with several hundreds of earthquakes started on 15 November at 2336. The earthquakes were accompanied by strong deformation at the summit, including tilt of up to 300 µrad. An eruption began on 16 November at 0433 with the appearance of eruption tremor. Fissures opened on the volcano's E flank between elevations of 1,900 and 1,600 m and lava flowed down the E flank. A small cone formed on one of the most active fissures at ~1,600 m elevation. On 18 November, continuous emissions from the cone rose up to 1,600 m above the crater rim.

During 20-26 November, visual observations were largely hampered by inclement weather. Eruptive tremor was constant on the 20th and 21st, and fluctuated on the 22nd. Tremor showed short-term variations during 23-26 November. Lava flows traveled in lava tubes between the active cone and 1,200 m elevation and traveled on the land surface at elevations between about 1,200 and 500 m.

On 27 November, eruptive tremor had decreased to 25% of that seen since this eruption's start. On that day the fissures located on the S at ~1,850 m and at ~1750 m elevation were no longer active. Instead, two fissures at ~1,600 m elevation were active. The smallest and lowest produced a small lava flow. The largest fissure was located 100 m higher and slightly to the N; it emitted a significant lava flow. Sprays of lava there on 16 November reached up to 80 m high. On 17 November they reached only up to 30 m high, at least in part owing to drag imposed by a small lava lake that had then developed within the cone's interior.

On 29 November eruptive tremor increased by a factor of two, and there were 89 seismic events recorded that day. On the 30th, 329 seismic events were recorded, all located about 1 km above sea level, beneath the floor of Dolomieu crater. A lava flow in the Grand Brûlé area approached the national road, crossing it around 2300. By about 0500 on 1 December the lava flow had reached the sea. At this time almost constant seismicity occurred, with more than 1,500 earthquakes recorded with magnitudes up to 2.8. Eruption tremor was stable; numerous long-period earthquakes were also recorded, indicating the presence of magma beneath the summit. On the morning of 2 December seismicity increased by about a factor of about three, but decreased the next day.

Lava emissions from Piton de la Fournaise ended on 3 December. Permanent tremor decreased significantly that day, although seismic events beneath the summit continued at a rate of 1 per minute. Seismicity continued to decline over the next two days. Poor weather conditions prevented helicopter observations during 3-5 December. Inspection on 6 December revealed some collapses between Bory and Dolomieu craters, and white fumes were being released from the new Guanyin cone, but there was no evidence of surface activity coincident with larger seismic events that occurred while scientists from the OVPDLF were on the edge of Dolomieu.

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPDLF), 14 RN3, le 27Km, 97418 La Plaine des Cafres, La Réunion, France.


Ijen (Indonesia) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Ijen

Indonesia

8.058°S, 114.242°E; summit elev. 2769 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Above-background seismicity through at least 8 December 2002

During 9 September through at least 8 December 2002 at Ijen, activity was above background levels. Seismicity was dominated by shallow volcanic (B-type) and tectonic earthquakes (table 5). During the week of 14-20 October, 1 deep-volcanic (A-type) earthquake was registered. Continuous tremor occurred, typically with a maximum amplitude of 0.5-3 mm.

Table 5. Earthquakes reported at Ijen during 9 September-8 December 2002. Courtesy VSI.

Date Shallow volcanic (B-type) Tectonic
09 Sep-15 Sep 2002 51 4
16 Sep-22 Sep 2002 72 5
23 Sep-29 Sep 2002 71 6
30 Sep-06 Oct 2002 67 5
07 Oct-13 Oct 2002 48 6
14 Oct-20 Oct 2002 96 2
21 Oct-27 Oct 2002 28 2
28 Oct-03 Nov 2002 73 2
04 Nov-10 Nov 2002 29 1
11 Nov-18 Nov 2002 29 17
02 Dec-08 Dec 2002 3 1

During 2-8 December VSI reported that tremor had a maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes of 0.5-12 mm. Throughout the report period, a "white-thin ash plume" [steam plume] was reported to rise 50-100 m above the volcano. Ijen remained at Alert Level 2.

Geologic Background. The Ijen volcano complex at the eastern end of Java consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The north caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi, which forms the high point of the complex. Immediately west of the Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the historically active Kawah Ijen crater, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid lake. Picturesque Kawah Ijen is the world's largest highly acidic lake and is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of cones forms an E-W zone across the southern side of the caldera. Coffee plantations cover much of the caldera floor, and tourists are drawn to its waterfalls, hot springs, and volcanic scenery.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).


Kilauea (United States) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Inflation-deflation episodes and lava flows through 2 December 2002

Surface activity and seismicity continued at Kilauea during mid-September through early December 2002. At times lava was visible flowing on the coastal flat, and farther upslope on steep slopes and cliffs (at Paliuli, a steep zone just above the coastal flat, and Pulama Pali, a larger steep zone farther upslope). Seismicity was generally at normal levels. There were short periods of inflation and deflation at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o.

