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Chile Volcanoes

  • Volcano photo slideshow

    Maca

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    Parinacota

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    Calbuco

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    Guallatiri

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    Corcovado

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    Planchon-Peteroa

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    Chiliques

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    Llaima

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    Lonquimay

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    Putana

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    Putana

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    Acamarachi

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    Lonquimay

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    Lonquimay

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    Parinacota

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    Copahue

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    Nevado de Longavi

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    Nevado de Longavi

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    Caburgua-Huelemolle

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    Guallatiri

  • Current

Chile has 91 Holocene volcanoes. Note that as a scientific organization we provide these listings for informational purposes only, with no international legal or policy implications. Volcanoes will be included on this list if they are within the boundaries of a country, on a shared boundary or area, in a remote territory, or within a maritime Exclusive Economic Zone. Bolded volcanoes have erupted within the past 20 years. Suggestions and data updates are always welcome ().

Volcano Name Location Last Eruption Primary Volcano Type
Acamarachi Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano
Aguilera Southern Chile 1250 BCE Stratovolcano
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Central Chile 230 BCE Stratovolcano(es)
Antuco Central Chile 1869 CE Stratovolcano
Apagado Southern Chile 590 BCE Pyroclastic cone
Cerro Azul Central Chile 1967 CE Stratovolcano
Cerro Bayo Gorbea Northern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Credible Complex
Lomas Blancas Central Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano
Monte Burney Southern Chile 1910 CE Stratovolcano
Caburgua-Huelemolle Central Chile 5050 BCE Pyroclastic cone(s)
Caichinque Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Stratovolcano(es)
Calabozos Central Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Caldera
Calbuco Southern Chile 2015 CE Stratovolcano
Callaqui Central Chile 1980 CE Stratovolcano
Carran-Los Venados Central Chile 1979 CE Pyroclastic cone(s)
Cay Southern Chile Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Stratovolcano
Cayutue-La Vigueria Southern Chile 190 BCE Pyroclastic cone(s)
Chaiten Southern Chile 2011 CE Caldera
Chiliques Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Stratovolcano
Nevados de Chillan Central Chile 2022 CE Stratovolcano
Colachi Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina 2021 CE Stratovolcano
Corcovado Southern Chile 4920 BCE Stratovolcano
Cordon de Puntas Negras Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano(es)
Cordon del Azufre Northern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Credible Complex
Corrida de Cori Volcanic Field Northern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Stratovolcano
Descabezado Grande Central Chile 1933 CE Stratovolcano(es)
Falso Azufre Northern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Complex
Fueguino Southern Chile 1820 CE Lava dome(s)
Guallatiri Northern Chile 1960 CE Stratovolcano
Guayaques Northern Chile-Bolivia Unknown - Evidence Credible Lava dome(s)
Hornopiren Southern Chile 340 CE Stratovolcano
Cerro Hudson Southern Chile 2011 CE Stratovolcano
Huequi Southern Chile 1920 CE Lava dome(s)
Nevado de Incahuasi Northern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Stratovolcano(es)
Irruputuncu Northern Chile-Bolivia 1995 CE Stratovolcano
Isluga Northern Chile 1913 CE Stratovolcano
Lanin Central Chile-Argentina 560 CE Stratovolcano
Lascar Northern Chile 2017 CE Stratovolcano(es)
Lastarria Northern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano
Lautaro Southern Chile 1979 CE Stratovolcano
Licancabur Northern Chile-Bolivia Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano
Llaima Central Chile 2009 CE Stratovolcano
Llullaillaco Northern Chile-Argentina 1877 CE Stratovolcano
Nevado de Longavi Central Chile 4890 BCE Stratovolcano
Lonquimay Central Chile 1990 CE Stratovolcano
Maca Southern Chile 1560 CE Stratovolcano
Maipo Central Chile-Argentina 1912 CE Caldera
Laguna del Maule Central Chile-Argentina 50 BCE Caldera
Melimoyu Southern Chile 200 CE Stratovolcano
Mentolat Southern Chile 1710 CE Stratovolcano
Meullin Southern Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Volcanic field
Michinmahuida Southern Chile 1835 CE Stratovolcano
Miniques Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Stratovolcano(es)
Mocho-Choshuenco Central Chile 1937 CE Stratovolcano(es)
La Negrillar Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Pyroclastic cone(s)
Sierra Nevada Northern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Credible Complex
Nevados Ojos del Salado Northern Chile-Argentina 750 CE Stratovolcano
Olca-Paruma Northern Chile-Bolivia Unknown - Eruption Observed Stratovolcano(es)
Osorno Southern Chile 1869 CE Stratovolcano
Pali-Aike Volcanic Field Southern Chile-Argentina 5550 BCE Pyroclastic cone(s)
Palomo Central Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano
Parinacota Northern Chile-Bolivia 290 CE Stratovolcano
Planchon-Peteroa Central Chile-Argentina 2019 CE Stratovolcano(es)
Pular Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Stratovolcano(es)
Puntiagudo-Cordon Cenizos Central Chile 1850 CE Stratovolcano
Purico Complex Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Pyroclastic shield
Putana Northern Chile 1810 CE Stratovolcano
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Central Chile 2012 CE Stratovolcano
Puyuhuapi Southern Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Pyroclastic cone(s)
Quetrupillan Central Chile 255 CE Stratovolcano
Rapa Nui Easter Island Unknown - Evidence Credible Shield(s)
Reclus Southern Chile 1908 CE Pyroclastic cone
Volcan Resago Central Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Pyroclastic cone
Sairecabur Northern Chile-Bolivia Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano(es)
San Jose Central Chile-Argentina 1960 CE Stratovolcano(es)
San Pedro-Pellado Central Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano(es)
Socompa Northern Chile-Argentina 5250 BCE Stratovolcano
Sollipulli Central Chile 1240 CE Caldera
El Solo Northern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Credible Stratovolcano
Taapaca Northern Chile 320 BCE Complex
Tacora Northern Chile-Peru Unknown - Unrest / Holocene Stratovolcano(es)
Tilocalar Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Lava cone(es)
Tinguiririca Central Chile 1917 CE Stratovolcano
Tolhuaca Central Chile 4000 BCE Stratovolcano
Tronador Southern Chile-Argentina Unknown - Evidence Uncertain Stratovolcano
Cerro Tujle Northern Chile Unknown - Evidence Credible Maar
Tupungatito Central Chile-Argentina 1987 CE Stratovolcano
Villarrica Central Chile 2022 CE Stratovolcano
Yanteles Southern Chile 6650 BCE Stratovolcano(es)
Yate Southern Chile 1090 CE Stratovolcano

Chronological listing of known Holocene eruptions (confirmed or uncertain) from volcanoes in Chile. Bolded eruptions indicate continuing activity.

