Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 24 March-30 March 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Asamayama Honshu (Japan) New
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 New
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Iceland New
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days New
Pelee Martinique (France) New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days New
Taal Luzon (Philippines) New
Veniaminof United States New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 Continuing
Soufriere St. Vincent St. Vincent Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,246 individual reports over 1,091 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 316 different volcanoes.

Search by Date



Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.

Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.          



Search by Volcano



Agung Concepcion Ijen Little Sitkin Peuet Sague Spurr
Ahyi Copahue Iliamna Llaima Pinatubo St. Helens
Aira Cotopaxi Iliwerung Loihi Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Akan Cuicocha Inielika Lokon-Empung Poas Sulu Range
Alaid Cumbal Ioto Lopevi Popocatepetl Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Irazu Machin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Makian Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kambalny Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Egon Kanaga Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Epi Karangetang Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erta Ale Karthala Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Etna Karymsky Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Fernandina Katmai Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fogo Kavachi Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fonualei Kelimutu Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fourpeaked Kerinci Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fuego Ketoi Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fujisan Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Galeras Kikai Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galunggung Kilauea Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Gamalama Kirishimayama Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamkonora Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gareloi Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gaua Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gorely Korovin Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Great Sitkin Koryaksky Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Grimsvotn Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Cayambe Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chaiten Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Siple Yasur
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Panarea Sorikmarapi
Ciremai Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Papandayan Sotara
Cleveland Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Parker Soufriere Hills
Colima Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Ibu Lewotolok Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network CAP Feed

The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.



Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Asamayama
On 23 March JMA raised the Alert Level for Asamayama to 2 (on a scale of 1-5), noting slight inflation on the W side of the volcano since 15 March and an increase in the number of daily volcanic earthquakes that have occurred since 20 March (36 recorded on 20 March and increasing to 77 events by 1500 on 23 March). After 23 March the number of daily volcanic earthquakes began to fluctuate, decreasing to 15 on 28 March and then 23 by 1500 on 29 March. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 800 tons per day (t/d) on 22 March, 400 t/d on 24 March, and 700 t/d on 25 March, compared to the previous measurement of 200 t/d on 25 February.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Cleveland
AVO reported that a magnitude 4.3 earthquake at Cleveland was recorded during the morning of 26 March. Smaller earthquakes continued to be detected that day at a decreasing rate. There have been no signs of activity observed in infrasound or satellite data, nor evidence of volcanic gas emissions and elevated surface temperatures due to clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Etna
INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) during the week of 22-28 March, though weather conditions often prevented visual observations. Weak Strombolian activity at SEC began at 2005 on 23 March and turned into lava fountaining at 0330 on 24 March. A lava flow from the SEC was observed at 0335 which split in two, one branch traveling toward the Valle del Bove and the other to the SE; the lava was followed by a pyroclastic flow at 0336 that traveled toward the Valle del Bove. The lava fountain produced an ash cloud that rose to 6-7 km (20,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and extended SSE, resulting in ashfall on the S slope and in Catania (29 km SSE). Lava fountaining gradually decreased at 0700, and by 0945 it had stopped. The lava flows continued to advance. Activity in Northeast (NEC), Bocca Nuova (BN), and Voragine (VOR) was characterized by variable intra-crater Strombolian activity, accompanied by sporadic and weak ash emissions that quickly dispersed.

On 24 March explosions at SEC continued after the lava fountaining had stopped, producing an ash plume that rose 4.5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. At night, ashfall was reported in Milia and Trecastagni (16 km SE). Explosions stopped by 1347 that day. By 25 March the two active lava flows had ceased and began to cool. Weak Strombolian activity at SEC on 30 March resumed around 2030; intra-crater explosions continued in the NEC, BN, and VOR, the latter of which produced discontinuous ash emissions that rapidly dispersed in the summit area.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Krysuvik-Trolladyngja
IMO reported that the small eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula continued during 24-30 March. Video and visitor photographs showed that continuous spattering and lava fountaining resulted in the formation of a second large cone adjacent to the main cone. Lava flows from both cones moved W and S within Geldingadalur valley. On 25 and 29 March the extrusion rate from the cone was an estimated 5.8 and 5.3 cubic meters per second, respectively, based on the latest Pléiades image acquisition (LMI).

A gas plume on 25 and 29 March rose to 1 km (3,300 ft) a.s.l; no ash or tephra was produced. Minor seismicity continued around the Fagradalsfjall area. Video data showed that on the morning of 28 March the N part of the largest cone along the fissure collapsed. Sulfur dioxide flux was 18-19 kg/s and drifted predominantly S. The IMO periodically issued warnings about weather conditions that would cause high concentrations of volcanic gases to settle near the eruption site, causing hazardous conditions for visitors. The Aviation Color Code remained Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported moderate to strong explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater during 24-30 March, accompanied by abundant ash plumes that rose to 2.9-4.5 km (9,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions as far as 15-20 km. Resulting ashfall was reported in El Pepinal (7 km N), San Francisco de Sales (5 km N), El Cedro (9 km NNW), Calderas (3 km N), Mesías Altas, Mesías Baja (5 km NE), El Rodeo (4 km WSW), El Patrocinio (5 km W), and San Vicente Pacaya (5 km NW). The lava flow that began on 18 March was 2.5 km long, continuing down the SW flank; the height of the flow was 2.5 m with a width of 400 m, but the advancing front was 250 wide and set fire to nearby vegetation. Incandescent material ejected 150-300 m above the rim fell around the crater on 25 and 27 March. On 30 March ash plumes drifted 7 km S, causing ashfall in El Chupadero (2-2.5 km S) and Los Pocitos (5.5 km S).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Pelee
L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity at Pelée increased during 19-26 March. The seismic network recorded at least 55 high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes less than or equal to 1, located at depths between 1.7 km below sea level and 1 km above sea level. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM)
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
OVPF reported that seismicity remained elevated at Piton de la Fournaise during 22-26 March. On 24 March there were 81 earthquakes recorded under the summit, accompanied by deformation and 31 collapses along the edges of the Dolomieu Crater. Inflation centered 1.5 and 2 km below the crater continued through the week. On 26 March up to 95 summit volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded; the daily number of earthquakes then decreased, with 55 on 27 March and 8 on 28 March.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that satellite data showed minor ash deposits on Semisopochnoi's flanks. Three explosions on 25 March (at 0142, 0330, and 0645) were recorded by regional infrasound sensors. Two more explosions were detected at 2130 on 26 March and at 0030 on 27 March; high weather cloud cover at 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. prevented satellite confirmation; no ash was visible above the cloud deck during 25-27 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported that seismicity increased at Taal during 24-27 March. There were around 19-302 volcanic earthquakes recorded daily, except on 28 March, and about 4-243 periods of volcanic tremor with variable durations (1-24 minutes). Four hybrid earthquakes were recorded on 24 March. Low-frequency earthquakes were detected 25, 77, 118, 7, and 16 times on 25, 26, 27, 28, and 30 March, respectively. Diffuse steam plumes from fumarolic vents in the Main Crater rose as high as 40 m. Daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emissions were 837-1,109 tonnes/day. The Alert Level for Taal remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater and Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail) was strictly prohibited.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Veniaminof
AVO reported that eruptive activity at Veniaminof continued during 24-25 and 27-30 March. Highly elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images along with ash deposits that were primarily confined to the summit and upper flanks on 23 March. Low-level tremor was recorded in local seismic data. During 24 March explosions were recorded in local seismic data and in infrasound data sensors; frequent explosive booming (several per minute) was reported by residents in Perryville (35 km SE) and Chignik Lagoon (55 km NE). Cloud cover prevented visual confirmation during this period of increased seismicity. Fresh ash deposits extending 10 km SE in the summit caldera were observed in satellite data on 25 March. Satellite data also showed highly elevated surface temperatures at the summit and flank vent during clear weather days on 25, 28, and 29 March. Discrete, short-lived ash emissions were detected during the afternoon and evening of 27 March in images from the FAA webcam in Perryville. The intermittent events lasted several minutes and produced small ash clouds that rose less than 300 m (1,000 ft) above the vent and drifted SE, which may have resulted in trace ashfall in Perryville, though there was no confirmed evidence. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 22-26 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion on 25 March produced an eruption plume that rose 1.4 km above the crater rim. On 27 March at 0236 an eruption generated an ash plume that rose 2.5-4 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, resulting in a large amount of ashfall in Kagoshima City (about 10 km W). Volcanic bombs were ejected 1-1.3 km away from the crater. An eruption on 29 March at 1557 produced an eruption plume that rose 2.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SE, resulting in a pyroclastic flow down the SE flank and ashfall in Kagoshima City and the Kagoshima Prefecture. An explosion on 30 March at 0433 generated an ash plume that rose 2.7 km above the crater and drifted E, ejecting bombs 600-900 m from the crater. Ashfall was again reported in Kagoshima City. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-30 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 19, 21, and 24-25 March that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km a.s.l. (8,200 ft) and drifted in different directions. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 24 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 6-11 explosions per hour were recorded during 24-30 March at Fuego, generating ash plumes that rose to 4.7 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and SW as far as 10-15 km. Shock waves rattled buildings near the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), and Trinidad (S) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ash plumes from explosions rose to 4.8 (16,000 ft) km a.s.l. and drifted N and NE on 25 March and W on 27 March far as 15-20 km, resulting in ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache (8 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Yepocapa (8 km NW), La Soledad (11 km N). Block avalanches descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, in addition to those affected on 24 March. Weak crater incandescence was observed at night and in the early morning during 26 March. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m above the summit on 28 March, accompanied by ash plumes that rose to 4.8 km a.s.l. and resulted in ashfall in Palo Verde, Panimaché II, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa, and El Porvenir (8 km ENE).