Lava flows. During 11-30 September, lava continued to travel SE down Pulama pali and Paliuli, and many surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Lava flowed onto the Wilipe'a bench directly seaward of the end of the Chain of Craters Road. Lava entered the sea at several points on the NE portion of the front of the bench. A great, elongate tumulus was forming directly above the buried pavement of the Chain of Craters Road, near the end of the exposed pavement. On 16 September, it was 3-5 m high, very steep sided, and elongate along the direction of the old road. Also on 16 September, two flows on either side of the West Highcastle lobe threatened to enter the sea. Both flows sent lava onto an old bench. One flow was more or less along the W edge of the West Highcastle lobe, and the other was split into two fingers near the old sea cliff forming the back side of the old bench; one finger was along the E side of the West Highcastle lobe, and the other midway between the Highcastle and West Highcastle lobes. The two flows were fed by the burgeoning West Highcastle lobe, supplied mainly by lava coming over the eastern part of Paliuli. On 22 September, the Highcastle and West Highcastle lobes of the Mother's Day flows were filled in by active lava. A new delta (bench) was being built seaward of the 1995 delta; on 22 September, the new addition was about 20 m beyond the old coastline. During late September visitors saw several sudden collapses of the front of the bench. Lava entered the sea at several points along the two active lava deltas (Middle Highcastle and Wilipe`a) during 1-23 October. No surface flows were visible on the deltas; lava either entered the water via lava tubes or inflated the delta underneath the surface. Several surface flows were visible on the coastal flat, and sporadically on Paliuli and Pulama pali. During late October and early November, surface lava flows were not visible on the coastal flat, but were occasionally seen near Paliuli and Pulama pali. Similar activity continued through mid-November, when spots of incandescence were visible on Paliuli, on the gentle slope below Pulama pali, and above Pulama pali.

From 21 November through 2 December lava continued to flow into the ocean at low-to-moderate levels at the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a entries. West Highcastle was the more active of the two lava deltas, with sporadic explosions coming from one of its entry points. Several surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat (figure 157).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 157. Map of lava flows erupted during 1983 through 25 November 2002 from Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha. Lava renewed draining into the sea at the Wilipe`a ocean entry on 3 September, and continued as of 25 November. Lavas also renewed draining into the sea at the West Highcastle entry during 16-17 September; they died away during the night of 18-19 September, but returned soon thereafter to continue through at least 25 November. The E arm of the Mother's Day flow branched from Highcastle lobe in late October. After that, this arm of lava sent three fingers into the ocean: at Highcastle on 15 November, at West Lae`apuki on 19 November, and at Lae`apuki on 20 November. Of these, only Lae`apuki (the eastern of the two entries labeled "Lae`apuki") was still active on 25 November, but it had stopped by 29 November. Courtesy HVO.

Geophysical activity. During mid-September seismicity was generally at normal levels. There were short periods of inflation and deflation at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o. For several days before 18 September, there was a period of repetitive inflation and deflation at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o. After the 18th no significant deformation was recorded. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera that originally began in June was fairly weak.

On 3 October the swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor picked up strongly, with numerous long-period events persisting for about a day. Elsewhere there was no unusual seismicity. Around the time of increased seismicity, small periods of inflation and deflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o and Uwekahuna. Otherwise, tiltmeters recorded no unusual deformation.

Small swarms of long-period earthquakes and tremor occurred beneath the caldera during mid-October through at least 2 December. Periods of deflation and inflation continued to occur at Pu`u `O`o and Uwekahuna. A small deflation event began on 28 October that was recorded at the Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters. Small deflation may have occurred at the Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters on 10 November. Gentle deflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o during 13-24 November.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey, PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718, USA (URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Above-background seismicity June-November 2002

During late June through early December 2002 seismicity fluctuated at Kliuchevskoi, but remained above background levels. Plumes were occasionally visible reaching up to 2.0 km above the crater (table 6).

Table 6. Plumes visible at Kliuchevskoi during mid-August through early December 2002. Plume heights are above the crater. Courtesy KVERT.

Date Time Plume details
16-18 Aug 2002 -- A gas-and-steam plume rose 500-1500 m, extended 10 km to the W and NW on 16 and 18 August.
19 and 21 Aug 2002 -- A gas-and-steam plume rose 50-150 m, extended 10 km to the SW on 19 August.
22 Aug 2002 0700 and 0820 According to visual observations from Klyuchi town, a gas-and-steam plume with ash rose 100 m.
22 Aug 2002 0830 Observers from Kozyrevsk village reported a gas-steam plume that rose 100 m and extended 15 km to the S.
22 Aug 2002 0718 An AVHRR image (band 2) showed a steam-gas (?) plume extending S.
01 Nov 2002 -- A gas-and-steam plume rose ~800 m and extended 10 km to the SE.
08, 09, 13 Nov 2002 -- A gas-and-steam plume rose ~100-900 m and extended 10 km to the E and SE.
17-18 Nov 2002 -- Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1,000-2,000 m and extended 10-20 km to the W.
19-21 Nov 2002 -- Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~100-200 m.
03 Dec 2002 -- According to visual observations from Klyuchi, gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1,300 m and extended N and NE.
30 Nov and 01, 02, 04 Dec 2002 -- Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-400 m and extended 10 km to the SE, E, W, and N.
03 Dec 2002 -- According to satellite data, a ~15 km gas-and-steam plume extended NNE.

Increased seismicity during November 2001 and May 2002 (BGVN 27:06) prompted KVERT to increase the Concern Color Code to Yellow. The Code was reduced to Green on 21 June. On 30 August KVERT reported that during the previous week ~10 earthquakes occurred at depths of ~30 km beneath the volcano. Small shallow earthquakes and weak spasmodic tremor were also registered during the week. No further reports were issued until early November 2002.