Volcano Name Start Date Stop Date Certainty VEI Evidence
Copahue 2021 Jul 2 2021 Nov 6 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Copahue 2020 Jun 16 2020 Nov 2 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 2019 Aug 2 2019 Nov 12 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 2018 Nov 7 2019 May 7 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 2017 Jun 4 2018 Dec 7 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 2016 Jan 8 2022 Aug 11 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 2015 Oct 30 2017 Apr 2 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 2015 Sep 18 ± 3 days 2016 Dec 30 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 2015 Apr 22 2015 May 26 Confirmed 4 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days 2022 Aug 8 (continuing) Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Copahue 2014 Jul 4 2014 Dec 2 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 2013 Jul 25 2013 Jul 29 (?) Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Lascar 2013 Apr 2 2013 Nov 20 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Copahue 2012 Dec 22 2013 Dec 10 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica [2012 Nov 14] [2012 Nov 14 (?)] Uncertain  
Callaqui [2012 Jan 2] [2012 Jan 2] Uncertain  
Hudson, Cerro 2011 Oct 26 2011 Nov 1 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 2011 Jun 4 2012 Apr 21 (?) Confirmed 5 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 2011 Feb 17 2011 Jun 26 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 2010 Sep 6 2010 Oct 13 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 2009 Nov 22 2012 Apr 20 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 2009 Jan 29 2009 Mar 24 (?) Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Callaqui [2009 Jan 22] [2009 Jan 22] Uncertain  
Chillan, Nevados de [2009 Jan 21] [2009 Jan 22] Uncertain  
Villarrica 2008 Oct 26 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Chaiten 2008 May 2 2011 May 31 ± 3 days Confirmed 4 Observations: Reported
Llaima 2008 Jan 1 2009 Jun 12 ± 4 days Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Llaima 2007 May 26 2007 Aug 8 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 2006 Apr 18 2007 Jul 18 (?) Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Lascar 2005 May 4 2005 May 4 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 2004 Aug 5 (?) 2007 Dec 24 (?) Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Lascar [2003 Dec 9] [2003 Dec 9] Uncertain  
Chillan, Nevados de 2003 Aug 29 2003 Sep 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 2003 May 23 (?) 2004 Mar 25 (?) Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 2003 Apr 9 2003 Apr 16 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 2002 Oct 26 2002 Oct 27 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 2002 Oct 13 ± 12 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Lascar [2001 May 17 (?)] [2001 Jul 5 (?)] Uncertain  
Lascar 2000 Jul 20 2001 Jan 18 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 2000 Jul 1 2000 Oct 18 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1998 Nov 18 1998 Nov 21 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1998 Nov 10 ± 3 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1998 Apr 3 1998 Apr 23 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1998 Feb 24 ± 4 days 2002 Jun 16 (?) ± 15 days Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1997 Mar 16 (?) ± 15 days 1997 Oct 16 (?) ± 15 days Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1996 Oct 18 1996 Oct 18 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1996 Sep 14 1997 Aug 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1996 Jan 16 ± 15 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1995 Oct 13 1995 Oct 22 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 1995 Sep 16 ± 15 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Irruputuncu 1995 Sep 1 1995 Sep 26 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1995 Apr 15 ± 5 days 1995 Jun 2 (in or after) Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Copahue 1994 Dec 16 ± 15 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1994 Nov 13 1995 Jul 20 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1994 Sep 26 1994 Dec 30 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1994 Jul 20 1994 Jul 26 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1994 May 17 1994 Aug 30 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tinguiririca [1994 Jan 15] [1994 Jan 15] Uncertain  
Lascar 1993 Dec 17 1994 Feb 27 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Ojos del Salado, Nevados [1993 Nov 14] [1993 Nov 14] Uncertain  
Lascar 1993 Jan 30 1993 Aug 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 4 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1992 Sep 11 1992 Dec 16 (in or after) ± 15 days Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1992 Aug 23 1992 Sep 2 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Copahue 1992 Jul 22 1993 Jul 2 ± 182 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1991 Oct 21 1992 May 23 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1991 Aug 30 1991 Sep 17 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Hudson, Cerro 1991 Aug 8 1991 Oct 27 Confirmed 5 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1991 Feb 9 1991 Mar 2 ± 2 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1990 Nov 24 1990 Nov 24 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1990 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Pular [1990 Apr 24] [1990 Apr 24] Uncertain  
Llaima 1990 Feb 25 1990 Nov 25 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Irruputuncu [1989 Dec 16 ± 15 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Lonquimay 1988 Dec 25 1990 Jan 24 ± 1 days Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1987 Nov 28 1987 Nov 30 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1987 Nov 16 (in or before) ± 15 days 1990 Apr 6 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1986 Sep 14 1986 Sep 16 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1986 Jan 20 1986 Jan 20 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Guallatiri [1985 Dec 1] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Lascar 1984 Dec 16 ± 15 days 1985 Jul 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 0 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1984 Aug 11 1985 Nov 18 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1984 Apr 20 1984 Nov 26 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1983 Oct 14 1983 Oct 16 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Callaqui 1980 Oct 16 ± 15 days 1980 Oct 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1980 Jun 20 1980 Sep 24 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1980 Jan 10 1980 Jan 11 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1979 Oct 15 1979 Nov 28 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Carran-Los Venados 1979 Apr 14 1979 May 20 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1979 Mar 8 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1978 Jun 16 ± 15 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1977 Jan 26 1977 Jan 30 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Lascar [1974 Jul 16 ± 15 days] [1974 Sep 16 ± 15 days] Uncertain  
Chillan, Nevados de 1973 Jul 16 ± 15 days 1986 Jul 2 ± 182 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1972 Aug 26 1972 Aug 26 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1972 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de [1972 Jul 2 ± 182 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Lascar [1972 Jul 2 ± 182 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Putana [1972 Jul 2 ± 182 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Llaima 1971 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1972 Mar 12 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1971 Oct 29 1972 Feb 21 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Hudson, Cerro 1971 Aug 12 1971 Sep 18 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1969 May 16 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1968 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro 1967 Aug 9 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa [1967 Feb 16 ± 15 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Chillan, Nevados de [1965 Jul 2 ± 182 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Tupungatito 1964 Aug 3 1964 Sep 19 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1964 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1964 Mar 2 1964 Apr 21 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1963 Feb 25 (?) 1963 Sep 21 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1962 Jan 16 ± 15 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1961 Oct 16 ± 15 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1961 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Copahue 1961 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1961 May 5 ± 4 days 1961 Aug 16 (in or after) ± 15 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1961 Feb 1 1961 Mar 26 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Guallatiri 1960 Dec 2 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1960 Jul 15 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1960 Jul 10 (?) Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
San Jose 1960 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Isluga [1960 Jul 2 ± 182 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Copahue 1960 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Llaima [1960 Jul 2 ± 182 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica [1960 Jul 2 ± 182 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1960 May 24 1960 Jul 30 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1959 Dec 28 1960 Jan 20 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1959 Nov 16 ± 15 days 1968 Jan 31 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1959 Nov 6 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1959 Oct 16 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Guallatiri 1959 Jul 15 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
San Jose 1959 Jul 2 ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1959 Mar 26 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1958 Nov 6 1959 Dec 21 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1958 Jan 16 ± 15 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1956 Oct 3 1956 Nov 16 ± 45 days Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1955 Oct 22 1957 Nov 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Carran-Los Venados 1955 Jul 27 1955 Nov 12 Confirmed 4 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1954 Jun 16 ± 15 days 1954 Jul 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1951 Nov 16 ± 15 days 1952 Feb 19 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica [1950 Jul 2 ± 182 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Llaima 1949 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro 1949 Apr 15 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1948 Oct 9 1949 Feb 3 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1948 Apr 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1947 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1946 Jul 23 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1946 1947 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1946 1947 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1945 Mar 31 1945 Apr 3 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1945 Jan 15 ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1945 Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de [1945] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Llaima 1944 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 1944 Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Llaima 1942 Jun 9 1942 Nov Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1941 Jun 23 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lonquimay [1940 Feb] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Lascar 1940 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1938 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1939 Feb 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1938 Dec Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1938 Sep 1938 Oct Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica [1938 Feb 11] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Callaqui [1937 Sep 18] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Tacora [1937 Aug 5] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Mocho-Choshuenco 1937 Jun 16 Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1937 Apr 1937 May 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1937 Feb 9 (?) 1937 Nov 2 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 1937 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1935 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1936 Jun 27 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1935 Jul 2 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1934 Mar 6 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1934 Jan 17 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1933 Oct 9 1933 Dec Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1933 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1933 Jan 5 1933 Jan 18 ± 12 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lonquimay 1933 Jan 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro 1933 1938 Jul 25 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1932 Dec 31 1933 Jan 5 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Descabezado Grande 1932 Jun 5 ± 5 days 1933 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1932 Mar 2 1932 Mar 2 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1932 Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Llaima 1930 Jul 6 1930 Aug 20 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tacora [1930] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Puntiagudo-Cordon Cenizos [1930] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1929 Dec 27 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1929 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1929 Jan 7 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1929 Jan 6 1929 Jan 6 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1928 Nov 30 1929 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1927 Oct 5 1927 Dec 5 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1927 Apr 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1927 1928 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1925 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de [1923] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Llaima 1922 Oct 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1922 Oct 24 1922 Nov 27 ± 20 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1921 Dec 13 1922 Feb 12 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Villarrica [1921 Dec 10] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1920 Dec 10 1920 Dec 13 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Huequi 1920 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica [1919] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1919 1920 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1917 Apr 1917 May Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1917 Feb 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tinguiririca 1917 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro 1916 1932 Apr 21 Confirmed 5 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1915 1918 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Michinmahuida [1915 ± 25 years] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Azul, Cerro 1914 Sep 8 Unknown Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1914 Jul 3 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1914 Feb 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1914 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro [1913 Jan 15 ± 45 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Guallatiri 1913 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Isluga 1913 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro 1912 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Maipo 1912 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1912 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1911 1912 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Burney, Monte 1910 Mar Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1909 Aug 19 1910 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1909 Mar Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1908 Oct 31 1908 Dec 12 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Reclus 1908 ± 1 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Maipo [1908] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Guallatiri [1908] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Azul, Cerro 1907 Jul 28 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1907 May 5 ± 4 days 1907 May 26 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1907 Apr 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Carran-Los Venados 1907 Apr 9 1908 Feb (in or after) Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1907 Feb 15 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1907 1908 Mar Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1907 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1906 Aug 6 1906 Dec Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1906 Apr 22 1906 Dec Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1906 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Huequi 1906 1907 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro 1906 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Maipo 1905 Oct 28 1905 Oct 30 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1905 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1904 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1903 May 12 1903 May 14 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro [1903 Jan] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Lascar 1902 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1902 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Tupungatito 1901 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Huequi 1900 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1898 1900 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1898 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1897 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1898 Feb 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1897 Jan 1897 Apr 12 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Huequi 1896 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
San Jose 1895 1897 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1895 1896 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1894 Nov 16 1895 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1893 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1894 Feb 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1893 Dec 1894 Dec Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1893 Mar 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Calbuco 1893 Jan 7 1894 Jan 16 (in or after) Confirmed 4 Observations: Reported
Huequi 1893 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1893 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1892 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1891 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Hudson, Cerro 1891 Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Huequi 1890 Unknown Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1890 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Planchon-Peteroa 1889 Sep 1894 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1889 Apr 20 1889 Jul Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
San Jose 1889 1890 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1889 1890 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lonquimay 1887 Jun 2 1890 Jan Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1887 Jan 16 1887 Jun 24 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Isluga 1885 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de [1883 Jan 21] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Llaima 1883 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1883 1885 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1883 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito [1881] [Unknown] Uncertain  
San Jose 1881 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Maipo [1881] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1880 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1879 Feb 2 1879 Mar Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Reclus 1879 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1879 Unknown Confirmed   Unknown
Isluga 1878 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lautaro [1878 Jan 18] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Planchon-Peteroa 1878 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llullaillaco 1877 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1877 Mar 12 1877 May Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1877 Feb 12 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1877 Jan 16 1877 Jun 24 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Isluga 1877 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lautaro 1876 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1875 Nov 17 1876 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1875 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1875 1876 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1874 Apr 16 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima [1874] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Chillan, Nevados de 1872 Jul 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1872 Jun 6 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Quetrupillan [1872 Jun 6] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Planchon-Peteroa [1872] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1871 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Maipo [1869 Aug 24] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Isluga 1869 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1869 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1869 Feb 4 1869 Feb 24 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Osorno 1869 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Reclus 1869 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Antuco 1869 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa [1869] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Llullaillaco 1868 Sep Unknown Confirmed 0 Observations: Reported
Isluga 1868 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 1867 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica [1867] [1868] Uncertain  
Llaima 1866 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Olca-Paruma [1865] [1867] Uncertain  
Chillan, Nevados de 1864 Nov 30 1865 Feb 3 ± 1 days Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Mocho-Choshuenco 1864 Nov 1 1864 Nov 3 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1864 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Callaqui [1864 Oct] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Llaima 1864 Unknown Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Antuco 1863 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Isluga 1863 Aug Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Antuco [1862 Jan] [1862 Mar 3] Uncertain  
Llaima 1862 Unknown Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1861 Jun 1863 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Antuco 1861 Feb (?) 1861 Aug (?) Confirmed 0 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1861 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1860 Jul 25 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1860 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1859 May 19 1860 Apr 12 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1858 Apr 1858 Dec Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Osorno 1855 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llullaillaco 1854 Feb 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lascar 1854 Jan 20 1854 Jan 30 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1853 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Lonquimay 1853 Feb Unknown Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Lascar [1853] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Antuco 1852 Nov 1853 Jan Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1852 1853 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica [1852] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Osorno 1851 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Puntiagudo-Cordon Cenizos 1850 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1850 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Antuco [1848] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Lascar 1848 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Azul, Cerro 1846 Nov 26 1853 (?) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Antuco 1845 Feb 26 1845 Mar 1 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa [1842] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1841 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Antuco [1839] [Unknown] Uncertain  
San Jose 1838 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1837 Nov 7 1837 Nov 21 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Osorno 1837 Nov 7 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1837 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Maipo [1837] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1836 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Corcovado [1835 Nov 11] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Michinmahuida 1835 Feb 20 1835 Mar 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 0 Observations: Reported
Yanteles [1835 Feb 20] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Hornopiren [1835] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Maipo [1835] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Planchon-Peteroa 1835 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito [1835] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Osorno 1834 Nov 29 1835 Feb 24 ± 4 days Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Michinmahuida 1834 Nov 25 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Corcovado [1834 Nov] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Maipo [1833] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1832 Dec 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Maipo [1831 Feb 16] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Maipo 1829 Sep 26 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Tupungatito 1829 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Antuco 1828 Dec 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Maipo 1826 Mar 1 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1826 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Guallatiri 1825 ± 25 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
San Jose 1822 Nov 19 1838 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1822 Nov 19 1822 Nov 25 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1822 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Maipo [1822] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Fueguino 1820 Nov 25 1820 Nov 26 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Antuco 1820 1821 (?) Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1815 1818 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Putana 1810 ± 10 years Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Antuco 1806 May (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1806 Apr 1806 May Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1798 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Calbuco 1792 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Osorno 1790 Mar 9 1791 Dec 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1790 Jan 1801 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Maipo [1788] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1787 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1780 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1777 1779 Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica [1775] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Michinmahuida [1775 ± 40 years] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1771 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1767 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Osorno 1765 ± 14 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1762 Dec 3 Unknown Confirmed 4 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1761 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1759 Dec 1759 Dec Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1759 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue [1759 (?)] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1759 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Antuco 1752 Jan 31 1752 Feb 1 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1752 Jan 30 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Callaqui 1751 Dec 31 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Llaima 1751 Dec 18 1752 Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1751 Dec 14 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Planchon-Peteroa 1751 Nov 1751 Dec Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Copahue 1750 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Antuco 1750 ± 10 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1749 (?) 1751 Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1745 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1742 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Michinmahuida 1742 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Hudson, Cerro 1740 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Villarrica 1737 Dec 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1730 Jul 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1721 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Osorno 1719 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1716 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1715 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Fueguino [1712 Nov 26 ± 4 days] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Mentolat 1710 ± 5 years Unknown Confirmed   Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1709 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1708 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1705 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Huequi 1695 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Correlation: Tephrochronology
Villarrica 1688 (?) Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1682 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1675 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1672 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1669 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Planchon-Peteroa 1660 Unknown Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1657 Mar 15 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Chillan, Nevados de 1650 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Observations: Reported
Michinmahuida [1650 ± 50 years] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Villarrica 1647 May 13 Unknown Confirmed 1 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1645 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Osorno 1644 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1642 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica [1640 Feb 3] [Unknown] Uncertain  
Llaima 1640 Feb Unknown Confirmed 4 Observations: Reported
Osorno 1640 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Chaiten 1640 ± 18 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Villarrica 1638 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1632 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1625 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1617 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1612 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1610 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1604 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Calbuco 1600 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Villarrica 1600 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1594 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1584 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1582 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1579 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Osorno 1575 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1564 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1562 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Maca 1560 ± 110 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Villarrica 1558 Unknown Confirmed 2 Observations: Reported
Villarrica 1553 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Michinmahuida 1550 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Villarrica 1543 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1539 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1538 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1537 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1526 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1523 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1521 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1516 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1515 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1509 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1503 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1497 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1494 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1492 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1483 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1479 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1474 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1471 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1466 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1463 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1454 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1448 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1433 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1417 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1413 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1410 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1404 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1392 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1388 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Villarrica 1384 Unknown Confirmed 2 Sidereal: Varve Count
Calbuco 1380 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Osorno 1310 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Sollipulli 1240 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Osorno 1220 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1220 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1140 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Yate 1090 ± 60 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Osorno 0910 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Planchon-Peteroa 0900 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 0860 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 0860 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Ojos del Salado, Nevados 0750 ± 250 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Calbuco 0710 ± 60 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Michinmahuida 0700 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Lanin 0560 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Calbuco 0520 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 0500 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Osorno 0420 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Maca 0410 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Lanin 0400 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 0390 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Hornopiren 0340 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Villarrica 0330 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Parinacota 0290 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Isotopic: Cosmic Ray Exposure
Quetrupillan 0255 ± 48 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Calbuco 0220 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Melimoyu 0200 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Calbuco 0160 ± 135 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Correlation: Tephrochronology
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 0140 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 0110 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Villarrica 0110 (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Lanin 0090 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Correlation: Tephrochronology
Parinacota 0090 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Anthropology
Calbuco 0040 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Quetrupillan 0035 ± 35 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Maule, Laguna del 0050 BCE (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 0 Isotopic: Uranium-series
Lanin 0080 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Burney, Monte 0090 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Calbuco 0100 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 0120 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Cayutue-La Vigueria 0190 BCE (?) ± 190 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Osorno 0210 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Lanin 0220 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Antillanca Volcanic Complex 0230 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Copahue 0250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Maule, Laguna del 0250 BCE Unknown Confirmed 0 Isotopic: Ar/Ar
Taapaca 0320 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Chillan, Nevados de 0320 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Calbuco 0330 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 0490 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Lanin 0590 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Apagado 0590 BCE ± 175 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Villarrica 0670 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 0790 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Burney, Monte 0800 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Melimoyu 0820 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Sollipulli 0920 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Antillanca Volcanic Complex 0960 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 0990 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Villarrica 1080 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Parinacota 1100 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: Cosmic Ray Exposure
Villarrica 1230 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Aguilera 1250 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 1490 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Chillan, Nevados de 1510 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Maule, Laguna del 1550 BCE Unknown Confirmed 0 Isotopic: Ar/Ar
Taapaca 1580 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Osorno 1710 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Villarrica 1810 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Reclus 1830 BCE (after) Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Taapaca 1860 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 1890 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 6 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Calbuco 1920 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Villarrica 1980 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Correlation: Tephrochronology
Villarrica 2140 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Villarrica 2240 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 2250 BCE (in or before) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Burney, Monte 2320 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Taapaca 2400 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Aguilera 2610 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Taapaca 2950 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Villarrica 2990 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Correlation: Tephrochronology
Chaiten 3100 BCE ± 220 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 3250 BCE ± 2400 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: Ar/Ar
Chillan, Nevados de 3660 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Hornopiren 3720 BCE ± 175 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Villarrica 3730 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Burney, Monte 3740 BCE ± 10 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 3890 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Tolhuaca 4000 BCE (after) Unknown Confirmed 0 Uncertain
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 4230 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Calbuco 4300 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Parinacota 4320 BCE ± 1200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: Cosmic Ray Exposure
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 4450 BCE ± 900 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: Ar/Ar
Maule, Laguna del 4450 BCE Unknown Confirmed 0 Isotopic: Ar/Ar
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 4460 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Taapaca 4620 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 4690 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 4750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 6 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Tolhuaca 4885 BCE ± 243 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Uncertain
Longavi, Nevado de 4890 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Corcovado 4920 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Hudson, Cerro 4960 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Mentolat 5010 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Calbuco 5030 BCE ± 180 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Caburgua-Huelemolle 5050 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 5080 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Planchon-Peteroa 5080 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Lascar 5150 BCE ± 1250 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Isotopic: Cosmic Ray Exposure
Socompa 5250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Llaima 5290 BCE ± 180 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Tolhuaca 5371 BCE ± 243 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Uncertain
Taapaca 5490 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Michinmahuida 5500 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Pali-Aike Volcanic Field 5550 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Anthropology
Calbuco 5820 BCE ± 880 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Correlation: Tephrochronology
Parinacota 5840 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Tolhuaca 5857 BCE ± 243 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Uncertain
Corcovado 6030 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Calbuco 6300 BCE ± 1035 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Lanin 6340 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Corcovado 6640 BCE ± 770 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Yanteles 6650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Chaiten 6650 BCE ± 1300 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Villarrica 6690 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Calbuco 6760 BCE ± 825 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Correlation: Tephrochronology
Copahue 6820 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Llaima 6880 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Chillan, Nevados de 6890 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Yanteles 7240 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Lascar 7250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Burney, Monte 7390 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Llaima 7410 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Burney, Monte 7450 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Villarrica 7520 BCE ± 900 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Correlation: Tephrochronology
Calbuco 7550 BCE ± 45 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Chaiten 7750 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Antuco 7750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Taapaca 7900 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Calbuco 7930 BCE ± 275 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Parinacota 7950 BCE Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: Ar/Ar
Calbuco 7990 BCE ± 290 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Hudson, Cerro 8010 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
Calbuco 8100 BCE ± 1300 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Calbuco 8210 BCE ± 290 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Calbuco 8320 BCE ± 250 years Unknown Confirmed   Correlation: Tephrochronology
Michinmahuida 8400 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 6 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Calbuco 8460 BCE ± 155 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Lanin 9240 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Quetrupillan 10658 BCE ± 29 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)
Quetrupillan 11345 BCE ± 932 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

There are 222 photos available for volcanoes in Chile.

Caichinque is between the Salar Capur (left) and Salar Talar (right) lakes, seen here in this 22 November 2019 Sentinel-2 satellite image (N is at the top). More than six vents have produced lava flows, with the one to the south reaching 6 km.

Satellite image courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel Data, 2019.
Persistent fumarolic activity occurs in the summit crater of Tinguiririca volcano.