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that on 25 March at 1814 a gray ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. White-and-gray emissions rose 200-1,000 m above the crater drifting N, S, E, and W during 25-26, 28, and 30 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 24-30 March. Lava flowed from the main vent into the lake through two crusted-over channels and submerged inlets, the former of which occurred during 24-25 March. The total depth of the lake measured about 224 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified, expanding toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 and 650 tons/day on 22 and 26 March, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that the flank eruption on Klyuchevskoy’s lower NW flank had ended on 20 March. Weak incandescence from the cinder cone and lava flows visible in webcam images reflected cooling. The temperature of the thermal anomaly identified in satellite data continued to decrease. On 24 March the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level). According to satellite data, a plume of resuspended ash extended for 72 km E of the volcano on 25 March; no eruption was reported. On 25 March the Aviation Color Code was briefly increased to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and was lowered to Green by 26 March.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the Strombolian eruption at Lewotolok continued during 24-30 March. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted in different directions. Incandescent material was ejected 500 m above the summit on 23, 27, and 30 March, and 300 m above the summit on 25 March. On 26 and 28 March incandescence was observed up to 100 m above the summit, accompanied by incandescent ejecta as far as 350 m to the SE. The eruptive events were accompanied by rumbling and banging sounds. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi's SW rim continued to grow and shed material down the flank during 19-25 March. The 2021 lava dome volume was an estimated 949,000 cubic meters on 25 March, with a growth rate of about 13,300 cubic meters per day. The Mount Merapi Selo Observation Post reported a white gas-and-steam plume rose 500 m above the crater on 25 March at 1430. Four pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 1.8 km down the SW flank, three of which occurred on 27 March at 0602, 0603, and 0631. An ash plume caused by a pyroclastic flow rose 3.5 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW for about 1.3 km on 27 March at 1758 on, according to a ground observer. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 104 times, traveled as far as 1.2 km down the SW flank and twice down the SE flank as far as 400 m. The summit lava dome measured 65 m tall, similar to the previous week. On 30 March there were 33 incandescent avalanches observed traveling up to 1 km down the SW flank, one of which continued up to 1.5 km. One incandescent avalanche was observed from the lava dome. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Raung
PVMBG reported that daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose 50-1,200 m above Raung's summit during 24-29 March. Ash plumes drifted in different directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Reventador
IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 24-30 March; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. Seismicity was characterized by 49-80 daily explosions, volcano-tectonic and harmonic tremor events, and long-period earthquakes, as well as signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.4 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly W, NW, SW. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling down the NE flank were observed nightly and accompanying explosions during 24-25 March.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 90 explosions at Sabancaya during 22-28 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the summit and drifted SW, W, N, and NW. Six thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 24-30 March. Seismicity was characterized by 1-8 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual observations of the volcano, though based on the Washington VAAC reports, daily ash plumes were noted rising as high as 2.1 km above the summit and drifting in different directions. Images shared by the Red de Observadores Volcánicos (ROVE) (Network of Volcanic Observers) showed gas-and-steam emissions reaching 900-1,000 m above the crater drifting N on 26-27 March. A seismic station recorded occasional debris flows during 24-30 March. No ashfall was reported by residents.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-30 March weak explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generate ash plumes that rose to 2.8-3.4 km (9,000 ft-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NE, SW. Collapses of blocky lava from the Caliente dome sent avalanches on the S and SW flank of the Caliente dome, causing minor ashfall around the volcano. Block avalanches were also observed on the E and S flanks; ashfall was reported in San Marcos (8 km SW) and Loma Linda Palajunoj (6 km WSW) on 25 and 27 March. Minor pyroclastic flows were reported on 28 March.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that lava dome growth at Sheveluch continued during 20-26 March, accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, incandescence, and block avalanches. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome all week, except on 22 and 25 March due to cloud cover. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 24-30 March. The Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption on 28 March generated an ash plume that rose to 3.4 km a.s.l. (11,000 ft). Explosions on 29 March at 0024 and 1035 produced ash plumes that rose to 3.5 km a.s.l. (11,500 ft) and drifted NNE and ESE, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Soufriere St. Vincent
University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to slowly grow during 23-27 March, expanding to the N and S. Gas-and-steam continued to rise from the top of the dome, as well as along the contact with the pre-existing 1979 dome. On 23 March at 1030 the monitoring network recorded a swarm of small low-frequency seismic events that lasted about 45 minutes, which was likely associated with magma movement beneath the dome. Starting at 1653 the monitoring network also began to detect volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, some of which have been felt by nearby communities, including Fancy, Owia, and Sandy Bay. On 26 March the period of elevated VT earthquakes stopped; only small, low frequency events associated with the growth of the lava dome were recorded. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC), National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater detected a total of 17 explosions during 19-26 March. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim, drifting S, W, and SW, and ejected bombs as far as 500 m away from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. On 30 March at least 18 explosions were detected, generating ash plumes that rose 600-1,500 m above the crater drifting E, SE, and NE and ejecting material as far as 800 m S of the crater. On 31 March the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)