On 8 November 2002, KVERT reported that seismicity had reached above-background levels several times per month during 2002. Specifically, they reported high seismicity as follows: 8 days each month during June, September and October; 4 days in July; 7 days in August, and an unspecified number of times during early November.

The Concern Color Code was increased to Yellow on 14 November. Seismicity was above background levels during 8 November through at least 5 December (table 7).

Table 7. Earthquakes and intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor measured at Kliuchevskoi during late August through early December 2002. Courtesy KVERT.

Date Earthquakes per day (~30 km depth) Intermittent tremor (in terms of geophone velocity)
30 Aug 2002 ~10 --
01 Nov-07 Nov 2002 5-13 Up to 1.1-1.4 x 10-6 m/s.
08 Nov-10 Nov 2002 5-9 --
11 Nov-13 Nov 2002 33-56 Slowly decreased from 1.6 x 10-6 m/s to 0.75 x 10-6 m/s during 8-12 November.
14 Nov-17 Nov 2002 Decreased from 26 to 9 0.6-0.7 x 10-6 m/s during 14-16 November.
17 Nov-20 Nov 2002 9 1.1-1.3 x 10-6 m/s.
28 Nov-01 Dec 2002 8-13 --
02 Dec-04 Dec 2002 24-33 --
28 Nov-05 Dec 2002 -- ~0.8 x 10-6 m/s.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.


Lewotobi (Indonesia) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Lewotobi

Indonesia

8.542°S, 122.775°E; summit elev. 1703 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion on 12 October 2002, the first reported activity since July 1999

On 12 October 2002 at 2330, an explosion at Lewotobi Lakilaki (a twin stratovolcano of Lewotobi Perempuan) was accompanied by a weak thundering sound that was heard at Hokeng village, 5 km from the summit. An ash column rose ~500 m above the volcano and drifted NW. Ash fell as far as 5 km away, accumulating to thicknesses of less than 0.5 mm. No seismic data were available. Following the eruption, the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). According to VSI, eruptions at Lewotobi usually occur over an extended time, therefore more explosions were expected in the following weeks to months. VSI reported no increase in volcanism in the weeks following the 12 October eruption. Through at least 24 November, a thin white low-pressure ash plume was frequently visible rising 150-250 m above the summit. Lewotobi remained at Alert Level 2.

Geologic Background. The Lewotobi "husband and wife" twin volcano (also known as Lewetobi) in eastern Flores Island is composed of the Lewotobi Lakilaki and Lewotobi Perempuan stratovolcanoes. Their summits are less than 2 km apart along a NW-SE line. The conical Lakilaki has been frequently active during the 19th and 20th centuries, while the taller and broader Perempuan has erupted only twice in historical time. Small lava domes have grown during the 20th century in both of the crescentic summit craters, which are open to the north. A prominent flank cone, Iliwokar, occurs on the E flank of Perampuan.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).


Miyakejima (Japan) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Miyakejima

Japan

34.094°N, 139.526°E; summit elev. 775 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


High SO2 fluxes, minor ash eruptions continue through November 2002

Volcanic activity that began at Miyake-jima during June and July 2000 was still ongoing as of November 2002. The current activity included a large amount of discharging volcanic gas. SO2 flux remained high (about 5,000-10,000 tons/day) as of October 2002. All residents of Miyake-jima island have been evacuated since September 2000.

During the 2000 activity, for several weeks the crater expanded in both depth and diameter (BGVN 25:09) and by September 2000 its diameter reached ~1.6 km. As of November 2002, the crater diameter remained at ~1.6 km. Several phreatomagmatic eruptions had occurred during July and August 2000 (e.g., July 14-15; August 10, 13, 18, and 29). The largest eruption occurred on 18 August 2000 (BGVN 25:09). It produced an eruption column to a height of ~15 km. Large amounts of ash and bombs ejected, the latter frequently rich in juvenile material and in a cauliflower shape (figure 16). About 30-40% of the ash consisted of juvenile fragments containing many micro-bubbles and microlites (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Cauliflower-shaped bomb from the 18 August 2000 eruption of Miyake-jima. Courtesy GSJ.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. A polished section of 18 August 2000 ash showing a 100 µm scale bar. The specimen is riddled with microlites and sub-circular micro-bubbles. Courtesy GSJ.

During the 29 August 2000 eruption (BGVN 25:07), a low-temperature pyroclastic flow occurred. The flow was weak, however, it reached the sea and sent an ash cloud to 8.0 km. Following the largest eruption on 18 August 2000, a large amount of volcanic gas, especially SO2, began to discharge. The mean flux during September-December 2000 was ~40,000 tons/day.

Table 2 compiles recent minor eruptions during 2001-2002. A major eruption had not occurred at Miyake-jima since 29 August 2000. However, small explosions with minor ash emission sometimes occurred. As of 15 November 2002, the last such explosion was on 8 October 2002.

Table 2. Occasional small, typically ash-bearing explosions took place at Miyake-jima during January 2001 through 15 November 2002. All of the eruptions since 2001 were small with minor ash emission; however, some plume observations following outbursts were thwarted by weather or other limitations (situations indicated by question marks). In several cases, the ash columns rose to heights of 1 to 1.5 km above the crater rim. Data from JMA and provided courtesy GSJ.

Date Time (approximate) Plume height above rim
11 Jan 2001 1040 800 m
19 Mar 2001 0700-0740 800 m
27 May 2001 0604 1,200 m
03 Jun 2001 0634 700 m
10 Jun 2001 1925 500 m
10 Jun 2001 0638 and 0823 500 m
18 Jul 2001 1742 ??
26 Sep 2001 1132 1,000 m
27 Sep 2001 2128 1,000 m
27 Sep 2001 2304 800 m
28 Sep 2001 0528 800 m
11 Oct 2001 0445 and 0900 ??
16 Oct 2001 0722 1,500 m
01 Nov 2001 1232 800 m
23 Jan 2002 1234 200 m
21 Feb 2002 1737 300 m
02 Mar 2002 0553 and 0612 ??
31 Mar 2002 0604 200 m
02 Apr 2002 1002 300 m
16 Apr 2002 0600 ??
15 Jun 2002 1619 500 m
01 Aug 2002 1742 ??
16 Sep 2002 0510 ??
08 Oct 2002 1451 200 m

Satellite imagery on 5-6 August showed a plume from Miyake-jima drifting ~185 km (100 nautical miles; figure 18). A wind profile taken at a nearby Hachijo-jima island was used to infer that the plume was below ~1,500 m.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Satellite imagery on 6 August 2002 showed a plume drifting to the ENE from Miyake-jima. Courtesy Charles Holliday, U.S. AFWA.

Geologic Background. The circular, 8-km-wide island of Miyakejima forms a low-angle stratovolcano that rises about 1100 m from the sea floor in the northern Izu Islands about 200 km SSW of Tokyo. The basaltic volcano is truncated by small summit calderas, one of which, 3.5 km wide, was formed during a major eruption about 2500 years ago. Parasitic craters and vents, including maars near the coast and radially oriented fissure vents, dot the flanks of the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have occurred since 1085 CE at vents ranging from the summit to below sea level, causing much damage on this small populated island. After a three-century-long hiatus ending in 1469, activity has been dominated by flank fissure eruptions sometimes accompanied by minor summit eruptions. A 1.6-km-wide summit caldera was slowly formed by subsidence during an eruption in 2000; by October of that year the crater floor had dropped to only 230 m above sea level.

Information Contacts: Akihiko Tomiya, Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 7, Tsukuba 305-8567, Japan (URL: http://staff.aist.go.jp/a.tomiya/miyakeE.html); Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); Charles Holliday, U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA),106 Peacekeeper Dr., Ste 2NE; Offutt AFB, NE 68113-4039 USA.


Papandayan (Indonesia) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Papandayan

Indonesia

7.32°S, 107.73°E; summit elev. 2665 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Large explosive eruption with landslide and lahars begins 11 November 2002

On 11 November 2002 a substantial eruption began at Papandayan. The last reported activity here, during June 1998, consisted of increased seismicity and minor phreatic explosions that ejected mud and gas (BGVN 23:07). The volcano lies ~50 km SE of Bandung.

The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported that the seismograph recorded a deep volcanic earthquake in early October 2002. During mid-October, hypocenters of shallow volcanic earthquakes were migrating toward the surface. Volcanic earthquakes continued until the eruption.

One or more earthquakes at 0452 and 0454 on 11 November were felt with a Modified Mercalli intensity of II. The shaking is thought to have triggered instability at Papandayan. Associated tremor signals during 1200-1506 had ~6 mm amplitudes (peak-to-peak).

At 1530 on 11 November a phreatic eruption vented from the 1942 crater, Kawah Baru. An hour and 20 minutes later, a landslide began. The landslide, which occurred at the W wall of the old crater complex, advanced into the Cibeureum Gede river where it became a lahar and flood.

Figures 1, 2, and 3 show some of the near-source effects and processes seen two days after the 11 November eruption. The Cibeureum river is a tributary of the major, NNE-flowing Cimanuk river, which empties on Java's N coast. The lahar and flood destroyed eight houses, two bridges, and rice fields. News and web articles also mentioned some evacuations, damage to tea farms, and the reduced water-storage capacity of some impacted reservoirs. There were no reported deaths.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. A photo showing Papandayan's phreatomagmatic eruption at Kawah Baru on 13 November 2002. For scale, note several people in open areas in the center foreground and beyond. Photo taken by Mas Atje Purbawinata (VSI).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. On 11 November 2002, Papandayan's cone Gunung Nangklak underwent slope failure at the old crater complex's W wall, leaving behind a fresh landslide scarp (right). The large cloud in the background consists of a modest background-level ash emission from Kawah Baru. Photograph taken on 13 November 2002 by R. D. Hadisantono (VSI).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Papandayan's November eruption and landslide resulted in a lahar and flood on the Cibeureum Gede river. This is a view looking across a portion of that river as seen several days after the 11 November 2002 lahar and flood started. Downstream is towards the left. This photo taken on 13 November 2002 by Mas Atje Purbawinata (VSI).

The eruption progressed into a phreatomagmatic (or magmatic) eruption until 14 November (figure 4). During this interval there were seven eruptive vents inside Kawah Baru; four of these discharged only sporadic magmatic eruptions, while three produced continuous ash eruptions. On the 14th, a total of 17 magmatic eruptions occurred between 0017 and 1150. The eruptions produced thick gray ash that reached 500-1,000 m above the vent.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Papandayan discharges one of its many 14 November 2002 eruptions. Courtesy VSI.

On 15 November at 0630 a larger eruption produced thick dark ash that reached 5.0 km above the summit. The Alert Level was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

On 16 November during 0600-1800 a thick white ash plume rose 300 m and drifted W. The seismograph recorded signals interpreted as intervals of continuous explosion, and continuous emission. The seismicity of that interval was also characterized by earthquakes (six volcanic, and one tectonic) and continuous tremor.

VSI reported that during 1800-0600 on 17-18 November, volcanic activity at Papandayan was dominated by ash emissions, while medium-pressure ash explosions occurred continuously. A thin white ash plume rose ~200-700 m above the crater and drifted W. The seismograph recorded explosion and tectonic earthquakes, along with continuous tremor and 2 volcanic earthquakes. Seismic signals also disclosed continuous emissions. The Alert Level was reduced to 3 at 1200 on 18 November.

On 19 November, a thick white ash plume of weak to medium pressure rose 200-500 m above the crater and drifted W. The seismograph recorded 11 shallow volcanic and 3 tectonic earthquakes, along with continuous tremor.

On 20 November a thick white ash plume reached 100-1,500 m above the crater and drifted W. Heavy rain occurred at 0502. An eruption from Nangklak crater produced a `dark-gray ash plume that reached 1.5 km above the crater and drifted NE, then N and NW. Ashfall reached a thickness up to 2 cm within a 2-km radius, directed towards the NW.

Earthquakes recorded on 20 November included 17 shallow volcanic, 1 deep volcanic, 2 tectonic, and 1 low frequency. Continuous tremor and continuous emissions of medium intensity also occurred.

A visit to the crater the next day confirmed that energetic eruptions had taken place on 20 November (figures 5, 6, and 7). Scientists found that a directed lateral blast had traveled NE as far as 2 km, stripping all trees growing along the inside of the horseshoe-shaped crater. Within this crater, the blast left blocks and smaller fragments of altered rocks and a 4-8 cm thick deposit of wet ash. Within a 500 m radius of the crater, the sides of some trees had charred due to contact with passing high-temperature gases from the blast, which had discharged from Nangklak crater (figure 6). Breadcrust bombs with maximum diameters of 50 cm were found around Nangklak crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. This 21 November 2002 photo documents Papandayan's multiple active vents. All the vents resided in craters within the volcano's larger horseshoe-shaped crater. Three white plumes issued from Baru crater (left), and one, more substantial plume came from the then very active Nangklak crater (right). Photographed by Igan S. Sutawidjaja (VSI).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. This photo was taken a day after Papandayan's 20 November eruption at a spot ~ 300 m from Nangklak crater. The area appears to be covered by an unspecified thickness of tephra. Widespread damage seen in the photo includes the near absence of smaller vegetation on the present ground surface, and the denuded, scorched, and splintered remnants of the larger vegetation. The charred sides of remaining tree stumps faced towards Nangklak crater. For scale, note the open jack-knife perched in the broken end of the closest tree. Photographed on 21 November 2002 by Igan S. Sutawidjaja (VSI).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. At Papandayan, ash explosions at Kawah Nangklak on 21 November 2002. Photographed by Igan S.Sutawidjaja (VSI).

On 21 November, volcanism was dominated by explosions and ash emissions of medium-high intensity. Crater wall collapse also occurred, mostly at Kawah Baru. Through 0745 there were 98 explosions; they produced white gray ash that rose 200-600 m high and drifted W. The seismograph recorded a total of 10 shallow volcanic and 1 low-frequency earthquake, along with continuous tremor and emission (medium-high intensity). Citizens were asked to stay at least 4 km from the vent.

On 22 November there was a low level of continuous ash-and-gas explosions. A thick white plume with ash rose 300-600 m above Nangklak crater. Seismicity was dominated by explosion earthquakes (maximum amplitude, 23 mm) and also included shallow volcanic, deep volcanic, and tectonic earthquakes. A medium-intensity ash explosion along with lahars occurred along the Cibeureum Gede, and the Ciparugpug rivers.

During 23-25 November activity at Papandayan was dominated by ash explosions reaching more than 600 m above Nangklak crater. Six other craters emitted a white plume up to 200-400 m.

Geologic Background. Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the north gives a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have created an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas. A sulfur-encrusted fumarole field occupies historically active Kawah Mas ("Golden Crater"). After its first historical eruption in 1772, in which collapse of the NE flank produced a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 people, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


May-June quiet; late 2002 explosions send ash to ~4 km altitude

During February-March 2002, the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO) reported that volcanic and seismic activity remained low, with some low-frequency earthquakes recorded. The active vent emitted weak-to-moderate amounts of white vapor, and ground-deformation measurements showed no significant changes (BGVN 27:03).

RVO reported that Tavurvur was quiet during 20 May-2 June. The active vent continued to release variable amounts of white vapor. Occasionally, the emission changed to very thick volumes of white vapor. The smell of SO2 was evident on some days. Seismic activity remained low and a few small, low-frequency earthquakes were recorded beneath Tavurvur. Ground-deformation measurements showed a small amount of inflation, however, the long-term trend showed no significant changes.

On 20 October at 1347 an eruption took place at Tavurvur cone. News reports indicated that rocks were thrown 700 m from the summit, and no lava was erupted. They also noted that the eruption produced a thick, dark, ash plume that rose to ~3 km before dispersing to the N and NW. No ash was visible on satellite imagery due to meteorological clouds in the vicinity. News reports also stated that ash caused Tokua airport flights to be suspended on 22 October. On 23 October ash was visible at ~3.6 km altitude. The airport reopened on 27 October, with two flights permitted during the day. Reopening the airport was possible because erupted ash ceased to blow towards it.