Photo by Wolfgang Foerster, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
An eruption plume rises above Navidad (Christmas) cone on the NE flank of Lonquimay volcano (left center) on January 15, 1989. The eruption began on Christmas day, 1988, and lasted over a year. A 200-m-high cinder cone was formed and a lava flow that originated from Navidad cone traveled 10 km down the NE flank. Neighboring Tolguaca volcano appears at the left in this view from the WSW.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1989 (University of Chile).
Tacora, the northernmost volcano of Chile, rises to the NW above the steep-walled Allane valley. The 5980-m-high Tacora lies near the border with Perú and is a twin volcano with Chupiquina, hidden behind Tacora in this view. Although there have been uncertain reports of historical eruptions, and solfataric and fumarolic activity has been reported on the east side, Holocene eruptions have not been documented. The Arica to La Paz railway transects the plateau on the northern side of the Allane valley.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
A vigorous steam plume rises from the summit ridge of Volcán Guallatiri, one of northern Chile's most active volcanoes. The ice-clad stratovolcano is seen here from the north and lies at the SW end of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcano group. The 6071-m-high Guallatiri is capped by a central dacitic dome or lava complex, with the active vent situated at its southern side. Minor explosive eruptions have been reported from Guallatiri since the beginning of the 19th century, and intense fumarolic activity continues.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Major explosions April 19-20, 1993 produced eruption plumes that rose to 15 to 25 km altitude (10-15 km above the summit crater). The eruption was accompanied by pyroclastic flows that traveled as far as 8.5 km to the NW, NE, and SE. Ashfall occurred over large areas as far away as Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, and Argentina (including Buenos Aires, 1500 km to the SE). The eruption was the largest in historical time at Láscar, ejecting more than 0.1 cu km of tephra.

Photo by Ricardo de la Peña, 1993 (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
An ash-rich eruption column, incandescent at its base, rises above Navidad cinder cone on the NE flank of Lonquimay volcano in January 1989. Still-glowing volcanic bombs litter the flanks of the cone. Tolguaca volcano appears at the left in this view from the SE. Soon after the start of the eruption on December 25, 1988, lava effusion began, producing a lava flow that by the time the eruption ended in January 1990 had traveled 10 km down the NE flank.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1989.
The Cerro Purico complex is shown in this 5 November 2019 Sentinel-2 satellite image (N is at the top; the image is approximately 43 km across). The dome containing white material at the top is Cerro Toco, then towards the SW is Cerro Chajnantor and Cerro Chascón. The dark lava flow to the W was erupted from Cerro Negro, then towards the SW is Cerros de Macon, Cerro Putas, and Cerro Aspero, and the edifice with the crater in the SW corner is Alitar.

Satellite image courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel Data, 2019.
This dramatic NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper right) is of Socompa volcano. A large horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the NW was the source of a major debris avalanche about 7,000 years ago that extended beyond the upper left margin of the image. Young dacitic lava domes and flows partially fill the collapse amphitheater, and prominent lava flows with flow levees are visible on the outer flanks.

NASA International Space Station image ISS003-E-5375, 2001 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The dramatic summit spire of Volcán Puntiagudo forms one of the most spectacular volcanic peaks of the Andes. The summit pinnacle, formed as a result of extensive glacial erosion, exposes the volcano's resistant central conduit. Puntiagudo-Cordón Cenizos volcanic chain lies between Lago Rupanco and Lago Todos Los Santos in the Chilean lake district. An 18-km-long fissure system with late-Pleistocene to Holocene scoria cones and small stratovolcanoes extends to the NE and was last active in 1850.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Towering 5980-m-high Tacora, the northernmost volcano of Chile, lies near the border with Perú and is a twin volcano with Chupiquina. Tacora is seen here from the SE. Although there have been uncertain reports of historical eruptions, and solfataric and fumarolic activity has been reported on the east side, Holocene eruptions from Tacora have not been documented.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
A young lava dome on Isla Cook is viewed from the east. This group of andesitic lava domes and pyroclastic cones, known as Volcán Feuguino or Volcán Cook, mark the southernmost Holocene volcanoes of the Andes. They occupy a broad peninsula forming the SE end of Isla Cook and are unaffected by glacial erosion that scoured the underlying plutonic rocks. Passing navigators observed possible eruptive activity in the direction of Cook in 1712 and the eruption of incandescent ejecta in 1820.

Photo by Scott Dreher, 2005 (University of Durham).
The area around Volcán Putana is seen from the west in this sketch. Putana is part of a large, roughly N-S-trending volcanic complex that covers an area of 600 sq km. Vigorous fumarolic activity (depicted in this sketch) is visible at the 5890-m-high summit of Putana volcano from long distances. The main edifice consists of accumulated postglacial dacitic lava domes and flows mantling an older pre-Holocene volcano. Young dark-colored flows in this sketch descend the western flanks of the volcano.

Sketch by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The Taapaca volcanic complex rises to the NE above the town of Putre, just out of view to the left. The elongated volcanic massif consists of an initial andesitic stratovolcano and a long-term dacitic lava-dome complex. The 5860-m-high dome complex on the right horizon is part of the Holocene Putre unit, formed during the latest eruptive stage. The left-hand dome is part of the late-Pleistocene Socapave unit. A pyroclastic apron from Taapaca, including a late-Pleistocene debris-avalanche deposit, forms the foreground.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
Antuco volcano, seen here from the NW, has a complicated history beginning with construction of an andesitic stratovolcano during the Pleistocene. Edifice failure at the beginning of the Holocene produced a large debris avalanche that traveled down the Río Laja to the west. The collapse left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera whose NW rim forms the ridge descending to the right. The steep-sided modern basaltic cone (upper right) has grown 1000 m since then. Moderate explosive eruptions were recorded in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Snow-capped Lanín volcano rises to the SSW above the Chile/Argentina border. A grove of distinctive Araucaria trees ("monkey puzzle trees") occupy the foreground. These distinctive trees are one of Chile's most renowned conifers and are confined to restricted areas in the Andes. Fossils reveal that this genus was once extremely widespread, leaving behind petrified woods in Arizona and amber deposits around the globe. The Auracaria occurs today only in Chile, one small region in Brazil, a few places in Australia, and New Caledonia.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
Snow and ice drapes the western flank of Nevado Incahuasi along the Chile/Argentina border, as seen from Paso las Lozas at 5100 m. Nevado de Incahuasi is a complex volcanic massif located ENE of Nevados Ojos del Salado volcano. Two stratovolcanoes occupy a compound 3.5 -km-wide caldera. Pleistocene lava domes are located on the west and SW flanks of the 6621-m-high Nevado de Incahuasi, one of the world's highest volcanoes.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
One of northern Chile's most active volcanoes, Volcán Guallatiri (right) is a symmetrical ice-clad stratovolcano at the SW end of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcano group. This view from the west includes three other peaks of the Nevados de Quimsachata group at the extreme left, Pleistocene Volcán Humarata and Pleistocene-to-Holocene Volcán Acotango and Capurata volcano (center). Minor explosive eruptions have occurred since the beginning of the 19th century from 6071-m-high Guallatiri volcano.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Snow-capped Volcán Chiliques is a conical stratovolcano located NNE of Laguna Miscanti (foreground). The 5778-m-high summit of the volcano contains a 500-m-wide crater. Several youthful lava flows, some of which are considered to be of Holocene age descend its flanks. Chiliques had previously been considered to be dormant; however, in 2002 a NASA nighttime thermal infrared satellite image showed low-level hot spots in the summit crater and upper flanks.

Photo by Carlos Felipe Ramírez (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
The lava flow with prominent lateral levees extending from the far left (eastern) side of the summit crater of Láscar is the Tumbres-Talabre lava flow. This flow was erupted about 7100 years ago and descended 8 km down the NW flank of the volcano. The distal part of the lava flow is overlain by light-colored pyroclastic-flow deposits in the foreground that originated during an eruption on April 19, 1993. Another steep-sided viscous lava flow with pronounced lateral levees is visible in the center of the photo.

Photo by Carlos Felipe Ramírez, 1993 (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
Strong fumarolic activity occurs in the crater where the phreatomagmatic eruptions of the past two decades took place. A dozen Holocene post-caldera craters and cones are located at the NW end of the 4-km-wide, Pleistocene Nevado Sin Nombre caldera.

Photo by Alejo Contreras (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
The world's highest historically active volcano, Llullaillaco, sits astride the Chile-Argentina border in this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper right). A well-preserved summit cone was the source of prominent lava flows that are older than they appear in this image. The hilly terrain at the lower right was produced by a major debris avalanche about 150,000 years ago that swept eastward into Argentina and diverges around the north and south sides of the older Cerro Rosado stratovolcano (extreme lower right).

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-13814, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Tupungatito volcano, the northernmost historically active volcano of the central Chilean Andes, is the broad, glacier-clad massif at the right center. The glacial icecap fills the southern side of the Pleistocene Nevado Sin Nombre caldera, which is breached to the NW, in the direction of this photo. A dozen Holocene craters are found at Tupungatito, which has produced frequent mild explosive eruptions during the 19th and 20th centuries. Tupungatito is located immediately SW of Pleistocene Tupungato volcano, the large conical peak at the left.

Photo by Sergio Kunstmann-Z, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The ice-filled 10-km-wide caldera of the remote Cerro Hudson volcano was not recognized until its first 20th-century eruption in 1971. The massive, 1905-m-high Cerro Hudson, seen here from the west on August 23 during its 1991 eruption, covers an area of 300 sq km. The caldera is drained through a breach on its NW rim (upper left), which has been the source of mudflows down the Rio de Los Huemules. The 1991 eruption was Chile's second largest of the 20th century, and formed a new 800-m-wide crater in the SW part of the caldera.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1991 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Quetrupillan stratovolcano is seen in this NASA International Space Station image with north to the upper right. The volcano was constructed within a large 7 x 10 km wide caldera. The 2360-m-high Quetrupillan volcano has produced more silicic lavas than its more prominent neighbors Villarrica and Lanín. Clusters of monogenetic vents, including lava domes and pyroclastic cones, are found on the southern side of the volcano.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-40424, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Steam plumes rise from abundant solfataras lining the shores of the acid crater lake where the eruptive activity took place at Tupungatito during the 1960s.

Photo by Alejo Contreras (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
A road leads to a sulfur mine near the summit of 5890-m-high Putana volcano. Active fumaroles can be seen above several vents in the hydrothermally altered summit region. The main edifice was constructed primarily by lava effusion, with late-stage eruptions producing an accumulated pile of short, thick lava flows. Flank vents have also emitted fresh-looking lava flows.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
Cordón del Azufre is in the center of this 22 May 2019 Planet Scope satellite image (N is at the top), located along the Chile-Argentina border. The darker lava flow originated from Volcán la Moyra, the youngest feature of the volcanic field, reaching 6 km to the W. The complex includes a N-S chain of four craters and numerous lava flows.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
The small snow-free crater at the upper right, above and to the right of the light-colored area just right of the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper left) is Trocon volcano. Trocon lies in Argentina NE of the Caldera del Agrio (lower right), whose floor contains several lakes, including the U-shaped one at lower right near the SE caldera wall. Trocon is a lava-dome complex with two summit craters and a pyroclastic cone. Snow-covered Callaqui volcano (bottom left-center) overlies the western rim of Caldera del Agrio.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-39998, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The NW side of Nevados Ojos del Salado volcano rises above Pliocene ignimbrites and pyroclastic deposits of the Barranca Blanca. These deposits are overlain by dacitic pyroclastic-flow deposits from Ojos del Salado. A break in slope about half way up the volcano is the rim of a somma, inside which the modern edifice was constructed. Dacitic lava flows from the summit cone periodically overtopped the somma rim.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Volcán Descabezado Grande, seen here from the west, is a late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano with a 1.4-km-wide ice-filled summit crater. The Holocene Alto de las Mulas fissure on the lower NW flank (out of view to the left) produced young rhyodacitic lava flows. A lateral crater formed on the upper NNE flank in 1932, shortly after the end of the major 1932 eruption from nearby Quizapú volcano. This was the site of the only historical eruption of Descabezado Grande.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Along with its neighbor Osorno (upper left), Calbuco is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. The summit of Calbuco, seen at the left in this view from the SW, is the remnant of an older volcano that collapsed during the late Pleistocene, producing a debris avalanche that swept NNW into Lake Llanquihue. The smooth, snow-covered summit at the right is a young, historical lava-dome complex that postdates one of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile during 1893-1894.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
The summit of Descabezado Grande volcano is truncated by a 1.4-km-wide, ice-filled summit crater, giving rise to its name, which means "Large Headless Volcano." The only historical eruption of this late-Pleistocene to Holocene volcano, seen here from the west, occurred in 1932 from an upper NNE-flank vent. The 1932 crater lies out of view below and to the left of the notch at the left side of the summit crater.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Volcán Guallatiri rises to the SSE beyond Laguna Chungará, and steam rises from a prominent fumarole near its summit. The symmetrical ice-clad stratovolcano lies at the SW end of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcano group just west of the border with Bolivia and is capped by a central dacitic dome or lava complex. Thick lava flows can be seen on its lower northern and western flanks. Minor explosive eruptions have been reported from Guallatiri since the beginning of the 19th century, and intense fumarolic activity continues.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
The major regional N-S-trending Liquiñe-Ofqui fault extends along the Estuario Reloncaví (lower right) through Ralún Bay (center) to Lake Cayutúe (just left of the top of the image). About 20 basaltic cinder cones, maars, and lava flows of the Cayutué-La Viguería volcanic field lie along this lineament. La Viguería and Volcán Cayutué are the principal cones. The former temporarily dammed the Río Petrohué, the meandering stream at the left.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-42993, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Cerro Escorial (center horizon), viewed from the summit of Lastarria volcano, is a small andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that straddles the Chile/Argentina border. Very youthful-looking lava flows of uncertain age are seen here extending 3-4 km SW-ward over an ignimbrite deposit on the Chilean side of the border. Cerro Escorial is located 4 km NE of an active sulfur mine in older, extensively hydrothermally altered rocks, some of which are seen in the middle ground.

Photo by José Naranjo, 1983 (Servico Nacional de Geologica y Mineria).
The broad glacier-covered summit of Volcán Copahue along the Chile/Argentina border is seen from the SE with conical Callaqui volcano in the distance. The lake-filled active crater of Copahue (lower center) has been the site of historical eruptions. The composite cone was constructed along the Chile/Argentina border within an 8-km-wide caldera formed 0.6 million years ago. The eastern summit crater is part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters that cuts across the western rim of the caldera.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán, 1992 (University of Chile).
The crescent-shaped lake at the top-center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the bottom right) is Laguna del Dial. A cinder cone named Volcán Resago, on the SE side of the lake, produced a basaltic-andesite lava flow that traveled about 3 km to the WNW into Laguna Dial. The youthful cone may have been formed during an undocumented eruption during historical time. The lake at the lower left is Laguna Valvarco.

NASA International Space Station image ISS008-E-7432, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Four days into an eruption of Lonquimay volcano that began on 25 December 1988 an ash plume rises above a vent on the NE flank. Winds distribute the ash to the SE. Heavy ashfall lasted over a year, causing severe economic disruption. This east-looking view shows the ice-filled summit crater of Lonquimay at the bottom right.

Photo by Jeff Post, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).
The northern side of Lautaro volcano rises above a sea of clouds. A 300-km gap occurs between Cerro Hudson and Lautaro, the northernmost of five volcanoes comprising the australandean volcanic zone of the southernmost Chilean Andes. Glacier-covered, 3607-m-high Lautaro volcano, the highest Chilean volcano below 40 degrees south, has a crater just below its summit on the NW side, and a 1-km-wide crater is located on the NE flank.

Photo by José Naranjo, 2002 (Servico Nacional de Geologica y Mineria).
Pular is the 12-km-long volcanic ridge below the center of this 29 October 2018 Planet Scope image (N is at the top; this image is approximately 41 km across). The lava flows to the W are at El Negrillar. The edifice contains Cerro Pular at the NE end and Cerro Pajonales at the SW.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2018 (https://www.planet.com/).
Volcán Mentolat is an ice-filled 6-km-wide caldera in the central part of Magdalena Island, across the Puyuhuapi strait from the town of Puerto Cisnes. A young-looking andesitic lava flow on the west side of the volcano may be its most recent product. Historical reports describe an eruption at the beginning of the 18th century that could refer to this lava flow.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The summit crater of Llaima volcano appears in the foreground of this 1989 view looking north along the chain of Andean volcanoes. An ash plume rises in the middle distance from a flank vent of Lonquimay volcano. To its left is Tolguaca volcano, and Callaqui volcano lies farther to the north to the left of Lonquimay. All these volcanoes except for Tolguaca have erupted in historical time; Llaima is one of Chile's most active volcanoes.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1989 (University of Chile).
Pyroclastic cones and lava flows at the NW side of the Laguna del Maule volcanic center rise above the shore of the lake. This cluster of small stratovolcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones covers an area of 15 x 20 km within a Pleistocene caldera. Pleistocene and Holocene basaltic lava flows were erupted down the upper part of the Maule River valley and on all sides of the lake.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
An eruption plume rises from a broad crater in a tephra cone atop the new and old dome complex in this May 26, 2008 helicopter view of Chaitén from the SW. Lumpy areas on the middle to lower cone mark obsidian outcrops on the now buried older dome. Burned vegetation is visible at the bottom center along the Blanco River. A major explosive eruption at Chaitén volcano began on May 2, marking the first historical eruption of the volcano. Mudflows destroyed much of the town of Chaitén.

Photo by Jeff Marso, 2008 (U.S. Geological Survey).
An elongated lava flow field at La Negrillar is down the center of this 28 April 2019 Planet Scope satellite image (N is at the top; this image is approximately 17 km across). A scoria cone with a crater that opens towards the SE is visible below the center of the image. The field is located along the SW margin of the Atacama basin, W of Socompa volcano.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
Volcán San José on the far left horizon rises to the north above ice pinnacles at the Nieves Negras pass on the Chile/Argentina border. The summit of San José is formed by a cluster of six Holocene craters, pyroclastic cones, and blocky lava flows that lie within a series of elongated, 0.5 x 2 km wide nested craters. Mild phreatomagmatic eruptions were recorded at San José in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Photo courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Antuco volcano rises dramatically above the shores of Laguna de la Laja. Edifice failure at the beginning of the Holocene created a large horseshoe-shaped caldera whose NW rim forms the ridge descending diagonally across the photo to the right. The steep-sided modern basaltic cone has grown 1000 m since then, producing fresh-looking lava flows with prominent levees that have overtopped the caldera rim and reached the lake shore in the foreground. The most recent eruptions of Antuco occurred during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
The sharp-topped peak of Corcovado volcano rises above the Gulf of Corcovado as seen from the north from a helicopter near the town of Chaitén. The glacially eroded volcano is surrounded by Holocene cinder cones. The light-colored delta at the left was formed by lahar deposition during the eruption of Chaitén volcano beginning in 2008.

Photo by Jon Major, 2010 (USGS, Cascades Volcano Observatory).
Volcán Láscar (right) is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. A steam plume rises in 1986 from one of six overlapping summit craters capping the andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano, which is seen here from Toconao to the NW. Volcán Aguas Calientes (left center), an older, higher stratovolcano 5 km to the east, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit. Frequent explosive eruptions have been recorded from Láscar since the mid-19th century.

Photo by Paul King, MINSAL Corporation, 1986 (courtesy of Peter Francis, Open University).
The elongated NNW-trending edifice of 5697-m-high Lastarria volcano rises above pyroclastic-flow deposits that form an extensive apron below the northern flanks of the volcano. Five nested craters are found along a semi-arcuate line on the summit ridge. The youngest feature is a lava dome that overlaps the northern crater rim. Persistent fumarolic activity occurs at the summit and NW flank, and small sulfur flows 350 m long have been produced by melting of extensive sulfur deposits in the summit region.

Photo by Paula Cornejo, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Long-term phreatomagmatic eruptions accompanying formation of a new lava dome on the SE flank of Volcán Nuevo began in 1973. This photo shows a small explosive eruption on February 21, 1979. Activity died down in 1983, when intermittent explosions (about one every two months) began. This continued into 1987, by which time the new cone was about 30 m taller than Volcán Nuevo.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán, 1979 (University of Chile).
The dramatic summit spire of Volcán Corcovado is seen here in an aerial view from the south. Two of a string of lakes on its eastern side appear in the background. Corcovado, probably of late-Pleistocene age, is eroded by glaciers and surrounded by Holocene cinder cones. Eruptions were reported in historical time from these flank cones. Darwin observed activity from the Corcovado area in 1834, and an eruption was reported to have occurred in November 1835.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The small dot near the center of this Landsat image is the Cerro Tujle maar (also known as Cerro Tucle or Cerro Tugle). The Holocene maar has a 60-m-deep crater and is surrounded by a dark-colored ejecta blanket. The maar is located SE of the Salar de Atacama, north of Cerro Toloncha.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).
The dacitic volcanic complex of El Muerto abuts Nevados Ojos del Salado volcano on the east and NE. The summit of this massive complex contains dacitic lava domes and is cut by a 2.5-km-long depression containing a dozen eruptive centers; an additional two dozen centers lie outside the depression. Lava flows from these centers cover an area of 120 sq km. The summit lava domes are of Pleistocene age, but the complex is cut by ENE-trending fractures that formed during Holocene eruptions of Ojos del Salado.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The flanks of Isluga volcano in Chile are formed by numerous lobate lava flows visible in this June 2019 Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top; this image is approximately 23 km across). The lavas have lateral levees and pressure ridges especially visible on the southern flanks. The most recent 400-m-diameter summit crater is visible at the western side of the summit area.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
The elongated Taapaca massif rises to the SE above the gentle slopes of block-and-ash flow deposits from the volcano. The steeply dipping lava flow on the left horizon caps hydrothermally altered rocks of a Pleistocene stratovolcano of the Taapaca II complex. The dome complex at the center is of part of the dacitic Pleistocene Taapaca III complex, and the light-colored dome at the right is part of the dacitic Pleistocene-to-Holocene Taapaca IV complex.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
An eruption plume towers above Llaima volcano on May 17, 1994 in this aerial view from the west. Lava fountains are visible along a 550-m-long fissure on the upper SSW flank that fed a subglacial lava flow. Explosive plumes May 17-19 produced ashfall primarily to the ESE. Lahars and flooding associated with the eruption cut roads and destroyed five bridges along the Calbuco River. A dark-gray plume was observed on June 14 or 15, and a new eruptive episode August 25-30 produced ashfall primarily to the SE and north.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1994 (published in González-Ferrán, 1995).
Ash-laden eruption plumes rise above a fissure vent at Cordón Caulle volcano on May 24, 1960 during the latest eruption of this volcano. An eruption from the southeast end of the Cordon Caulle fissure system began 48 hrs after a major tectonic earthquake with an epicenter 300 km NW of Puyehue volcano. Tephra fell primarily to the southeast. Lava flows from numerous vents flowed mostly to the southwest. The eruption lasted until the end of June.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán, 1960 (University of Chile).
Snow-capped Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, is seen here in 1984 with a dark-colored lava flow descending its flank. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows have been produced during the Holocene from this dominantly basaltic volcano, but historical eruptions have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Lahars from the glacier-covered volcano have damaged towns on its flanks.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1984 (University of Chile).
The irregular 10-km-long N-S-trending chain just left of the center of this Landsat image is Cerros de Guayaques. These rhyodacitic lava domes straddle the Chile-Bolivia border. The 10-km-long chain is located immediately east of the Purico pyroclastic shield, part of which is visible on the left side of the image. A well-defined summit crater was the source of the largest lava flows, which form the lobate flows that extend 3 km to the SW. There are no records of historical activity from Guayaques volcano.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).
An ASTER satellite image from NASA in November 2000 looks down onto the summit crater of Chilques volcano. Radial gullies descend the flank of the volcano. Nighttime thermal infrared images on April 12, 2002 revealed hot spots in the summit crater and along the upper flanks, marking the first observations of historical activity at the volcano.

NASA ASTER image, 2000 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes during historical time, rises above Lake Villarrica. This December 1984 view from the NE shows steam rising from the summit crater and a lava flow descending the glacier-covered flanks of the volcano. This dominantly basaltic volcano has produced plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows during the Holocene, but historical eruptions have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Lahars from the glacier-covered volcano have damaged towns on its flanks.

Copyrighted photo by André Demaison, 1984 (courtesy of Katia and Maurice Krafft).
The small circular feature just above the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper left) is Chaitén caldera. It is located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén, the light-colored area along on the Gulf of Corcovado below and to the right of the caldera. This small, glacier-free, 3.5-km-wide caldera is of Pleistocene age, but has a rhyolitic Holocene lava dome.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-42131, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Dacitic pumice from Holocene eruptions of Nevados Ojos del Salado volcano lines the shores of Laguna Verde, NNE of the volcano. The lake lies near the Chile-Argentina border, between Mulas Muertas and Falso Azufre volcanoes.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The Cordón de Puntas Negras, a NW-SE-trending chain of small cones, lava domes, and lava flows, extends from SE of Cerro Chiliques to the Volcán Puntas Negras stratovolcano. This view of the southern end of the chain shows multiple vents that fed pristine-looking lava flows with prominent flow levees. The Cordón de Puntas Negras chain is situated along the southern margin of the 35 x 70 km Pliocene La Pacana caldera.

Photo by Instituto Geográfico Militar, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The 4-km-wide Sollipulli caldera contains over 500 m of ice (593 m measured in 2011) and overlaps an older caldera on the left in the center of this Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top; this image is approximately 40 km across). Around the caldera rim eruptions have formed lava flows, coulées, and domes, and on the SW rim is the 1-km-wide Alpehué crater. The Alpehué geyser field is on the SW flank near the summit area and recent scoria cones are on the NE flank.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
The forested volcanic complex in the lower center of this NASA Space Station image (with north to the left) is Hualique (also known as Apagado). This stratovolcano is located SW of snow-covered Yate volcano (top; left of center) and occupies the peninsula between the Gulf of Ancud and the Reloncaví estuary (upper left). A 6-km-wide caldera is open to the SW. Hornopirén volcano is the small rounded brownish peak below and to the right of Yate volcano.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-42995, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
An active sulfur mine is located north of Cerro Sairecabur volcano. This chain of volcanoes along the Chile-Bolivia border contains at least 10 postglacial centers. The highest peak, Sairecabur, is located at the northern margin of a 4.5-km-wide caldera. Postglacial activity began south of the summit, but most recently produced a pristine lava flow to the NW. Escalante, at the northern end of the chain, has a crater lake at its summit and youthful lava flows on its flanks. Other eruptive centers have also produced Holocene lava flows.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
The western flank of Acamarachi volcano is seen in an aerial view with ignimbrite deposits of the Pliocene La Pacana caldera in the background. This steep-sided andesitic volcano, also known as Cerro Pili, rises to 6046 m.

Photo by Insitituto Geográfico Militar, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Snow capped volcanoes dot this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper right) taken along the Chile-Bolivia border. The snow-capped peak at the far left-center is Guallatiri volcano, and to its right are the three peaks of Nevados Quimsachata, which includes Acotango volcano. The two peaks at the upper left are Pomerape and Parinacota, with Laguna Chungara below. Nevado del Sajama in Bolivia lies at the upper right-center. At the lower right is the snow-free volcano of Macizo de Larancagua.

NASA International Space Station image ISS009-E-6848, 2004 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The 26 x 14 km late-Pleistocene Calabozos caldera contains several post-caldera vents of Holocene age. The Descabezado Chico group (mid right-center) was constructed over the buried western rim of the caldera. The Cerro de Medio group (mid extreme-right) grew within the southern part of the caldera. No historical eruptions are known, but hot-spring clusters occur within the caldera.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
This viscous andesitic aa flow was erupted from the Volcanes de Ajata cinder cones along a N-S fracture on the southern flank of Parinacota. Helium-exposure ages of about 5985 and 6500 years ago were obtained from the lowermost and oldest of three lava flows of the Volcanes de Ajata. Snow-capped Acotango, Sajama, and Guallatiri volcanoes form the horizon to the east.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Acamarachi, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic volcano with slopes that reach about 45 degrees, forms a dramatic backdrop to a flock of flamingos in Laguna Lejía, to its south. The 6046-m-high Acamarachi is the highest peak in this part of the northern Andes. The Pleistocene Cerros de Pili range forms the right horizon. A poorly preserved summit crater and the absence of youthful flank lava flows suggests that Acamarchi was largely constructed in pre-Holocene times, although the summit lava flows may be young.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
An aerial view looks down on the andesitic-dacitic lava domes that form the eruptive complex Laguna Escondida in Cordón Puntas Negras.

Photo by Instituto Geográfico Militar, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
An eruption plume rises above Lascar on 18 April 2006 as photographed from El Abra copper mine, 220 km NW. The plume rose a maximum height of about 10 km. Intermittent ash eruptions continued until July 2007.

Image courtesy of employees at the El Abra copper mine, 2006.
The ice-capped, 3164-m-high Callaqui volcano has an elongated profile due to construction along an 11-km-long, SW-NE-trending fissure. As many as 16 well-preserved volcanic craters, the majority of which are on the SW flank, have erupted along this fissure and produced lava flows that mantle the volcano's flanks. Two large, ice-filled craters are located at the summit, and intense solfataric activity occurs on the southern side.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
This impact crater, 6 m wide and 1.5 m deep was produced by ejection of a 1.5 cu m ballistic block that traveled 5 km from the summit crater of Láscar (out of view to the right). An explosive eruption on February 20, 1990 destroyed 10-30% of the summit crater lava dome that had been emplaced in 1989 and produced an 18-km-high ash cloud. Aguas Calientes volcano rises on the horizon.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán, 1990 (University of Chile).
Glaciers mantle the southern side of 4850-m-high Palomo volcano (left-center). The ice cover forms the Universidad (University) Glacier, which drains to the SW into the Tinguiririca River.

Photo by Wolfgang Foerster, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Volcán Macá, the highest volcano between Lanín and Lautaro, rises to 2960 m NW of Puerto Aisén. Little is known of the geologic history of this glacier-covered stratovolcano, which contains a summit lava dome and flank cinder cones.

Photo by John Davidson, University of Michigan (courtesy of Hugo Moreno, University of Chile).
Snow-capped Licancabur volcano rises to the east beyond a Pliocene rhyolitic pyroclastic-flow deposit in the foreground from the Chaxas lava dome. Block lava flows from Licancabur have traveled as far as 12 km from the summit crater.

Photo courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Parinacota is the larger of the two main edifices in this November 2019 Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top; this image is approximately 23 km across). With Pomerape to the NE, together they form the Nevados de Payachata group along the Chile-Bolivia border. The group of lakes to the SW formed within a debris avalanche deposit about 8,000 years ago that is more than 22 km long with a volume of 6 km3. The current cone formed over the resulting scarp and older edifice, and has a summit crater around 650 m wide. Lava flows are visible on all flanks, with some flows emplaced around the debris avalanche deposit hummocks.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
The two snow-capped volcanoes of the Nevados de Payachata volcanic group dominate this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the bottom). A prominent summit crater tops symmetrical Parinacota volcano, constructed to the SW of its eroded Pleistocene twin, Pomerape volcano. Silicic lava flows from Parinacota form lobes extending into Laguna Chungará, which was formed when a major debris avalanche from Parinacota blocked drainages. The hummocky debris-avalanche deposit covers much of the lower right part of the image.

NASA International Space Station image ISS009-E-6837, 2004 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Lava fountaining from a lava lake at the NNE side of Villarrica's summit crater feeds steaming lava flows down the north and NE flanks in December 1984. The 1984-85 eruption began in August. Following intensified activity in October, the NE-flank lava flow melted a channel 50-m wide and 30-40 m deep and produced a 5-km-long avalanche. Lava melted through the ice and flowed beneath the glacier before emerging onto the surface again on November 13, generating a 3-km-long avalanche and leaving a 150-m-long ice bridge.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1984.
Conical Volcán Chiliques (left) and Volcan Miscanti (right) rise to the NE above Laguna Miscanti. The 5778-m-high summit of Chiliques contains a 500-m-wide crater, and some youthful lava flows may be of Holocene age. This volcano had previously been considered to be dormant; however, in 2002 a NASA nighttime thermal infrared ASTER satellite image showed low-level hot spots in the summit crater and upper flanks. Miscanti volcano is of probable late-Pleistocene age.

Photo by Jos Offermans, 2008.
An ash plume rises from Volcan Mirador, a pyroclastic cone that formed during an eruption in 1979. The Carran-Los Venados volcano group includes about 50 scoria cones, maars, and a small stratovolcano that are broadly aligned along a 17-km-long ENE-WSW trend. The volcano group occupies a low-lying area north of the Cordón Caulle-Pueyhue volcanic chain. In addition to the 1979 Mirador scoria cone, two maars, Rininahue and Carran, were formed during eruptions in the 20th century.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1979 (University of Chile).
Forested Volcán Relicura, rising to the NW from near the Liucura Bridge, is part of four groups of basaltic cinder cones lying east of Lago Villarrica and NE of Villarrica volcano. The northernmost and southernmost groups, the Volcanes de Caburgua and Volcán Huelemolle, respectively, lie along the major regional Liquine-Ofqui fault zone. Lava flows from the half dozen cinder cones of the Volcanes de Caburgua blocked drainages, forming elongated Lago Caburgua.

Photo by Jim Luhr, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
Volcán Nuevo, the newest cone of the three-peaked Nevados de Chillán volcano, was formed beginning in 1861. It grew between Cerro Blanco and Volcán Viejo, which anchor the NW and SE ends of the complex, respectively. Volcán Nuevo has been the most active volcano of the complex since its birth. In 1973, the year of this photo, a long-term eruption began on the SE flank of Volcán Nuevo, producing a cone that by 1987 had grown above Volcán Nuevo. Nevados de Chillán is one of the most active volcanoes of the Central Andes of Chile.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1973 (University of Chile).
Volcán Lanín is a large conical late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano along the Chile-Argentina border. The beautifully symmetrical, 3737-m-high Lanín, seen here from the Chilean side, rises 2500 m above its base. A small lava dome at the summit fed blocky lava flows to the north. A postglacial tuff ring (Volcán Arenal) is located below the SW flank of Lanín in Argentina. A younger lava flow from Lanín covers deposits of Volcán Arenal and extends south into Lago Paimún. No reliable reports of historical eruptions from Lanín are known.

Photo by John Davidson, University of Michigan (courtesy of Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Incandescent spatter and bombs ejected from a lava lake at the bottom of a steep-sided, ~40-m-wide inner crater are seen from the SW rim of Villarrica's outer crater on November 19, 2004. Incandescence was seen above the summit crater the nights of August 5-6 and October 27-28, 2004 and frequently during November and December. Strombolian explosions ejected material to 100 m the night of December 12-13. Ground observations of summit lava lake activity and minor strombolian explosions were continued into 2006.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
The snow-capped Cordón Caulle volcanic massif rises on the left horizon across the Río Gol Gol valley from the Antillanca volcano group in the foreground. The Cordón Caulle is a group of post-caldera silicic vents formed along a 17-km-long, 2.5-km-wide WNW-ESE rift zone extending to the SE towards Puyehue volcano, whose flanks form the far right horizon. Historical eruptions have occurred from several points along the Cordón Caulle fissure system during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Photo by Klaus Dorsch, 2001 (University of Munich).
Acamarachi, an impressively steep-sided andesitic-dacitic volcano with slopes that reach about 45 degrees, towers above Laguna Aguas Calientes. The 6046-m-high Acamarachi is the highest peak in this part of the northern Andes and lies at the SSE end of a small volcanic complex that extends from the neighboring volcano Colachi. A poorly preserved summit crater and the absence of youthful flank lava flows suggest that Acamarachi was largely constructed in pre-Holocene times, although the summit lava flows may be younger.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Tinguiririca is composed of at least seven Holocene scoria cones constructed along a N-S fissure over an eroded Pleistocene stratovolcano. The central part of the chain from Tinguiririca to Fray Carlos is seen in this view. Sulfur deposits are found on the western flanks of the summit cones. A single historical eruption from Tinguiririca was recorded in 1917.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Planchón-Peteroa is a complex volcano with several overlapping calderas. Activity began during the Pleistocene with construction of Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. The youngest volcano, Volcán Peteroa, consisting of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón, has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
The western side of glacier-covered Monte Tronador volcano overlies rugged granitic peaks of the Northern Patagonian Batholith in the foreground. Activity at the Tronador volcanic group, which straddles the Chile-Argentina border east of scenic Lake Todos los Santos, dates back to the early Pleistocene and ended during the mid-Pleistocene. The only possible Holocene activity in the volcano group took place SSE of Monte Tronador, forming the post-glacial Fonck cinder cone and lava flow.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
A somewhat fanciful sketch depicts visitors fleeing a small phreatic explosion from a vent in the summit crater of Antuco volcano on March 1, 1839. Historical eruptions of Antuco have been recorded since the middle of the 18th century. All historical activity has consisted of mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, with the exception of a flank eruption during 1852-53 that produced a lava flow.

From the collection of Maurice and Katia Krafft.
The blocky lava flow in the foreground is one of several young flows on the NW flank of Láscar volcano. The most prominent flow traveled down the north flank and extended 6 km to the NW. Láscar, northern Chile's most active volcano, has produced frequent explosive eruptions since its first recorded historical eruption in the mid-19th century. Recent eruptions have included lava dome growth in the summit crater.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
Volcán Putana, seen here from the west, shows vigorous fumarolic activity at its 5890-m-high summit. Snow forming a thin diagonal line below and to the right of the summit marks a road leading to a sulfur-mining operation at the summit of the volcano. Putana is also known as Jorgencal or Machuca and is part of a large, roughly N-S-trending volcanic complex that covers an area of 600 sq km along the Chile-Bolivia border. Postglacial dacitic lava domes and short, thick lava flows form the main edifice.

Photo by Joël Boyer, 2006 (L.A.V.E.)
Volcán Putana, seen here from the NW, is part of large, roughly N-S-trending volcanic complex that was formed almost exclusively by lava effusion. Vigorous fumarolic activity is visible for many km from the summit of Putana volcano and sulfur is mined in the summit region. The main edifice consists of accumulated postglacial lava flows mantling an older pre-Holocene volcano. The youngest lava flows are viscous and rarely extend more than 3 km. Little is known of the eruptive history of this volcano.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
Calbuco is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. The isolated volcano rises to 2003 m south of Lake Llanquihue, which is visible at the upper right. The summit ridge (center) of the volcano is the remnant of an older volcano that collapsed during the late Pleistocene and produced a 3 cu km debris avalanche that reached the lake. Subsequent eruptions generated andesitic lava flows, breccias, and tuffs that filled the scarp and were subsequently topped by an historical lava-dome complex (right center).

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Descabezado Grande (center) and Cerro Azul (middle right), seen here from the NW, are the most prominent features of a large volcanic field. The most active of the two large stratovolcanoes is 3810-m-high Cerro Azul. Quizapú, a vent that formed in 1846 on the northern flank of Cerro Azul, was the source of one of the world's largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century in April 1932. The eruption created a 600-700 m wide crater and ejected 9.5 cu km of dacitic tephra. The only historical eruption of Descabezado Grande took place later in 1932.

Photo by Jeff Post, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).
A powerful explosive eruption from Láscar volcano in northern Chile on April 19, 1993 produced an eruption column that rose to a maximum of 17 km altitude (12 km above the vent). The violent explosion of the dome inside the active crater of Láscar generated pyroclastic flows down the NE side that reached the Bofeladas de Tumbre. Plinian explosions on April 18-20 followed phreatomagmatic eruptions that began on January 30. Small explosions continued until May 8, and another eruption occurred on an unknown day in August.

Photo by Ricardo de la Peña, 1993 (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
A field of fresh-looking, unvegetated lava flows blankets the SW flank of Osorno volcano. Prominent flow levees mark channels of individual flow lobes. Some of these lava flows were erupted from cinder cones on the SSW flank of Osorno in 1835. Explosive activity beginning on November 29, 1834 was followed by lava effusion starting January 19, 1835 that lasted until the end of February.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Waves lap against the northern coast of Easter island. This view looks from Obahe to Mahatua with Volcán Poike, a shield volcano forming the eastern tip of the island, on the horizon. The trachytic lava domes of Tea-Tea are the small peaks on the left horizon. The triangle-shaped Easter Island, renowned for its dramatic megalithic statues of hand-carved basalt, sits atop the Sala y Gómez submarine ridge, which trends eastward from the East Pacific Rise. The island is composed of three principal volcanoes, Poike, Rano Kau, and Terevaka.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Glacier-covered Volcán Minchinmávida is elongated along a NE-SW direction. The volcano has a mostly obscured 3-km-wide caldera, and a youthful eruptive center is located on the ENE side of the complex. An eruption from Minchinmávida was reported in 1742. Darwin observed the volcano in activity in 1834 on his renowned voyage that took him to the Galápagos Islands.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-42260, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Glacier-clad Volcán Parinacota rises to the NE above Laguna Chungará near the Chile-Bolivia border. The lake was formed when collapse of Parinacota about 8000 years ago produced a 6 cu km debris avalanche that traveled 22 km to the west and blocked drainages. Subsequent eruptions constructed the 6348-m-high symmetrical stratovolcano, which towers above late-Pleistocene andesitic-to-rhyolitic lava domes and flows in the middle ground.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
A near-vertical aerial view into the ~250-m-wide summit crater of Villarrica volcano on November 19, 2004 shows an incandescent lava lake in the steep-walled inner crater. The chain of dots left (north) of the crater are climbers near the crater rim. Night-time glow was periodically visible from the town of Pucón on the north flank of volcano beginning in August 2004 and intensified in November and December. Small strombolian explosions in December ejected spatter and bombs onto the crater rim.

Photo by Jean-Claude Tanguy, 2004 (Institute de Physique du Globe de Paris).
An ash plume rises above Láscar volcano on October 27, 2002, as seen from Pozo Tres, 60 km to the NW. Minor ash eruptions had been observed on 3 occasions at five-minute intervals on October 26, producing plumes that rose about 300 m above the summit crater. On the 27th two explosions were observed; the plume from the 2nd explosion reached at least 1.5 km above the crater.

Photo by Jose Viramonte (Universidad Nacional de Salta, published in Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network), 2002.
The elongated, glacier-covered massif near the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the left) is Yanteles volcano in southern Chile. The volcano is composed of five glacier-capped peaks along an 8-km-long NE-trending ridge. Historical eruptions from this 2042-m-high, andesitic volcanic complex are uncertain.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-42998, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Casablanca volcano, whose summit is visible at the upper right, is the highest peak of the Antillanca volcano group. Raihuen crater (lower left) lies at the base of Casablanca. The Antillanca Group is a cluster of late-Pleistocene to Holocene scoria cones, maars, and small stratovolcanoes covering an area of 380 sq km SE of Lago Puyehue and NE of Lago Rupanco. Older late-Pleistocene stratovolcanoes have been extensively dissected by glaciers, but numerous small Holocene volcanic centers are present.

Photo by Klaus Dorsch, 2001 (University of Munich).
Cerro Tujle maar is the crater in the center of this March 2019 Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top), located in the Central Volcanic Zone of the northern Chilean Andes. The 333 x 279 m crater is 60 m deep, and around it are tephra and lava flows.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
Two youthful large silicic lava flows flank the summit of Colachi volcano (upper left). The larger flow (bottom) covers a 7 sq km area at the SE base of the volcano. The smaller flow on the NW flank is visible at the upper left. A smaller lava flow with pronounced lateral levees was erupted from a vent on the eastern flank.

Photo by Insitituto Geográfico Militar, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The broad profile of the snow-covered Sollipulli massif lies on the horizon to the NE as seen from the upper slopes of Villarrica volcano. A 4-km-wide caldera with post-caldera lava domes on its rim lies on the eastern side of the Nevados de Sollipulli volcanic chain. The rounded hills in the middle distance are pyroclastic cones of the Caburgua-Huelemolle volcano group; lava flows from these cones dammed drainages, forming Laguna Caburgua, visible at the upper left.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
Erosional furrows cut outflow sheets of Pleistocene ignimbrites of the Purico Complex that were erupted from a postulated 10 x 20 km ring fracture. The light-colored dome at the top center is Pleistocene in age, but the youngest lava domes, Cerro Chascón de Purico (center) and Cerro Aspero (the small dome at the bottom center) are of Pleistocene-Holocene age. The dacitic-to-andesitic Macon stratovolcano of Holocene age lies at the SW end of the complex (far left-center). The Guayaques volcanic chain lies at the upper right.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).
A billowing dark, ash-rich eruption column rises above a cinder cone on the NE flank of Chile's Lonquimay volcano in January 1989. During the course of an eruption that lasted from December 1988 until January 1990, heavy ashfall blanketed the countryside, causing severe disruption to agricultural areas near the volcano. The ash was high in fluorine, unusual for Andean volcanoes. Fluorine poisoning from ash on ingested grass caused the deaths of hundreds of cattle and horses, producing severe economic hardship.

Photo courtesy of Hugo Moreno, 1989 (University of Chile).
Strombolian eruptions eject incandescent fragments above a cinder cone on the NE flank of Lonquimay volcano in the central Chilean Andes in January 1989. The parabolic arcs of individual volcanic bombs can be seen at the right in this time-exposure photograph. The flanks of the cone are colored by still-cooling ejected blocks. The cinder cone, which began forming on Christmas day 1988, was named Navidad.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1989.
The southern side of conical, glacier-clad Parinacota volcano is seen from south of Laguna Changará, with its twin volcano, Pomerape, visible in the distance behind its right-hand flank. A complex of lighter colored dacitic-rhyolitic lava domes can be seen at the SW flank of Parinacota (middle left). The main cone of Parinacota was constructed during the Holocene primarily by the effusion of andesitic lava flows following collapse of an earlier edifice. The youngest of these flows was dated at between 1300 and 2000 years ago.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
A lava flow descends the NE flank of Villarrica volcano in 1984. A small lava lake at the NNE side of the summit crater fed lava flows through a notch in the crater rim left by the 1971 eruption. The lava initially flowed down the summit icefield and then burrowed under the glacier. The flow emerged onto the surface on November 13, producing a 3-km-long avalanche of lava blocks, ice, and snow.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1984 (University of Chile).
A lava flow in the foreground issues from the breached Navidad cinder cone on February 8, 1989, while an ash plume rises above the crater. The lava flow originated on December 27, 1988, two days after the start of the eruption from a vent on the NE flank of Lonquimay volcano, whose slope is visible at the right. The flow advanced rapidly during the first few days of the eruption, reaching 4 km by Janaury 2. It then slowed, and by the time the eruption ended, in January 1990, the blocky lava flow reached 10 km down the Río Lolco valley.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1989 (University of Chile).
A vertical aerial view into the summit crater of Láscar shows a dark-colored dacitic lava dome that was extruded inside the active crater between February and December 1989. Ash eruptions had begun earlier in late 1987 and had continued in 1988. The active lava dome was observed in February and April 1989, and the dome was observed to be deflated in October 1989. An explosive eruption on February 20, 1990 destroyed 10-30% of the summit crater lava dome and produced an 8-km-high ash cloud.

Photo by Servicio Aerofotogramétrico de la Fuerza Aérea de Chile, 1989 (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, Univ Chile).
Alternating lava flows and pyroclastic deposits are exposed in the crater walls of Tinguiririca volcano. Hydrothermally altered rocks are prominent in the lower parts of the crater walls.

Photo by Wolfgang Foerster, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Scoria cones of the Meullín volcanic field are across this May 2018 Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top; this image is approximately 8.5 km across). The field is located in southern Chile and the small cones are vegetated, many with visible summit craters.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2018 (https://www.planet.com/).
The conical, glacier-clad Nevado de Longaví volcano is seen from the SE. In the foreground is a Holocene block-and-ash flow deposit. This late-Pleistocene to Holocene andesitic stratovolcano was constructed over a basement of sedimentary and granitic rocks. A small lava dome forms the 3242-m-high summit of Longaví. No historical eruptions are known, although fumarolic activity continues.

Photo by José Naranjo, 2001 (Servico Nacional de Geologica y Mineria).
Multiple craters truncate the summit of Láscar volcano (left of center), and prominent lava flow levees are visible on its western flank. To the east is the symmetrical cone of Láscar's higher twin volcano, Aguas Caliente (right of center), with its smaller circular summit crater that contains a shallow lake. The most recent activity at this E-W-trending volcanic chain originated from Láscar volcano and continued into historical time.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).
The symmetrical, glacier-clad Osorno stratovolcano forms a renowned landmark between Todos Los Santos and Llanguihue lakes. It is seen here from the north, with Calbuco volcano visible at the extreme right. The 2652-m-high Osorno is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. Flank scoria cones and fissure vents, primarily on the west and SW sides, have produced lava flows that reached Lago Llanguihue. Historical eruptions have originated from both summit and flank vents.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
The broad Volcán Miñiques massif rises to the SE above Laguna Miñiques. The 5910-m-high summit of the volcano is cut by three overlapping, E-W-trending craters. Larger craters, partially filled by lava domes and flows, are located west and NE of the summit of the volcano, which is of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. A prominent lava flow, not visible in this image, extends NW-ward from the summit to the lower flanks, separating Laguna Miñiques from Laguna Miscanti to the north.

Photo by Jos Offermans, 2008.
A pyroclastic flow descends the quebrada of Tumbre, north of Lascar at 0930 hours on April 20, 1993. A plinian eruption April 18-20 was the largest from Láscar in historical time. Pyroclastic flows containing white pumice, dark scoria, compositionally banded pumice, and dense blocks from the summit lava dome traveled as far as 8.5 km down the NW, NE, and SE flanks.

Photo by Ricardo de la Peña, 1993 (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
The lava flow in the foreground roadcut is part of the Quillelhue Basalts, which were erupted from an area at about 2600 m altitude on the NNW flank of Lanín, the snow-capped volcano in the background. The lavas form a basaltic field that reaches as far as Quillelhue Lake, more than 5 km from their source. The flows are bracketed by 2170 BP date for the Mamuil Malal dacitic block-and-ash flow and a 1650 BP date for an overlying pyroclastic-flow deposit.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
The symmetrical Licancabur stratovolcano (left) rises above a basement of rhyodacitic ignimbrites and dacitic lava domes. A small 80-m-wide lake, one of the world's highest, occupies its 400-m-wide summit crater. Archaeological ruins were found on the 5916-m-high crater rim of Volcán Lincancabur. Young lava flows with prominent levees extend up to 6 km down the NW-to-SW flanks of the volcano.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
A brownish, ash-laden plume rises a few hundred m above Láscar volcano at about 1430 hrs on September 14, 1986. The plume, seen here from Toconao, 33 km NW, preceded much larger explosions on September 16. The saddle between Láscar and Aguas Calientes volcano is at the far left.

Photo by Paul King, MINSAL Corporation, 1986 (courtesy of Peter Francis, Open University).
óAn explosive eruption lasting three weeks began on February 9, 1991 from a 200-m-wide crater between Planchon and Peteroa. This photo shows an ash plume rising from the crater on February 11. Ashfall occurred as far as 70 km from the crater. Fish in the Claro and Teno rivers were killed and water supplies were contaminated by tephra and water ejected from the crater lake.

Photo by Moyra Gardeweg, 1991 (Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, Chile).
The Nevados de Payachata volcanic group, the scenic highlight of Lauca National Park, is seen here from the SW and consists of the symmetrical, 6348-m-high Parinacota volcano (right) and its older twin volcano, Pleistocene 6222-m-high Pomerape volcano (left). Collapse of Parinacota about 8000 years ago produced a 6 cu km debris avalanche that formed the hummocky terrain in the foreground, with the colorful Llareta plant at the lower right. Hummocks in this medial portion of the avalanche deposit are about 50-100 m high.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
The dark streak descending the NW flank of the caldera of Hudson volcano is a lava flow that was erupted during the initial stages of the 1991 eruption. During the first two days of the eruption, August 8-9, basaltic ash and lava were erupted from a 4.5-km-long fissure on the western caldera rim. The lava flow traveled 4 km down the Huemules glacier. Ash from the August 12-15 paroxysmal eruption, which originated from a subglacial vent whose margin is just visible at the extreme left, darkens the caldera floor in this August 23 photo.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1991 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The third historical eruption of the Carran-Los Venados volcanic field began with strombolian explosions at 0100 hrs on April 14, 1979. A 3-4 km high eruption column produced ashfall that covered agricultural lands near the volcano. A new pyroclastic cone rose at the site of a prehistorical cone. Lava flowed 1 km to the SSW from the new breached crater in April. Beginning on May 12, lava flows traveled short distances from the breached crater to the SE and from the crater rim to the NE base of the cone. The eruption ended on May 20.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1979 (University of Chile).
Conical Maipo volcano rises above the floor of Diamante caldera in this NASA International Space Station view (with north to the top). A series of flank vents on the eastern side of the volcano produced lava flows that give the western shoreline of Laguna Maipo and irregular outline; a lava flow in 1826 blocked drainages on the caldera floor, forming the lake. The 15 x 20 km Diamante caldera was formed during a major explosion eruption about 450,000 years ago.

NASA International Space Station image ISS009-E-7182, 2004 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Cerros de Guayaques is the irregular 10-km-long N-S chain down the center of this 5 November 2019 Sentinel-2 satellite image, along the Chile-Bolivia border. The group consists of lava domes, and a crater near the center of the complex produced a 5-km-long lava flow to the SW and W.

Satellite image courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel Data, 2019.
The small light-brown area at the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the bottom right) is Volcán Lomas Blancas. This small shield-like 2268-m-high stratovolcano of late-Pleistocene to Holocene age is located about 15 km SE of snow-capped Nevado de Longaví volcano (right-center). A 2.3-km-wide caldera, possibly formed by edifice collapse, can been seen opening to the SE. Pumice deposits probably originating from Nevado de Longaví blanket the volcano. The crescent-shaped lake at the upper left is Laguna del Dial.

NASA International Space Station image ISS008-E-7432, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Light-colored rhyodacitic pyroclastic-flow deposits blanket El Solo volcano in the Ojos del Salado area. Snow partially mantles the summit of El Solo, a stratovolcano composed of nine eruptive centers located west of Nevados del Ojos de Salado and SE of Tres Cruces volcano. The 6190-m-high El Solo volcano was the source of major pyroclastic-flow deposits erupted during the Holocene that thickly fill adjacent valleys.

Photo courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Seen from the SE, Llaima volcano has a twin-peaked profile. Historical eruptions have occurred from craters topping both the 3125-m-high summit cone of Llaima (right) and the 2920-m-high SE cone (left). About 50 eruptions have occurred from Volcan Llaima, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, since its first historical eruption in 1640. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions are often accompanied by lava flows. Mudflows sweeping down the flanks of the glaciated volcano have damaged villages at its foot.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Putana volcano, also known as Jorgencal or Machuca, lies in the center of this Landsat image. Snow-covered areas are deep blue in this image of the N-S-trending volcanic complex, which covers an area of 600 sq km. The main edifice consists of accumulated postglacial dacitic lava domes and flows mantling an older pre-Holocene volcano. The youngest basaltic andesite lava flows are viscous and rarely extend more than 3 km. The prominent fan-shaped lava flow at the upper left originated from a flank vent.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).
The Cerro Bayo volcanic complex is along the Chile-Argentina border east of the Salar de Gorbea and is shown in this 21 October 2019 Planet Scope satellite image (N is at the top; the image is approximately 11.5 km across). A 430-m-diameter crater is visible at the summit of a scoria cone, and to the W are lobate lava flows with levees and pressure ridges.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
Aguilera is located in the southernmost Chilean Andes, within the area shown in this 8 September 2019 Sentinel-2 satellite image (N is at the top; this image is approximately 60 km across).

Satellite image courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel Data, 2019.
The snow-capped Taapaca (Nevados de Putre) volcanic complex rises to the north above rhyodacitic pyroclastic deposits in the Pampa del Muerto. Taapaca volcano rises NE of the town of Putre in northern Chile. Putre is built on top of debris-avalanche deposits from Taapaca, which consists of a dacitic lava-dome complex. The latest stage of activity during the Holocene produced the 5860-m-high summit lava dome complex (center horizon).

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
A dark lava flow descends the Chaillupén river on the SW flank of Villarrica volcano towards Lake Calafquén during an eruption in 1971. The lava flow overrides light-colored mudflow deposits produced earlier during the eruption, which began on October 29. On November 29 lava effusion and pyroclastic cone formation began. Three basaltic lava flows were emitted on the SW flank during December 3-20. The eruption culminated on December 29, when lava flows melted ice, producing lahars that swept the volcano's flanks and caused 15 fatalites. The eruption lasted until January 10.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1971 (University of Chile).
An eruption plume towers above Navidad cinder cone on the NE flank of Lonquimay volcano (left) in January 1989. The eruption began on December 25, 1988 along a NE-trending rift zone about 3.5 km from the summit. On December 27, the eruption plume reached 9-km altitude and lava effusion began, producing a flow that traveled 4.5 km by January 4. Advance of the terminus of the flow slowed after April 1989, but lava effusion and moderate explosive activity continued for more than a year before ending in January 1990.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1989.
Amalia Glacier flows around the northern flank of Reclus in the Southern Patagonia Ice Field, shown in this 27 February 2018 PlanetScope satellite image (N is at the top; this image is approximately 8 km across). The flanks are heavily eroded and there is a landslide deposit from the northern flank on the glacier surface.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2018 (https://www.planet.com/).
Symmetrical Volcán Parinacota rises north of Lake Chungará in the foreground. The lake was formed when collapse of an ancestral Parinacota edifice about 8000 years ago produced a massive 5-6 cu km debris avalanche that dammed a preexisting river. Subsequent eruptions of andesitic aa lava flows and andesitic pumice and scoria flows constructed the modern conical edifice, obscuring the avalanche source scarp. The summit of Parinacota volcano contains a pristine, 300-m-wide crater.

Photo by John Davidson, University of Michigan (courtesy of Hugo Moreno, University of Chile).
Ash from the 1991 eruption darkens the glacier filling the caldera of Hudson volcano. This August 23 view from the NE shows steam clouds rising from the margins of a 800-m-wide subglacial crater in the SW part of the caldera that was formed during violent explosive eruptions August 12-15. Ashfall from the eruption spread eastward across Argentina, damaging airport facilities, houses, and agricultural land. The eruption caused major mortality of grazing animals, whose food and water were contaminated by fluorine-rich ashfall.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1991 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The world's highest Holocene volcano, Nevados Ojos del Salado, rises to 6887 m along the border between Chile and Argentina. The summit complex, which is elongated in a NE-SW direction, is seen here from the NW. The massive volcanic complex contains numerous craters, cones, and andesitic and dacitic lava domes. No historical eruptions have been recorded, but the volcano is fumarolically active.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The symmetrical, 5916-m-high Volcán Licancabur stratovolcano contains one of the world's highest lakes in its 400-m-wide summit crater. Archaeological ruins are located on the crater rim. Young lava flows with prominent levees extend up to 6 km down the NW-to-SW flanks. Most of the morphologically youthful volcano was constructed during the Holocene. The pre-Holocene Juriques volcano is located immediately to the SE and is capped by a 1.5-km-wide summit crater.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
The cones with summit craters at the SW corner of Lago Caburgua (upper left) are the Volcanes de Caburgua. South of the lake are two areas with thicker vegetation, the northern area is the La Barda cones, and the southern is Volcan Huelemolle. The vegetated ridge across the eastern half of the photo contains the Redondo, Pichares, and Relicura cones (E to W).

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2021 (https://www.planet.com/).
The elongated summit ridge of Láscar volcano (right) rises above a flock of flamingos in Laguna Lejía. Láscar is at the western end of an E-W-oriented volcanic complex that includes Volcán Aguas Calientes, out of view to the right. Six overlapping craters occupy the summit ridge of Láscar. The presently active crater, near the center horizon of this photo from the SE, has recently produced explosive eruptions accompanied by growth of a lava dome.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
The gaping crater of the 1932 Quizapú eruption (left-center) lies below the summit of Cerro Azul stratovolcano. Cerro Azul was constructed to the south of its twin volcano Descabezado Grande, where this photo was taken. Steep-sided Cerro Azul has a 500-m-wide summit crater that is open to the north. Quizapú was the source of one of the world's largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century in 1932. This eruption created a 600-700 m wide, 150 m deep crater and ejected 9.5 cu km of dacitic tephra.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The world's highest historically active volcano, 6739-m-high Llullaillaco, sits astride the Chile-Argentina border. The summit, seen here from the NE, is formed by a smaller well-preserved cone that was constructed on an older edifice dating back to the early Pleistocene. A major debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of the older volcano extends eastward into Argentina. Growth of the modern cone was completed with the emplacement of a series of young lava flows down the northern and southern flanks.

Photo by Carlos Felipe Ramírez, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Volcán Chiliques, the conical peak at the left, is a structurally simple stratovolcano located immediately south of Laguna Lejía. A 500-m-wide snow-capped crater truncates the summit and contains a small lake. The volcano was constructed over a base of dacitic lava domes and andesitic lava flows. Youthful lava flows radially descended from the summit as far as 5 km to the NW. The volcanic complex at the right is the Pleistocene Volcán Lejía, which was constructed within a 3.5-km-wide caldera.

Photo by Instituto Geográfico Militar, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The snow-mantled surface of Llullaillaco volcano is seen in this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper left). The two youthful looking lava flows with prominent flow levees descending the northern and western flanks of the volcano appeared to be of Holocene, but Ar/Ar dating showed them to be of late-Pleistocene age. Llullaillaco is the world's highest historically active volcano.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-13814, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Volcán Pomerape is the northernmost of twin stratovolcanoes forming the Nevados de Payachata along the Chile-Bolivia border. The 6282-m-high Pomerape lies across a saddle from Parinacota volcano, out of view to the right. The glacially dissected Pomerape was constructed above a base of dacitic-rhyolitic lava domes. The dominantly andesitic stratovolcano is capped by dacitic breccias and is of dominantly Pleistocene age.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, has a symmetrical profile when seen from the north. The massive, 3125-m-high, glacier-covered stratovolcano is constructed primarily of accumulated lava flows and has a volume of 400 cu km. Volcán Llaima contains two historically active craters, one at the summit and the other to the SE. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions, a few of which were accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 17th century.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex forms the horizon in this view looking north across the Río Gol Gol valley from the Antillanca volcano group. Flat-topped 2236-m-high Puyehue volcano (right) is a late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-rhyolitic stratovolcano constructed above a 5-km-wide caldera and capped by a 2.4-km-wide summit caldera. Historical eruptions originally attributed to Puyehue are now known to be from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, the long snow-covered ridge that extends across the photo to the left of Puyehue.

Photo by Klaus Dorsch, 2001 (University of Munich).
Maipo volcano, seen here from the west, partially fills the Pleistocene Diamante caldera. The floor of the large 15 x 20 km caldera, which formed about 0.45 million years ago during an eruption that produced a 450 cu km ignimbrite, is visible below Maipo. The 5264-m-high basaltic-andesite stratovolcano has a relatively simple structure, but has a flank rhyodacitic lava-dome complex and pyroclastic cones on its eastern flank. Lava flows from these cones extend into Laguna Diamante on the eastern side of the caldera.

Photo by Wolfgang Foerster, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The Olca-Paruma volcanic complex, seen here from the west, forms a 15-km-long E-W ridge forming the border between Chile and Bolivia and is comprised of several stratovolcanoes with Holocene lava flows. Volcán Olca lies near the western end of the complex. It is flanked to the east by Volcán Paruma, which is immediately west of the higher pre-Holocene Cerro Paruma volcano, the conical peak in the background. Volcán Paruma has been the source of conspicuous fresh lava flows and has displayed persistent fumarolic activity in recent years.

Photo by José Naranjo, 2001 (Servico Nacional de Geologica y Mineria).
The NW rim of Diamante caldera in the center of the image rises above the caldera floor in the foreground. The caldera was formed during voluminous rhyolitic explosive eruptions about 450,000 years ago that produced ashflows that extended radially more than 100 km from the caldera, covering much of the Central Valley of Chile and extending into Argentina. The conical snow-capped peak on the center horizon beyond rugged intervening peaks of the Andes is San José volcano.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The dramatic summit spire of Corcovado volcano is seen in this telephoto view from the west from the town of Quellon on the island of Chiloe. The volcano rises across the Gulf of Corcovado, which lies beyond the ridge in the middle distance. The main edifice at Corcovado is likely Pleistocene in age, but historical eruptions have been reported, probably from Holocene cinder cones surrounding the volcano.

Photo by Bryan Freeman, 2005.
Chile's second largest explosive eruption of the 20th century began on August 8, 1991 from a fissure cutting the western rim of Cerro Hudson caldera. The paroxysmal phase began on August 12 and was sustained for three days, producing ashfall that collapsed roofs near the volcano and fell in the Falkland Islands, 1000 km to the SE. Pyroclastic flows were mostly restricted to the caldera floor. The dark streak at the lower right-center is a lava flow that traveled 4 km down the WNW flank from the west caldera rim fissure.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1991 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Symmetrical Volcán Aguas Calientes, also known as Simba, is a twin volcano of Láscar. It is seen here from the south as a backdrop to Laguna Lejía, renowned for its flamingos, with the slopes of Láscar at the extreme left. Aguas Calientes is at the eastern end of a short E-W volcanic chain that includes the historically active Láscar volcano on the west. A shallow lake occupies the well-preserved summit crater of Aguas Calientes. The thick lava flows at the summit are considered to be of Holocene age.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
Quetrupillan stratovolcano (left) lies at the center of a group of three volcanoes trending transverse to the Andean chain. It is seen here from the summit of Villarrica volcano (at the western end of the chain), with conical Lanín volcano at the eastern end in the background. The 2360-m-high Quetrupillan volcano was constructed within a large 7 x 10 km wide caldera; a smaller caldera truncates the summit. Some of the most recent activity produced pyroclastic cones along the right-hand flank, near the SW margin of the older caldera.

Photo by Judy Harden, 2004 (University of South Florida).
A dark-colored andesitic volcanic bomb, ejected in a plastic state with a ballistic trajectory, drapes older rhyolitic rocks. The bomb was ejected during the Ajata volcanic eruptions. Helium surface-exposure ages ranging between about 1385 and 6500 years ago were obtained from the three lava flows erupted from the Volcanes de Ajata. Note the ice axe for scale (right-center).

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The Nevados de Payachata volcanic group in northern Chile, seen here from the west, consists of the symmetrical, 6348-m-high Parinacota volcano (right) and its older twin volcano, Pleistocene 6222-m-high Pomerape volcano (left). The young cone of Parinacota post-dates collapse of an older edifice about 8000 years ago. The most recent activity at Parinacota produced a series of fresh-looking lava flows from satellitic cones on the south and SW flanks.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Following minor eruptions on September 14 and 15, 1986, a strong explosive eruption from Láscar volcano on September 16 deposited ash 350 km away at Salta, Argentina. The eruption cloud, seen here at about 7:30 a.m. from Toconao, 33 km to the NW, rose to 15 km altitude (about 9 km above the vent), producing an ash column that dispersed to the SE. The plume was traced on satellite imagery to about 400 km downwind and covered an area of more than 112,000 sq km. The brief eruption ended on the 16th.

Photo by Paul King, MINSAL Corporation, 1986 (courtesy of Peter Francis, Open University).
This April 2019 Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top; this image is approximately 23 km across) highlights the lava flow morphologies of the Sierra Nevada complex in Chile. The complex covers around 225 km2 and has at least 12 vents with associated lava flows. The 1-km-wide Cumbre del Laudo crater is on the eastern end with an oxidized scoria deposit around the vent.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
Glacier-clad Melimoyu volcano is seen from the NW from the town of Quellon on the island of Chiloe. The volcano lies across the Gulf of Corcovado beyond the small island cutting across the image in the foreground. Two prominent horns at the summit of the volcano rise above the rim of the summit crater. The large stratovolcano has an 8-km-wide, largely buried ice-filled caldera that is drained by a glacier through a notch in the NE caldera rim. Two late-Holocene tephra layers have been documented from Melimoyu.

Photo by Bryan Freeman, 2005.
Symmetrical forested Volcán Hornopirén is seen from the SW from a ferry approaching the town of the same name at the head of a fjord at the NE end of the Gulf of Ancud. The 1572-m-high volcano, whose name means "snow oven," lies along a graben defined by the major regional Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone. The volcano was said to be in eruption in 1835, although no details are known. Glacier-capped Yate volcano appears in the background to the left of Hornopirén.

Photo by Jon Major, 2011 (USGS, Cascades Volcano Observatory).
The snow-capped modern summit of 2979-m-high Antuco volcano rises above the rim of a large horseshoe-shaped caldera, whose WNW rim forms the flat ridge just above the snow line. The caldera was formed by collapse of an older Antuco volcano at the beginning of the Holocene. The 1-km-high modern cone subsequently grew at the head of the scarp. Eruptions from both summit and flank vents have occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Snow-covered Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the resort town of Pucón below its northern flank. A faint steam plume drifts from an active lava lake in the summit crater. The steep summit cone was constructed within a mostly buried, 2-km-wide caldera whose dissected outer flanks rise above the tree line. Villarrica is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. Historical eruptions have been documented since 1558 CE.

Photo by Lee Siebert (Smithsonian Institution). 2004.
This prominent fumarole is located in the summit region of Guallatiri volcano. The vigorous fumarole lies 30 m below the summit on the western side and produces a very audible "jet-like" noise. Many solfataras are located along a 300 m section of the upper west flank of the volcano, and another five fumaroles are located on the south side of the central cone.

Photo by Sergio Kunstmann-Z (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
Volcán Yate is an upper Pleistocene, glacially dissected stratovolcano with Holocene parasitic vents. Little is known of the eruptive history of this isolated volcano, which is located SW of the mouth of the Puelo River on the Relancaví strait, NNE of neighboring Hornopirén volcano.

Photo by John Davidson, University of Michigan (courtesy of Hugo Moreno, University of Chile).
A vertical aerial photograph shows a growing lava dome in the summit of Láscar volcano on March 20, 1992. Three of six summit craters located along an E-W trend are seen in this photo, with north to the top. The lava dome (the dark steaming mass at left center) was first seen on March 4, but may have formed earlier following phreatic explosive eruptions in October 1991. Eruption plumes were visible beginning in late March. Ashfall occurred on May 15 and night glow visible May 21-23 marked the last reported activity of the 1991-92 eruption.

Photo by Moyra Gardeweg, 1992 (Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, Chile).
A steaming lava flow, 30-35 m thick and 1-km-wide, originating from Navidad cinder cone on the NE flank of Chile's Lonquimay volcano advances down the Río Lolco valley. By the time of this 25 March 1989 photograph, the flow had traveled about 7 km. Lava effusion began on 27 December 1988, two days after the beginning of an eruption that lasted until January 1990. The velocity of the slow-moving flow front decreased exponentially with distance from the vent. By the end of the eruption the lava flow reached 10 km from the vent and had a volume of 0.23 km3.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1989 (University of Chile).
Caichinque volcano forms a topographic high dividing lakes of Salar Capur (left) from Salar Talar (right). More than a half dozen vents produced andesitic-to-dacitic lava flows, with young flows descending to the NE and SE from the 4450-m-high summit. One prominent flow traveled 6 km to the east, forming two lobes extending into the Salar Talar. Other youthful looking flows traveled to the west, forming lobes extending into Salar Capur, and SSW, dividing the two salars.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).
A chain of cinder cones was erupted along NE-SW-trending fissures at the head of Puyuhuapi fjord (top-center) in this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper left). The Volcanes de Puyuhuapi consists of a larger group of four cones on the western side of Puyuhuapi fjord and a chain of smaller cones north of the head of the fjord. The two fractures and the fjord are related to the regional Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone. The town of Puyuhuapi lies on the western side of the fjord, about halfway down its visible length in this image.

NASA International Space Station image ISS004-E-7079, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The N-S-trending chain of andesitic-dacitic volcanoes along the Chile-Bolivia border just left of the center of this Landsat image is the Sairecábur-Escalante volcanic massif. Snow-covered areas are blue in this image of the chain, which contains at least 10 postglacial centers. A massive lava flow extends to the west, and a youthful flow traveled SE from Curinquinca volcano at the NE side of the chain. Laguna Verde is the left-hand lake at the bottom, NE of dark-colored Licancabur volcano; Juriques volcano to its right has a pronounced summit crater.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).
Volcán Socompa is a massive, 6051-m-high dacitic stratovolcano noted for an eruption about 7200 years ago, similar to that at Mount St. Helens in 1980. The Socompa eruption produced a massive 600 sq km debris-avalanche deposit, much larger than at St. Helens, that extends about 40 km from the summit. This view from the north shows dark-colored post-collapse lava domes on the right side that have filled much of the head of the massive collapse scarp, which extends to the base of the volcano at the lower right.

Photo by Carlos Felipe Ramírez (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
Glacier-clad Melimoyu is the prominent stratovolcano in this oblique NASA International Space Station image looking west toward the Corcovado Gulf. The volcano has an ice-filled 8-km-wide caldera that is drained by a glacier through a notch in the NE rim. The basaltic-andesite volcano is Pleistocene-Holocene in age.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-42370, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The 2048-m-high Mondaca lava dome (bottom center) produced a large youthful rhyodacitic lava flow that traveled north and dammed the Rio Lontue, eventually reaching 7 km to the NW (upper right). This eruption may have taken place during historical time, possibly during the 19th century. The solitary small Mondaca lava dome is located NNW of the Descabezado volcano complex and west of the Calabozos caldera.

Photo by Instituto Geográfico Militar, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The western side of the Sairecábur volcanic complex is seen with thick, blocky lava flows in the foreground. This chain of andesitic-dacitic volcanoes along the Chile-Bolivia border contains at least 10 postglacial centers and stretches from Escalante volcano on the north to Sairecábur volcano on the south. The highest peak, Sairecábur, is located on the northern margin of a 4.5-km-wide caldera. An active sulfur mine is located north of the volcano. Escalante has a crater lake at its summit and youthful lava flows on its flanks.

Photo by Raphaél Paris, 2004 (CNRS, Clermont-Ferrand).
A night-time view of Chile's Villarrica volcano in December 1984 shows an incandescent lava flow descending the north and NE flanks and strombolian eruptions from the summit crater. The 1984-85 eruption began with small explosions and tephra emission on August 11. Renewed explosions, accompanied by lava flows, began on October 30, and lasted until February 26. Beginning in April and continuing until November 18, lava fountains and weak explosions producing minor ash were observed from Pucón, a town at the north foot of the volcano.

Copyrighted photo by André Demaison, 1984 (courtesy of Katia and Maurice Krafft).
An eruption plume towers above Lonquimay volcano in January 1989. In this view from the SW, the plume appears to originate from the summit crater of Lonquimay, but the eruptive vent actually is located on the NE flank, 3.5 km from the summit. During this eruption, which began on Christmas day, 1988, and lasted until January 1990, a new cinder cone (Navidad) was formed and a lava flow traveled 10 km down the NE flank.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1989.
The compound Mocho-Choshuenco volcano, seen here from the SW, is composed of two glacier-covered stratovolcanoes post-dating a 4-km-wide caldera. Choshuenco (left), was constructed during the late Pleistocene on the NW rim of the caldera. The andesitic-to-dacitic, 2422-m-high El Mocho (center), is a small cone that grew within the caldera and has remained active into historical time.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The onset of a brief explosive eruption from Láscar volcano is seen here at about 1430 hrs on September 14, 1986, from Toconao, 33 km NW. The September 14 eruption produced ash clouds that rose a few hundred m above the vent for about a half hour. Similar activity on the 15th was followed by a brief, but powerful explosion on the 16th that deposited ash in Salta, Argentina, 350 km to the SE. Conical Volcán Aguas Calientes rises to the left of the plume.

Photo by Paul King, MINSAL Corporation, 1986 (courtesy of Peter Francis, Open University).
Colachi (left) is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano whose most recent activity produced pristine silicic lava flows of probable Holocene age. The largest of these covers a 7 sq km area on the saddle between Colachi and the neighboring volcano of Acamarachi (center horizon). This aerial view from the west also shows the conical peak of Aguas Calientes (far right), a twin volcano of Lascar volcano, whose slopes appear at the lower right. The Talabre valley in the center foreground is partially filled by an andesitic lava flow from Lascar.

Photo by Insitituto Geográfico Militar, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Lanín volcano rises to the south above a grove of distinctive Araucaria trees near the Chile/Argentina border. The beautifully symmetrical, 3737-m-high Lanín towers 2500 m above its base. The prominent shoulder area on the upper western (right horizon) and northern flanks hint at a buried caldera. The volcano was formed by dominantly effusive basaltic-to-trachydacitic eruptions at the eastern end of a NW-SE-trending volcanic group beginning with Villarrica on the west that is transverse to the Andean chain.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
Steam rises from the fumarolically active southern summit crater of Irruputuncu, a small stratovolcano that straddles the Chile/Bolivia border. Irruputuncu, seen here from the WSW, was constructed within the collapse scarp of a Holocene debris avalanche whose deposit extends to the SW. Levees of viscous lava flows down the western flank of an edifice that was constructed within this scarp are seen at the lower left. The first unambiguous historical eruption from Irruputuncu took place in November 1995.

Photo by José Naranjo, 2001 (Servico Nacional de Geologica y Mineria).
A resident of the Chilean town of Chile Chico, 125 km SE of Hudson volcano near the Argentinian border, sweeps ash from a rooftop on August 23, 1991. One of the world's largest eruptions of the 20th century took place August 12-15, 1991. It produced heavy ashfall across Argentina, damaging airport facilities and collapsing roofs of houses near the volcano. Ash fell as far away as the Falkland Islands, 1000 km to the SE. The fluorine-rich ash caused extensive mortality to grazing animals across Argentina.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1991 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Snow-mantled Volcán Maca, the highest volcano between Lanín and Lautaro, rises to 2960 m NW of Puerto Aisén. This glacier-covered, basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano lies within a caldera and contains a summit lava dome. Five flank cinder cones and lava domes lie along a NE-trending fissure that extends 15 km from the summit. The volcano lies along the regional Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone. Volcan Cay (far right) lies to the NE of Maca.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Palomo is a small, 4850-m-high stratovolcano that is seen here from the NNE rising above ruggedly dissected basement rocks. Palomo was constructed within double calderas, 3 and 5 km in diameter, respectively. A flank cone, Andres, is postglacial in age and has produced andesitic lava flows. Palomo has erupted basaltic-andesite to dacitic lava flows. No historical eruptions are known from Palomo, although its youthful morphology suggests a very young age.

Photo by Wolfgang Foerster, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The Falso Azufre volcanic complex, covering 387 km2 at the Chile-Argentina border, was constructed largely by lava flows up to 7 km long and 4 km wide, shown in this April 2019 Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top; this image is approximately 22 km across). The crater of the Kunstmann edifice is in the upper left corner, and the eastern domes, coulees, and lava flows are to the far right. The summit region craters are aligned along a NW-SE trend to the W (the Falso Azufre edifice), and along a ENE-WSW trend on the eastern side (the Dos Conos edifice).

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
The dome-filled caldera of Chaitén volcano is seen in an aerial view from the south taken prior to an eruption in 2008. The volcano is located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. The elliptical 2.5 x 4 km wide summit caldera was formed during an eruption dated at about 9400 years ago. A rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor.

Photo by Eric Manríquez T. (Instituto Geográfico Militar).
Tolguaca volcano, the snow-capped peak at the left, is a late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano located immediately NW of Lonquimay volcano. The cinder cone at the right in this view from the SE is the Navidad cone on the NE flank of Lonquimay, which formed during an eruption in 1989. The 2806-m-high Tolguaca is older than its neighbor Lonquimay. It is dissected by glaciers and only fumarolic activity has occurred during historical time. Flank vents are oriented NW-SE, in line with Lonquimay, and SW-NE-trending vents occur on the south flank.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Ice-covered Mount Burney occupies the NW part of the Muñoz Gomera Peninsula in the spectacular glaciated Patagonian fjord region of southern Chile. The volcano lies near the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the left). The rugged extensively glaciated topography surrounding the 1758-m-high Monte Burney is smoothed by volcaniclastic deposits from the volcano.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-41451, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Volcanologists on a field trip during the 2004 Chile IAVCEI conference examine an outcrop of the Caburgua-Huelemolle volcano group. Miocene granodiorites at the base of the roadcut are overlain by postglacial pyroclastic deposits from basaltic cones of the Caburgua-Huelemolle group.

Photo by Jim Luhr, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
A strong plume of steam and sulfurous gases rises above the crater of Láscar volcano prior to the 1986 eruption. Thermal anomalies detected on Thematic Mapper satellite images between December 1984 and July 1985 may have originated from a lava lake or lava dome in the summit crater, although there were no direct observations prior to the 1986 eruption. Aguas Calientes volcano appears on the left horizon in this view from the NW.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
A long E-W-trending volcanic chain extends across the border between Chile and Bolivia in this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper right). The chain extends from historically active Isluga volcano (upper left) to eroded Saxani volcano at the lower right. The smaller volcano immediately to the west of Saxani with a sharp shadow is the steep-sided Tata Sabaya volcano. Tata Sabaya was the source of a major debris-avalanche deposit (bottom center) that forms the small dark-colored hills on the white floor of Salar de Coipasa.

NASA International Space Station image ISS009-E-6849, 2004 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The sparsely vegetated pyroclastic cone at the lower right with a strip of snow on its crater rim is Volcán Apagado, also known as Hualiaque. Seen in an aerial view from the NW with the rugged snow-capped Chilean Andes in the background, it lies in the center of the peninsula between the Gulf of Ancud and the Reloncaví estuary. The pyroclastic cone lies within a 6-km-wide depression breached to the SW. The broad symmetrical Hornopirén volcano, capped by snow fields, lies to the east of Apagado at the left center.

Photo by Gerald Prins, 2008 (Wikimedia Commons).
An aerial photo highlights the volcanic cones and youthful lava flows of the Sairecabur volcanic complex. This chain of volcanoes along the Chile-Bolivia border contains at least 10 postglacial centers and stretches from Escalante volcano on the north to Sairecabur volcano on the south. The highest peak, Sairecabur (lower right), is located on the northern margin of a 4.5-km-wide caldera, whose rim is visible at the bottom center. A pristine lava flow extending to the NW (lower right-center) is the most recent from Sairecabur.

Photo by Instituto Geográfico Militar (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
The glacier-clad Melimoyu stratovolcano dominates this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the lower left). The 8-km-wide, largely buried ice-filled caldera is drained by a glacier through a notch in the NE rim. The 2400-m-high basaltic-andesite volcano is of Pleistocene to possible Holocene age and has several cinder cones.

NASA International Space Station image ISS006-E-42125, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The roughly 20-km-wide Huequi Peninsula extends about 40 km into the Gulf of Ancud in southern Chile. Volcán Huequi is a small, glacier-free volcano located just to the right of the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper left). A parasitic cone is located on the west side of the 1318-m-high basaltic-andesite volcano, which has an 800-m-wide crater. Explosive eruptions were recorded during the 19th and 20th centuries, initially in 1890 and most recently in about 1920.

NASA International Space Station image ISS008-E-12502, 2004 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex spans 120 km2 across this March 2021 Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top) with the 2.4-km-wide Puyehue caldera to the E, the Cordillera Nevada caldera near the center, and the Cordón Caulle fissure system to the W. The darker 2011-2012 Cordón Caulle obsidian lava flows extend up to around 3 km from the vents. Older fissure ridges are visible in the western segment.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2019 (https://www.planet.com/).
A lahar from Villarrica volcano in the Chilean lake district sweeps down the Correntoso river into Lake Villarrica in December 1984. The lahar flattened a small wooden bridge and affected houses on the banks of the river. The mudflow originated when the rate of effusion of a lava flow moving down the glacier-covered flanks of the volcano increased during the afternoon of December 6. By the following day stream flow had returned to normal.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1984.
Snow-capped Callaqui volcano rises in the distance north of the foreground slopes of Lonquimay volcano. The dark area at the right in this January 1989 view is a new lava flow from a NE-flank eruption of Lonquimay that began on December 25, 1988. The lava flow split into two lobes, the Laguna Verde lobe (seen here) and the Río Lolco lobe, which eventually traveled 10 km to the NE. Callaqui volcano in the background is another historically active volcano of the central Chilean Andes.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1989.
The Tilocalar volcanic center is shown here in this 25 November 2019 Sentinel-2 satellite image (N is at the top), with Tilocalar Norte near the center of the image and Tilocalar Sur to the SW. Tilocalar Norte erupted a single 4.3-km-long lava flow while Tilocalar Sur produced four lava flows. They overlie the Talabre ignimbrite.

Satellite image courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel Data, 2019.
A lava flow of the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Palei-Aike volcanic field is seen here from Cerro del Diablo. The large volcanic field straddles the Chile/Argentina border north of the Straits of Magellan. The southernmost of the Patagonian basaltic plateau lavas, Palei-Aike contains lake-filled maars and basaltic scoria and spatter cones with associated fresh-looking lava flows.

Photo by Andres Figueroa Zurita (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
Volcán Cay (upper left), is located east of Macá volcano (lower right) and NW of the town of Puerto Aisén. The basaltic and dacitic stratovolcano has an explosion crater that is open to the east, and about a half dozen explosion craters and pyroclastic cones lie along a fissure trending SW of the summit. Another 10 basaltic pyroclastic cones are located along second parallel fissure 5 km to the SE that is part of the major regional Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Glaciated Volcán Guallatiri is in the center of this December 2017 Planet Labs satellite image monthly mosaic (N is at the top; this image is approximately 23 km across). Thick lava flows, domes, and coulees form the flanks, a lava dome complex forms the summit, and both the summit and southwest fumarole fields remain active. The Domo Tinto lava dome formed on the SSW flank around 5,000 years ago.

Satellite image courtesy of Planet Labs Inc., 2017 (https://www.planet.com/).
Volcán Copahue is a composite volcano constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within an 8-km-wide Pleistocene caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains the briny El Agrio crater lake and displays intense fumarolic activity. Infrequent explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century from the 2965-m-high volcano.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Lonquimay (left) is a small, flat-topped, symmetrical stratovolcano of late-Pleistocene to dominantly Holocene age located immediately SE of the largely Pleistocene Tolguaca volcano (extreme right). The Cordón Fissural Oriental fissure zone extends 10 km NE of Lonquimay and has produced a series of vents and cinder cones that have been the source of voluminous lava flows in historical time. Major lava flows erupted during 1887-90 and 1988-90 traveled up to 10 km from their NE-flank vents.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The complicated structure of Volcán Putana can be seen in this view from the NW. The volcanic complex was formed almost entirely by lava effusion. Thick viscous lava flows have issued from both summit and flank vents. Early lava flows mantling an older Pleistocene edifice were longer, whereas the younger flows are short and stubby, rarely exceeding 3 km in length. A road leads to a sulfur mine near the summit (extreme right).

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1983.
Incandescent ejecta are visible at the base of a strombolian eruption column from Volcán Mirador in 1979. The eruption began on April 14 at the site of a prehistorical cinder cone. Almost constant explosive activity produced a new 200-m-high cinder cone, Volcán Mirador, and deposited ash over agricultural areas, prompting the evacuation of 125 people living nearby. Short lava flows traveled to the SE and NE in April and May before the eruption ended on May 20.

Photo by Hugo Moreno, 1979 (University of Chile).
Cerro Overo maar in the foreground was formed by phreatomagmatic explosions. A thin, roughly 1.5-m-thick, dark-colored ejecta blanket surrounds the 600-m-wide, 80-m-deep maar. The maar is located on the lower NE flank of Volcán Chiliques and was erupted along a regional fault through basement ignimbrites of Pliocene age from the La Pacana caldera. On the horizon to the right is the east side of Tumisa and the dome "Negro de Barriales." On the left is the Lejia stratovolcano and caldera. Laguna Agua Caliente is at the right-center.

Photo by Instituto Geográfico Militar (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).
A young scoria cone rises above the glacier-filled summit crater of 3621-m-high San Pedro stratovolcano, viewed here from the NW. The San Pedro-Pellado complex was constructed within the 6 x 12 km Río Colorado caldera, which formed during an eruption about 0.5 million years ago. San Pedro volcano itself is of Holocene age. No historical eruptions have been recorded from San Pedro-Pellado, but fumaroles are found SE of Pellado.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
A blocky andesitic lava flow traveling at an average velocity of 4 meters per hour descended the Río Tepu valley on the NE flank of Calbuco during the 1961 eruption. Explosions and lava effusion began on February 1, and lahars caused extensive damage on the north flank, where they reached Lake Llanquihue. Lava flows traveled to the NE, NW, and SW, and a large explosion took place on March 10.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán, 1961 (University of Chile).
An aerial view from the NW overlooks Planchón-Peteroa, a complex volcano with several overlapping calderas. In the left foreground is the caldera wall of Planchón volcano. The crater complex of Peteroa is in the center, and Volcán Azufre lies at the upper right. Activity began in the Pleistocene at Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. Volcán Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The light-colored layer at the bottom of the photo is a plinian pumice-fall deposit from Llaima volcano that has been radiocarbon dated at about 8800 year ago. The deposit is 4-m thick at this location, on the Río Trufultruful, 12 km SE of the summit. The dacitic pumice is the most silicic eruptive product known from Llaima and marks the largest known eruption of the volcano during the Holocene. The darker, laminated layers above the pumice deposit are 6-8 m thick pyroclastic-surge deposits from the same eruption.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).