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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 30 November-6 December 2022
Name Country Volcanic Province Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ahyi United States Mariana Volcanic Arc New
Cotopaxi Ecuador Andean Northern Volcanic Arc New
Etna Italy Sicily Volcanic Province New
Mauna Loa United States Hawaiian-Emperor Hotspot Volcano Group New
San Miguel El Salvador Central America Volcanic Arc New
Semeru Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2017 Jun 6 New
Taupo New Zealand Taupo Volcanic Zone New
Villarrica Chile Andean Southern Volcanic Arc 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days New
Aira Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Alaid Russia Kuril Volcanic Arc Continuing
Dukono Indonesia Halmahera Volcanic Arc 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia Kuril Volcanic Arc 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala Central America Volcanic Arc 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kerinci Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc Continuing
Kilauea United States Hawaiian-Emperor Hotspot Volcano Group Continuing
Late Tonga Tofua Volcanic Arc Continuing
Machin Colombia Andean Northern Volcanic Arc Continuing
Merapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Andean Northern Volcanic Arc 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Pavlof United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador Andean Northern Volcanic Arc 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala Central America Volcanic Arc 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Italy Aeolian Volcanic Arc 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,299 individual reports over 1,228 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 335 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Raung Talang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reventador Tanaga
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Matthew Island Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ahyi
Unrest continued to be detected at Ahyi Seamount during 30 November-6 December. Wake Island hydrophone sensors detected signals on most days and discolored water over the seamount was identified daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported that the low-level eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 30 November-6 December. At 0841 on 30 November the seismic network recorded a signal associated with an emission. A gas plume with low ash content was visible in webcam images rising 600 m above the summit and drifting E. Earlier in the morning minor ashfall was reported in Latacunga, though the ashfall may have been the result of remobilized material previously deposited. Daily steam-and-gas emissions during 1-6 December rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted E, SE, S, and W. Daily sulfur dioxide emissions measured by satellite during 1-4 December averaged 119-4,000 tons per day. On 2 December IG noted that the heights of gas-and-steam emissions had increased in the past few weeks, corresponding to greater gas output. Thermal anomalies in the crater were visible in recent days; one was visible on 1 November, and two were visible on each of the days of 28 and 29 November. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that a new vent, at the NE base of Etna’s SE Crater around 2,800 m elevation, was first seen at about 1800 on 27 November when weather conditions allowed for direct visual observations. The vent produced a lava flow that traveled 300 m E towards the Valle del Leone. Inclement weather conditions from 1000 on 28 November until the end of the next day prevented confirmation of continuing activity, though incandescent flashes in the clouds suggested ongoing effusion. The weather conditions improved on 30 November, and a second vent was observed, located upslope from the first at about 2,900 m elevation. A lava flow from the second vent had traveled about 450 parallel to and N of the first flow, reaching about 2,700 m elevation.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Mauna Loa
HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption at Mauna Loa continued during 30 November-6 December. Fissure 4, at the lowest elevation, produced lava flows that moved NE at a rate of about 60 m per hour during 30 November-1 December and crossed the Mauna Loa Weather Observatory Road overnight. A smaller slower lobe of lava traveled E but had stalled by the afternoon of 1 December. Fissure 4 was not very active during the morning of 2 December, and during an overflight on 3 December HVO geologists confirmed that it was no longer erupting and observed only glowing cracks in the vicinity.

Fissure 3, at 3,510 m elevation, was the dominant source of the largest lava flow that continued to advance mainly N towards the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) during the week. The main flow branched almost halfway down the flow field, but coalesced downslope an advanced as a single front. Lava fountains at the fissure were 20-25 m tall on 30 November, about 33 m tall during 3-4 December, and 40-100 m on 6 December. Molten lava bombs were sometimes ejected, which cooled at the base of the fissure and built a significant spatter rampart around the lava fountains.

The rate of lava flow advancement was variable but generally trended down early in the week from 24-45 m per hour during 30 November-2 December to 6-13 m per hour during 3-5 December, as the lava-flow front reached flatter ground. As the flow rate slowed the flow front was widened and thickened. There were surges in the rate during 5-6 December with the lava flow typically advancing at 21 m per hour but moving up to 27.4 m per hour for shorter periods. Several small overflows were visible during 3-6 December near where the main lava flow branched, on the steeper slopes of the NE flank about halfway down the lava flow. By 0500 on 6 December the flow front was about 3.5 km from the highway; weather conditions hampered views of the eruption most of the day.

The eruption produced volcanic gas plumes that rose to high altitudes and drifted W, generating vog in areas downwind. Pele's hair (strands of volcanic glass) fell in the Humu‘ula Saddle area, and were also blown great distances, as far as far Laupahoehoe (59 km NW of Fissure 3), and the Mauna Kea Visitor Information Station. Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park had closed the Mauna Loa Road from Kipukapuaulu, and the closure extended to the summit caldera. Sulfur dioxide emission rates were high through the week with approximate rates of 180,000 tonnes per day on 1 December and 120,000 tonnes per day on 4 December. At 0180 on 4 December the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) because there was no current threat to aviation from significant volcanic ash emissions. The Federal Aviation Administration issued a temporary flight restriction extending from the surface to 1,500 ft (457 m) above ground level in the eruption area. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning (the highest level on a four-level scale) reflecting the ongoing lava-flow hazards.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for San Miguel
MARN reported that a total of 194 explosions were recorded at San Miguel during 15-29 November, with a daily average of 12 events. Gas, steam, and ash plumes generally rose 500 m above the crater rim, though plumes occasionally rose higher, particularly during 26-27 November as activity intensified. No explosions were detected during 30 November-6 December and seismicity decreased. MARN noted that those living within a 5 km radius should identify evacuation routes and to take preparation measures identified by the Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil.
Sources: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN), Protección Civil de El Salvador
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru was ongoing the past month, culminating in a collapse of lava causing notable pyroclastic flows and ash plumes on 4 December. During 1 November-2 December an average of 88 daily white-and-gray ash plumes of variable densities were visually observed rising as high as 1.5 km above the summit. Pyroclastic flows, seen twice, traveled as far as 4.5 km down the flank. Deformation data showed inflation and thermal anomalies indicated hot lava-dome material at the summit. A white-to-gray ash plume rose around 500 m above the summit and drifted S on 3 December.

At 0246 on 4 December material collapsed on the SE flank, producing a series of pyroclastic flows that mainly traveled 5-13 km SE and S, and as far as 19 km in those same directions, according to BNPB. The pyroclastic flows overtook the Gladak Perak Bridge, 13 km SE of the summit, which connected residents of Pronojiwo (13 km SE) and Lumajang (32 km ESE) and appeared to be under construction based on pictures posted on social media. Dense dark-gray ash plumes rose along the pyroclastic flows up to 1.5 km above the summit and drifted SE and S. The ash plumes caused dark conditions and limited visibility, especially in Kajar Kuning (12 km SE) where residents reported dense ashfall and heavy rain. Ejected incandescent material was deposited as far as 8 km from the summit, and ashfall was reported in areas 12 km SE. Pyroclastic flows were ongoing at least through 0951, traveling 5-7 km down the flanks. At 1200 PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) and warned the public to stay at least 8 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards. A total of 1,979 people were evacuated to 11 centers, a public kitchen was established, and thousands of masks were distributed to minimize respiratory health risks due to volcanic ash.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)
Report for Taupo
GeoNet reported that a strong M 5.6 [later revised to 5.7] earthquake occurred beneath Taupo on 30 November. The event was widely felt and caused a small tsunami in the lake. Lake water inundated the shore at several locations, mostly along the N shore, traveling inland as far as 40 m at Wharewaka Point (along the NE shore). Both the earthquake and the tsunami caused minor local damage. The instrument at Horomatangi recorded 250 mm of horizontal ground movement towards the SE, the largest movement ever recorded at that location. Other onshore stations recorded smaller movements of around 10-20 mm. More than 600 aftershocks were located by 7 December, though the magnitude and rate of the events had begun to decline. The largest aftershock was an M 4.5 and two other M 4 events were also recorded.

Earthquakes larger than M 5 beneath Lake Taupo had occurred only four times since 1952, including a M 5 event that occurred on 4 September 2019 as part of a previous period of volcanic unrest. GeoNet noted that there had been 17 previous episodes of unrest at Taupo over the previous 150 years, some more notable than the current episode, and many others before written records. None resulted in an eruption, with the last eruption occurring around 232 CE. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (the second lowest level on a six-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: GeoNet
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 1 December weather conditions were clear, allowing for good visual observations of the Villarrica summit. Ejected incandescent material was visible rising 80-220 m above the crater rim. The report noted that gas emissions and high-temperature thermal anomalies had been continuous during the previous few days. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned that material could be ejected within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI remained the Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) consisting of a few eruptive events and two explosions. Crater incandescence was visible nightly, sometimes characterized as incandescent flashes. An explosion at 0340 on 2 December produced an ash plume that rose as high as 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 1.1 km from the vent. The second explosion, recorded at 1929 on 3 December, produced an ash plume that rose as high as 3 km and ejected large blocks 1-1.3 km away. Webcam video of the event showed incandescent material ejected above the crater and lightning in the ash plume. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Treasure Official Channel
Report for Alaid
KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 25 November-1 December. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Ash plumes drifted 220 km SE during 25-26 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that almost daily white-and-gray plumes from Dukono rose as high as 450 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, S, and SW during 30 November-6 December. Inclement weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 24 November-1 December. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions on 26 November and 1 December generated ash plumes that rose to 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 16 November. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 30 November; weather clouds prevented satellite views on the other days of the week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-12 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 29 November-6 December, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 30 km W, WSW, and SW causing daily ashfall in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Los Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Finca Palo Verde, Ojo de Agua, and Santa Emilia. Daily shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano. Daily block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Honda, Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (ESE), and Trinity drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 400 m above the summit on a few of the days.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 30 Novmeber-6 December. Lobes of lava advanced an additional 25-30 m along the S edge of the flow field and about 15 m SE, based on 25 November satellite images. Cloud cover prevented satellite and webcam observations during 30 Novmeber-6 December. Seismicity remained at low levels. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kerinci
PVMBG reported that white steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 300 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted E almost daily during 29 November-5 December. Gray and white-to-brown plumes rose 100-300 m above the summit during 1-3 December. At 0822 on 6 December a gray-to-black ash plume rose about 700 m above the summit and drifted SW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 30 November-6 December entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level most of the week, fluctuating only a few meters during 4-6 December. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Late
On 29 November Tonga Geological Services reported results from a recent visit to Late. The observers noted warmed ground surfaces, steam rising from fresh cracks, and vents at the summit. The features were too small to be identified in satellite images processed by VOLCAT (Volcanic Cloud Analysis Toolkit) software. They concluded that the features were the result of low-temperature hydrothermal activity driven by a shallow magma body at depth, and that the cracks were the result of past volcanic activity. There were no risks to local communities and mariners were advised to report any observable changes to the island. The Alert Levels all remained at Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) for mariners, residents, and the aviation community.
Source: Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga
Report for Machin
On 2 December SGC reported that an increase in seismicity was detected at Cerro Machín beginning at 1123 on 2 December, with signals indicating rock fracturing. By 1320 a total of 393 signal were counted. The largest event, a M 4.5 recorded at 1236, was located 900 m SSW of the main dome at a depth of 3 km and was felt in Cajamarca (14 km WSW), Ibagué (17 km ESE), and in other municipalities of Tolima. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 25 November-1 December and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced five lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Kali Bebeng drainage). No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) reported that increased seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz began to be recorded at around 1016 on 2 December and increased further on 3 December. The signals indicated moving fluids within the volcano’s conduit and were associated with gas-and-ash emissions seen from several municipalities in Tolima and Caldas. The gas-and-ash plumes generally rose less than 900 m above the summit and drifted SW but occasionally rose as high as 2.9 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 29 November-6 December and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Daily small explosions were recorded through 3 December. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite and webcam images during 29 November-1 December; weather clouds often prevented views during most of the week. A small plume was visible during 5-6 December; the ash content was unknown. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that there were 38-217 steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing minor amounts of ash, rising from Popocatépetl each day during 29 November-6 December. Weather clouds sometimes prevented visual observations of activity. Minor ashfall was reported in Amecameca (20 km NW), Cocotitlán, and Tlalmanalco (30 km NW) during 1-2 December, and in Tepetlixpa (20 km W) during 2-3 December, and in Atlautla (17 km W) and Ozumba (18 km W) during 5-6 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Reventador
IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 29 November-6 December. Daily seismicity was characterized by explosions, long-period earthquakes, periods of harmonic tremor, and signals that indicated emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed almost daily with webcams or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.9 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Weather clouds occasionally prevented webcam and satellite views of the volcano. Active lava flows on the N and NE flanks were periodically visible in webcam views.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 29 November-6 December. Effusion from Caliente cone fed lava flows that descended the San Isidro and El Tambor drainages on the W and SW flanks. Occasional block avalanches from the dome, and from both the ends and sides of the flows, descended the S, SW, and W flanks. The avalanches sometimes generated minor ash plumes that rose along their paths. Almost daily explosions produced gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash that rose as high as 800 m above the complex and sometimes drifted 5-8 km SW.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 24 November-1 December was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Collapses generated hot avalanches and ash plumes that drifted 90 km NE on 26 and 29 November, and 1 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that starting at 1510 on 4 December lava overflowed Stromboli’s Area N (North Crater area) in conjunction with intense explosive activity. A strong explosion occurred at Area C-S (South-Central Crater area) at 1516, and at 1528 small collapses began shedding material onto the upper parts of the Sciara del Fuoco. At 1531 lava overflows and explosive activity likely collapsed part of a crater rim in Area N, resulting in pyroclastic flows that descended the Sciara del Fuoco. At 1619 a large pyroclastic flow descended the Sciara del Fuoco for several minutes and generated abundant ash clouds that temporarily blocked the view of the summit area. The pyroclastic flow went some distance over the water and caused a small tsunami. A lava flow was visible on the Sciara del Fuoco at 1640, and by about 1700 it had reached the coast. The lava flow originated from a fissure located just downslope of the N2 vent in the Area N. Abundant amounts of reddish-colored tephra fell in Ginostra, 1.5 km SW of summit. The Dipartimento della Protezione Civile raised the Alert Level to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Explosive activity continued at Area N.

Lava effused from the vent at variable rates during 5-6 December, with higher rates corresponding to more intense explosive activity. Beginning at about 0830 on 5 December most explosions occurred at N2, with coarse material ejected a few tens of meters above the vent. Boulders rolled down the Sciara del Fuoco and caused diffuse ash plumes that quickly dispersed. Explosions at the summit were generally infrequent.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 28 November-5 December and crater incandescence was visible nightly. No explosions were recorded. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 300 m from the vent. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)