Several small explosions occurred after the 20 October eruption, sending ash clouds to 4 km altitude. On 28 October RVO stated that a major increase in volcanic activity seemed unlikely. Low-level activity continued in early November. Ash emissions occurred at long, irregular intervals and associated ash remained below ~3 km altitude.

Very heavy ash emission was observed on 24 November. A low-level plume was produced, and no ash was visible on satellite imagery. Observations during 20-26 November revealed that the ash content in the emissions was generally decreasing, and erupted ash clouds remained below ~1.5 km altitude. The intensity of ash emission changed on 30 November from very slow to slightly forceful, and the interval between eruptions increased. Occasional moderate eruptions produced ash clouds that reached heights of 1-1.5 km above the crater. Two moderate explosions on the night of 30 November emitted visible incandescent lava fragments that showered the volcano's N and NE slopes and ash plumes that rose 100-1,200 m above the crater. During 29 November-1 December, ash plumes were blown to the E and SE. Seismicity was at a low-to-moderate level, and the signature of events changed from short to long duration. Ground deformation measurements lacked significant changes, however, the electronic tiltmeter showed slow inflation.

On 3 December RVO reported that the eruption pattern varied between sustained ash emissions lasting 1-2 minutes to discrete short duration ash emissions lasting less than 1 minute. Ash plumes ascended several hundred to 1,200 m above the summit. On the evening of 3 December ash plumes were blown N and NW, causing fine ashfall in parts of Rabaul Town.

During late November through at least 16 December, the eruption was characterized by slow, convoluted ash plumes that rose several hundred meters above the summit. There was a small amount of ash in the plumes, and minor ashfall affected areas close to the cone. Seismicity was generally at low-to-moderate levels. There was a ~2.5-minute-long period of harmonic tremor on the morning of 11 December accompanied by a pulsating noise from the volcano. Another period of harmonic tremor occurred on 13 December. Ground-deformation measurements from real-time GPS and electronic tilt showed no significant changes.

During mid-December, although the NE vent was still dominant, some plumes rose from the W side of the N crater. The eruptions at Tavurvur continued as of 16 December, with light gray or brown plumes with little ash rising several hundred to more than a thousand meters above the summit. Winds from the SE led to moderate ashfall in Rabaul, although RVO reported that variable winds made it difficult to be specific about which areas were being affected by ash.

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: Ima Itikarai, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea; Darwin VAAC, Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina Northern Territory 0811 Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Reuters; Pacific Island Report.


Reventador (Ecuador) — November 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Reventador

Ecuador

0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong, sudden 3 November eruption; 8-km-long pyroclastic flow

After a 26 year repose without signs of unusual activity, Reventador burst unexpectedly into a VEI 4 eruption on 3 November 2002. Seismometers, including some located 15 and 24 km away, only began to detect anomalous seismicity 4 hours prior to the eruption's visual confirmation. A preliminary evaluation implies that this was one of Ecuador's most powerful eruptions of the past 100 years.

A vertical aerial photograph of Reventador's edifice taken in 1983 (figure 2) has been annotated by Minard (Pete) Hall to show the age and distribution of lava flows. During the 2002 eruption onlookers took a series of photos; a side view captured at an early stage appears in figure 3.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Aerial photo of Reventador caldera taken in 1983. Top of photo lies to the N; the walls of the E-breached caldera are 3-4 km apart. The bottom image is the same photo with map overlays of lava flows and key features. Although cut off in this cropped figure, the caldera's W wall is intact. Courtesy of Instituto Geografico Militar de Quito and Instituto Geofisico, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador (IG).

The following tentative chronology of the eruption is based upon IG seismic and NOAA data, as well as eyewitness accounts and photos. The chronology of the events on 3 November is detailed in table 1. At press time editors were unable to learn the latest details regarding timing but these will appear in a subsequent report.

Table 1. Chronology of events that took place at Reventador on 3 November 2002. Courtesy IG and NOAA.

Time Activity
0300 Beginning of seismic swarm of 100 events, most of a hybrid tendency characterized by frequencies of 1.8 to 4.2 Hz and seismic tremor of low frequency (0.7-1.0 Hz). Workers at base camp located 8 km from cone were awakened by earthquakes.
0530 At daylight workers reported a steam column 2-3 km high above cone.
0715 Pilots from TAME Airline reported ash plume in the direction of Reventador.
0715-0745 NOAA GOES images first show eruption cloud.
0745 Witnesses reported increased intensity of eruptive column, now reaching ~6 km above the cone and drifting to the SW.
0803 Photos show that eruption column had reached 7,300 m above cone and suggest small pyroclastic flows. Successive explosions and a constant roar were heard at 8 km distance, but not at closest town at 15 km distance.
0815 GOES images show eruption cloud beginning to travel to SW.
0912 Main eruption begins. Column soon rises to 16-17 km above cone.
1415 and 1615-1715 Other important pulses of the eruption.
1300 approx. Ash cloud reaches InterAndean Valley and Quito, ~100 km from the volcano, causing almost total obscurity by late afternoon. It left a layer up to 3-5 mm thick of fine gray ash everywhere. Some closer towns received up to 3 cm of ash. Most residents of the region complained about the strong odor of both SO2 and H2S.
2005 Another intensification of eruptive activity (which continued until 0100 on 4 November).

On 6 October 2002 a M 4.1 seismic event occurred beneath the volcano, accompanied by nine smaller VT events; the tentative epicenter was slightly SW and W of the cone. Around 20 October a local guide with tourists reached the top of the cone and saw only normal fumarolic activity. No anomalous activity was detected by satellite monitoring during this period.

Table 1 summarizes seismic, visual, and satellite observations of the initial eruptions on 3 November that led to the main eruption's starting at 0912. In that energetic phase a column rose 16-17 km above the intracaldera cone. At least five significant pyroclastic flows (PFs) were produced. A photo sequence showed PFs descending SE along the southern caldera floor and obliquely overriding the 200-400-m-high southern caldera rim (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. A photo showing the young intracaldera cone and main eruption column (on right) of Reventador at 0912 (local time) on 3 November 2002. The view is looking SW from the town of Reventador, 14 km to the volcano's NE. The shot captured a pyroclastic flow traveling along the S side of the caldera floor and overtopping the caldera rim; a topographic boundary 200-400 m high. Note the expansive ash cloud above the pyroclastic flow. Photo taken by R. Saca; provided courtesy IG.

The longest PF traveled 8 km; it flowed out of the breached caldera and down steep slopes to reach the Quijos river. In doing so, it crossed important oil and gas pipelines, pushing them ~20 m downslope without inducing failure. It destroyed an oil pipeline still under construction, and carried away small bridges on the main dirt highway leading to the oilfields. The PF buried one small house and 20 head of cattle. No casualties were reported.

Two segments of the ash column took different paths. The segment of the column that rose up to 16 km high blew to the SW and WSW toward Quito and the populated InterAndean Valley, traveling at 30-45 km/hour. The ash cloud above 16 km moved E and reached southern Colombia and northwestern Brazil. J.L. LePennec (IRD) estimated that ~282 x 106 m3 of pyroclastic material was erupted.

This eruptive event largely destroyed the old summit crater in the intracaldera cone. It was left with two deep notches in its uppermost NNW and SSW sides. These notches apparently served as the source of both the PFs and lava flow number 1. An eyewitness observed rock ejection during this episode. The eruptive event that began at 0912 lasted ~45 minutes, but eyewitnesses indicated that most of the PF activity lasted only 10 minutes.

Throughout the day on 3 November seismic activity was pronounced and included seismic tremor (1-2 Hz), long-period (LP) events (1.5-1.7 Hz), a few volcano-tectonic (VT) events (2-4 Hz and 12-14 Hz), but mainly hybrid events (with initial phases at 2-8 Hz, followed by a main phase at 1-2 Hz).

On 4 November, during 1200-1300, explosions continued but with much less intensity. Ash and steam continued to rise. During the day, TOMS satellite measured up to 60,000 metric tons/day of SO2 (figure 4). In subsequent days, TOMS estimates remained around 5,000 to 20,000 metric tons/day through 21 November (figure 4).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Reventador's SO2 output based upon TOMS satellite data reflecting the interval 4-26 November 2002. Courtesy of Simon Carn and Arlin Krueger.

The next day, on 5 November, small explosions continued, but at 1300 a significant explosion may have generated PFs. Debris flows formed in the days following the PF emplacement mainly covered parts of the PF deposits and also reached the Quijos river, ~8 km from the crater.

During 6-7 November the volcano continued to emit ash, gases, and steam, but at reduced levels. Lava flow number 1 was presumed to have begun during this time, which was later confirmed by NOAA thermal images to have begun at 1900 on 7 November. The lava flow, several hundred meters wide, left the crater area and cone, and traveled SE down the caldera floor near the S caldera wall. An 8 November overflight by Jorge Anhalzer visually confirmed a 4-km-long lava flow, overriding the PF deposits and lahar plain. By 3 December it had traveled 5 km, but it was advancing at only ~1-3 m/day. Through late December observers confirmed that the lava flow continued to move.

During 8-21 November a short eruption column continued, but with increasingly more steam and gas relative to ash. No clear explosions were heard. Variable debris-flow activity occurred, depending upon the intensity of local rainfall. Sulfur gases were occassionally noted in the InterAndean Valley and in Quito.

On 21 November a second lava flow broke out on the lower SE foot of the cone at ~2,600 m elevation and descended to the ESE. By 3 December it had traveled 2 km and was accumulating against the side of the first lava flow.

From 21 November until 3 December there was no additional explosive or PF activity, the steam-rich plume rose to only 1-2 km, and the two lava flows continued moving at a rate of a few meters/day. Debris flows remained a threat to the workers repairing the pipelines and travelers along the main highway.

Setting and sketch map. Reventador stratovolcano is on the E flank of the Ecuadorian Andes in jungles of the western Amazon basin. It contains a 3-km-wide caldera with a young, unvegetated cone that rises ~1,300 m above the caldera floor. The caldera is breached to the E and frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the E caldera floor. No population centers exist nearby; however, the principal oil and gas pipelines and an important highway cross the lower flanks of the volcano, precisely where most flows exited the caldera (figure 5).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Sketch map showing deposits resulting from the November 2002 eruption of Reventador. PF signifies pyroclastic-flow deposits; stippled area shows downed trees and burned vegetation caused by PF's. The map shows the lava flow's advance as of 25 November. Note the oil and gas pipeline near the terminal ends of the PFs. This map omits the debris-flow deposits, which largely covered the PF deposits. Courtesy M. Hall.

The young andesitic cone is within an older caldera (figures 2 and 5). The caldera's interior walls reach heights of 200-400 m, especially at its higher W end. Traces of an older somma rim lie concentrically outside the present W walls of the caldera. The caldera contains older lava flows and pyroclastic-flow and debris-flow deposits; the resulting caldera floor is higher in its W corner, slopes downward to the SE, and drains into the Quijos river.

The symmetrical composite cone of Reventador is presently at an elevation of ~3,500 m, 1,500 m above the lowest point at the SE end of the caldera. The slopes of the young cone average 34 degrees. The cone is slightly higher than the adjacent caldera rim, although a 1931 report stated that it was lower than the rim. Prior to this eruption the summit crater had a diameter of ~200 m and typically displayed mild fumarolic activity. Recent magmas are typically 56-58% SiO2 and carry olivine, two pyroxenes, and plagioclase.

Some 14 eruptions of sufficient magnitude to have been detected at appreciable distances occurred between 1541 and 1926 (Hall, 1977). The volcano was first visited in 1931, following its 1926-1929 eruption period. K.T. Goldschmid, a Shell Oil Company geologist, visited the volcano during its 1944 eruption. Eruptive activity occurred in 1960. Another cycle began in July 1972 and lasted until 1976, during which lava flows, small PFs, and debris flows were generated in four eruptive episodes; however, neither ashfalls nor strong sulfur gases were noted in the InterAndean Valley. A detailed listing of past eruptions is available from IG upon request.

Monitoring. Just months prior to the eruption, in April 2002, IG staff installed two new seismic stations (1 Hz, vertical, telemetered). With respect to the crater, the new stations sit 15 km ENE and at 24 km SW. They were operating during the November 2002 crisis (figure 6). After 3 November two similar stations were installed 7.5 km SE and 8 km E of the crater. Older stations important in monitoring the eruption include the two Cayambe stations, located ~40 km NW of Reventador, and Pino station on Guagua Pichincha, located about 100 km WSW. Most locatable earthquakes had shallow hypocenters beneath either the caldera's outer western flanks or under the young cone.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. A histogram showing the daily number of all types of earthquakes registered at Reventador during November 2002. Courtesy Instituto Geofisico.

Daily numbers of seismic events detected in November are show graphically on figure 6. Prior to the current eruption, the volcano averaged ~7 events/day. During the eruption, the average stood at ~142 events/day, chiefly hybrid earthquakes that began with higher frequencies and after a few seconds dropped to lower frequencies.

The eruption's first day was associated with more than 188 events, while the 2nd thru 5th days had only 50-100 events. By 8 November, the number of events generally remained above 200/day, dropping on 17 November to under 150/day, and dropping still further by 20 November. This abrupt decline was possibly associated with the eventual breakout of the second lava flow on 21 November.

No deformation or chemical monitoring was being carried out on the volcano prior to this eruption. TOMS SO2 monitoring as well as thermal monitoring by satellite have been extremely important, given the remoteness and inaccessibility of Reventador. Flights by an UltraLight and light planes have resulted in some photographic coverage and thermal imaging with a FLIR camera.

Effects of the 2002 eruption. Widespread ashfall to the W and SW caused visibility problems, respiratory ailments, some roof collapses, an undisclosed number of deaths and injuries to people attempting to clean their roofs of ash, crop damages, cattle illnesses, closure of Quito's airport for eight days, and power outages in some areas for up to four days. Legally enforced cleaning of all public streets and sidewalks by broom-wielding residents limited the amount of ash entering sewer systems. Lower speed limits were put in place to reduce airborne ash kicked up by passing vehicles. Ecuador's principal crude oil pipeline, although not severed, remained threatened by daily debris flows. One approach to this problem may be to bury the pipeline where it traverses the volcano's vulnerable E slopes.

References. Belloni, L.C., 1989, Slope failures on the volcano "El Reventador" in eastern Ecuador (discussions on volcanic debris), in Proceedings of the Twelfth international conference on Soil mechanics and foundation engineering—Comptes rendus du douzieme congres international de Mechanique des sols et des travaux de foundations, no. 12, v. 5, p. 2851.

Hall, M.L., 1980, El Reventador, Ecuador; un volcan activo de los Andes Septentrionales (El Reventador, Ecuador; an active volcano in the northern Andes): Politecnica 5, p. 123-136.

Hall, M.L., 1979, Volcan Reventador, Ecuador.Volcano News, v. 1, p. 1-3.

Hoyt, D.V., 1978, An explosive volcanic eruption in the Southern Hemisphere in 1928. Nature (London). 275; 5681, Pages 630-632.

Salazar, M.E., 1983, Expedicion vulcanologica el Volcan Reventador (Volcanologic expedition to Reventador Volcano): Flysch, v. 4, p. 1-4.

Geologic Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

Information Contacts: P. Ramon, M. Hall, P. Mothes, and H. Yepes, Instituto Geofísico (IG), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec/); J.P. Eissen and Jean-Luc LePennec, French IRD (Institut de recherche pour le Développement) Representatives, Mission IRD-Whimper 442 y Corúa-Apartado Postal 17-12-857, Quito, Ecuador; Franz Böker, BGR (Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe), Alfred-Bentz-Haus, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover, Germany; George Stephens, Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team, World Weather Bldg., 5200 Auth Rd Rm 510 (E/SP 22), NOAA/NESDIS, Camp Springs, MD 20748USA; Arlin Krueger and Simon A. Carn, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (NASA/UMBC), University of Maryland-Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports