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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Ebeko (Russia) Continued explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall; June-November 2020

Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) Intermittent thermal anomalies and small eruptions in May and August 2020

Nyamuragira (DR Congo) Numerous thermal anomalies and gas emissions from the lava lake through November 2020

Raung (Indonesia) Explosions with ash plumes and a thermal anomaly at the summit crater, July-October 2020

Sinabung (Indonesia) Explosions begin again on 8 August 2020; dome growth confirmed in late September

Heard (Australia) Persistent thermal anomalies in the summit crater from June through October 2020

Sabancaya (Peru) Daily explosions produced ash plumes, SO2 plumes, and thermal anomalies during June-September 2020

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) Frequent small phreatic explosions with intermittent ash plumes during April-September 2020

Fuego (Guatemala) Daily explosions, ash emissions, and block avalanches during August-November 2020

Kikai (Japan) Explosion on 6 October 2020 and thermal anomalies in the crater

Manam (Papua New Guinea) Intermittent ash plumes, thermal anomalies, and SO2 emissions in April-September 2020

Karymsky (Russia) New eruption during April-July 2020; ash explosions in October 2020



Ebeko (Russia) — December 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall; June-November 2020

Volcanism at Ebeko, located on the N end of the Paramushir Island in the Kuril Islands, has been ongoing since October 2016, characterized by frequent moderate explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk (7 km ESE) (BGVN 45:05). Similar activity during this reporting period of June through November 2020 continues, consisting of frequent explosions, dense ash plumes, and occasional ashfall. Information for this report primarily comes from the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) and satellite data.

Activity during June was characterized by frequent, almost daily explosions and ash plumes that rose to 1.6-4.6 km altitude and drifted in various directions, according to KVERT reports and information from the Tokyo VAAC advisories using HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery and KBGS (Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service) seismic data. Satellite imagery showed persistent thermal anomalies over the summit crater. On 1 June explosions generated an ash plume up to 4.5 km altitude drifting E and S, in addition to several smaller ash plumes that rose to 2.3-3 km altitude drifting E, NW, and NE, according to KVERT VONA notices. Explosions on 11 June generated an ash plume that rose 2.6 km altitude and drifted as far as 85 km N and NW. Explosions continued during 21-30 June, producing ash plumes that rose 2-4 km altitude, drifting up to 5 km in different directions (figure 26); many of these eruptive events were accompanied by thermal anomalies that were observed in satellite imagery.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Photo of a dense gray ash plume rising from Ebeko on 22 June 2020. Photo by L. Kotenko (color corrected), courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Explosions continued in July, producing ash plumes rising 2-5.2 km altitude and drifting for 3-30 km in different directions. On 3, 6, 15 July explosions generated an ash plume that rose 3-4 km altitude that drifted N, NE, and SE, resulting in ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. According to a Tokyo VAAC advisory, an eruption on 4 July produced an ash plume that rose up to 5.2 km altitude drifting S. On 22 July explosions produced an ash cloud measuring 11 x 13 km in size and that rose to 3 km altitude drifting 30 km SE. Frequent thermal anomalies were identified in satellite imagery accompanying these explosions.

In August, explosions persisted with ash plumes rising 1.7-4 km altitude drifting for 3-10 km in multiple directions. Intermittent thermal anomalies were detected in satellite imagery, according to KVERT. On 9 and 22 August explosions sent ash up to 2.5-3 km altitude drifting W, S, E, and SE, resulting in ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. Moderate gas-and-steam activity was reported occasionally during the month.

Almost daily explosions in September generated dense ash plumes that rose 1.5-4.3 km altitude and drifted 3-5 km in different directions. Moderate gas-and-steam emissions were often accompanied by thermal anomalies visible in satellite imagery. During 14-15 September explosions sent ash plumes up to 2.5-3 km altitude drifting SE and NE, resulting in ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. On 22 September a dense gray ash plume rose to 3 km altitude and drifted S. The ash plume on 26 September was at 3.5 km altitude and drifted SE (figure 27).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. Photos of dense ash plumes rising from Ebeko on 22 (left) and 26 (right) September 2020. Photos by S. Lakomov (color corrected), IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

During October, near-daily ash explosions continued, rising 1.7-4 km altitude drifting in many directions. Intermittent thermal anomalies were identified in satellite imagery. During 7-8, 9-10, and 20-22 October ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk.

Explosions in November produced dense gray ash plumes that rose to 1.5-5.2 km altitude and drifted as far as 5-10 km, mainly NE, SE, E, SW, and ENE. According to KVERT, thermal anomalies were visible in satellite imagery throughout the month. On clear weather days on 8 and 11 November Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed ashfall deposits SE of the summit crater from recent activity (figure 28). During 15-17 November explosions sent ash up to 3.5 km altitude drifting NE, E, and SE which resulted in ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk on 17 November. Similar ashfall was observed on 22-24 and 28 November due to ash rising to 1.8-3 km altitude (figure 29). Explosions on 29 November sent an ash plume up to 4.5 km altitude drifting E (figure 29). A Tokyo VAAC advisory reported that an ash plume drifting SSE on 30 November reached an altitude of 3-5.2 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of a gray-white gas-and-ash plume at Ebeko on 8 (left) and 11 (right) November 2020, resulting in ashfall (dark gray) to the SE of the volcano. Images using “Natural Color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Photos of continued ash explosions from Ebeko on 28 October (left) and 29 November (right) 2020. Photos by S. Lakomov (left) and L. Kotenko (right), courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows a pulse in low-power thermal activity beginning in early June through early August (figure 30). On clear weather days, the thermal anomalies in the summit crater are observed in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery, accompanied by occasional white-gray ash plumes (figure 31). Additionally, the MODVOLC algorithm detected a single thermal anomaly on 26 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. A small pulse in thermal activity at Ebeko began in early June and continued through early August 2020, according to the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). The detected thermal anomalies were of relatively low power but were persistent during this period. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed gray ash plumes rising from Ebeko on 11 June (top left) and 16 July (bottom left) 2020, accompanied by occasional thermal anomalies (yellow-orange) within the summit crater, as shown on 24 June (top right) and 25 August (bottom right). The ash plume on 11 June drifted N from the summit. Images using “Natural Color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) on 11 June (top left) and 16 July (bottom left) and the rest have “Atmospheric penetration” rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service, Russian Academy of Sciences (KB GS RAS) (URL: http://www.emsd.ru/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) — November 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kuchinoerabujima

Japan

30.443°N, 130.217°E; summit elev. 657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal anomalies and small eruptions in May and August 2020

Kuchinoerabujima encompasses a group of young stratovolcanoes located in the northern Ryukyu Islands. All historical eruptions have originated from the Shindake cone, with the exception of a lava flow that originated from the S flank of the Furudake cone. The current eruptive period began in January 2020 and has been characterized by small explosions, ash plumes, ashfall, a pyroclastic flow, and gas-and-steam emissions. This report covers activity from May to October 2020, which includes small explosions, ash plumes, crater incandescence, and gas-and-steam emissions. The primary source of information for this report comes from monthly and annual reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and advisories from the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Volcanism at Kuchinoerabujima remained relatively low during May through October 2020, according to JMA. During this time, SO2 emissions ranged from 40 to 3,400 tons/day; occasional gas-and-steam emissions were reported, rising to a maximum of 900 m above the crater. Sentinel-2 satellite images showed a particularly strong thermal anomaly in the Shindake crater on 1 May (figure 10). The thermal anomaly decreased in power after 1 May and was only visible on clear weather days, which included 19 August and 3 and 13 October. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations identified continued slight inflation at the base of the volcano during the entire reporting period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showed a strong thermal anomaly (bright yellow-orange) in the Shindake crater at Kuchinoerabujima on 1 May 2020 (top left). Weaker thermal anomalies were also seen in the Shindake crater during 19 August (top right) and 3 (bottom left) and 13 (bottom right) October 2020. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Three small eruptions were detected by JMA on 5, 6, and 13 May, which produced an ash plume rising 500 m above the crater on each day, resulting in ashfall on the downwind flanks. Incandescence was observed at night using a high-sensitivity surveillance camera (figure 11). On 5 and 13 May the Tokyo VAAC released a notice that reported ash plumes rising 0.9-1.2 km altitude, drifting NE and S, respectively. On 20 May weak fumaroles were observed on the W side of the Shindake crater. The SO2 emissions ranged from 700-3,400 tons/day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Webcam images of an eruption at Kuchinoerabujima on 6 May 2020 (top), producing a gray ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater. Crater incandescence was observed from the summit crater at night on 25 May 2020 (bottom). Courtesy of JMA (Monthly bulletin report 509, May 2020).

Activity during June and July decreased compared to May, with gas-and-steam emissions occurring more prominently. On 22 June weak incandescence was observed, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions rising 700 m above the crater. Weak crater incandescence was also seen on 25 June. The SO2 emissions measured 400-1,400 tons/day. White gas-and-steam emissions were again observed on 31 July rising to 800 m above the crater. The SO2 emissions had decreased during this time to 300-700 tons/day.

According to JMA, the most recent eruptive event occurred on 29 August at 1746, which ejected bombs and was accompanied by some crater incandescence, though the eruptive column was not visible due to the cloud cover. However, white gas-and-steam emissions could be seen rising 1.3 km above the Shindake crater drifting SW. The SO2 emissions measured 200-500 tons/day. During August, the number of volcanic earthquakes increased significantly to 1,032, compared to the number in July (36).

The monthly bulletin for September reported white gas-and-steam emissions rising 900 m above the crater on 9 September and on 11 October the gas-and-steam emissions rose 600 m above the crater. Seismicity decreased between September and October from 1,920 to 866. The SO2 emissions continued to decrease compared to previous months, totaling 80-400 tons/day in September and 40-300 tons/day in October.

Geologic Background. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km W of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shindake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furudake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shindake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — December 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyamuragira

DR Congo

1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Numerous thermal anomalies and gas emissions from the lava lake through November 2020

Nyamuragira (also known as Nyamulagira) is a shield volcano in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with a 2 x 2.3 km caldera at the summit. A summit crater lies in the NE part of the caldera. In the recent past, the volcano has been characterized by intra-caldera lava flows, lava emissions from its lava lake, thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam emissions, and moderate seismicity (BGVN 44:12, 45:06). This report reviews activity during June-November 2020, based on satellite data.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed numerous thermal anomalies associated with the volcano during June-November 2020, although some decrease was noted during the last half of August and between mid-October to mid-November (figure 91). Between six and seven thermal hotspots per month were identified by MODVOLC during June-November 2020, with as many as 4 pixels on 11 August. In the MODVOLC system, two main hotspot groupings are visible, the largest being at the summit crater, on the E side of the caldera.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. MIROVA graph of thermal activity (log radiative power) at Nyamuragira during March 2020-January 2021. During June-November 2020, most were in the low to moderate range, with a decrease in power during November. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Sentinel-2 satellite images showed several hotspots in the summit crater throughout the reporting period (figure 92). By 26 July and thereafter, hotspots were also visible in the SW portion of the caldera, and perhaps just outside the SW caldera rim. Gas-and-steam emissions from the lava lake were also visible throughout the period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. Sentinel-2 satellite images of Nyamuragira on 26 July (left) and 28 November (right) 2020. Thermal activity is present at several locations within the summit crater (upper right of each image) and in the SW part of the caldera (lower left). SWIR rendering (bands 12, 8A, 4). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/exp).


Raung (Indonesia) — December 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Raung

Indonesia

8.119°S, 114.056°E; summit elev. 3260 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions with ash plumes and a thermal anomaly at the summit crater, July-October 2020

A massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java, Raung has over sixty recorded eruptions dating back to the late 16th Century. Explosions with ash plumes, Strombolian activity, and lava flows from a cinder cone within the 2-km-wide summit crater have been the most common activity. Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) has installed webcams to monitor activity in recent years. An eruption from late 2014 through August 2015 produced a large volume of lava within the summit crater and formed a new pyroclastic cone in the same location as the previous one. The eruption that began in July 2020 is covered in this report with information provided by PVMBG, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and several sources of satellite data.

The 2015 eruption was the largest in several decades; Strombolian activity was reported for many months and fresh lava flows covered the crater floor (BGVN 45:09). Raung was quiet after the eruption ended in August of that year until July of 2020 when seismicity increased on 13 July and brown emissions were first reported on 16 July. Tens of explosions with ash emissions were reported daily during the remainder of July 2020. Explosive activity decreased during August, but thermal activity didn’t decrease until mid-September. The last ash emissions were reported on 3 October and the last thermal anomaly in satellite data was recorded on 7 October 2020.

Eruption during July-October 2020. No further reports of activity were issued after August 2015 until July 2020. Clear Google Earth imagery from October 2017 and April 2018 indicated the extent of the lava from the 2015 eruption, but no sign of further activity (figure 31). By August 2019, many features from the 2015 eruption were still clearly visible from the crater rim (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Little change can be seen at the summit of Raung in Google Earth images dated 19 October 2017 (left) and 28 April 2018 (right). The summit crater was full of black lava flows from the 2015 eruption. Courtesy of Google Earth.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. A Malaysian hiker celebrated his climbing to the summit of Raung on 30 August 2019. Weak fumarolic activity was visible from the base of the breached crater of the cone near the center of the summit crater, and many features of the lava flow that filled the crater in 2015 were still well preserved. Courtesy of MJ.

PVMBG reported that the number and type of seismic events around the summit of Raung increased beginning on 13 July 2020, and on 16 July the height of the emissions from the crater rose to 100 m and the emission color changed from white to brown. About three hours later the emissions changed to gray and white. The webcams captured emissions rising 50-200 m above the summit that included 60 explosions of gray and reddish ash plumes (figure 33). The Raung Volcano Observatory released a VONA reporting an explosion with an ash plume that drifted N at 1353 local time (0653 UTC). The best estimate of the ash cloud height was 3,432 m based on ground observation. They raised the Aviation Color Code from unassigned to Orange. About 90 minutes later they reported a second seismic event and ash cloud that rose to 3,532 m, again based on ground observation. The Darwin VAAC reported that neither ash plume was visible in satellite imagery. The following day, on 17 July, PVMBG reported 26 explosions between midnight and 0600 that produced brown ash plumes which rose 200 m above the crater. Based on these events, PVMBG raised the Alert Level of Raung from I (Normal) to II (Alert) on a I-II-III-IV scale. By the following day they reported 95 explosive seismic events had occurred. They continued to observe gray ash plumes rising 100-200 m above the summit on clear days and 10-30 daily explosive seismic events through the end of July; plume heights dropped to 50-100 m and the number of explosive events dropped below ten per day during the last few days of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. An ash plume rose from the summit of Raung on 16 July 2020 at the beginning of a new eruption. The last previous eruption was in 2015. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery and PVMBG.

After a long period of no activity, MIROVA data showed an abrupt return to thermal activity on 16 July 2020; a strong pulse of heat lasted into early August before diminishing (figure 34). MODVOLC thermal alert data recorded two alerts each on 18 and 20 July, and one each on 21 and 30 July. Satellite images showed no evidence of thermal activity inside the summit crater from September 2015 through early July 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery first indicated a strong thermal anomaly inside the pyroclastic cone within the crater on 19 July 2020; it remained on 24 and 29 July (figure 35). A small SO2 signature was measured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite on 25 July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. MIROVA thermal anomaly data indicated renewed activity on 16 July 2020 at Raung as seen in this graph of activity from 13 October 2019 through September 2020. Satellite images indicated that the dark lines at the beginning of the graph are from a large area of fires that burned on the flank of Raung in October 2019. Heat flow remained high through July and began to diminish in mid-August 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Thermal anomalies were distinct inside the crater of the pyroclastic cone within the summit crater of Raung on 19, 24, and 29 July 2020. Data is from the Sentinel-2 satellite shown with Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

After an explosion on 1 August 2020 emissions from the crater were not observed again until steam plumes were seen rising 100 m on 7 August. They were reported rising 100-200 m above the summit intermittently until a dense gray ash plume was reported by PVMBG on 11 August rising 200 m. After that, diffuse steam plumes no more than 100 m high were reported for the rest of the month except for white to brown emissions to 100 m on 21 August. Thermal anomalies of a similar brightness to July from the same point within the summit crater were recorded in satellite imagery on 3, 8, 13, 18, and 23 August. Single MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported on 1, 8, 12, and 19 August.

In early September dense steam plumes rose 200 m above the crater a few times but were mostly 50 m high or less. White and gray emissions rose 50-300 m above the summit on 15, 20, 27, and 30 September. Thermal anomalies were still present in the same spot in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 2, 7, 12, 17, and 27 September, although the signal was weaker than during July and August (figure 36). PVMBG reported gray emissions rising 100-300 m above the summit on 1 October 2020 and two seismic explosion events. Gray emissions rose 50-200 m the next day and nine explosions were recorded. On 3 October, emissions were still gray but only rose 50 m above the crater and no explosions were reported. No emissions were observed from the summit crater for the remainder of the month. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed a hot spot within the summit crater on 2 and 7 October, but clear views of the crater on 12, 17, and 22 October showed no heat source within the crater (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. The thermal anomaly at Raung recorded in Sentinel-2 satellite data decreased in intensity between August and October 2020. It was relatively strong on 13 August (left) but had decreased significantly by 12 September (middle) and remained at a lower level into early October (right). Data shown with Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. A small but distinct thermal anomaly was still present within the pyroclastic cone inside the summit crater of Raung on 7 October 2020 (left) but was gone by 12 October (middle) and did not reappear in subsequent clear views of the crater through the end of October. Satellite imagery of 7 and 12 October processed with Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Natural color rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) from 17 October (right) shows no clear physical changes to the summit crater during the latest eruption. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The unvegetated summit is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the W flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and W, respectively.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Google Earth (URL: https://www.google.com/earth/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); MJ (URL: https://twitter.com/MieJamaludin/status/1167613617191043072).


Sinabung (Indonesia) — November 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sinabung

Indonesia

3.17°N, 98.392°E; summit elev. 2460 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions begin again on 8 August 2020; dome growth confirmed in late September

Indonesia’s Sinabung volcano in north Sumatra has been highly active since its first confirmed Holocene eruption during August and September 2010. It remained quiet after the initial eruption until September 2013, when a new eruptive phase began that continued through June 2018. A summit dome emerged in late 2013 and produced a large lava “tongue” during 2014. Multiple explosions produced ash plumes, block avalanches, and deadly pyroclastic flows during the eruptive period. A major explosion in February 2018 destroyed most of the summit dome. After a pause in eruptive activity from September 2018 through April 2019, explosions resumed during May and June 2019. The volcano was quiet again until an explosion on 8 August 2020 began another eruption that included a new dome. This report covers activity from July 2019 through October 2020 with information provided by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), referred to by some agencies as CVGHM or the Indonesian Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), and the Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (National Disaster Management Authority, BNPB). Additional information comes from satellite instruments and local news reports.

Only steam plumes and infrequent lahars were reported at Sinabung during July 2019-July 2020. A new eruption began on 8 August 2020 with a phreatic explosion and dense ash plumes. Repeated explosions were reported throughout August; ashfall was reported in many nearby communities several times. Explosions decreased significantly during September, but SO2 emissions persisted. Block avalanches from a new growing dome were first reported in early October; pyroclastic flows accompanied repeated ash emissions during the last week of the month. Thermal data suggested that the summit dome continued growing slowly during October.

Activity during July 2019-October 2020. After a large explosion on 9 June 2019, activity declined significantly, and no further emissions or incandescence was reported after 25 June (BGVN 44:08). For the remainder of 2019 steam plumes rose 50-400 m above the summit on most days, occasionally rising to 500-700 m above the crater. Lahars were recorded by seismic instruments in July, August, September, and December. During January-July 2020 steam plumes were reported usually 50-300 m above the summit, sometimes rising to 500 m. On 21 March 2020 steam plumes rose to 700 m, and a lahar was recorded by seismic instruments. Lahars were reported on 26 and 28 April, 3 and 5 June, and 11 July.

A swarm of deep volcanic earthquakes was reported by PVMBG on 7 August 2020. This was followed by a phreatic explosion with a dense gray to black ash plume on 8 August that rose 2,000 m above the summit and drifted E; a second explosion that day produced a plume that rose 1,000 m above the summit. According to the Jakarta Post, ash reached the community of Berastagi (15 km E) along with the districts of Naman Teran (5-10 km NE), Merdeka (15 km NE), and Dolat Rayat (20 km E). Continuous tremor events were first recorded on 8 August and continued daily until 26 August. Two explosions were recorded on 10 August; the largest produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 5,000 m above the summit and drifted NE and SE (figure 77). The Darwin VAAC reported the eruption clearly visible in satellite imagery at 9.7 km altitude and drifting W. Later they reported a second plume drifting ESE at 4.3 km altitude. After this large explosion the local National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) reported significant ashfall in three districts: Naman Teran, Berastagi and Merdeka. Emissions on 11 and 12 August were white and gray and rose 100-200 m. Multiple explosions on 13 August produced white and gray ash plumes that rose 1,000-2,000 m above the summit. Explosions on 14 August produced gray and brown ash plumes that rose 1,000-4,200 m above the summit and drifted S and SW (figure 77). The Darwin VAAC reported that the ash plume was partly visible in satellite imagery at 7.6 km altitude moving W; additional plumes were moving SE at 3.7 km altitude and NE at 5.5 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Numerous explosions were recorded at Sinabung during August 2020. An ash plume rose to 5,000 m above the summit on 10 August (left) and drifted both NE and SE. On 14 August gray and brown ash plumes rose 1,000-4,200 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, SE and NE (right) while ashfall covered crops SE of the volcano. Courtesy of PVMBG (Sinabung Eruption Notices, 10 and 14 August 2020).

White, gray, and brown emissions rose 800-1,000 m above the summit on 15 and 17 August. The next day white and gray emissions rose 2,000 m above the summit. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume visible at 5.2 km altitude drifting SW. A large explosion on 19 August produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 4,000 above the summit and drifted S and SW. Gray and white emissions rose 500 m on 20 August. Two explosions were recorded seismically on 21 August, but rainy and cloudy weather prevented observations. White steam plumes rose 300 m on 22 August, and a lahar was recorded seismically. On 23 August, an explosion produced a gray ash plume that rose 1,500 m above the summit and pyroclastic flows that traveled 1,000 m down the E and SE flanks (figure 78). Continuous tremors were accompanied by ash emissions. White, gray, and brown emissions rose 600 m on 24 August. An explosion on 25 August produced an ash plume that rose 800 m above the peak and drifted W and NW (figure 79). During 26-30 August steam emissions rose 100-400 m above the summit and no explosions were recorded. Dense gray ash emissions rose 1,000 m and drifted E and NE after an explosion on 31 August. Significant SO2 emissions were associated with many of the explosions during August (figure 80).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. On 23 August 2020 an explosion at Sinabung produced a gray ash plume that rose 1,500 m above the summit and produced pyroclastic flows that traveled 1,000 m down the E and SE flanks. Courtesy of PVMBG (Sinabung Eruption Notice, 23 August 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. An explosion on 25 August 2020 at Sinabung produced an ash plume that rose 800 m above the peak and drifted W and NW. Courtesy of PVMBG (Sinabung Eruption Notice, 25 August 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Significant sulfur dioxide emissions were measured at Sinabung during August 2020 when near-daily explosions produced abundant ash emissions. A small plume was also recorded from Kerinci on 19 August 2020. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Explosive activity decreased substantially during September 2020. A single explosion reported on 5 September produced a white and brown ash plume that rose 800 m above the summit and drifted NNE. During the rest of the month steam emissions rose 50-500 m above the summit before dissipating. Two lahars were reported on 7 September, and one each on 11 and 30 September. Although only a single explosion was reported, anomalous SO2 emissions were present in satellite data on several days.

The character of the activity changed during October 2020. Steam plumes rising 50-300 m above the summit were reported during the first week and a lahar was recorded by seismometers on 4 October. The first block avalanches from a new dome growing at the summit were reported on 8 October with material traveling 300 m ESE from the summit (figure 81). During 11-13 October block avalanches traveled 300-700 m E and SE from the summit. They traveled 100-150 m on 14 October. Steam plumes rising 50-500 m above the summit were reported during 15-22 October with two lahars recorded on 21 October. White and gray emissions rose 50-1,000 m on 23 October. The first of a series of pyroclastic flows was reported on 25 October; they were reported daily through the end of the month when the weather permitted, traveling 1,000-2,500 m from the summit (figure 82). In addition, block avalanches from the growing dome were observed moving down the E and SE flanks 500-1,500 m on 25 October and 200-1,000 m each day during 28-31 October (figure 83). Sentinel-2 satellite data indicated a very weak thermal anomaly at the summit in late September; it was slightly larger in late October, corroborating with images of the slow-growing dome (figure 84).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. A new lava dome appeared at the summit of Sinabung in late September 2020. Block avalanches from the dome were first reported on 8 October. Satellite imagery indicating a thermal anomaly at the summit was very faint at the end of September and slightly stronger by the end of October. The dome grew slowly between 30 September (top) and 22 October 2020 (bottom). Photos taken by Firdaus Surbakti, courtesy of Rizal.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Pyroclastic flows at Sinabung were accompanied ash emissions multiple times during the last week of October, including the event seen here on 27 October 2020. Courtesy of PVMBG and CultureVolcan.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Block avalanches from the growing summit dome at Sinabung descended the SE flank on 28 October 2020. The dome is visible at the summit. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. A very faint thermal anomaly appeared at the summit of Sinabung in Sentinel 2 satellite imagery on 28 September 2020 (left). One month later on 28 October the anomaly was bigger, corroborating photographic evidence of the growing dome. Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical andesitic-to-dacitic edifice is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. The youngest deposit is a SE-flank pyroclastic flow 14C dated by Hendrasto et al. (2012) at 740-880 CE. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); The Jakarta Post, 3rd Floor, Gedung, Jl. Palmerah Barat 142-143 Jakarta 10270 (URL: https://www.thejakartapost.com/amp/news/2020/08/08/mount-sinabung-erupts-again-after-year-of-inactivity.html);Rizal (URL: https://twitter.com/Rizal06691023/status/1319452375887740930); CultureVolcan (URL: https://twitter.com/CultureVolcan/status/1321156861173923840).


Heard (Australia) — November 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Persistent thermal anomalies in the summit crater from June through October 2020

The remote Heard Island is located in the southern Indian Ocean and contains the Big Ben stratovolcano, which has had intermittent activity since 1910. The island’s activity, characterized by thermal anomalies and occasional lava flows (BGVN 45:05), is primarily monitored by satellite instruments. This report updates activity from May through October 2020 using information from satellite-based instruments.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed frequent thermal activity in early June that continued through July (figure 43). Intermittent, slightly higher-power thermal anomalies were detected in late August through mid-October, the strongest of which occurred in October. Two of these anomalies were also detected in the MODVOLC algorithm on 12 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. A small pulse in thermal activity at Heard was detected in early June and continued through July 2020, according to the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power). Thermal anomalies appeared again starting in late August and continued intermittently through mid-October 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed a single thermal anomaly on 3 May. In comparison to the MIROVA graph, satellite imagery showed a small pulse of strong thermal activity at the summit of Big Ben in June (figure 44). Some of these thermal anomalies were accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. Persistent strong thermal activity continued through July. Starting on 2 July through at least 17 July two hotspots were visible in satellite imagery: one in the summit crater and one slightly to the NW of the summit (figure 45). Some gas-and-steam emissions were seen rising from the S hotspot in the summit crater. In August the thermal anomalies had decreased in strength and frequency but persisted at the summit through October (figure 45).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Thermal satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben volcano showed strong thermal signatures (bright yellow-orange) sometimes accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions drifting SE (top left) and NE (bottom right) during June 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Thermal satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben volcano showed persistent thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) near the summit during July through October 2020. During 14 (top left) and 17 (top right) July a second hotspot was visible NW of the summit. By 22 October (bottom right) the thermal anomaly had significantly decreased in strength in comparison to previous months. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sabancaya (Peru) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions produced ash plumes, SO2 plumes, and thermal anomalies during June-September 2020

Sabancaya, located in Peru, is a stratovolcano that has been very active since 1986. The current eruptive period began in November 2016 and has recently been characterized by lava dome growth, daily explosions, ash plumes, ashfall, SO2 plumes, and ongoing thermal anomalies (BGVN 45:06). Similar activity continues into this reporting period of June through September 2020 using information from weekly reports from the Observatorio Vulcanologico INGEMMET (OVI), the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), and various satellite data. The Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issued a total of 520 reports of ongoing ash emissions during this time.

Volcanism during this reporting period consisted of daily explosions, nearly constant gas-and-ash plumes, SO2 plumes, and persistent thermal anomalies in the summit crater. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to 1.5-4 km above the summit crater, drifting up to 35 km from the crater in multiple directions; several communities reported ashfall every month except for August (table 7). Sulfur dioxide emissions were notably high and recorded almost daily with the TROPOMI satellite instrument (figure 83). The satellite measurements of the SO2 emissions exceeded 2 DU (Dobson Units) at least 20 days each month of the reporting period. These SO2 plumes sometimes persisted over multiple days and ranged between 1,900-10,700 tons/day. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows frequent thermal activity through September within 5 km of the summit crater, though the power varied; by late August, the thermal anomalies were stronger compared to the previous months (figure 84). This increase in power is also reflected by the MODVOLC algorithm that detected 11 thermal anomalies over the days of 31 August and 4, 6, 13, 17, 18, 20, and 22 September 2020. Many of these thermal hotspots were visible in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery, occasionally accompanied by gas-and-steam and ash plumes (figure 85).

Table 7. Persistent activity at Sabancaya during June through September included multiple daily explosions that produced ash plumes rising several kilometers above the summit and drifting in multiple directions; this resulted in ashfall in communities within 35 km of the volcano. Satellite instruments recorded daily SO2 emissions. Data courtesy of OVI-INGEMMET, IGP, and the NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Month Avg. daily explosions by week Max plume heights (km above the crater) Plume drift (km) and direction Communities reporting ashfall Minimum days with SO2 over 2 DU SO2 emissions per day (tons) by week
Jun 2020 20, 10, 9, 13 1.5-4 30 km, SE, S, SW, NE, W, E Chivay, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, and Coporaque, Sallali, Madrigal, Lari, and Ichupampa 28 8,400, 2,200, 3,100, 7,600
Jul 2020 20, 15, 11, 12, 19 2-2.6 15-30 km E, NE, NW, SE, SW, S, W Achoma and Chivay 23 4,400, 6,000, 1,900, 2,100, 5,900
Aug 2020 18, 12, 9, 29 1.7-3.6 20-30 km W, SW, SE, S, E, NW - 20 2,300, 3,800, 5,300, 10,700
Sep 2020 39, 35, 33, 38, 40 1.8-3.5 25-35 km SE, S, SW, W, E, NE, N, NW, W Lari, Achoma, Maca, Chivay, Taya, Huambo, Huanca, and Lluta 28 9,700, 2,600, 8,800, 7,800, 4,100
Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Sulfur dioxide plumes were captured almost daily from Sabancaya during June through September 2020 by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Some of the largest SO2 plumes occurred on 19 June (top left), 5 July (top right), 30 August (bottom left), and 10 September (bottom right) 2020. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Thermal activity at Sabancaya varied in power from 13 October 2019 through September 2020, but was consistent in frequency, according to the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). A pulse in thermal activity is shown in late August 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed frequent gas-and-steam and ash plumes rising from Sabancaya, accompanied by ongoing thermal activity from the summit crater during June through September 2020. On 23 June (top left) a dense gray-white ash plume was visible drifting E from the summit. On 3 July (top right) and 27 August (bottom left) a strong thermal hotspot (bright yellow-orange) was accompanied by some degassing. On 1 September (bottom right) the thermal anomaly persisted with a dense gray-white ash plume drifting SE from the summit. Images using “Natural Color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) on 23 June 2020 (top left) and the rest have “Atmospheric penetration” rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

OVI detected slight inflation on the N part of the volcano, which continued to be observed throughout the reporting period. Persistent thermal anomalies caused by the summit crater lava dome were observed in satellite data. The average number of daily explosions during June ranged from 18 during 1-7 June to 9 during 15-21 June, which generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose 1.5-4 km above the crater and drifted 30 km SE, S, SW, NE, W, and E (figure 86). The strongest sulfur dioxide emissions were recorded during 1-7 June measuring 8,400 tons/day. On 20 June drone video showed that the lava dome had been destroyed, leaving blocks on the crater floor, though the crater remained hot, as seen in thermal satellite imagery (figure 85). During 22-28 June there were an average of 13 daily explosions, which produced ash plumes rising to a maximum height of 4 km, drifting NE, E, and SE. As a result, ashfall was reported in the districts of Chivay, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, and Coporaque, and in the area of Sallali. Then, on 27 June ashfall was reported in several areas NE of the volcano, which included the districts of Madrigal, Lari, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, and Coporaque.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Multiple daily explosions at Sabancaya produced ash plumes that rose 1.5-4 km above the crater during June 2020. Images are showing 8 (left) and 27 (right) June 2020. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-24-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 08 al 14 de junio del 2020 and RSSAB-26-2020/INGEMMET Semana del 22 al 28 de junio del 2020).

Slight inflation continued to be monitored in July, occurring about 4-6 km N of the crater, as well as on the SE flank. Daily explosions continued, producing gas-and-ash plumes that rose 2-2.6 km above the crater and drifting 15-30 km E, NE, NW, SE, SW, S, and W (figure 87). The number of daily explosions increased slightly compared to the previous month, ranging from 20 during 1-5 July to 11 during 13-19 July. SO2 emissions that were measured each week ranged from 1,900 to 6,000 tons/day, the latter of which occurred during 6-12 July. Thermal anomalies continued to be observed in thermal satellite data over the summit crater throughout the month. During 6-12 July gas-and-ash plumes rose 2.3-2.5 km above the crater, drifting 30 km SE, E, and NE, resulting in ashfall in Achoma and Chivay.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. Multiple daily explosions at Sabancaya produced ash plumes that rose 2-3.5 km above the crater during July 2020. Images are showing 7 (left) and 26 (right) July 2020. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-28-2020/INGEMMET Semanal: del 06 al 12 de julio del 2020 and RSSAB-30-2020/INGEMMET Semanal: del 20 al 26 de julio del 2020).

OVI reported continued slight inflation on the N and SE flanks during August. Daily explosive activity had slightly declined in the first part of the month, ranging from 18 during the 3-9 August to 9 during 17-23 August. Dense gray gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.7-3.6 km above the crater, drifting 20-30 km in various directions (figure 88), though no ashfall was reported. Thermal anomalies were observed using satellite data throughout the month. During 24-30 August a pulse in activity increased the daily average of explosions to 29, as well as the amount of SO2 emissions (10,700 tons/day); nighttime incandescence accompanied this activity. During 28-29 August higher levels of seismicity and inflation were reported compared to the previous weeks. The daily average of explosions increased again during 31 August-6 September to 39; nighttime incandescence remained.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Multiple daily explosions at Sabancaya produced ash plumes that rose 1.7-3.6 km above the crater during August 2020. Images are showing 1 (left) and 29 (right) August 2020. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-31-2020/INGEMMET Semanal del 27 de julio al 02 de agosto del 2020 and RSSAB-35-2020/INGEMMET Semanal del 24 al 30 de agosto del 2020).

Increased volcanism was reported during September with the daily average of explosions ranging from 33 during 14-20 September to 40 during 28 September-4 October. The resulting gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8-3.5 km above the crater drifting 25-35 km in various directions (figure 89). SO2 flux was measured by OVI ranging from 2,600 to 9,700 tons/day, the latter of which was recorded during 31 August to 6 September. During 7-13 September an average of 35 explosions were reported, accompanied by gas-and-ash plumes that rose 2.6-3.5 km above the crater and drifting 30 km SE, SW, W, E, and S. These events resulted in ashfall in Lari, Achoma, and Maca. The following week (14-20 September) ashfall was reported in Achoma and Chivay. During 21-27 September the daily average of explosions was 38, producing ash plumes that resulted in ashfall in Taya, Huambo, Huanca, and Lluta. Slight inflation on the N and SE flanks continued to be monitored by OVI. Strong activity, including SO2 emissions and thermal anomalies over the summit crater persisted into at least early October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Multiple daily explosions at Sabancaya produced ash plumes that rose 1.8-2.6 km above the crater during September 2020. Images are showing 4 (left) and 27 (right) September 2020. Courtesy of OVI (Reporte Semanal de Monitorio de la Actividad de la Volcan Sabancaya, RSSAB-36-2020/INGEMMET Semanal del 31 de agosto al 06 de septiembre del 2020 and RSSAB-39-2020/INGEMMET Semanal del 21 al 27 de septiembre del 2020).

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Volcanologico del INGEMMET (Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico), Barrio Magisterial Nro. 2 B-16 Umacollo - Yanahuara Arequipa, Peru (URL: http://ovi.ingemmet.gob.pe); Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), Calle Badajoz N° 169 Urb. Mayorazgo IV Etapa, Ate, Lima 15012, Perú (URL: https://www.gob.pe/igp); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent small phreatic explosions with intermittent ash plumes during April-September 2020

Rincón de la Vieja is a remote volcanic complex in Costa Rica that contains an acid lake. Frequent weak phreatic explosions have occurred since 2011 (BGVN 44:08). The most recent eruption period began in January 2020, which consisted of small phreatic explosions, gas-and-steam plumes, pyroclastic flows, and lahars (BGVN 45:04). This reporting period covers April through September 2020, with activity characterized by continued small phreatic explosions, three lahars, frequent gas-and-steam plumes, and ash plumes. The primary source of information for this report is the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) using weekly bulletins and the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Small, frequent, phreatic explosions were common at Rincón de la Vieja during this reporting period. One to several eruptions were reported on at least 16 days in April, 15 days in May, 8 days in June, 10 days in July, 18 days in August, and 13 days in September (table 5). Intermittent ash plumes accompanied these eruptions, rising 100-3,000 m above the crater and drifting W, NW, and SW during May and N during June. Occasional gas-and-steam plumes were also observed rising 50-2,000 m above the crater rim.

Table 5. Monthly summary of activity at Rincón de la Vieja during April through September 2020. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Month Minimum total days of eruptions Ash plume height (m above the crater) Notable plume drift Gas-and-steam plume height (m above the crater)
Apr 2020 16 200-1,000 - 50-1,500
May 2020 15 200-3,000 W, NW, SW 200-2,000
Jun 2020 8 100-2,000 N -
Jul 2020 10 1,000 - -
Aug 2020 18 500-1,000 - 500
Sep 2020 13 700 - 50

During April small explosions were detected almost daily, some of which generated ash plumes that rose 200-1,000 m above the crater and gas-and-steam emissions that rose 50-1,500 m above the crater. On 4 April an eruption at 0824 produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. A small hydrothermal explosion at 0033 on 11 April, recorded by the webcam in Sensoria (4 km N), ejected water and sediment onto the upper flanks. On 15 April a phreatic eruption at 0306 resulted in lahars in the Pénjamo, Azufrada, and Azul rivers, according to local residents. Several small explosions were detected during the morning of 19 April; the largest phreatic eruption ejected water and sediment 300 m above the crater rim and onto the flanks at 1014, generated a lahar, and sent a gas-and-steam plume 1.5 km above the crater (figure 30). On 24 April five events were recorded by the seismic network during the morning, most of which produced gas-and-steam plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater. The largest event on this day occurred at 1020, ejecting water and solid material 300 m above the crater accompanied by a gas-and-steam plume rising up to 1 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. Webcam image of small hydrothermal eruptions at Rincón de la Vieja on 19 April 2020. Image taken by the webcam in Dos Ríos de Upala; courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Similar frequent phreatic activity continued in May, with ash plumes rising 200-1,500 m above the crater, drifting W, NW, and SW, and gas-and-steam plumes rising up to 2 km. On 5 May an eruption at 1317 produced a gas-and-steam plume 200 m above the crater and a Washington VAAC advisory reported that an ash plume rose to 2.1 km altitude, drifting W. An event at 1925 on 9 May generated a gas-and-steam plume that rose almost 2 km. An explosion at 1128 on 15 May resulted in a gas-and-steam plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim, accompanied by a gray, sediment-laden plume that rose 400 m. On 21 May a small ash eruption at 0537 sent a plume 1 km above the crater (figure 31). According to a Washington VAAC advisory, an ash plume rose 3 km altitude, drifting NW on 22 May. During the early evening on 25 May an hour-long sequence of more than 70 eruptions and emissions, according to OVSICORI-UNA, produced low gas-and-steam plumes and tephra; at 1738, some ejecta was observed above the crater rim. The next day, on 26 May, up to 52 eruptive events were observed. An eruption at 2005 was not visible due to weather conditions; however, it resulted in a minor amount of ashfall up to 17 km W and NW, which included Los Angeles of Quebrada Grande and Liberia. A phreatic explosion at 1521 produced a gray plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater (figure 31). An eruption at 1524 on 28 May sent an ash plume 3 km above the crater that drifted W, followed by at least three smaller eruptions at 1823, 1841, and 1843. OVSICORI-UNA reported that volcanism began to decrease in frequency on 28-29 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions ranged between 100 and 400 tons per day during 28 May to 15 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Webcam images of gray gas-and-steam and ash emissions at Rincón de la Vieja on 21 (left), and 27 (right) May 2020. Both images taken by the webcam in Dos Ríos de Upala and Sensoria; courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

There were eight days with eruptions in June, though some days had multiple small events; phreatic eruptions reported on 1-2, 13, 16-17, 19-20, and 23 June generated plumes 1-2 km above the crater (figure 32). During 2-8 June SO2 emissions were 150-350 tons per day; more than 120 eruptions were recorded during the preceding weekend. Ashfall was observed N of the crater on 4 June. During 9-15 June the SO2 emissions increased slightly to 100-400 tons per day. During 16-17 June several small eruptive events were detected, the largest of which occurred at 1635 on 17 June, producing an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Webcam images of gray gas-and-steam and ash plumes rising from Rincón de la Vieja on 1 (top left), 2 (top right), 7 (bottom left), and 13 (bottom right) June 2020. The ash plume on 1 June rose between 1.5 and 2 km above the crater. The ash plume on 13 June rose 1 km above the crater. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Explosive hydrothermal activity was lower in June-September compared to January-May 2020, according to OVSICORI-UNA. Sporadic small phreatic explosions and earthquakes were registered during 22-25 and 29 July-3 August, though no lahars were reported. On 25 July an eruptive event at 0153 produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater. Similar activity continued into August. On 5 and 6 August phreatic explosions were recorded at 0546 and 0035, respectively, the latter of which generated a plume that rose 500 m above the crater. These events continued to occur on 10, 16, 19-20, 22-25, 27-28, and 30-31 August, generating plumes that rose 500 m to 1 km above the crater.

On 3 September geologists observed that the acid lake in the main crater had a low water level and exhibited strong gas emissions; vigorous fumaroles were observed on the inner W wall of the crater, measuring 120°C. Gas-and-steam emissions continued to be detected during September, occasionally accompanied by phreatic eruptions. On 7 September an eruption at 0750 produced an ash plume that rose 50 m above the crater while the accompanying gas-and-steam plume rose 500 m. Several low-energy phreatic explosions occurred during 8-17, 20, and 22-28 September, characterized primarily by gas-and-steam emissions. An eruption on 16 September ejected material from the crater and generated a small lahar. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 100 tons per day during 16-21 September. On 17 September an eruption at 0632 produced an ash plume that rose 700 m above the crater (figure 33). A relatively large eruptive event at 1053 on 22 September ejected material out of the crater and into N-flank drainages.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Webcam image of an eruption plume rising above Rincón de la Vieja on 17 September 2020. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A Plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3,500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/, https://www.facebook.com/OVSICORI/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html).


Fuego (Guatemala) — December 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions, ash emissions, and block avalanches during August-November 2020

Guatemala's Volcán de Fuego has been erupting vigorously since 2002 with reported eruptions dating back to 1531. These eruptions have resulted in major ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and damaging lahars, including a series of explosions and pyroclastic flows in early June 2018 that caused several hundred fatalities. Eruptive activity consisting of explosions with ash emissions, block avalanches, and lava flows began again after a short break and has continued; activity during August-November 2020 is covered in this report. Daily reports are provided by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH); aviation alerts of ash plumes are issued by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Satellite data provide valuable information about heat flow and emissions.

Summary of activity during August-November 2020. Eruptive activity continued at Fuego during August-November 2020, very similar to that during the first part of the year (table 22). Ash emissions were reported daily by INSIVUMEH with explosions often in the 6-12 per hour range. Most of the ash plumes rose to 4.5-4.7 km altitude and generally drifted SW, W, or NW, although rarely the wind direction changed and sent ash to the S and SE. Multiple daily advisories were issued throughout the period by the Washington VAAC warning aviators about ash plumes, which were often visible on the observatory webcam (figure 136). Some of the communities located SW of the volcano received ashfall virtually every day during the period. Block avalanches descended the major drainages daily as well. Sounds were heard and vibrations felt from the explosions most days, usually 7-12 km away. The stronger explosions could be felt and heard 20 km or more from the volcano. During late August and early September a lava flow was active on the SW flank, reaching 700 m in length during the second week of September.

Table 22. Eruptive activity was consistently high at Fuego throughout August – November 2020 with multiple explosions every hour, ash plumes, block avalanches, and near-daily ashfall in the communities in certain directions within 10-20 km of the volcano. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH daily reports.

Month Explosions per hour Ash Plume Heights (km) Ash plume distance (km) and direction Drainages affected by block avalanches Communities reporting ashfall
Aug 2020 2-15 4.3-4.8 SW, W, NW, S, N, 8-20 km Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, Santa Teresa Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Rochela, Finca Palo Verde, Yepocapa, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa
Sep 2020 3-16 4.3-4.9 W, SW, NW, N, S, 8-20 km Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, Santa Teresa Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa, Porvenir, Yucales, Ojo de Agua, Finca La Conchita
Oct 2020 3-19 4.1-4.8 SW, W, S, SE, N, E, 10-20 km Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, Santa Teresa Panimache I and II, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa, La Rochela, El Porvenir, Ceilán, Santa Sofía, Yucales, Finca Palo Verde
Nov 2020 4-14 4.0-4.8 S, SW, SE, W, NW, 10-35 km Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Honda, Santa Teresa El Jute Panimaché I and II, Sangre de Cristo, Morelia, Ceilan, La Rochela, El Zapote, Santa Sofía, Yucales, San Juan Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Dueñas y Antigua Guatemala, Palo Verde, El Porvenir, San Pedro Yepocapa, Quisaché, Santa Emilia
Figure (see Caption) Figure 136. Consistent daily ash emissions produced similar looking ash plumes at Fuego during August-November 2020. Plumes usually rose to 4.5-4.8 km altitude and drifted SW. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH.

The frequent explosions, block avalanches, and lava flows produced a strong thermal signal throughout the period that was recorded in both the MIROVA project Log Radiative Power graph (figure 137) and in numerous Sentinel-2 satellite images (figure 138). MODVOLC data produced thermal alerts 4-6 days each month. At least one lahar was recorded each month; they were most frequent in September and October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 137. The MIROVA graph of activity at Fuego for the period from 15 January through November 2020 suggested persistent moderate to high-level heat flow for much of the time. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 138. Atmospheric penetration rendering of Sentinel-2 satellite images (bands 12, 11, 8A) of Fuego during August-November 2020 showed continued thermal activity from block avalanches, explosions, and lava flows at the summit and down several different ravines. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during August-November 2020. The number of explosions per hour at Fuego during August 2020 was most often 7-10, with a few days that were higher at 10-15. The ash plumes usually rose to 4.5-4.8 km altitude and drifted SW or W up to 15 km. Incandescence was visible 100-300 m above the summit crater on most nights. All of the major drainages including the Seca, Santa Teresa, Ceniza, Trinidad, Taniluyá, Las Lajas, and Honda were affected by block avalanches virtually every day. In addition, the communities of Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, San Pedro Yepocapa, and Sangre de Cristo reported ashfall almost every day. Sounds and vibrations were reported multiple days every week, often up to 12 km from the volcano, but occasionally as far as 20 km away. Lahars carrying blocks of rocks and debris 1-2 m in diameter descended the SE flank in the Las Lajas and Honda ravines on 6 August. On 27 August a lava flow 150 m long appeared in the Ceniza ravine. It increased in length over the subsequent few days, reaching 550 m long on 30 August, with frequent block avalanches falling off the front of the flow.

The lava flow in the Ceniza ravine was reported at 100 m long on 5 September. It grew to 200 m on 7 September and reached 700 m long on 12 September. It remained 200-350 m long through 19 September, although instruments monitored by INSIVUMEH indicated that effusive activity was decreasing after 16 September (figure 139). A second flow was 200 m long in the Seca ravine on 19 September. By 22 September, active flows were no longer observed. The explosion rate varied from a low of 3-5 on 1 September to a high of 12-16 on 4, 13, 18, and 22-23 September. Ash plumes rose to 4.5-4.9 km altitude nearly every day and drifted W, NW, and SW occasionally as far as 20 km before dissipating. In addition to the active flow in the Ceniza ravine, block avalanches persisted in the other ravines throughout the month. Ashfall continued in the same communities as in August, but was also reported in Yucales on 4 September along with Ojo de Agua and Finca La Conchita on 17 September. The Las Lajas, Honda, and El Jute ravines were the sites of lahars carrying blocks up to 1.5 m in diameter on 8 and 18 September. On 19 and 24 September lahars again descended Las Lajas and El Jute ravines; the Ceniza ravine had a lahar on 19 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 139. Avalanche blocks descended the Ceniza ravine (left) and the Las Lajas ravine (right) at Fuego on 17 September 2020. The webcam that captured this image is located at Finca La Reunión on the SE flank. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (BOLETÍN VULCANOLÓGICO ESPECIAL BEVFGO # 76-2020, 18 de septiembre de 2020, 14:30 horas).

The same activity continued during October 2020 with regard to explosion rates, plume altitudes, distances, and directions of drift. All of the major ravines were affected by block avalanches and the same communities located W and SW of the summit reported ashfall. In addition, ashfall was reported in La Rochela on 2, 3, 7-9 and 30 October, in Ceilán on 3 and 7-9 October, and in Yucales on 5, 14, 18 and 19 October. Multiple strong explosions with abundant ash were reported in a special bulletin on 14 October; high levels of explosive activity were recorded during 16-23 October. Vibrations and sounds were often felt up to 15 km away and heard as far as 25 km from the volcano during that period. Particularly strong block avalanches were present in the Seca and Ceniza ravines on 20, 25, and 30 October. Abundant rain on 9 October resulted in lahars descending all of the major ravines. The lahar in the Las Lajas ravine overflowed and forced the closure of route RN-14 road affecting the community of San Miguel on the SE flank (figure 140). Heavy rains on 15 October produced lahars in the Ceniza, Las Lajas, and Hondas ravines with blocks up to 2 m in diameter. Multiple lahars on 27 October affected Las Lajas, El Jute, and Honda ravines.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 140. Heavy rains on 9 October 2020 at Fuego caused lahars in all the major ravines. Debris from Las Lajas ravine overflowed highway RN-14 near the community of San Miguel on the SE flank, the area devastated by the pyroclastic flow of June 2018. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (BEFGO #96 VOLCAN DE FUEGO- ZONA CERO RN-14, SAN MIGUEL LOS LOTES y BARRANCA LAS LAJAS, 09 de octubre de 2020).

On 8 November 2020 a lahar descended the Seca ravine, carrying rocks and debris up to 1 meter in diameter. During the second week of November 2020, the wind direction changed towards the SE and E and brought ashfall to San Juan Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Dueñas, and Antigua Guatemala on 8 November. Especially strong block avalanches were noted in the Seca and Ceniza ravines on 14, 19, 24, and 29 November. During a period of stronger activity in the fourth week of November, vibrations were felt and explosions heard more than 20 km away on 22 November and more than 25 km away on 27 November. In addition to the other communities affected by ashfall during August-November, Quisaché and Santa Emilia reported ashfall on 30 November.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/ ); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground);Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html).


Kikai (Japan) — November 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kikai

Japan

30.793°N, 130.305°E; summit elev. 704 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion on 6 October 2020 and thermal anomalies in the crater

Kikai is a mostly submarine caldera, 19-km-wide, just S of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. At the NW rim of the caldera lies the island of Satsuma Iwo Jima (also known as Satsuma-Iojima and Tokara Iojima), and the island’s highest peak, Iodake, a steep stratovolcano. Recent weak ash explosions at Iodake occurred on 2 November 2019 and 29 April 2020 (BGVN 45:02, 45:05). The volcano is monitored by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and satellite sensors. This report covers the period May-October 2020. During this time, the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Activity at Kikai has been relatively low since the previous eruption on 29 April 2020. During May through October occasional white gas-and-steam emissions rose 0.8-1.3 km above the Iodake crater, the latter of which was recorded in September. Emissions were intermittently accompanied by weak nighttime incandescence, according to JMA (figure 17).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. White gas-and-steam emissions rose 1 km above the crater at Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai) on 25 May (top) 2020. At night, occasional incandescence could be seen in the Iodake crater, as seen on 29 May (bottom) 2020. Both images taken by the Iwanoue webcam. Courtesy of JMA (An explanation of volcanic activity at Satsuma Iwo Jima, May 2nd year of Reiwa [2020]).

A small eruption at 0757 on 6 October occurred in the NW part of the Iodake crater, which produced a grayish white plume rising 200 m above the crater (figure 18). Faint thermal anomalies were detected in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery in the days just before this eruption (28 September and 3 October) and then after (13 and 23 October), accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions (figures 19 and 20). Nighttime crater incandescence continued to be observed. JMA reported that sulfur dioxide emissions measured 700 tons per day during October, compared to the previous eruption (400-2,000 tons per day in April 2020).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Webcam images of the eruption at Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai) on 6 October 2020 that produced an ash plume rising 200 m above the crater (top). Nighttime summit crater incandescence was also observed (bottom). Images were taken by the Iwanoue webcam. Courtesy of JMA (An explanation of volcanic activity at Satsuma Iwo Jima, October 2nd year of Reiwa [2020]).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Weak thermal hotspots (bright yellow-orange) were observed at Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai) during late September through October 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Webcam image of a white gas-and-steam plume rising 1.1 km above the crater at Satsuma Iwo Jima (Kikai) on 27 October 2020. Image was taken by the Iwanoue webcam. Courtesy of JMA (An explanation of volcanic activity at Satsuma Iwo Jima, October 2nd year of Reiwa [2020]).

Geologic Background. Kikai is a mostly submerged, 19-km-wide caldera near the northern end of the Ryukyu Islands south of Kyushu. It was the source of one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions about 6,300 years ago when rhyolitic pyroclastic flows traveled across the sea for a total distance of 100 km to southern Kyushu, and ashfall reached the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. The eruption devastated southern and central Kyushu, which remained uninhabited for several centuries. Post-caldera eruptions formed Iodake lava dome and Inamuradake scoria cone, as well as submarine lava domes. Historical eruptions have occurred at or near Satsuma-Iojima (also known as Tokara-Iojima), a small 3 x 6 km island forming part of the NW caldera rim. Showa-Iojima lava dome (also known as Iojima-Shinto), a small island 2 km E of Tokara-Iojima, was formed during submarine eruptions in 1934 and 1935. Mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during the past few decades from Iodake, a rhyolitic lava dome at the eastern end of Tokara-Iojima.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes, thermal anomalies, and SO2 emissions in April-September 2020

Manam, located 13 km off the N coast of Papua New Guinea, is a basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano with historical eruptions dating back 400 years. Volcanism has been characterized by low-level ash plumes, occasional Strombolian activity, lava flows, pyroclastic avalanches, and large ash plumes from Main and South, the two active summit craters. The current eruption period has been ongoing since 2014, typically with minor explosive activity, thermal activity, and SO2 emissions (BGVN 45:05). This reporting period updates information from April through September 2020, consisting of intermittent ash plumes from late July to mid-September, persistent thermal anomalies, and SO2 emissions. Information comes from Papua New Guinea's Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), part of the Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Explosive activity was relatively low during April through late July; SO2 emissions and low power, but persistent, thermal anomalies were detected by satellite instruments each month. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite recorded SO2 emissions, many of which exceeded two Dobson Units, that drifted generally W (figure 76). Distinct SO2 emissions were detected for 10 days in April, 4 days in May, 10 days in June, 4 days in July, 11 days in August, and 8 days in September.

Thermal anomalies recorded by the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system were sparse from early January through June 2020, totaling 11 low-power anomalies within 5 km of the summit (figure 77). From late July through September a pulse in thermal activity produced slightly stronger and more frequent anomalies. Some of this activity could be observed in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (figure 78). Occasionally, these thermal anomalies were accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions or ash plumes, as shown on 28 July. On 17 August a particularly strong hotspot was detected in the S summit crater. According to the MODVOLC thermal alert data, a total of 10 thermal alerts were detected in the summit crater over four days: 29 July (5), 16 August (1), and 3 (1) and 8 (3) September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Distinct sulfur dioxide plumes rising from Manam and drifting generally W were detected using data from the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite on 28 April (top left), 24 May (top right), 16 July (bottom left), and 12 September (bottom right) 2020. Courtesy of the NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Intermittent thermal activity at Manam increased in power and frequency beginning around late July and continuing through September 2020, as shown on the MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing a persistent thermal anomaly (yellow-orange) at Manam’s summit craters (Main and South) each month during April through August; sometimes they were seen in both summit craters, as shown on 8 June (top right), 28 July (bottom left), and 17 August (bottom right). A particularly strong anomaly was visible on 17 August (bottom right). Occasional gas-and-steam emissions accompanied the thermal activity. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during mid-July slightly increased compared to the previous months. On 16 July seismicity increased, fluctuating between low and moderate RSAM values through the rest of the month. In Sentinel-2 satellite imagery a gray ash plume was visible rising from the S summit crater on 28 July (figure 78). RSAM values gradually increased from a low average of 200 to an average of 1200 on 30 July, accompanied by thermal hotspots around the summit crater; a ground observer reported incandescent material was ejected from the summit. On 31 July into 1 August ash plumes rose to 4.3 km altitude, accompanied by an incandescent lava flow visible at the summit, according to a Darwin VAAC advisory.

Intermittent ash plumes continued to be reported by the Darwin VAAC on 1, 6-7, 16, 20, and 31 August. They rose from 2.1 to 4.6 km altitude, the latter of which occurred on 31 August and drifted W. Typically, these ash plumes extended SW, W, NW, and WSW. On 11 September another ash plume was observed rising 2.4 km altitude and drifting W.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These valleys channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most observed eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Karymsky (Russia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Karymsky

Russia

54.049°N, 159.443°E; summit elev. 1513 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New eruption during April-July 2020; ash explosions in October 2020

Karymsky is an active volcano, part of Kamchatka’s eastern volcanic zone. Eruptive activity has been frequent since 1996 and has included ash explosions, gas-and-steam and ash emissions, and thermal anomalies. The most recent eruptive period ended in September 2019 (BGVN 44:11) with a new one beginning in April 2020. Both eruptions consisted of moderate explosive activity and ash plumes. This report updates information from November 2019 through October 2020, which describes a short-lived eruption from April to July and renewed activity in October. Information comes from daily, weekly, and special reports from the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and satellite data.

Activity at Karymsky after November 2019 primarily consisted of moderate gas-and-steam emissions and rare weak thermal anomalies in the summit crater (on 2, 8, and 17 December 2019, according to KVERT). No thermal activity was reported during January through March 2020.

Over the weeks of late March to early April 2020, minor amounts of ash were present in gas-and-steam emissions that led to trace ashfall deposits on the snowy flanks and were visible in satellite imagery (figure 47). A weak thermal anomaly was observed in satellite imagery on 6 April. On 13 April the Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume to 2.1 km altitude drifting SE. Gas-and-steam emissions containing some ash rose 2 km altitude on 17 April and drifted up to 80 km SE on both 17 and 21 April, accompanied by a weak thermal anomaly seen in satellite data. On 18 April the Tokyo VAAC released an advisory noting an ash plume at 1.5-2.1 km altitude drifting S.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Sentinel-2 natural color satellite images showing ash deposits (dark gray) on the snowy flanks at Karymsky from just before the eruptive period began on 20 March 2020 (top left) through April 2020. Images with “Natural Color” (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

KVERT reported intermittent thermal anomalies during May, along with moderate gas-and-steam emissions. On 10 May gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash drifted 77 km SE while ash plumes observed in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery rose to 2.7 km altitude. A dense plume drifting S resulted in large ash deposits covering all but the N flank of the volcano by 14 May, as observed in Sentinel-2 natural color satellite imagery (figure 48). KVERT reported that ash continued to be observed during 24-31 May, rising to a maximum altitude of 7 km on 27 May and extending in multiple directions. On 29 and 31 May explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 6 and 4 km altitude, respectively, and both extended up to 380 km SW, SE, and E. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows a pulse in thermal activity within 5 km of the summit crater starting in late May, reflecting the renewed activity (figure 49). On 1 June another strong brown-gray ash plume was seen rising from Karymsky, drifting SE in satellite imagery, depositing large amounts of ash on all flanks (figure 48).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Sentinel-2 natural color satellite images showing ash deposits (dark gray) on the all the snowy flanks at Karymsky on 14 May (left) and 1 June (right) 2020. Images with “Natural Color” (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. A pulse of thermal activity at Karymsky during late May through July 2020 was seen in the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.

Intermittent ash emissions and moderate explosive activity continued in June. During 1-4 June continuous ash plumes rose to a high of 4.6 km altitude and drifted up to 400 km generally E, according to KVERT and the Tokyo VAAC advisories. By 19 June, KVERT stated that possible Strombolian activity was occurring, accompanied by moderate gas-and-steam emissions and frequent thermal anomalies; Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery also showed a thermal anomaly in the crater (figure 50). Ash plumes and gas-and-steam plumes containing some amount of ash were seen drifting SW and NW on 30 June (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show a bright thermal hotspot (yellow-orange) in the summit crater of Karymsky during June 2020, sometimes accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Photos of an ash plume rising from Karymsky on 30 June drifting SW (top) and a fumarolic gas plume containing some amount of ash drifting NW (bottom). Both photos by A. Sokorenko; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Similar activity continued into July, which included possible Strombolian activity, moderate gas-and-steam emissions, and frequent thermal anomalies. On 14 July a gas-and-steam plume that contained some ash drifted 26 km SW (figure 52); the Tokyo VAAC advisory reported a continuous ash plume that rose 3 km altitude and drifted SW. During 27-30 July Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions generated ash plumes that rose 3-3.7 km altitude and extended 250 km SW and SE. The frequency of thermal anomalies seen in MIROVA decreased in July; the MODVOLC system detected one thermal hotspot on 28 July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Fumarolic activity at Karymsky on 14 July 2020. Photo has been color corrected. Photo by Ivan Nuzhdaev; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Activity decreased in August; thermal anomalies were reported on 5-7, 10, 18, and 21 August, the latter of which was last observed thermal anomaly, according to KVERT. Moderate gas-and-steam emissions continued to occur through the week of 3 September (figure 53). On 26 September, the Tokyo VAAC issued an advisory for a small ash plume that rose to 1.8 km altitude and extended SE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Minor gas-and-steam emissions rose from Karymsky on 2 September 2020. Photo by A. Gerasimov; courtesy of KVERT.

After a brief period of little to no activity, Tokyo VAAC advisories on 10 and 11 October both reported small ash plumes that rose 1.8 km altitude and drifted SE. An ash plume on 17 October rose to 3.9 km altitude drifting E; on 20 October an ash plume drifted up to 50 km SE. KVERT reported that a new eruption began on 21 October; pilots observed explosions at 1430 that generated ash plumes up to 4 km altitude and extended 40 km SE (figure 54). Multiple ash plumes during that day rose up to 6.4 km altitude and drifted as far as 530 km SE, accompanied by a thermal anomaly. Frequent ash explosions continued through the end of the month, with the highest plume rising to an altitude of 6 km on 30 October. In late October two thermal anomalies were detected in MIROVA.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Frame from a video of the eruption at Karymsky on 21 October 2020. The ash plume is rising 6 km altitude. Video by Bel-Kam-Tour, courtesy of Russia Today.

Geologic Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Bel-Kam-Tour, st. Elizova, 39 Paratunka Kamchatka Krai, 684000, Russia (URL: https://bel-kam-tour.business.site/); Russia Today (RT), Borovaya St., 3 bldg. 1, Moscow 111020 (URL: https://www.rt.com/).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 15, Number 03 (March 1990)

Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland

Anatahan (United States)

Felt earthquakes and increased thermal activity

Bamus (Papua New Guinea)

Strong earthquake swarm, then somewhat decreased seismicity

Callaqui (Chile)

Steam jetting from fumaroles

Colima (Mexico)

Fumarolic activity and SW flank rockfall avalanches; Seismic net expanded

Deception Island (Antarctica)

More than 1,000 seismic events recorded in one month

Erebus (Antarctica)

Occasional Strombolian explosions from two small lava lakes; stronger SO2emission

Etna (Italy)

Lava fountains and flow then strong block ejection from Southeast Crater

Fuego (Guatemala)

Continuous gas emission; summit morphology appears unchanged since 1980

Galeras (Colombia)

Small phreatic ash emissions with spasmodic tremor and long-period seismicity

Guagua Pichincha (Ecuador)

Phreatic explosions and tremor after 10 days of A-type shocks

Irruputuncu (Chile-Bolivia)

Eruption reported by press but geologist observes only fumarolic activity

Karymsky (Russia)

Slight thermal activity

Kick 'em Jenny (Grenada)

Strong T-phase signals suggest submarine eruption, but no activity detected at the surface

Kilauea (United States)

Eruption stops briefly then resumes after seismic swarm; lava destroys house

Klyuchevskoy (Russia)

Strong summit tephra eruption; basaltic lava from SE flank vent

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Glow; gas emission; rumbling

Lascar (Chile)

20 February eruption ejected about 10-30% of the lava dome in crystal-rich fragments

Lengai, Ol Doinyo (Tanzania)

Airphotos suggest continued production of small lava flows on crater floor

Llaima (Chile)

Small explosion ejects incandescent column; strong seismicity

Loihi (United States)

Strong earthquake swarm, suggesting magma movement

Long Valley (United States)

Continued earthquake swarm in caldera's S moat

Lonquimay (Chile)

Eruption ends after 13 months; continued fumarolic activity and small-scale collapse

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Vapor emission; seismicity remains low

Moutohora Island (New Zealand)

CO2-rich gases from thermal area

Olca-Paruma (Chile-Bolivia)

Fumarolic activity and minor seismicity

Pacaya (Guatemala)

Continued weak Strombolian explosions; low SO2 flux

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Seismicity remains relatively low; minor deflation

Raoul Island (New Zealand)

Increased microseismicity but no changes in thermal activity

Redoubt (United States)

Moderate explosions and dome extrusion; rootless phreatic explosion as eruptions interact with glaciers

Ruapehu (New Zealand)

Phreatic explosions stop; increased tremor

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Minor ash emission; seismicity remains low

Rumble III (New Zealand)

Submarine summit bathymetry; bubble plumes in water column

Santa Maria (Guatemala)

Viscous lava extrusion continues; rapid erosion of N flank

Sheveluch (Russia)

100-m explosion vent in center of lava dome; minor fumarolic activity

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Thick vapor emission; weak seismicity

Vulcano (Italy)

High-temperature fumaroles; gas chemistry; small seismic swarms

Waesche (Antarctica)

No signs of recent activity

Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand)

Minor ash emission; seismicity and thermal activity decline; deflation

Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand)

Strong submarine hydrothermal activity at the Calypso Vents

Zhupanovsky (Russia)

Four vigorous fumaroles



Anatahan (United States) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Anatahan

United States

16.35°N, 145.67°E; summit elev. 790 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Felt earthquakes and increased thermal activity

Shallow earthquakes that began 30 March (table 1) were felt and heard on Anatahan Island, and associated with an apparent increase in thermal activity from the younger E cone's crater lake. Felt seismicity remained frequent through 1 April. Observations limited to early morning and around noon yielded reports of 9 shocks, each lasting 5-7 seconds, 31 March-1 April. No felt events were reported 2-4 April. A helicopter overflight on 1 April revealed that the crater lake had become turbulent and had changed from its usual dirty green color to a bluish gray or whitish blue. Fumarolic activity had increased and a rotten egg smell was noted. A new landslide was visible on the SW wall of the active crater. The 23 residents of the island were evacuated 4 April, and had not returned as of mid-April.

Table 1. Earthquakes near Anatahan recorded by WWSSN stations, 30 March-1 April 1990. All events were shallow, but preliminary data did not allow precise depth determinations. Courtesy of the NEIC.

Date Time Magnitude Distance / Direction
30 Mar 1990 0016 5.2 mb 65 km NE
30 Mar 1990 0036 4.7 mb 70 km NE
30 Mar 1990 1254 5.2 mb 75 km ENE
30 Mar 1990 1743 5.0 mb 75 km ENE
30 Mar 1990 1827 4.6 mb 65 km NNE
30 Mar 1990 2136 4.5 mb 70 km NNE
31 Mar 1990 1635 4.6 mb 85 km NNW

Geologic Background. The elongate, 9-km-long island of Anatahan in the central Mariana Islands consists of a large stratovolcano with a 2.3 x 5 km compound summit caldera. The larger western portion of the caldera is 2.3 x 3 km wide, and its western rim forms the island's high point. Ponded lava flows overlain by pyroclastic deposits fill the floor of the western caldera, whose SW side is cut by a fresh-looking smaller crater. The 2-km-wide eastern portion of the caldera contained a steep-walled inner crater whose floor prior to the 2003 eruption was only 68 m above sea level. A submarine cone, named NE Anatahan, rises to within 460 m of the sea surface on the NE flank, and numerous other submarine vents are found on the NE-to-SE flanks. Sparseness of vegetation on the most recent lava flows had indicated that they were of Holocene age, but the first historical eruption did not occur until May 2003, when a large explosive eruption took place forming a new crater inside the eastern caldera.

Information Contacts: N. Banks and J. Ewert, CVO; NEIC.


Bamus (Papua New Guinea) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Bamus

Papua New Guinea

5.2°S, 151.23°E; summit elev. 2248 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong earthquake swarm, then somewhat decreased seismicity

"Seismicity. . . continued throughout March, although at a milder level after the 5th. Following intense February seismicity that involved 83 earthquakes of ML >=4.0, eight of ML >=5.0, and one of ML >=6.0, activity was strong again 3-5 March. More than 720 earthquakes (two of ML = 5.0-5.1 and 10 of ML >=4.5) were recorded before seismicity decreased to 20-50 events/day of small-moderate magnitude. The energy released by the February-March seismicity was relatively large, 1.22 x 1021 ergs (figure 1).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Daily number of earthquakes (bars) and cumulative energy release (circles) near Bamus, February-March 1990. Magnitudes (ML) of larger events are given over earthquake count bars. Courtesy of RVO.

"An inspection of the Bamus area was carried out on 6 March. Rockfalls had occurred at many places on the volcano and in the limestone ranges to the S. However, no change was observed in the temperatures of the solfataric areas on the summit tholoid (which remained at <=15°C).

"Temporary seismograph networks were operated in the area 13-16 February and 6-8 March. Earthquake locations defined a broad 15-km-long seismic zone trending NNE that extended from the Nakanai Mountains to the S flank of Bamus (figure 2). Within this zone was a concentration of locations trending ENE near the S foot of Bamus. Earthquake focal depths ranged from 0 to 23 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Epicenters of seismic events at Bamus, 13-16 February and 6-8 March 1990. Courtesy of RVO.

"Cross-sections . . . (figure 3) suggest that the main cluster of earthquakes defines an ENE-trending near-vertical fault. This orientation is consistent with the structural pattern evident in the Miocene limestone immediately S of, and underlying, Bamus.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Focal depths of seismic events near Bamus during 13-16 February and 6-8 March 1990 projected along lines A-B (top) and A-C (bottom). Horizontal scale (and thus vertical exaggeration) changes from A-B to A-C. Courtesy of RVO.

"The cause of this seismicity remains uncertain. Its ongoing fluctuating character, and the fact that its swarms include but do not occur in response to larger earthquakes, could be consistent with magmatic injection. On the other hand, ML 5-6 earthquakes are uncommon for magmatic events. Analysis of the magnitude/frequency distribution of the earthquakes shows that the 'b' value is ~1, which is indicative of tectonic earthquake sequences. The seismicity was continuing in early April and was being monitored primarily by the permananent seismograph at Ulawun."

Geologic Background. Symmetrical 2248-m-high Bamus volcano, also referred to locally as the South Son, is located SW of Ulawun volcano, known as the Father. These two volcanoes are the highest in the 1000-km-long Bismarck volcanic arc. The andesitic stratovolcano is draped by rainforest and contains a breached summit crater filled with a lava dome. A satellitic cone is located on the southern flank, and a prominent 1.5-km-wide crater with two small adjacent cones is situated halfway up the SE flank. Young pyroclastic-flow deposits are found on the volcano's flanks, and villagers describe an eruption that took place during the late 19th century.

Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, P. de Saint-Ours, and C. McKee, RVO.


Callaqui (Chile) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Callaqui

Chile

37.92°S, 71.45°W; summit elev. 3164 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Steam jetting from fumaroles

Steam jets from that rose 300-400 m from fumaroles on the SE flank, 200 m below the summit, were observed during dry weather at about noon on 9 and 16 March.

Geologic Background. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene Callaqui stratovolcano has a profile of an overturned canoe, due to its construction along an 11-km-long, SW-NE fissure above a 1.2-0.3 million year old Pleistocene edifice. The ice-capped, basaltic-andesite volcano contains well-preserved cones and lava flows, which have traveled up to 14 km. Small craters 100-500 m in diameter are primarily found along a fissure extending down the SW flank. Intense solfataric activity occurs at the southern portion of the summit; in 1966 and 1978, red glow was observed in fumarolic areas (Moreno 1985, pers. comm.). Periods of intense fumarolic activity have dominated; few historical eruptions are known. An explosive eruption was reported in 1751, there were uncertain accounts of eruptions in 1864 and 1937, and a small phreatic ash emission was noted in 1980.

Information Contacts: J. Naranjo, SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago; H. Moreno, Univ de Chile.


Colima (Mexico) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarolic activity and SW flank rockfall avalanches; Seismic net expanded

A group from CICBAS (Universidad de Colima) and CONMAR (Oregon State Univ) visited the volcano 15-17 February. Since their last visit, in May 1989, rockfall avalanches have occurred preferentially on the SW flank. Fumarolic activity persisted throughout their visit, forming a dense gray cloud. Poor weather conditions limited additional observations.

The geologists emplaced geoceivers for satellite communication, to determine geodetic positions of sites near the volcano for installation of two new telemetering seismographs. On 15 December 1989, the CICBAS seismology group had installed the 4th telemetric station of the Red Sismológica Telemétrica de Colima, 7 km from the volcano (at la Yerbabuena, site EZV6 on figure 6).

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the high point of the complex) on the north and the historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of late-Pleistocene cinder cones is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, producing thick debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions have destroyed the summit (most recently in 1913) and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: Guillermo Castellanos, Gilberto Ornelas-Arciniega, C. Ariel Ramírez-Vazquez, G.A. Reyes-Dávila, and Hector Tamez, CICBAS, Universidad de Colima.


Deception Island (Antarctica) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Deception Island

Antarctica

63.001°S, 60.652°W; summit elev. 602 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More than 1,000 seismic events recorded in one month

"Spanish scientists visited Deception Island in December 1989 and January-February 1990. A geophysical station is located on the island and the Spanish oceanographic vessel Las Palmas operated in the area. Geological, tectonic, and geophysical features on and near the island were investigated. A regional, higher precision GPS geodetic network spans the Deception section of the Bransfield Rift.

"During the 1989-90 field season, an array of six digital seismic stations was installed on Deception Island. More than 1,000 events (0.5-2.1 mb) were digitally recorded. The major shocks were located in de Neptune Bowels (S of the island). The distribution of events shows a good correlation with tectonic features on and near the island (figure 2). A low seismic velocity, high-attenuation body was inferred under the NE sector of the island. A negative magnetic anomaly (-4,900 nT) is located in the same area.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Distribution of seismic events (circles) recorded by the Spanish Antarctic Program seismic array (triangles) on Deception Island, 20 January-20 February 1990.

"Chemical compositions of samples from fumaroles and thermal springs suggest a thermal anomaly related to an underlying magma body. Gas geothermometry shows a formation temperature >250°C, with an outflow temperature of about 100°C. The phreatomagmatic character of the recent episodes is hypothesized as the result of a magma intrusion into shallow and confined water-saturated layers.

"A permanent seismic station monitoring the seismic activity in the area has been established at Spain's Juan Carlos I facility (35 km from Deception)."

Geologic Background. Ring-shaped Deception Island, one of Antarctica's most well known volcanoes, contains a 7-km-wide caldera flooded by the sea. Deception Island is located at the SW end of the Shetland Islands, NE of Graham Land Peninsula, and was constructed along the axis of the Bransfield Rift spreading center. A narrow passageway named Neptunes Bellows provides entrance to a natural harbor that was utilized as an Antarctic whaling station. Numerous vents located along ring fractures circling the low, 14-km-wide island have been active during historical time. Maars line the shores of 190-m-deep Port Foster, the caldera bay. Among the largest of these maars is 1-km-wide Whalers Bay, at the entrance to the harbor. Eruptions from Deception Island during the past 8700 years have been dated from ash layers in lake sediments on the Antarctic Peninsula and neighboring islands.

Information Contacts: R. Ortiz, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Spain; Rafael Soto, Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada, Spain.


Erebus (Antarctica) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Erebus

Antarctica

77.53°S, 167.17°E; summit elev. 3794 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Occasional Strombolian explosions from two small lava lakes; stronger SO2emission

Scientists visited the summit of Mt. Erebus several times from mid-November 1989 through mid-January 1990. Activity was at a low level compared to that of the early 1980s. Anorthoclase phonolite lava in the summit inner crater was mainly confined to two small convecting lakes; one circular and about 20 m in diameter, and the other irregular and ~20 m long. This was the largest area of convecting lava seen at Mt. Erebus since late 1984, when eruptions buried an older, larger, lava lake system. Three hornitos were actively degassing around the lava lakes, and small fumaroles were present within the inner crater.

From mid-November to mid-December, infrequent small Strombolian explosions ejected bombs to a few tens of meters from the lava lakes. A small gas bubble burst was observed in one of the hornitos. In mid-December, an increase in the frequency and size of small Strombolian eruptions was recorded by Victoria University's remote video camera mounted on the crater rim 220 m above the lava lakes. Images transmitted to Scott base, 35 km from the volcano, showed bombs being ejected to more than 100 m height.

SO2 emission, monitored by COSPEC, has increased substantially over the previous 5 years, commonly exceeding 100 t/d. This increase was consistent with previous observations suggesting that the surface area of the lava lakes correlates with SO2 emission rates.

Geologic Background. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. It is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic volcano has been modified by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3,200 m elevation marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater; other lava lakes are sometimes present. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history.

Information Contacts: P. Kyle and W. McIntosh, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; R. Dibble, Victoria Univ.


Etna (Italy) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava fountains and flow then strong block ejection from Southeast Crater

Summit activity. (S. Calvari, M. Coltelli, O. Consoli, M. Pompilio, and V. Scribano.) February activity was characterized by a single strong eruptive episode at Southeast Crater. Summit-area craters generally remained quiet through the rest of February and March. The 1-2 February eruptive episode was similar to several in January. A gradual increase in Strombolian explosions was followed by lava fountaining, and lava flowed over the crater's E rim for 5 hours beginning at 2200 on 1 February. The flow turned toward the Valle del Bove, advancing to ~ 2,000 m altitude, near the terminus of the mid-January flow. During the morning of 2 February, discontinuous Strombolian activity was followed by ejection of scoria that seldom reached a few tens of meters from the rim. Activity changed at about 1330 to energetic, discontinuous explosions that generated rumbling heard at a considerable distance. Blocks more than a meter across fell within a few hundred meters of the crater; much of the slightly vesicular ash was non-juvenile. Similar activity continued until about midnight. After the eruptive episode, the crater was completely obstructed, without any gas emission, until 27 February, when sporadic ejection of dark tephra began from two vents on the crater floor. February activity at other summit-area craters was limited to vapor emission from floors and walls. Emissions were particularly strong from Northeast Crater, where the active vent's walls were strongly incandescent.

Degassing was continuous at the summit craters in March but was not accompanied by Strombolian activity. Degassing occurred from an elliptical vent on the W floor of La Voragine accompanied by sporadic rumbling. Gas was also emitted from two sites on the SE and NW floor of Bocca Nuova. Weak fumarolic activity, from collapse steps that have formed along concentric fractures in Southeast Crater, was strongest from the center of the crater. Degassing also continued in Northeast Crater. On 29 and 30 March, sporadic tephra ejection and incandescence were observed, apparently from a sudden rise in the magma column.

Seismic activity. (E. Privitera, C. Cardaci, O. Cocina, V. Longo, A. Montaldo, M. Patanè, A. Pellegrino, and S. Spampinato.) Volcanic tremor amplitude began a progressive increase on 1 February at 1239, probably associated with increased Strombolian activity at Southeast Crater. Amplitudes peaked at 1940 that day, and at 0048 the next morning as activity was changing from Strombolian to lava fountaining. Other substantial increases in tremor amplitude occurred at 0600-1100, 1855, and 1935. The first of two sequences of discrete earthquakes on 2 February began at 0352. Eight of the events, centered at ~15 km depth on the volcano's N sector, were larger than M 1, the strongest at M 2.6 between 0424 and 0619. The second series of shocks started at 1321, with the two largest events (M 2.8) at 1322 and 1337. Hypocenters were on the Valle del Bove at <1 km depth. From 3 February until the end of the month, seismic activity was at very low levels, with little variation in tremor amplitude or the number of low-frequency shocks. Nine fracturing events exceeded M 1, with a maximum magnitude of 2.5.

Seismic activity in March was characterized by a significant increase in the number of fracturing events. Swarms on 16 and 18 March totaled 124 shocks (M>=1) and brought the month's recorded earthquakes to 153, ~ 3 times as many as in January and February. The 16 March swarm began at 0530 and continued until 0050 the next day. Of the 107 shocks stronger than M 1, 28 were of M>=2 and three of M>=3. The bulk of the most energetic events originated from the central to W part of the edifice at 10-20 km depth, although one (at 1052) was located just NNW of the central crater at ~5 km depth. The strongest shock of the 18 March sequence, which included 17 events, occurred on the SW flank (a few kilometers S of Monte Nero) at ~10-15 km depth. An M 3.3 earthquake on 22 March at 1159 was ~15 km deep, roughly 6 km SSW of the summit (just S of Monte Vetore). The March seismicity was not accompanied by changes in volcanic tremor amplitude, which remained low throughout the month. The number and amplitude of low-frequency events showed little change after 3 February. A new seismic station (PZF) was installed on the lower NW flank (near Maletto), replacing station RCC, stolen in August 1989. With the new site, IIV's Etna network numbers 8 stations.

Ground deformation. (A. Bonaccorso, O. Campisi, G. Falzone, B. Puglisi, and R. Velardita.) Two tilt stations (SPC and CDV) operated during February, both on the S side of the volcano. Data from station SPC generally remained within resolution limits through February and March. A weak anomaly was recorded on the tangential component 18-20 February, then tangential data returned to the normal range. Radial values from recently installed station CDV remained within resolution limits through February, while tangential data began a (negative) excursion on 18 February that totalled 5 µrad by the end of the month. All instruments from this station were stolen on 1 March. Reoccupation of sites that form a triangle along the fracture zone between 1,800 and 1,500 m altitude on the S-SE flank (between benchmarks Bocche 1792, Serra Pizzuta Calvarina, and Mt. Stempato) did not show significant deformation since the previous measurements on 19 January.

Summit SO2 flux. (T. Caltabiano and R. Romano.) Rates of SO2 emission during Southeast Crater's eruptive episode on 2 February were three times mean values. Measurements 7, 14, and 21 February showed considerable variation. The five March measurements yielded SO2 flux of 2,500-14,000 t/d, increasing at the end of the month.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: R. Santacroce, IIV.


Fuego (Guatemala) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continuous gas emission; summit morphology appears unchanged since 1980

Overflights of Fuego were made on 15 and 16 February by volcanologists from INSIVUMEH and Michigan Tech. The following is from their report.

"Continuous gas emission was observed, with no evidence of any magma at the surface. The geometry of the summit crater and its surroundings (which influences the paths of pyroclastic flows during eruptive activity) was unchanged since 1980. COSPEC measurements of SO2 emission rates were made from the air, yielding 265 ± 33 t/d on 15 February and 120 ± 30 t/d on 16 February (3 and 8 determinations respectively). These rates are very similar to the 100 t/d measured in February 1980 and much less than the rates measured in February 1978 (660-1,700 t/d) when Fuego was actively erupting (Stoiber et al., 1983; reference under Santiaguito)."

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Otoniel Matías and Rodolfo Morales, Sección de Volcanología, INSIVUMEH; W.I. Rose, Jimmy Diehl, Robert Andres, Michael Conway, and Gordon Keating, Michigan Technological Univ, USA.


Galeras (Colombia) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Galeras

Colombia

1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small phreatic ash emissions with spasmodic tremor and long-period seismicity

Small phreatic ash emissions continued in March, accompanied by spasmodic tremor and long-period seismicity (table 2). Incandescence was mainly observed in the W part of the crater. The number of low-frequency earthquakes increased 47% relative to February values, with an 86% increase in seismic energy release. However, the number of high-frequency events decreased 38% from February and energy release declined 28% (figures 17 and 18). Most earthquakes were centered in two zones under, W of, and S of the summit (figure 19). SO2 emissions measured on 15 and 22 March by COSPEC were at low-moderate levels, ranging from 630 to 1,380 t/d.

Table 2. Phreatic ash emissions and associated seismicity at Galeras, March 1990. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

Date Time Seismic Signal
09 Mar 1990 0233 Spasmodic tremor
11 Mar 1990 1448 Spasmodic tremor
11 Mar 1990 1618 Spasmodic tremor
11 Mar 1990 1652 Long-period
11 Mar 1990 2036 Spasmodic tremor
17 Mar 1990 1817 Long-period
17 Mar 1990 1921 Spasmodic tremor
18 Mar 1990 0631 Spasmodic tremor
27 Mar 1990 0609 Long-period
27 Mar 1990 1552 Spasmodic tremor
28 Mar 1990 1359 Spasmodic tremor
29 Mar 1990 0948 Spasmodic tremor
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Number of seismic events at Galeras, February 1989-March 1990. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Daily energy release of high-frequency (dashed line) and low-frequency (solid line) seismicity at Galeras, March 1990. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Epicenters of 67 seismic events at Galeras, March 1990. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

Geologic Background. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

Information Contacts: INGEOMINAS-OVP.


Guagua Pichincha (Ecuador) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Guagua Pichincha

Ecuador

0.171°S, 78.598°W; summit elev. 4784 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Phreatic explosions and tremor after 10 days of A-type shocks

After 15 months of quiet, phreatic activity began on 16 April at 0221. The activity was confined to the phreatic crater formed in 1981-82, on the NE side of the 600-m-diameter dome that occupies most of the caldera floor. Activity began with spasmodic harmonic tremor of small to intermediate amplitude, accompanied by strong fumarolic emissions generating a vapor column that rose at least 800 m. Several explosions were heard and recorded by seismographs 1.5 km and (very weakly) 9 km from the crater. Seven new fumaroles were observed within the 1981 crater, but by 17 April had joined to form a single fumarole 4 m in diameter. Non-juvenile material, rocks, and mud were thrown outward to 250 m from the vent, forming a layer 4 cm thick. The explosions enlarged the 1981 crater by ~20 m.

Precursory activity began with a M 2.3 earthquake on 5 April and a M 2.2 shock on 13 April. Only a few small events, both A- and B-type, were detected during subsequent days. The tremor had a typical frequency of 1.7 Hz on 15-17 April. Periods of tremor lasted as much as 3 hours, separated by intervals of low-amplitude tremor or quiescence. Intermittent explosions were also recorded, always associated with tremor. Only a few very small B-type events have been recorded since the onset of phreatic activity. Fumarolic waters remained at their normal temperature of 87°C.

Given the shallow character of the activity, geologists believed that it was partly related to the previous week's increased precipitation. Stepped-up monitoring and re-deployment of the Instituto Geofísico's seismic net (dismantled following the 1988 activity) were begun 16-17 April, and tilt stations and EDM lines were being resurveyed. The Instituto's hazard map and previously planned preparedness exercises for a hypothetical eruption of Guagua Pichincha were helping civil defense authorities to prepare for the possibility of increased activity.

Geologic Background. Guagua Pichincha and the older Pleistocene Rucu Pichincha stratovolcanoes form a broad volcanic massif that rises immediately to the W of Ecuador's capital city, Quito. A lava dome is located at the head of a 6-km-wide breached caldera that formed during a late-Pleistocene slope failure ~50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from the central vent in the breached caldera consisted of explosive activity with pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic growth and destruction of the central lava dome. One of Ecuador's most active volcanoes, it is the site of many minor eruptions since the beginning of the Spanish era. The largest historical eruption took place in 1660, when ash fell over a 1000 km radius, accumulating to 30 cm depth in Quito. Pyroclastic flows and surges also occurred, primarily to then W, and affected agricultural activity, causing great economic losses.

Information Contacts: M. Hall, Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional.


Irruputuncu (Chile-Bolivia) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Irruputuncu

Chile-Bolivia

20.73°S, 68.55°W; summit elev. 5163 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption reported by press but geologist observes only fumarolic activity

December press reports in Bolivia of an eruption . . .[located 25 km NNW of Olca Volcano] remain unconfirmed, and attempts by Bolivian geologists to fly over the volcano in January were stymied by poor weather. State oil company (ENAP) geologist Patricio Sepulveda reported only normal fumarolic activity at Irruputuncu on 25 March.

Geologic Background. Irruputuncu is a small stratovolcano that straddles the Chile/Bolivia border. It is the youngest and most southerly of a NE-SW-trending chain of volcanoes. It was constructed within the collapse scarp of a Holocene debris avalanche whose deposit extends to the SW. Subsequent eruptions filled much of this scarp and produced thick, viscous lava flows down the W flank. The summit complex contains two craters, the southernmost of which is fumarolically active. The first unambiguous historical eruption took place in November 1995, when phreatic explosions produced dark ash clouds.

Information Contacts: J. Naranjo, SERNAGEOMIN.


Karymsky (Russia) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Karymsky

Russia

54.049°N, 159.443°E; summit elev. 1513 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Slight thermal activity

The volcano was generally quiet during a 2 February overflight (figure 1). Pre-existing thermal areas were visible in the S and SW parts of the crater, although the vent was snow-covered. Slightly warm zones were also noted on the upper S flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Summit crater of Karymsky, looking roughly SW on 2 February 1990. Courtesy of B. Ivanov.

Geologic Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IV.


Kick 'em Jenny (Grenada) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Kick 'em Jenny

Grenada

12.3°N, 61.64°W; summit elev. -185 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong T-phase signals suggest submarine eruption, but no activity detected at the surface

Seismic stations... began to record very strong acoustic (T-phase) signals, probably associated with an eruption of the... Kick-'em-Jenny... on 26 March at 1112. Overflights of the area during the period of vigorous seismicity did not reveal any water discoloration or other surface changes above the volcano, which had a summit depth of about 160 m in 1982.

Thirteen distinct seismic bursts, lasting up to 19 minutes, were recorded 26-27 March on instruments operated by the Seismic Research Unit, Univ of the West Indies. The IPGP's Mt. Pelée seismic network on Martinique, 250 km NNE of Kick-'em-Jenny, recorded strong T-waves on 26 March at 1117:22, 1502:30, 1723, and 2034 (the latter felt by residents of NW Martinique), and on 27 March at 0035:40 and 0424:25. T-waves reached IPGP's Soufrière de Guadeloupe net, 450 km N of Kick-'em-Jenny, on 26 March at 1118. The initial activity saturated the Grenada seismograph and the largest burst of seismicity, at about 1721 on 26 March, was felt on northern Grenada. After a single 14-minute episode that started at 0103 on 28 March, seismicity stopped on all but the Grenada instrument, which continued to record occasional low-frequency (0.5-2 Hz) signals for periods of about 30 seconds to more than 3 hours. The latest reported low-frequency episode occurred on 5 April between about 0500 and 0800.

Geologic Background. Kick 'em Jenny, an active submarine volcano 8 km off the N shore of Grenada, rises 1,300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure, which was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km W. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its S. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous eruptions have occurred since 1939, mostly documented by acoustic signals. Prior to the 1939 eruption, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the ocean and was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of the volcano. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Recent eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater.

Information Contacts: W. Ambeh, K. Rowley, L. Lynch, and L. Pollard, UWI; A. Redhead, Office of the Prime Minister, Grenada; J.P. Viode and G. Boudon, Observatoire Volcanologique de la Montagne Pelée, Martinique; C. Antenor and M. Feuillard, Observatoire de la Soufrière, Guadeloupe; J.L. Cheminée, N. Girardin, and A. Hirn, IPGP Observatoires Volcanologiques, France.


Kilauea (United States) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption stops briefly then resumes after seismic swarm; lava destroys house

Lava flows . . . remained active during the first half of March. The main (Quarry) and low-volume (Roberts) flows continued to enter the ocean, while a third (Keone) flow advanced slowly to within 600 m of a highway at 30 m elevation (figure 66). Activity was periodically observed at Pu`u `O`o. Crusted lava in Kupaianaha pond averaged 30 m below the rim and only overturned a few times/day, in contrast to vigorous past activity. On the 19th, the eruption stopped and the lava pond roofed over. Small collapse pits were found in the lava pond's crust the next day. Only residual lava from the Quarry and Roberts lava tubes drained into the ocean on the 21st.

Activity resumed on the night of the 21st, with glow reported from the East rift zone. By the next day, active lava was visible in Pu`u `O`o, had risen to 20 m below the rim at Kupaianaha, and had reoccupied the tube system to 550 m elevation. Surface lava breakouts at 550 and 600 m elevation fed two flows. Lava followed the course of the January 1990 flow between the December 1986 and 1977 aa flows, and by the end of the month had reached 200 m elevation. Lava also followed the course of the Keone flow, to within 500 m of the intersection of highways 130 and 137. Kupaianaha pond remained active through 23 March when it again began to roof over ~30 m below the rim, and by the 26th, only small pahoehoe lobes were periodically active around the pond's margins.

Seismic signals . . . marked the eruption's changes. From early to mid-March, sporadic gas pistoning was recorded, manifested as background volcanic tremor decreasing to an essentially quiet state for several minutes, generally ending with a sharp burst of energy followed by continued background tremor. This activity subsided after 17 March, succeeded by a marked increase in tremor and, on the afternoon of 18 March, brief summit deflation.

At Kilauea's summit, swarms of long-period tremor events occurred from late 16 March through midday 18 March and from the evening of 19 March through the early morning of the 21st (figure 67). A swarm of short-period microearthquakes began later that morning and continued until early 22 March. Five hours after the onset of the summit swarm, and several hours before eruptive activity resumed, a sudden increase in earthquakes occurred in the upper East rift zone between the summit and the active craters. The hypocenters were in two areas: near Makaopuhi (roughly midway between the summit caldera rim and Kupaianaha) and Pauahi (~5 km uprift from Makaopuhi). The swarm continued until the morning of 25 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Preliminary locations of earthquakes in the Hawaii Island region, including Kilauea and Loihi, 1-26 March 1990. Courtesy of R. Koyanagi.

After lava returned to Kupaianaha on 22 March, variations in seismicity became less obvious. Tremor near Pu`u `O`o increased gradually and was relatively steady from the 24th until the end of the month.

Addendum: Eruptive activity declined on 5 April [see also 15:4], but had resumed by the night of the 6th. Lava entered Kalapana Gardens subdivision on 3 April, and within three weeks had destroyed a dozen houses.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: C. Heliker, P. Okubo, and R. Koyanagi, HVO; AP.


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong summit tephra eruption; basaltic lava from SE flank vent

During an overflight by geologists on 2 February, vigorous ash emission fed a large eruption column that rose to ~5 km height and had a basal diameter of ~400-600 m (figure 3). Individual ash bursts were visible at the base of the column, although ash emission appeared to be continuous. A new vent was noted at 4,500 m elev on the NE slope of the Apakhonchich valley, on the upper SE flank. Vapor jets 200-300 m high were distinctly visible above this vent. A subsidiary vent downslope (at 3,970 m elev) fed basaltic lava flows. An ash plume extended 60-80 km E. The ashfall area on 2 February was ~1,600 km2.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Tephra cloud from Kliuchevskoi's summit crater on 2 February 1990, in photograph looking roughly E. Arrow 1 indicates the new vent at 4,600 m elev on the SE flank, arrow 2 the effusive vent at 3,970 m elev. Courtesy of B. Ivanov.

Images from the NOAA 10 and 11 polar orbiting satellites showed several plumes from Kliuchevskoi. On 22 February at 1548, a thin plume extended ~80 km SE. A plume was next visible on 10 March at 0956. Although obscured by weather clouds a short distance ENE of the volcano, it formed a distinct cold area on the infrared image, indicating that it was at relatively high altitude. On 12 March at 0335, a very thin plume stretched 15-20 km NE from the Kliuchevskoi area, and on 15 March at 0942, a small diffuse plume extended S from the volcano. A thin plume extended 250 km NE on 3 April at 0903. Weather clouds . . . may have obscured additional eruptive activity.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IV; W. Gould, NOAA/NESDIS.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Glow; gas emission; rumbling

"Activity consisted of weak to moderate white-grey emissions from Crater 2. Weak, steady, red glow was observed 1-4 and 25-31 March. Rumbling noises were heard on the 28th and 29th. Crater 3 remained quiet throughout the month. Seismicity was at a low level."

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower E flank of the extinct Talawe volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, P. de Saint-Ours, and C. McKee, RVO.


Lascar (Chile) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Lascar

Chile

23.37°S, 67.73°W; summit elev. 5592 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


20 February eruption ejected about 10-30% of the lava dome in crystal-rich fragments

After the 20 February eruption, Lascar returned to its normal fumarolic activity with the generation of mainly white plumes that rise 300-500 m above the rim of the active central crater. Between 20 and 24 March, geologists from the SERNAGEOMIN and several British universities observed the volcano from the ground and from the active crater's rim, reached on the 23rd from the N slope and on the 24th from the S slope. The following is from their report.

"Examination of photographs taken by J.R. Gerneck (Chile Hunt Oil) during the 20 February eruption revealed three discrete plumes. The first, white in color, consisted mainly of steam, and was overtaken by two smaller, grayish, higher velocity clouds. Geologists interpreted this sequence as an initial steam explosion related to the partial destruction of the dome that fills the bottom of the active crater, followed by phreatomagmatic eruptions. The eruption products, primarily fragments of the dome, occurred as shattered, dark, dense blocks of porphyritic pyroxene andesite, ranging to white, semi-vesicular, largely disaggregated blocks of similar composition, with thin, darker, quenched rims. The blocks were composed of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts, small amounts of magnetite, and scarce reacted olivine and hornblende crystals in a glassy groundmass. They are enriched in crystals compared to bombs from the 1986 eruption, with larger phenocrysts (up to 2 mm), and a larger proportion of pyroxene. No olivine or hornblende were found in the 1986 bombs, which included occasional xenoliths of partially molten granite. The 20 February blocks were distributed almost symmetrically in a radius of 4 km around the crater, associated with asymmetrical impact craters, elongate parallel to block trajectories. The number of blocks increased dramatically close to the vent where they covered 70-90% of the surface. No fresh ash was observed close to the volcano.

"Preliminary calculations, based on the volume of ejecta and the size of the plume, indicate that between 10 and 30% of the dome was erupted on 20 February. This estimate is supported by 5 March airphotos of the interior of the crater and by observations made from the crater rim, where a large part of the dome can still be observed in the bottom of the crater. The dome has apparently continued deflating since our last observation in November 1989 (14:11). A hole appeared to be present in its center, produced by collapse into the vent. Fumaroles were located around the dome, along ring fractures as observed in April 1989. Gas was still venting at extremely high velocity, creating the same jet-like noise reported in November. The strongest fumaroles were on the dome's NE and SW edges. A strong smell of HCl and SO2 was recorded from the N rim. Deposits of yellow sulfur are visible associated with the fumaroles. Temperatures were measured (by Clive Oppenheimer) using an infrared radiometer (after dark, to eliminate the effects of sunlight). The fumaroles were observed to be glowing red hot and bright spots were seen over the dome. Preliminary data show the largest fumarole to have a temperature of 700-800°C, while the surface of the dome had an average temperature of 100-200°."

Geologic Background. Láscar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcán Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Láscar consists of two major edifices; activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires.

Information Contacts: M. Gardeweg, SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago; S. Matthews, Univ College London; C. Oppenheimer, Open Univ; S. Sparks and M. Stasiuk, Univ of Bristol.


Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Tanzania

2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Airphotos suggest continued production of small lava flows on crater floor

Airphotos taken between 16 and 18 October 1989 by Geoff Price and 7 March 1990 by Lester Eshelman suggest that no large-volume lava flows have been extruded since June 1989. Only minor changes appear to have occurred to cones in the crater since . . . 24 June-1 July and 22-25 November 1988.

During the October 1989 overflight, clouds partially obscured the crater floor, which appeared pale gray, with a slightly darker lava flow (F13), previously seen June-August 1989, near the W wall (figure 14). Cones and vents on the crater floor had changed little since June-August 1989. A vent (T12) seen in September 1989 was no longer visible at the base of the E crater wall. A new vent (T13) had been added to the old complex (T5/T9) which now appeared as several closely spaced cones joined at the base. A possible small hornito (H6) was observed between T5/T9 and T8. The width of the overflow across the former saddle (M2M1) had not changed, but the area of lava S of the saddle may have increased slightly, particularly on the W side of the southern depression.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. View of the N crater and southern depression at Ol Doinyo Lengai, looking roughly S between 16 and 18 October, 1989. Traced from a photograph by Geoff Price; courtesy of C. Nyamweru.

On 7 March 1990, bright sunshine and clear visibility revealed small lava flows of varying colors on the crater floor. However, none were dark gray or black, suggesting that they were of different ages and probably more than a few days (but at most a few weeks) old. No new vents were recognized, and the area of lava in the southern depression had not increased. Flow F13 was white, but had been partially covered by younger brown flows from the W side of T5/T9T13 (figure 15). Many flows of different colors were seen on its W and N slopes, including a narrow white tongue of lava (roughly 4-5 m long and 50 cm wide) stretching from the vent down the flank of the cone complex. Similar features were observed forming on T4/T7 in 1988. Several dark grooves extending from the slopes of T5/T9 appear to be narrow channels formed when a lava flow built levees, restricting it to a narrow stream. The formation of similar features was observed . . . in June and November 1988.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. View of the N crater and southern depression at Ol Doinyo Lengai, looking roughly S on 7 March 1990. Traced from a photograph by L. Eshelman; courtesy of C. Nyamweru.

Notes on individual vents and cones are as follows: T5/T9/T13: Probable center of activity since October 1989, with emission of small thin flows from very small vents, mostly on its W slopes. The top has merged into a single broad cone with several dark patches indicating cracks or vents near the top. T4/T7: Brown and buff colors dominate. Small black patches at the top of two mounds on the E side indicate vents still open. No sign of new material extruded from these vents. Generally smooth and weathered. Lava production from T4/T7 was last reported in November 1988 (13:12). T8: Brown and buff colors dominate. Top of pinnacle appears slightly less steep. No sign of new material. Lava spattering was seen in November 1988, but only gas emission has been observed since then. T10: Gray; part of ridge that joined this cone to the E crater wall may have collapsed. Bubbling lava was seen near T10 in May 1989 (14:06). T11: Pale gray; center of cone is flat and inactive. Possible collapse at N edge. No recent lava emission was apparent and none has been reported since November 1988.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: C. Nyamweru, Kenyatta Univ.


Llaima (Chile) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Llaima

Chile

38.692°S, 71.729°W; summit elev. 3125 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small explosion ejects incandescent column; strong seismicity

A small explosion on 25 February, followed by the ejection of a glowing column from the main crater, was reported by Conguillio National Park administrator Omar Toledo. He added that small sediment-laden streams of water had flowed down the E flank at times when thawing does not normally occur. Field observations by geologists 5-18 March revealed occasional increases in fumarolic activity from the main crater. On 10 March, vigorous 40-60-second puffs of gas were emitted every minute during the early evening. After a summit climb, Conguillio National Park rangers reported that intense fumarolic activity produced grayish gases and a strong sulfur odor. Rockslides occurred every 1-2 hours on the NE flank.

A portable seismograph was operated 19-22 March at the volcano's W foot (in Los Paraguas National Park) by Jaime Campos and Bertrad Delovis, Dept de Geofísica, Univ de Chile. Intense volcanic earthquakes and tremor were recorded. Another portable seismograph will be installed at the NE foot (near Conguillio Lake) by Univ de la Frontera scientists.

Geologic Background. Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two main historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic, stratovolcano has a volume of 400 km3. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 km3 Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by Strombolian, Hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

Information Contacts: H. Moreno, Univ de Chile; J. Naranjo, SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago.


Loihi (United States) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Loihi

United States

18.92°N, 155.27°W; summit elev. -975 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong earthquake swarm, suggesting magma movement

A vigorous earthquake swarm occurred off the S flank of Hawaii 11-19 March 1990 (figure 4). More than 300 events were registered, about 15 of M 3-4, and some of M >4. Seismologists associated many of the events, including the larger ones, with processes at Loihi Seamount. No acoustic signals (T-waves) were reported.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Portion of a seismogram recorded during Loihi's 11 March 1990 earthquake swarm, by a station (AHU) 45 km from the epicentral area. Courtesy of R. Koyanagi.

Further Reference. Malahoff, A., 1987, Geology of the summit of Loihi submarine volcano, in Decker, R.W., Wright, T.L., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., Volcanism in Hawaii: USGS Professional Paper 1350, p. 133-144.

Geologic Background. Loihi seamount, the youngest volcano of the Hawaiian chain, lies about 35 km off the SE coast of the island of Hawaii. Loihi (which is the Hawaiian word for "long") has an elongated morphology dominated by two curving rift zones extending north and south of the summit. The summit region contains a caldera about 3 x 4 km wide and is dotted with numerous lava cones, the highest of which is about 975 m below the sea surface. The summit platform includes two well-defined pit craters, sediment-free glassy lava, and low-temperature hydrothermal venting. An arcuate chain of small cones on the western edge of the summit extends north and south of the pit craters and merges into the crests prominent rift zones. Deep and shallow seismicity indicate a magmatic plumbing system distinct from that of Kilauea. During 1996 a new pit crater was formed at the summit, and lava flows were erupted. Continued volcanism is expected to eventually build a new island; time estimates for the summit to reach the sea surface range from roughly 10,000 to 100,000 years.

Information Contacts: P. Okubo and R. Koyanagi, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.


Long Valley (United States) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Long Valley

United States

37.7°N, 118.87°W; summit elev. 3390 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued earthquake swarm in caldera's S moat

Earthquake swarm activity in the caldera's S moat continued through March. A swarm of >300 events of magnitude greater than or equal to 2.8 occurred 3 March, followed by smaller swarms on 9, 18, 28, and 30 March. The swarm on the 30th included more than 100 events, all of which were smaller than M 2. Only a few isolated events occurred beneath Mammoth Mountain. Two-color geodimeter measurements indicate that extension across the S moat and resurgent dome continued through March at the 5 ppm/year rate that began in late September.

Geologic Background. The large 17 x 32 km Long Valley caldera east of the central Sierra Nevada Range formed as a result of the voluminous Bishop Tuff eruption about 760,000 years ago. Resurgent doming in the central part of the caldera occurred shortly afterwards, followed by rhyolitic eruptions from the caldera moat and the eruption of rhyodacite from outer ring fracture vents, ending about 50,000 years ago. During early resurgent doming the caldera was filled with a large lake that left strandlines on the caldera walls and the resurgent dome island; the lake eventually drained through the Owens River Gorge. The caldera remains thermally active, with many hot springs and fumaroles, and has had significant deformation, seismicity, and other unrest in recent years. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene Inyo Craters cut the NW topographic rim of the caldera, and along with Mammoth Mountain on the SW topographic rim, are west of the structural caldera and are chemically and tectonically distinct from the Long Valley magmatic system.

Information Contacts: D. Hill, USGS Menlo Park.


Lonquimay (Chile) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Lonquimay

Chile

38.379°S, 71.586°W; summit elev. 2832 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption ends after 13 months; continued fumarolic activity and small-scale collapse

The following is a report from José A. Naranjo and Hugo Moreno R. Most field observations were made in collaboration with R.S.J. Sparks and Mark Stasiuk, Bristol Univ, and Clive Oppenheimer, Open Univ.

"Field evidence suggests that the eruption from Navidad Cone ended between 22 and 25 January 1990, after 13 months of activity. Explosions with pyroclastic ejections stopped between 29 December and 10 January. José Córdoba, a teacher from Malalcahuello, observed and photographed one of the last explosions, on 27 December at 1930-2000. Strong explosions ejected bombs, and white clouds consisting mainly of water vapor rose as much as 600 m above the crater. He also observed two small landslides that originated from the cone's flank (above the vent), followed by white steam clouds that rose along the scar left on the N flank (see below). These collapses may represent the early stages of the slumping observed on 20 January.

"Chlorine gases and minor water vapor fumaroles remained along concentric fractures within the main crater 3-17 March. Compared with previous observations on 21 November and 20 January, the innermost annular fractures exhibited clear evidence of collapse, leaving scarps 1.5-2 m high (figure 16). Fumes from the outermost fractures near the crater rim yielded temperatures of 86°C.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. View N across the crater of Navidad scoria cone, Lonquimay volcano, from the highest (S) part of the rim. 21 November 1989 (top): Concentric fractures had formed on the W side of the innermost nested crater; intense water vapor fumaroles aligned with them, and a strong steam jet was emitted from a glowing vent on the inner wall. 20 January 1990 (middle): Vapor emission had ceased and collapse had occurred along the eastern inner wall, the southern fractures, and around the N wall-vent. A funnel-shaped crater about 120 m in diameter had clearly widened by collapse since November. 5 March 1990 (bottom): Only dry gases were emitted along the annular fractures, while no fumes were visible at the main crater vents. Fractures had widened on the S part of the cone, and collapse scars appeared on the E part. Sketched from photographs by J.A. Naranjo.

"By March, the source vent was completely covered by talus from the unstable flank material above it. Discontinuous slumping of this debris left a funnel-shaped scar about 90 m high and 30 m deep, with walls that project upward through the crater's inner concentric fractures. The channel was enlarged by successive collapses that were up to 30 m deep and 25 m wide near the vent.

"The lava surface remained almost completely covered by a 1-3-m-thick mantle of debris transported on it. Former arched transverse debris ridges were disturbed and a gash of fresher lava was formed along the debris mantle's front axis. The top parts of most ridges showed higher temperatures (up to 390°C at 30 cm depth) than the almost cool gullies between them. After 20 January, the debris-covered lava advanced 120 m before it stopped flowing. This smooth surface texture conspicuously contrasted with the spiny, jagged surface presented by the blocky/aa lava immediately downstream.

"The fumaroles aligned with the central vent and the flow to the ENE showed decreased activity when compared to April 1989, although their temperatures remained at 190° and 250-300°C, 600 and 300 m from Navidad Cone respectively.

"On 17 March, a 948°C thermocouple measurement was obtained ~7 m below the lava surface, 1.5-2 km downstream from the source vent. The main lobe in the Lolco River valley had not advanced since 20 November 1989, although it showed a front thickness that had increased slightly, from 45-50 m in November to 55-60 m in March."

Geologic Background. Lonquimay is a small, flat-topped, symmetrical stratovolcano of late-Pleistocene to dominantly Holocene age immediately SE of Tolguaca volcano. A glacier fills its summit crater and flows down the S flank. It is dominantly andesitic, but basalt and dacite are also found. The prominent NE-SW Cordón Fissural Oriental fissure zone cuts across the entire volcano. A series of NE-flank vents and scoria cones were built along an E-W fissure, some of which have been the source of voluminous lava flows, including those during 1887-90 and 1988-90, that extended out to 10 km.

Information Contacts: J. Naranjo, SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago; H. Moreno, Univ de Chile.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vapor emission; seismicity remains low

"Activity remained at a low level in March. The summit was obscured for long periods (4-9 and 11-23 March), but when weather cleared, emissions of white vapour in weak to moderate amounts were observed from both craters. Seismicity remained low, with daily totals of volcanic earthquakes ranging from 900 to 1,200. No significant changes were noted in seismic amplitudes and ground deformation."

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These valleys channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most observed eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, P. de Saint-Ours, and C. McKee, RVO.


Moutohora Island (New Zealand) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Moutohora Island

New Zealand

37.855°S, 176.974°E; summit elev. 352 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


CO2-rich gases from thermal area

The following observations, made by scientists from the USSR and New Zealand during a cruise of the RV Vulkanolog, were reported by W.F. Giggenbach and I. Menyailov.

"...Thermal activity manifests itself largely in areas of hydrothermally altered, steaming ground. The major thermal feature is a vigorously boiling pool near sea level in Sulphur Bay (Ramsay and Hayward, 1971). As indicated by the occurrence of bubble zones (Glasby, 1971), submarine thermal activity extends well SW of the island.

"During both the 1988 and 1990 cruises of the RV Vulkanolog, gas and water samples were collected from the main pool. The waters are essentially acid sulfate (4,000 mg/kg; Cl, 20 mg/kg), steam-heated, initially non-saline groundwater. Compositions of 1988 gases are compared in table 1 with those of 1974 samples from Sulphur Bay spring and the seafloor at 34 m depth (Lyon and others, 1977).

Table 1. Chemical composition of gases collected from vents on and near Whale Island (in mmol/mol of dry gas), March 1974 (Lyon and others, 1977) and during the September 1988 cruise of the RV Vulkanolog.

Vent Seafloor (34 m depth) Island (pool)
Date 10 Sep 1974 10 Sep 1974 10 Sep 1974 10 Mar 1988 10 Mar 1988
C 15 15 99 99 99
CO2 734 680 967 935 937
H2S -- -- -- 12.5 12.2
He -- -- -- 0.0028 0.0010
Ne -- -- -- 0.00004 0.00006
Ar 1.2 0.8 0.07 0.04 0.03
H2 0.1 0.3 3.2 11.2 9.7
O2 14.1 7.5 <0.01 <0.03 <0.03
N2 131 119 11 13 11
CH4 120 193 18 28 30

"All gases reflect a hydrothermal origin, and their major component is CO2. The seafloor gases are contaminated with air, probably after sampling. Their higher CH4 and lower H2 contents suggest longer residence at lower temperatures compared to the island samples. The composition of the latter has remained essentially unchanged over the last 14 years."

References. Glasby, G.P., 1971, Direct observation of columnar scattering associated with geothermal gas bubbling in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand: New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 5, p. 483-496.

Lyon, G.L., Giggenbach, W.F., Singleton, R.J., and Glasby, G.P., 1977, Isotopic and Chemical composition of submarine geothermal gases from the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand: New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin, v. 218, p. 65-67.

Ramsay, W.R.H., and Hayward, B.W., 1971, Geology of Whale Island: Tane, v. 17, p. 9-32.

Geologic Background. Moutohora (Whale) Island forms the summit of a largely submerged Pleistocene dacitic-andesitic complex volcano that lies 11 km offshore from Whakatane in the Bay of Plenty. The 2.5-km-long island includes a central dome complex flanked, by East Dome and Pa Hill lava dome, which forms the NW tip of the island. Acid hot springs, steaming ground, and fumaroles are present on the island. The central cone and east dome are both older than the roughly 42,000 before present (BP) Rotoehu Tephra, and Pa Hill dome is overlain by the 9,000 years BP Rotoma Ash, but may be considerably older. It was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Nairn and Cole, 1975) based on its thermal activity.

Information Contacts: I. Menyailov and A. Ivanenko, IV, Petropavlovsk; W. Giggenbach, DSIR Chemistry, Petone.


Olca-Paruma (Chile-Bolivia) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Olca-Paruma

Chile-Bolivia

20.939°S, 68.413°W; summit elev. 5705 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarolic activity and minor seismicity

Fumarolic activity, accompanied by low-intensity seismicity, was described by policemen from Ujina, 15 km SW of Olca, on 13 November 1989. Minor seismicity associated with Olca was noted in mid-March 1990 by state oil company (ENAP) geologist Patricio Sepulveda.

Geologic Background. A 15-km-long E-W ridge forming the border between Chile and Bolivia is comprised of several stratovolcanoes with Holocene lava flows. Andesitic-dacitic lava flows extend as far as 5 km N from the active crater of Volcán Olca and to the north and west from vents farther to the west. Olca is flanked on the west by Cerro Michincha and on the east by Volcán Paruma, which is immediately west of the higher pre-Holocene Cerro Paruma volcano. Volcán Paruma has been the source of conspicuous fresh lava flows, one of which extends 7 km SE, and has displayed persistent fumarolic activity. The only reported historical activity from the complex was a flank eruption of unspecified character between 1865 and 1867, which SERNAGEOMIN notes is based on unconfirmed records.

Information Contacts: J. Naranjo, SERNAGEOMIN.


Pacaya (Guatemala) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Pacaya

Guatemala

14.382°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2569 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued weak Strombolian explosions; low SO2 flux

Volcanologists from INSIVUMEH and Michigan Tech visited Pacaya on 13, 14, 17, 18, and 28 February and 1, 2, 3, and 4 March, and flew over the volcano on 16 February. The following is from their report.

"Activity at Pacaya continued at a low level, consisting of brief (10-60 second), weak (ejecta typically thrown 2-100 m), Strombolian explosions with reposes of <1 to several minutes. All activity was from a small cone, 6 m high and 8 m wide at its rim, within MacKenney crater. The explosions were accompanied by gas emission (with jet-like noise) and often by fine ash clouds.

"On 17 February, during activity that was typical of the observation period, 78 COSPEC scans were made from a ground observation site 1.25 km from MacKenney crater (at Cerro Chino). Pacaya was emitting SO2 at an average rate of 30 t/d, with the measured range varying between 3 and 130 t/d. Higher fluxes were directly associated with observed small explosions. The new SO2 observations at Pacaya were much lower than values measured several times from 1972 until 1980 (Stoiber et al., 1983; reference under Santiaguito), which were generally between 250 and 1,500 t/d."

Geologic Background. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. This complex basaltic volcano was constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.

Information Contacts: Otoniel Matias and Rodolfo Morales, Sección de Volcanología, INSIVUMEH; W.I. Rose, Jimmy Diehl, Robert Andres, Michael Conway, and Gordon Keating, Michigan Technological Univ.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismicity remains relatively low; minor deflation

"Activity remained at a low level in March. A total of 265 caldera earthquakes was recorded. Daily earthquake totals ranged from 0 to 24, with the highest daily total recorded in a small Greet Harbour swarm on 18 March that included two felt events (ML 2.8 and 2.6). During the month, seismicity was broadly distributed within the caldera seismic zone. Levelling measurements on 26 March indicated deflation of 2 mm at the S tip of Matupit Island since previous measurements on 20 February."

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, P. de Saint-Ours, and C. McKee, RVO.


Raoul Island (New Zealand) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Raoul Island

New Zealand

29.27°S, 177.92°W; summit elev. 516 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Increased microseismicity but no changes in thermal activity

The following observations, made by scientists from the USSR and New Zealand during a cruise of the RV Vulkanolog, were reported by W.F. Giggenbach and I. Menyailov. The island was visited on 30 January 1990.

"A considerable increase in microseismic activity to ~180 events/day, starting at the beginning of January 1990, was recorded by the Raoul Island seismic station. A similar swarm of minor shocks (Adams and Dibble, 1967) and an increase in hydrothermal activity (Healy et al., 1965) preceded the 1964 eruption. There were, however, no significant changes in the appearance and emission rate of thermal fluids from the main area of geothermal discharge along the W shore of Green Lake since the last visit of RV Vulkanolog in March 1988. Water and steam samples were collected in 1988 and 1990. The compositions of the 1988 samples are compared in table 1 with those reported by Weissberg and Sarbutt (1966) for samples collected shortly after the 1964 eruption. Gas compositions point to an essentially hydrothermal origin with insignificant contributions from high-temperature magmatic gases. Heavy seas prevented landing on Curtis Island, the other island in the Kermadecs showing thermal activity."

Table 1. Chemical composition (in mmol/mol of dry gas) of steam samples collected from the main fumarolic vents on Raoul Island in December 1964 (shortly after the 1964 eruption; Weissberg and Sarbutt, 1966) and during the March 1988 cruise of the RV Vulkanolog.

Dry Gas (mmol/mol) 08 Dec 1964 10 Mar 1988
  Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 1 Sample 2
C 100 83 96 96
CO2 855 912 984 969
H2S 12.2 -- 0.9 0.9
He -- -- 0.005 --
Ne -- -- 0.00008 --
Ar -- -- 0.07 0.28
H2 -- 0.7 0.3 0.2
O2 19.2 7.3 <0.1 5.0
N2 113 78 14 25
CH4 0.50 1.70 0.11 0.07

References. Adams, R.D., and Dibble, R.R., 1967, Seismological studies of the Raoul Island eruption, 1964: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 10, p. 1,348-1,361.

Weissberg, B.G., and Sarbutt, J., 1966, Chemistry of the hydrothermal waters of the volcanic eruption on Raoul Island, November 1964: New Zealand Journal of Science; v. 9, p. 426-432.

Geologic Background. Anvil-shaped Raoul Island is the largest and northernmost of the Kermadec Islands. During the past several thousand years volcanism has been dominated by dacitic explosive eruptions. Two Holocene calderas exist, the older of which cuts the center the island and is about 2.5 x 3.5 km wide. Denham caldera, formed during a major dacitic explosive eruption about 2200 years ago, truncated the W side of the island and is 6.5 x 4 km wide. Its long axis is parallel to the tectonic fabric of the Havre Trough that lies W of the volcanic arc. Historical eruptions during the 19th and 20th centuries have sometimes occurred simultaneously from both calderas, and have consisted of small-to-moderate phreatic eruptions, some of which formed ephemeral islands in Denham caldera. An unnamed submarine cone, one of several located along a fissure on the lower NNE flank, has also erupted during historical time, and satellitic vents are concentrated along two parallel NNE-trending lineaments.

Information Contacts: I. Nairn, P. Otway, B. Scott, and C. Wood, NZGS Rotorua; W. Giggenbach, DSIR Chemistry, Petone.


Redoubt (United States) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Redoubt

United States

60.485°N, 152.742°W; summit elev. 3108 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Moderate explosions and dome extrusion; rootless phreatic explosion as eruptions interact with glaciers

Quoted material is from the AVO staff. Information about the 4, 9, and 14 March explosive episodes supplements the initial reports in 15:02.

"Lava dome growth disrupted by moderate explosions and gravitational collapse continued. Since 15 February, explosive episodes have occurred at average intervals of 3-9 days (table 1). Explosive episodes were associated with pyroclastic flows and surges that triggered floods and lahars in the Drift River valley, which drains the volcano's N flank (figure 8). Seismicity remained centered on Redoubt from the surface to a depth of about 10 km, but earthquakes of M >= 2.0 have not occurred since 9 March. The summit seismometer that was damaged during the 15 February event was removed in March and three new seismometers were placed on the volcano's summit and flanks. COSPEC measurements began on 20 March; data are collected as weather permits. SO2 emission rates have ranged from 1,600 to 6,000 t/d."

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Sketch map of the Drift River valley and related drainages on the NE flank of Redoubt. The Drift River oil facility is between the mouth of the Drift River and Rust Slough. Courtesy of AVO.

Since early January, deposition in the Drift River's main channel has diverted significant amounts of flood water and debris into Rust Slough, S of the Drift River oil facility. An L-shaped 4-m-high levee upstream from the oil facility was designed to protect it from Drift River floods, but neither levees nor topography protect its S side. Beginning on 4 March, deposition in Rust Slough has diverted floodwater farther southward into Cannery Creek, just upstream of the Drift River facility. None of the subsequent floods associated with March-mid April explosive episodes have affected the oil facility.

Explosive episode, 4 March. "An explosive event that occurred at 2039 was recorded for 8 minutes at the Spurr station (a regional seismometer about 100 km NNE of Redoubt that has been operating since the onset of the eruption). By 2110, an ash plume was reported to an altitude of 12 km; the plume moved N20°E and ashfall occurred 225 km away. Moderate flooding occurred in the Drift River. A new diversion upstream of the Drift River oil facility caused much of the flow to be diverted S of the facility (from Rust Slough into Cannery Creek).

Explosive episode, 9 March. "An explosive event occurred at 0951 and was recorded for 10 minutes at the Spurr station. Tephra fell primarily W of the volcano; Port Alsworth, 95 km SW of the volcano, received a light dusting from the southern margin of the plume. Floodwater reached the Drift River oil facility about 2 3/4 hours after the onset of the event.

Explosive episode, 14 March. "Explosive activity that began at 0947 was recorded for 14 minutes at the Spurr station. Tephra fell E of the volcano; the Drift River oil facility reported heavy ashfall from 1057 to 1247. Oil facility crews were evacuated because of the heavy ashfall. Traces of ash were reported on the Kenai Peninsula and in the Anchorage area." Satellite images (figure 9) showed the plume moving ENE. The temperature at the top of the dense portion of the plume was -40°C at 1030, corresponding to an altitude of about 7 km. Winds were relatively light, and by 1230, the plume extended less than 150 km N and about 100 km E of the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Image from the NOAA 10 polar orbiting satellite, 14 March at 1054, about an hour after the onset of the eruptive episode. An elongate plume extends ENE of Redoubt. Courtesy of G. Stephens.

"Moderate flooding occurred in the lower Drift River valley. Peak flow velocity was about 6 m/sec. The flood reached the oil facility about 2 1/4 hours after the onset of the explosive episode. The flood carried numerous ice blocks and hot angular dome rocks 16 km from the glacier, where peak discharge was estimated at 1200 m3/sec.

"On 15 March, after a vigorous 2.5-minute seismic event was recorded at all seismic stations, an AVO field crew was warned about a possible explosion. They reported no changes in steam plume activity and did not hear any noises. However, 20 minutes later, they noted an approximate doubling of the Drift River's discharge 4 km downstream from the glacier. The increased discharge was accompanied by large quantities of cobble-sized ice.

"A small dome in the summit area was observed by field crews on 16, 18, 20, and 21 March. The dome appeared to be growing slowly between observations.

Explosive episode, 23 March. "Seismicity indicating the onset of explosive activity began at 0404 and was recorded for 8 minutes at the Spurr station. Seismic activity at the summit stations had increased around 0000 on 22 March and had stayed at elevated levels for most of the day. Seismic activity then decreased several hours before the 23 March explosive episode. A plume was reported to 10.5 km but appeared to be mostly steam. Light ashfall was observed W of the mountain, but ash did not fall on any community. Discharge increased in the Drift River."

An image from the NOAA 11 polar orbiting satellite at 0430 (figure 10), 26 minutes after the onset of the explosive episode, showed a plume extending WNW from the volcano. The top of the dense portion of the plume had a temperature of -39°C, yielding an altitude estimate of slightly less than 9 km based on the radiosonde temperature/altitude profile over Anchorage 1.5 hours earlier. The plume continued to move rapidly WNW, and by 1430, 10.5 hours after the explosion, its center was about 850 km from the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Image from the NOAA 11 polar orbiting satellite, 23 March at 0430, about 30 minutes after the start of the eruptive episode. The nearly circular plume is just WNW of Redoubt. Courtesy of G. Stephens.

"Pyroclastic flow deposits covered the lower Canyon (below 825 m) and the upper piedmont area (above 500 m) of the Drift glacier. The deposits were generally hot, dry, and friable; where they rested on snow, the basal part of thick deposits, and those less than 50 cm thick, were wet and warm to the touch. Pyroclastic deposits were still hot (325°C) when measured on 26 March.

"Views into the crater on 23 March were largely obscured by steam but much of the dome appeared missing from the summit area. Poor weather obscured observations of the summit area from 26 March until 6 April.

Explosive episode, 29 March. "Seismic activity indicated that an explosive event began at 1033 and was recorded for 7 minutes at the Spurr station. An increase in discharge of the Drift River was reported, reaching the oil facility by 1307. Pilots reported a plume, consisting chiefly of steam, to 15 km. Tephra fallout appears to have been similar to that of 4 March; light ashfall was reported to 225 km N-NE of the volcano.

"Poor weather prevented ground observations or views of the glacier. Deposits from a debris flow or hyperconcentrated flow were observed in the upper valley and flooding appeared similar to 23 March. No hot debris or ice blocks were observed in the upper valley.

Explosive episode, 6 April. "Seismicity increased throughout the morning of 6 April. An explosive event began at 1723 and was recorded for 7-8 minutes at the Spurr station. Seismicity declined after the explosive event. An ash plume was reported to 9 km; wind shear caused the lower part of the plume to drift NW and the upper part to drift E. The ash plume reached the W coast of the Kenai Peninsula by 1808, but only light ashfall was reported in Kenai during the evening.

"Pyroclastic flow deposits overlay the glacier down to about the 610 m level. A debris flow of dome-rock material and ice boulders flowed onto the Drift River valley, and peak flow velocity was estimated at 22 m/s. Peak discharge attenuated quickly downvalley.

Dome growth and hydrologic events 7-13 April. "A dome was first observed in the summit area on 7 April. This dome appeared to be larger when observed on 10 and 13 April and was greatly oversteepened on the N face.

"On 7 April, discharge near the E canyon mouth of the Drift River glacier fluctuated by 30-50% several times during a 1/2-hour observation period. A flood of ice blocks up to 1 m across caused a 4-fold discharge increase in one of the large glacier canyons. Repeated increases in discharge were noted over a 15-minute observation period. An iceslide blocked the entire width of the canyon bottom upstream of the increased discharge area. Episodic release through a tunnel at the base of the ice jam may explain the surges observed at the canyon mouth.

"On 10 April a rootless phreatic eruption was noted on the Drift Glacier at the 890 m level, causing a vigorous ash and steam plume to rise 1,000 m. A series of explosions migrated N and S of this area along a glacier bed stream, producing an elongate crater perhaps 300 m long. Numerous small pyroclastic flows emanated from the explosion area and formed a small pyroclastic flow fan that dammed the main water flow from the dome area for about an hour. Failure of the dam caused a flood with an estimated discharge of 10 m3/s.

Explosive event, 15 April. "A moderate explosive event occurred at 1440 and lasted about 8 minutes at the Spurr station. The ash plume reached elevations between 9 and 12 km and the plume moved N-NW. There were no clearly identifiable seismic precursors. Seismic activity before and after the event appeared unchanged." [See also 15:04].

Geologic Background. Redoubt is a glacier-covered stratovolcano with a breached summit crater in Lake Clark National Park about 170 km SW of Anchorage. Next to Mount Spurr, Redoubt has been the most active Holocene volcano in the upper Cook Inlet. The volcano was constructed beginning about 890,000 years ago over Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. Collapse of the summit 13,000-10,500 years ago produced a major debris avalanche that reached Cook Inlet. Holocene activity has included the emplacement of a large debris avalanche and clay-rich lahars that dammed Lake Crescent on the south side and reached Cook Inlet about 3,500 years ago. Eruptions during the past few centuries have affected only the Drift River drainage on the north. Historical eruptions have originated from a vent at the north end of the 1.8-km-wide breached summit crater. The 1989-90 eruption had severe economic impact on the Cook Inlet region and affected air traffic far beyond the volcano.

Information Contacts: AVO Staff; SAB.


Ruapehu (New Zealand) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Ruapehu

New Zealand

39.28°S, 175.57°E; summit elev. 2797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Phreatic explosions stop; increased tremor

Phreatic eruptions had apparently stopped by 1 February. A possible eruption cloud was reported on 19 March, but a field inspection that day revealed only steam rising from the lake surface. There was no evidence of recent surging associated with small eruptions. Crater Lake was battleship gray with yellow and gray sulfur slicks. No convection was observed over the main vent, and only faint upwelling could be detected over the N vents. The lake temperature had cooled to 34.1°C from 46.5°C on 6 February. A sizeable lake had formed in an area of ice collapse in the valley draining Crater Lake to the S. Since 1 February, the lake had grown from ~60 ± 15 m to 100 ± 30 m. Sudden release of the lake could cause flooding in the Whangaehu River.

Volcanic tremor gradually declined in February, nearing background levels by 8 March. Continuous tremor with fairly uniform amplitude changed to bursts of tremor alternating with periods of quiet, similar to small volcanic earthquakes. On 8 March, tremor increased to high levels and broadened its frequency range, with 1 and 1.5 Hz tremor in addition to the usual 2 Hz signal. Tremor remained strong for 2-3 days before declining to more moderate amplitude. During the period of strongest activity, 6-hour energy release reached 400-1,400 x 104 joules, exceeding levels that accompanied the January 1982 eruptions, but less than in September 1982, when there were no eruptions and declining lake temperature. Tremor increased again on 16 March, almost to the level of 8 March, but by the 22nd had decreased to moderate-strong amplitude. EDM measurements on four lines across the N portion of the crater detected only small (<7mm) changes since the 1 February survey.

Geologic Background. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least four cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The dominantly andesitic 110 km3 volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and surrounded by another 100 km3 ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake (Te Wai a-moe), is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3,000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

Information Contacts: P. Otway, DSIR Wairakei.


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor ash emission; seismicity remains low

The number of earthquakes and seismic energy release remained low in March. Located events were centered W and SW of the crater. The strongest recorded earthquake (M 2.1) occurred 21 March. Only a few short pulses of low-energy tremor were recorded, except for a high-energy episode on 12 March at 2301, associated with a small ash emission. Five COSPEC measurements yielded an average SO2 flux of 1,540 t/d, similar to the previous month. Deformation measurements showed no significant changes.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: C. Carvajal, INGEOMINAS, Manizales.


Rumble III (New Zealand) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Rumble III

New Zealand

35.745°S, 178.478°E; summit elev. -220 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Submarine summit bathymetry; bubble plumes in water column

The following observations, made by scientists from the USSR and New Zealand during a cruise of the RV Vulkanolog, were reported by W.F. Giggenbach and I. Menyailov.

"Considerable uncertainty remains about the minimum depth to the summit of Rumble III seamount. Early bathymetric measurements place it at 117 m depth (Kibblewhite and Denham, 1967), while later data and surveys by the RV Vulkanolog in March 1988 suggest a depth of 200 m. A special effort was therefore made to locate its highest point and to determine its depth.

"From echograms, it appears that the uncertainty may largely be due to the production of gas-rich, probably volcanic fluids from the summit area (Kibblewhite, 1966). Close inspection of the echograms shows that reflections above 200 m are probably caused by a plume of expanding bubbles, as they are invariably Separated from the solid reflector (the true summit) by a non-reflecting zone. There, the bubbles are either too small or the prevailing pressures keep the gases in solution.

"In contrast to March 1988, when echograms suggested that some of the bubble swarms reached the surface and gas bubbles were observed from the RV Vulkanolog, in January 1990 the plumes terminated at 150-120 m depth and no bubbles were observed at the surface. The disappearance of bubbles at depths <120 m is likely to be due to re-dissolution of soluble, probably volcanic gases (CO2 and SO2). The decrease in extent of the bubble zones may reflect a decrease in the production rate of thermal fluids and, therefore, of volcanic activity. There were no obvious signs of volcanic activity in either March 1988 or January 1990.

"Several large samples of ferro-magnesian, basaltic pillow lavas were dredged from the slopes of the seamount at depths of 400-1,200 m."

References. Kibblewhite, A.C., 1966, The acoustic detection and location of an underwater volcano: New Zealand Journal of Science, v. 9, p. 178-199.

Kibblewhite, A.C. and Denham, R.N., 1967, The Bathymetry and total magnetic field of the south Kermadec Ridge seamounts: New Zealand Journal of Science, v. 10, p. 52-69.

Geologic Background. The Rumble III seamount, the largest of the Rumbles group of submarine volcanoes along the South Kermadec Ridge, rises 2300 m from the sea floor to within about 200 m of the sea surface. Collapse of the edifice produced a horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the west and a large debris-avalanche deposit. Fresh-looking andesitic rocks have been dredged from the summit and basaltic lava from its flanks. Rumble III has been the source of several submarine eruptions detected by hydrophone signals.

Information Contacts: I. Menyailov and A. Ivanenko, IV, Petropavlovsk; W. Giggenbach, DSIR Chemistry, Petone.


Santa Maria (Guatemala) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Santa Maria

Guatemala

14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Viscous lava extrusion continues; rapid erosion of N flank

Santiaguito was visited by volcanologists from INSIVUMEH, Michigan Tech, and Arizona State 20-26 February. The following is from their report.

"Eruptive activity was still focused on Caliente vent, capped by a cone-shaped exogenous domal mass of lava that feeds a viscous flow directed toward the SSW. The flow extended about 500 m, dropping about 250 m in elevation below the top of the vent (about 2,500 m above sea level) and terminating on a talus slope at the angle of repose. Rockfalls were frequent, resulting in ash clouds. The frequency of vertical ash eruptions from Caliente vent was only a few/day. The rate of SO2 emission was measured on 22 February at 48 ± 15 t/d, with a range of 21-76 t/d (24 determinations). This emission rate was slightly less than the average of about 100 t/d (range 40-1,600 t/d) determined in July 1976, when there were many more vertical ash eruptions that had higher values, but was identical to the emission rates measured then between eruptions (Stoiber and others, 1983; especially Table 29.4).

"Figure 12 shows the pattern of Santiaguito's activity from June 1988 until 10 January 1990, five weeks before the dates of the most recent field surveys, as revealed from interpretation of telemetered seismic data by INSIVUMEH. The data demonstrate a good correlation between the frequency of avalanche events and vertical explosions. They also demonstrate that the February field observation dates represented a time of very few vertical explosions compared to the past year's record.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Mean daily number of explosions (crosses) and avalanches (squares) during 2-week periods at Santiaguito, as interpreted from telemetered data by INSIVUMEH, June 1988-January 1990. The 19 June 1989 eruption is marked by an arrow.

"Significant changes have occurred on the N side of Santiaguito since July 1989 (figure 13). The El Monje dome, mostly extruded between 1947 and 1952, had developed a talus slope on its N side that was stabilized and had developed a strong moss coating that prevented rockfalls. This slope allowed access to the summit of Santiaguito throughout a long period (1964-88) and also to the 1902 crater of Santa María. Deep barrancas (canyons) have formed on the N side of the El Monje dome, cutting steep barriers into the talus slopes. These have coalesced at the edge of the talus slope, forming a large barranca between Santiaguito and Santa María that feeds an enormous amount of material into the (Isla) area farther W, and caused another deep barranca to form at the end of the Loma trail. The barrancas on the El Monje dome have deepened and migrated headward until they intersect the top of the dome. They could reflect fracturing of the El Monje dome, perhaps the weakest of three dome units that buttress the N side of the Caliente Vent. If viewed in this way the new barrancas could forecast the site of new dome extrusion from a lateral vent. The increased sediment load from this barranca system is likely to affect the Río Concepción and the Río Tambor to the south when the next rainy season arrives in April or May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Simplified geologic map of Santiaguito Dome, 1922-February 1990. Streams near Santiaguito are approximately located. Unit dates, such as Rc (1922-90), represent periods of discontinuous activity at each vent. Patterned areas represent very recent activity: Rl - area of active laharic and stream deposition, and very high aggradation rates; Rd - area of recently initiated extensive mass wasting indicating inflation of the El Monje vent area and potential reactivation of the vent; Rc (v pattern) - active block lava flows on Caliente's summit, with very common (hourly) collapse of the broad toe resulting in hot rock avalanches; Rc (dotted pattern) - extent of the 1986-88 block lava flow from Caliente.

"Fieldwork was also directed at examination of the areas affected by the 19 July 1989 eruption (figure 14). The outline of a distinct blast zone, marked by tree blowdown, was mapped. A collapse scarp facing the blast zone was observed. This shows conclusively that partial domal collapse accompanied the 19 July 1989 eruption (14:07)."

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Map of Santiaguito and vicinity, showing the zones affected by the 1929, 1973, and 1989 pyroclastic flows. The 1989 and April 1973 deposits have similar areas but different sources. Modified from Rose, 1987.

Reference. Stoiber, R.E., Malinconico, L.L. Jr., and Williams, S.N., 1983, Use of the correlation spectrometer at volcanoes, in Tazieff, H. and Sabroux, J.C., eds., Forecasting Volcanic Events; Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 425-444.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank, and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four vents, with activity progressing W towards the most recent, Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

Information Contacts: O. Matías and R. Morales, INSIVUMEH; W.I. Rose, J. Diehl, R. Andres, F.M. Conway, and G. Keating, Michigan Technological Univ; J. Fink and S. Anderson, Arizona State Univ.


Sheveluch (Russia) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


100-m explosion vent in center of lava dome; minor fumarolic activity

During a 2 February overflight, an explosion vent more than 100 m in diameter was observed in the center of the [extrusive] hornblende andesite lava dome (figure 1). Minor fumarolic activity was occurring.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Crater and lava dome at Shiveluch, looking roughly N on 2 February 1990, showing explosion vents. Courtesy of B.V. Ivanov.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IV.


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thick vapor emission; weak seismicity

"Activity remained at a low level in March. Summit crater emissions consisted of thick white vapour. Seismicity was low throughout the month."

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, P. de Saint-Ours, and C. McKee, RVO.


Vulcano (Italy) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Vulcano

Italy

38.404°N, 14.962°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


High-temperature fumaroles; gas chemistry; small seismic swarms

Fumarolic activity at Vulcano remained at a very high level in 1989. The temperature of a fumarole (F5) on the crater rim (figure 6) has remained stable at 310 ± 5°C; more than 90 samples have been collected since July 1987. In contrast, a fumarole (FF) inside the crater showed very high temperatures, reaching a maximum of 550°C in August-September 1989, 100° hotter than in 1988. February 1990 temperatures were 515° and 312° at FF and F5 respectively.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Map of Vulcano, showing locations of F5 and FF fumaroles.

Major chemical species (H2O, CO2, H2S, and SO2) showed large variations in concentration (figure 7). 3He/4He ratios were very high for all crater fumaroles (~60% mantle-derived He), remaining stable during 1989 at ~ 7.5-8.0 x 10-6. The 13C/12C ratio followed a similar trend to that of CO2, with very wide oscillations from about d13C 0.00 to -2.20+. Geologists noted that the chemical and isotopic trends suggest mixing of different sources.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Variations in concentrations of H2O (top), CO2, (center) and SO2 and H2S (bottom) at Vulcano's fumarole F5, 1987-90. Courtesy of OV.

Seismic activity was monitored by a permanent network installed by IIV, and a digital mobile seismic network operated by OV since 1987. Seismicity was at a low level and characterized by low-energy earthquakes occurring in swarm sequences. On the basis of their wave shapes and spectral characteristics, the earthquakes were divided into "Volcano-tectonic" and "Volcanic" events (figure 8) using the classification of Latter (1981). Volcano-tectonic earthquakes outside the Fossa cone and around the island showed clear P and S phases, high frequency contents, and represented the most energetic events (M < 1.6). Volcanic-type events showed very regular wave trains that were sometimes sharply monochromatic, and were characterized by low dominant frequencies and an absence of clearly identifiable phases. Their energy reached 1011-1012 ergs and their magnitudes were negative. Particle motion analysis revealed the presence of Rayleigh and Rayleigh-like waves with a prograde rotation; the arrivals of these two phases followed one another during such earthquakes. Geologists interpreted these events, centered in the Fossa crater, as being related to fumarolic gas flow at shallow depth.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Seismograms showing events classified as "Volcano-tectonic" (top) and "Volcanic" (bottom) at Vulcano.

Reference. Latter, J.H., 1981, Volcanic earthquakes and their relationship to eruptions at Ruapehu and Ngauruhoe volcanoes: JVGR, v. 9, p. 293-310.

Geologic Background. The word volcano is derived from Vulcano stratovolcano in Italy's Aeolian Islands. Vulcano was constructed during six stages during the past 136,000 years. Two overlapping calderas, the 2.5-km-wide Caldera del Piano on the SE and the 4-km-wide Caldera della Fossa on the NW, were formed at about 100,000 and 24,000-15,000 years ago, respectively, and volcanism has migrated to the north over time. La Fossa cone, active throughout the Holocene and the location of most of the historical eruptions, occupies the 3-km-wide Caldera della Fossa at the NW end of the elongated 3 x 7 km island. The Vulcanello lava platform forms a low, roughly circular peninsula on the northern tip of Vulcano that was formed as an island beginning in 183 BCE and was connected to Vulcano in about 1550 CE. Vulcanello is capped by three pyroclastic cones and was active intermittently until the 16th century. The latest eruption from Vulcano consisted of explosive activity from the Fossa cone from 1898 to 1900.

Information Contacts: D. Tedesco, S. Vulcano, and G. Luongo, OV.


Waesche (Antarctica) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Waesche

Antarctica

77.17°S, 126.88°W; summit elev. 3292 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


No signs of recent activity

January 1990 fieldwork revealed no fumarolic ice towers or other signs of recent activity. A thick (<=4 m) sequence of tephra was found in blue ice at the foot of the volcano, but its vertical attitude suggested eruptions thousands of years ago.

Geologic Background. Mount Waesche is the southernmost of a N-S-trending chain of volcanoes in central Marie Byrd Land. It is located 20 km SW of Pliocene Mount Sidley, Antarctica's highest volcano, and was constructed on the SE rim of the 10-km-wide Chang Peak caldera. Pre-caldera Chang Peak lavas were erupted about 1.6 million years ago (Ma) and the Waesche shield formed about 1.0 Ma. Waesche may have been active during the Holocene and is a possible source of ash layers in the Byrd Station ice core that were deposited during the past 30,000 years. The youngest lavas are too young to date by Potassium-Argon. Satellitic cinder cones, some aligned along radial fissures, are located on the SW flank.

Information Contacts: P. Kyle and W. McIntosh, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; R. Dibble, Victoria Univ.


Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Whakaari/White Island

New Zealand

37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 294 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor ash emission; seismicity and thermal activity decline; deflation

Little eruptive activity has occurred since 29 November fieldwork revealed a new vent and fresh tephra on the main crater floor. Seismic activity has been at low levels, fumarole temperatures have decreased, and deflation on the main crater floor (centered in the Donald Duck area) suggests that heatflow has been redirected from Noisy Nellie fumarole westward to 1978 Crater. R. Fleming reported a small eruption of lithic accessory ejecta from Noisy Nellie in late January 1990, and further collapse of Corporate and Congress Craters.

Geologists from the RV Vulkanolog visited White Island 2-3 March. Only blue "flames" associated with fumarolic discharge were seen over fumaroles E of 1978 Crater (Donald Mound, Blue Duck, and Noisy Nellie) during the night of 2 March. The three most vigorous vents along a small cone on R.F. crater's floor glowed pale red (500-550°C) and a small eruptive episode on 3 March added pebble-sized material to the cone. A shallow green pond that occupied the rest of the crater floor was surrounded by yellow to orange precipitates.

On 6 March geologists found only 4 mm of fine green ash that had fallen since 29 November at a site 35 m E of 1978 Crater. No new ash was found on the 1978 Crater rim or to the SE (S of Donald Mound). Donald Duck emitted white gas/steam clouds, and low-pressure gas emerged from Noisy Nellie. Accessory blocks and smaller ejecta, first seen about a month earlier, extended 30 m SE from Noisy Nellie. Emissions from 1978 Crater obscured R.F. and Corporate craters, but small detonations from R.F. Crater were frequently heard.

Only ~10 small B-type events/day and an average of ~3 A-types/day were recorded in December, with small E-types recorded on the 7th and 21st. About 3-6 B-type events/day plus rare A-types were recorded during January and February, with tremor nearly absent.

A March deformation survey showed strong subsidence of the Donald Mound area following a period of brief uplift measured 29 November. Subsidence since then was centered E of 1978 Crater (between Noisy Nellie and Donald Mound), reaching 30 mm near Donald Duck vent, with a trough extending NW along the line of fumaroles. Noisy Nellie, near the apparent center of the 15+ mm uplift prior to 29 November, lies on the edge of this trough. The recent subsidence of 9 mm/month is similar to the rate observed since mid-1987.

Geologic Background. The uninhabited Whakaari/White Island is the 2 x 2.4 km emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes. The SE side of the crater is open at sea level, with the recent activity centered about 1 km from the shore close to the rear crater wall. Volckner Rocks, sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NW. Descriptions of volcanism since 1826 have included intermittent moderate phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and Strombolian eruptions; activity there also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries caused rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project. Explosive activity in December 2019 took place while tourists were present, resulting in many fatalities. The official government name Whakaari/White Island is a combination of the full Maori name of Te Puia o Whakaari ("The Dramatic Volcano") and White Island (referencing the constant steam plume) given by Captain James Cook in 1769.

Information Contacts: I. Nairn, P. Otway, B. Scott, and C. Wood, NZGS Rotorua; W. Giggenbach, DSIR Chemistry, Petone.


Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Whakaari/White Island

New Zealand

37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 294 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong submarine hydrothermal activity at the Calypso Vents

The following observations, made by scientists from the USSR and New Zealand during a cruise of the RV Vulkanolog, are reported by W.F. Giggenbach and I. Menyailov.

"Calypso Mound is a white anhydrite cone some 6-8 m high, formed at 167 m depth by discharge of thermal waters at the ocean floor. It was discovered in February 1987 using the diving vessel Soucoup carried on the RV Calypso (Sarano and others, 1989). It lies within one of the 'bubble zones' extending in a line from White Island to Whale Island in the Bay of Plenty (Duncan and Pantin, 1969) [around 37.64°S, 177.10°E].

"The echograms indicated strong hydrothermal activity with a number of vents producing bubble curtains. However, an extended visual search under calm conditions from both the RV Vulkanolog and a rubber dinghy detected no bubbles at the surface. A possible explanation is re-dissolution of the gas in seawater. Similar gases, collected from more shallow submarine springs in the Bay of Plenty, S of Whale Island, and from Whale Island itself (see below), consisted predominantly of CO2, which has a comparatively high solubility in water. Re-dissolution is also supported by the distribution of reflections recorded during a slow pass over the area. Most of the individual bubble swarms, now clearly separated, appeared to terminate at ~20 m depth.

"Close inspection of a video recording shows that the fluid discharged from two vents on Calypso Mound is very likely to contain a considerable free vapor phase, indicated by flame-like tongues of free vapor, rapidly quenched on contact with cold seawater. Water leaving the vapor-seawater interaction zone appeared clear and colorless except for schlieren indicating a density difference from seawater.

"The existence of free vapor at 167 m depth and about 18 bars pressure suggests that the temperature of the fluid discharged from Calypso Mound is close to 207°C. The high proportion of vapor, apparently present in the fluid mixture leaving the vents, would indicate high corresponding enthalpies of the fluid feeding Calypso Mound. The temperature of any initial single phase liquid, before flashing and possibly present at greater depth, may therefore be considerably higher. However, Sarano et al. (1989) consider it unlikely that the waters emitted from Calypso Mound were as hot as 160°C. The 'hydrothermal' nature indicated for the Calypso Mound system may also explain the enrichment in typically 'epithermal' elements such as As, Sb, Hg, and Tl, and the absence of a 'volcanic' trace metal signature (Giggenbach and Glasby, 1977) in clays recovered from near the main cone."

References. Duncan, A.R., and Pantin, H.M., 1969, Evidence for submarine geothermal activity in the Bay of Plenty: New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 3, p. 602-606.

Giggenbach, W.F., and Glasby, G.P., 1977, The influence of thermal activity on the trace metal distribution in marine sediments around White Island, New Zealand: New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin, v. 218, p. 121-126.

Sarano, F., Murphy, R.C., Houghton, B.F., and Hedenquist, J.W., 1989, Preliminary observations of submarine geothermal activity in the vicinity of White Island, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, v. 19, p. 449-459.

Geologic Background. The uninhabited Whakaari/White Island is the 2 x 2.4 km emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes. The SE side of the crater is open at sea level, with the recent activity centered about 1 km from the shore close to the rear crater wall. Volckner Rocks, sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NW. Descriptions of volcanism since 1826 have included intermittent moderate phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and Strombolian eruptions; activity there also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries caused rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project. Explosive activity in December 2019 took place while tourists were present, resulting in many fatalities. The official government name Whakaari/White Island is a combination of the full Maori name of Te Puia o Whakaari ("The Dramatic Volcano") and White Island (referencing the constant steam plume) given by Captain James Cook in 1769.

Information Contacts: I. Menyailov and A. Ivanenko, IV, Petropavlovsk; W. Giggenbach, DSIR Chemistry, Petone.


Zhupanovsky (Russia) — March 1990 Citation iconCite this Report

Zhupanovsky

Russia

53.589°N, 159.15°E; summit elev. 2899 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Four vigorous fumaroles

On 2 February, fumarolic activity was noted in two vents inside the active crater and two vents to the W (figure 1).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Active fumarolic vents at Zhupanovsky, looking roughly E on 2 February 1990. Courtesy of B. Ivanov.

Geologic Background. The Zhupanovsky volcanic massif consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes along a WNW-trending ridge. The elongated volcanic complex was constructed within a Pliocene-early Pleistocene caldera whose rim is exposed only on the eastern side. Three of the stratovolcanoes were built during the Pleistocene, the fourth is Holocene in age and was the source of all of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions. An early Holocene stage of frequent moderate and weak eruptions from 7000 to 5000 years before present (BP) was succeeded by a period of infrequent larger eruptions that produced pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption took place about 800-900 years BP. Historical eruptions have consisted of relatively minor explosions from the third cone.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IV.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports