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Kīlauea

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  •  
  • 19.421°N
  • 155.287°W

  • 1222 m
    4009 ft

  • 332010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number
Most Recent Weekly Report: 31 January-6 February 2024 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity at Kilauea increased on 27 January and during 27-30 January the locations of the earthquakes became more widespread. Inflation at the summit was ongoing and remained at a high level. Sulfur dioxide gas emission rates were low. Seismicity intensified in the late hours of 30 January, just before midnight. By 0300 on 31 January, the network had recorded 25-30 earthquakes. The earthquakes were located at depths of 1.5-3 km in clusters that had migrated between the area just S of Halema`uma`u Crater and the region SW of the outer caldera boundary. The rate of inflation increased at around 0400. The seismic and deformation data suggested that magma was rising towards the surface, and as a result HVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) at 0441. They noted that the patterns of earthquake activity and ground deformation were concentrated S of the caldera, so new eruptive activity could occur in or near Halema`uma`u Crater or the region S of the caldera.

Seismicity continued to intensify. During 0300-1755 on 31 January, over 500 earthquakes had been located, making a total of more 1,400 earthquakes recorded since 0900 on 27 January. The earthquakes occurred at a rate of 25-40 per hour. The events were located along the Koa’e fault system, SW of the summit. The magnitudes ranged from less than 1 to as high as 3.4; several of the earthquakes were large enough to be felt by HVO staff in the field and neighboring communities. The larger earthquakes triggered rockfalls in Halema`uma`u. About 20 microradians of inflation were detected by deformation instruments.

Seismicity decreased by the morning of 1 February, with 25-30 earthquakes per hour, and throughout the day the rate dropped further to 15-20 earthquakes per hour. The events continued to be located at depths of 1-4 km with epicenters in the vicinity of Pu’ukoa’e, 8-11 km SW of the caldera. Seismic and deformation data suggested that magma continued to move along the fault system. Models suggested that as much as 30 million cubic meters of magma had accumulated in the region SW of the caldera. Instruments detected almost 40 microradians of inflation by the morning on 1 February, but by 2 February the deformation data indicated deflation. Earthquake and ground deformation rates decreased significantly during 2-3 February, suggesting that the intrusion of magma had slowed or stopped and that the likelihood of an eruption had decreased. At 0810 on 3 February the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory, and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 2022 (BGVN 47:08) Citation IconCite this Report

Lava effusions persisted in the lava lake at Halema’uma’u during January-June 2022

Kīlauea is the southeastern-most volcano in Hawaii and overlaps the E flank of the Mauna Loa shield volcano. Its East Rift Zone (ERZ) has been intermittently active for at least 2,000 years. An extended eruption period began in January 1983 and was characterized by open lava lakes and lava flows from the summit caldera and the East Rift Zone. During May 2018 lava migrated into the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and opened 24 fissures along a 6-km-long NE-trending fracture zone that produced lava flows traveling in multiple directions. Lava fountaining was reported in these fissures and the lava lake in Halema’uma’u crater drained (BGVN 43:10).

The current eruption period started during September 2021 and has included seismicity, new fissures on the Halema’uma’u crater that generated lava flows, lava fountaining, and an active lava lake (BGVN 47:01). Similar activity with intermittent pauses continued during this reporting period of January through June 2022 using daily reports, volcanic activity notices, and abundant photo, map, and video data from the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO).

Summary of activity during January-June 2022. Activity at Kīlauea consisted of intermittent lava effusions from the western vent in the Halema’uma’u crater and ooze-outs along margins of the crusted over eastern side of the lake (figure 509). The lake had risen about 70 m since lava was first detected on 29 September 2021 and measurements from a helicopter overflight on 30 December 2021 indicated that the total erupted volume of lava since September was approximately 40 million cubic meters. Activity remained confined to the crater. Summit tiltmeters and nearby seismometers detected inflation and deflation events and volcanic tremors that rose and declined in frequency, reflective of pauses in the eruption. Sulfur dioxide emissions were frequently measured, reaching as much as 4,500 t/d on 1 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 509. Reference map of the summit eruption at Kīlauea on 7 January 2022. One eruptive vent (orange color) is intermittently active in the Halema’uma’u crater along the western edge of the lava lake, which frequently effuses lava that moves into the active portion of the lake (red color). During eruptive pauses, the only active lava is within a pond just N of the vent (purple color). The eruption statistics listed at the bottom of the map were updated on 30 December 2021. Courtesy of USGS, HVO.

Activity during January 2022. The lava lake at the Halema’uma’u crater remained active during January, showing several large overflows onto older ones and strong crater incandescence. Lava was visible at the western vent of the crater at 1445 on 31 December and remained confined to the crater. Seismicity in the summit region remained below background levels, and the sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 5,000 tons/day (t/d), based on measurements from 28 December. Pause events occurred throughout much of the reporting period and were characterized by lower effusion rates, deflation events, and lower volcanic tremor events. HVO issued a notice on 2 January at 0914 stating that the eruption was entering a pause, meaning that lava effusions continued, but at a much lower rate. Summit tiltmeters tracked rapid deflation during the early morning of 2 January. In addition, volcanic tremor associated with the eruption and recorded by nearby seismometers, also rapidly decreased. The lava lake began to cool at the same time. A large breakout along the northern margin of the crusted-over lava lake was observed during the morning; no effusions were reported from the western vent.

At approximately 0400 on 5 January the summit eruption at Halema’uma’u crater resumed, beginning with volcanic tremors detected at 0340 and then lava erupting from the western vent. On 6 January the sulfur dioxide emission rate was 3,300 t/d. Following another short pause, lava effused from the western vent at 1840 on 11 January, and lava ooze-outs were observed along the margins of the crusted over eastern side of the lake. The lava lake rose approximately 13 m, which was then followed by decreases in the summit tilt, tremor, and lake level. The total volume of lava erupted measured on 14 January was 45 million cubic meters. On 16 January HVO reported that lava had stopped erupting from the western vent and the level of the lake surface had dropped about 10 m. Occasional minor activity was reported at the vent on the N side of the spatter cone, as well as small lava ooze-outs along the margins of the crusted over eastern side of the lake.

After another multi-day pause, lava returned to the western vent at 1045 on 18 January and by 1630 the lava lake level had increased by about 12 m (figure 510). There were also several ooze-outs along the SE and NW margins of the lake. The active lava lake was confined to a small pond north of the western vent overnight during 20 January. Just after 0400 on the morning of 21 January the rate of effusion had increased, and the lava lake remained confined to the western half of the crater. Two overflow events were reported during the night of 21 January, with lava flowing NW, SW, and SE out of the lava lake. In addition, several ooze-out events occurred along the NW, N, SE, and S margins of the lake. By this time, the lava lake level had increased about 83 m since the beginning of the eruption period in late September 2021. Again, activity was confined to a small pond N of the western vent and several long-lived ooze-outs occurred along the margins of the E and NW side of the crater. Lava effusions into the pond were intermittent, with several hours in between short-lived periods of lava input. On 19 January the rate of sulfur dioxide emissions was 2,100 t/d and another measurement taken on 24 January showed that the rate had decreased to 58 t/d.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 510. Comparison of two images of the active lava lake at Kīlauea on 18 January 2022 at 1230 (top) and 1345 (bottom). The two photos compare the active portion of the lava lake shortly after the eruption restarted when the lake level was lower (top) to when it had refilled with lava (bottom). The white arrows point to approximately the same spot on both images, the level of which is different by about one meter. Courtesy of K. Mulliken, USGS.

During the morning of 25 January at 0552 a lava flow from the top of the western vent was observed that traveled W and N along the crater margin. The lava lake began to rise around 0630 and by 0820, it had risen 11 m. Overflows from the lava lake and the small pond N of the western vent, the largest of which were on the W and S margins, continued until the afternoon. A small lava flow was noted along the N margin of the larger inactive lava lake surface during the early morning of 27 January, and a small spatter zone that was active in the E section of the crater had produced a small and steep cone. Field crews working in the caldera on 27 January noted loud gas-jetting from the new cone that had developed earlier that morning. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was measured at 2,800 t/d on 25 January, during which time lava was being erupted from the western vent.

HVO reported that on at 0800 on 29 January there was no active lava visible in the Halema’uma’u crater, which indicated a pause in activity. The lava lake depth had very gradually decreased less than one meter. Some overturning during the afternoon was observed in the eastern part of the crater, which briefly exposed surficial lava, and circulating lava was occasionally visible in the small pond N of the western vent. Then, just before 2130 on 30 January, a lava overflow in the western vent occurred, moving NW. The small pond also began to quickly fill with lava, which flowed into the lava lake and occupied the W part of the crater by 2200. The lake began to rise and was overflowing by midnight. Lava flows travel to the S and then E along the margin of the crater. Lava also began to ooze out along the N margin of the larger inactive lava lake surface just after 0500 on 31 January.

Activity during February 2022. Lava continued to intermittently erupt from the western vent in the Halema’uma’u crater during February, with overflows feeding a lava flow to the SE along the S margin of the crater until 1100 on 31 January. Multiple ooze-outs occurred intermittently along the N, E, and S margins of the crater, some of which remained weakly active, with substantial portions of the inactive E lava lake being resurfaced by these flows. A small pond to the N of the western vent also fed the active part of the lava lake via a small lava flow (figure 511). The level of the lava lake continued to fluctuate, depending on the lava supply and summit inflation or deflation. The small spatter cone near the E end of the crater was less than 6 m tall and was erupting lava fountains up to approximately 10 m high for several hours during the night of 1 February and into early the next morning. These fountains fed a short lava flow that was contained near the E margin of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 4,500 t/d measured on 1 February and during an eruptive pause they were around 330 t/d on 8 February. A particularly vigorous ooze-out was observed at the far E side of the crater during 4-5 February. Heavy rain at the summit occurred between 1320 and 1800 on 13 February, which triggered spattering in the lava lake. As a result, there were brief decreases in the level of the lake during 1330 and 1557; the lake level returned to its pre-spatter measurement within an hour of each spattering episode. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,800 t/d measured on 14 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 511. Photo of the small 20-m-wide pond to the N of the western vent in Kīlauea’s Halema’uma’u crater taken at 0930 on 1 February 2022. A small lava flow is shown feeding the active part of the lava lake. Photo was taken from the western rim of the crater. Courtesy of D. Downs, USGS.

Short-lived overflows of the active western lava lake to the W started around 1000 on 20 February, and were followed by lava flows coming from the western vent and flowing to the S and W an hour later, at 1100. Minor ooze-outs also continued intermittently along the crater floor margins. Lava continued to erupt from the western vent and move to the S, W, and into the western lava lake through the rest of the month. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,500 t/d on 25 February. The Halema’uma’u crater floor had risen about 96 m since the eruption began in September 2021.

Activity during March 2022. Activity continued to fluctuate at the summit crater during March. Throughout February, the main western cone had broken down and by 4 March, lava effused from multiple vents, including the tallest cone (19 m high). The eruption was paused at 0130 on 1 March, meaning that the effusions from the western vent into the lava lake had diminished, though short-lived minor flows continued to be observed. These flows moved S, W, and into the western part of the lake, although they had stopped by the morning. Little to no ooze-outs along the crater margins were also reported. At 0100 on 2 March the eruption resumed, consisting of increased tremor that began 30 minutes earlier and continuous flows from the western vent moved to the S, W, and into the western lava lake (figure 512). During 4-5 March several ooze-outs were reported along the E and N margins of the crater floor. Spatter was also observed from the western vents on 4 March (figure 513). The total measured volume of the effusions since the start of the eruption was 53.6 million cubic meters on 4 March. During the early morning of 9 March, a small lava flow breakout began on the SE margin of the crater floor, but was already crusting over by 0900. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 2,200 t/d on 8 March and 1,900 t/d on 10 March. A sustained breakout from the NE edge of the crater began at around 1700 on 10 March and lasted until about 0630 the next day. On 11 March, HVO reported that lava was supplied from an embayment just N of the tallest cone in the western part of the crater, which had since grown to 27 m high (figure 514). Another small breakout occurred on the NW side of the crater floor from about 1700 on 12 March to 0500 the next day. Minor and slow crustal overturning occurred on the NW side of the crater floor during 13-14 March and began on the SE side of the crater floor edge, lasting for several hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 512. A helicopter overflight on 2 March 2022 allowed for aerial visual and thermal imagery to be taken of the Halema’uma’u crater at Kīlauea’s summit crater. The active part of the lava lake is confined to the western part of the crater. The scale of the thermal map ranges from blue to red, with blue colors indicative of cooler temperatures and red colors indicative of warmer temperatures. Courtesy of USGS, HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 513. Photo of spatter erupting from the western vents in the Halema’uma’u crater at Kīlauea, near where the main cone used to be. On 4 March the tallest of these vents, at 19 m high, was seen characterized by spattering activity. Courtesy of L. Gallant, USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 514. Telephoto view looking east of the active lava lake in the Halema’uma’u crater at Kīlauea on 11 March 2022. The broken down remains of the main western vent cone is visible in the lower right (through the volcanic gas plume). Lava supplies the lake through a small embayment and spillway (bottom center) just N of the western vent area. Some lava spills over a narrow divide into a second smaller lake to the SE (upper right). Courtesy of N. Deligne, USGS.

At around 0700 on 16 March a lava flow that originated from the N part of the western vent area started to advance NW onto the crater floor and remained active for several hours into the early afternoon. At least one ooze-out occurred on the E crater floor. A lava flow advanced onto the NW crater floor from during noon to midnight on 18 March and 2100 to 0700 during 19-20 March. Measurements taken on 17 March showed that the total volume of lava erupted since the eruption began was 57.7 million cubic meters and the lava lake level had risen 89 m. HVO reported a notable ooze-out along the N margin of the crater floor at 0345 on 21 March and continued into the next day. Some ooze-outs were also observed along the N and S crater margins during 23-24 March. The sulfur dioxide emission rate measured on 23 March as approximately 1,400 t/d, which increased to 3,100 t/d on 29 March. Numerous and sustained ooze-outs along the margins of the crater floor continued but showed decreasing activity; by 29 March the volume of the lava effused measured 64 million cubic meters. During 30-31 March a hornito forming on the E side of the lake had a few periods of spattering throughout the day (figure 515).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 515. Telephoto view looking north of the active lava lake in the Halema’uma’u crater at Kīlauea on 30 March 2022. Minor spattering is shown on the eastern margin (left) of the lava lake while circulation in the lake primarily moves from west to east (left to right). Sometimes lava can spatter up when it encounters the active lake margin, as shown in this image (right). Courtesy of N. Deligne, USGS.

Activity during April 2022. Intermittent activity continued during April with numerous and sustained ooze-outs along the NW, NE, and E half of the crater floor, occasional crustal overturning on the NW margin, and lava effusions from the western vent into the lava lake. On 6 April ooze-outs were observed along the NW margin of the crater floor, as well as the E half. The active part of the lava lake showed continuous surface activity and had risen about 1 m. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 3,400 t/d on 5 April and 3,200 t/d on 6 April. The crater floor had risen about 99 m since the beginning of the eruption, and approximately 66 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted. Overnight on 8 April a small breakout from the active western part of the lava lake was observed, in addition to a small ooze-out along the E lake margin. Small ooze-outs were also detected during 9-10 April along the NW, E, and SE lake margins. Shortly after 2315 on 10 April a surface flow emerged from the S side of the western vent. The flow traveled S on the crater floor and covered the SW and W lake margin and remained active through 14 April. The sulfur dioxide emission rate measured 1,300 t/d on 8 April. Sporadic lava breakouts also occurred along the E, NE, S, and N lake margins. By 17 April lava flowed from the breakouts along the margins of the crater: N to the NE, and a smaller one to the S. During the morning of 27 April and into the next day, HVO reported increased roiling and spattering in the SE portion of the lake, particularly to the E. Sporadic breakouts also continued along the crater margins, particularly to the E. On 27 April the sulfur dioxide emission rate increased to 4,300 t/d, but dropped to 1,800 t/d by the next day.

Activity during May 2022. Lava continued to effuse into the lava lake and onto the crater floor during May; the active part of the lake showed continuous surface activity. The level of the lake fluctuated as a result of inflation, sporadic to continuous breakouts along the margins of the crater, and lava effusions. A particularly vigorous and expansive ooze-out began along the NW margin after 0200 on 5 May, accompanying relatively sluggish lava ooze-outs along the NE and S margins of the crater floor. Around 0700 on 7 May a new lava flow effused from the western vent onto the crater floor, but had stalled an hour later. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,600 t/d on 4 May and 2,800 t/d on 12 May. Overflight measurements taken on 10 May indicated that the crater floor had risen about 106 m and 77 million cubic meters of lava had been effused since the September 2021. On 18 May HVO reported that the lake was draining into a small pond while spatter occurred along the margins of the crater (figure 516). This activity was also accompanied by loud whooshing and roiling noises, sometimes audible from the Keanakako‘i public overlook. On 31 May the sulfur dioxide emissions rate was 3,900 t/d.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 516. Photo of the active lava lake in the Halema’uma’u crater at Kīlauea during the morning of 18 May 2022. The active lake is shown draining into a small pond to the right while spattering along the margins occurred (top center). Courtesy of L. Gallant, USGS.

Activity during June 2022. During June, lava effusions persisted from the Halema’uma’u western vent into the active lava lake, in addition to frequent ooze-outs along the E, NE, NW, W, S, and N crater floor margins and some spattering activity at the margins. Minor fluctuations in the lava lake level were also recorded throughout the month due to consistent surface activity. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 2,500 t/d on 2 June and 1,350 t/d on 10 June. On 10 June an overflow from the western vent produced a lava flow that moved onto the W side of the crater floor. Overflight measurements made on 17 June indicated that the crater floor had risen about 120 m and that 93 million cubic meters of lava had been effused since the start of the eruption (figure 517). On 24 June there was a small zone of weak ooze-outs effusing from the crater floor (figure 518). The sulfur dioxide emission rates were measured again on 23 and 29 June that were 3,000 t/d and 1,200 t/d, respectively.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 517. Reference map of the summit eruption at Kīlauea on 17 June 2022. One eruptive vent (orange color) was active in the Halema’uma’u crater along the western edge of the lava lake, which frequently effused lava that moved into the active portion of the lake (red color). An adjacent pond (purple color) fed lava to a larger lake (light red), though at times the lava level declined and circulation decreased. Lava was visible from three public visitor overlooks in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park: Keanakako‘i Overlook and Kupina‘i Pali (Waldron Ledge) can see the eruptive vent and lava lake, while Kīlauea Overlook occasionally saw lava ooze-outs in the southeast part of the crater. The eruption statistics listed at the bottom of the map were updated on 21 June 2022. Courtesy of USGS, HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 518. Photo looking just north of the main lava lake in Halema’uma’u crater at Kīlauea showing a small zone of weak ooze-outs effusing from the crater floor on 24 June 2022. Courtesy of M. Patrick, USGS.

Information Contacts: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey, PO Box 51, Hawai'i National Park, HI 96718, USA (URL: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/).

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31 January-6 February 2024 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity at Kilauea increased on 27 January and during 27-30 January the locations of the earthquakes became more widespread. Inflation at the summit was ongoing and remained at a high level. Sulfur dioxide gas emission rates were low. Seismicity intensified in the late hours of 30 January, just before midnight. By 0300 on 31 January, the network had recorded 25-30 earthquakes. The earthquakes were located at depths of 1.5-3 km in clusters that had migrated between the area just S of Halema`uma`u Crater and the region SW of the outer caldera boundary. The rate of inflation increased at around 0400. The seismic and deformation data suggested that magma was rising towards the surface, and as a result HVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) at 0441. They noted that the patterns of earthquake activity and ground deformation were concentrated S of the caldera, so new eruptive activity could occur in or near Halema`uma`u Crater or the region S of the caldera.

Seismicity continued to intensify. During 0300-1755 on 31 January, over 500 earthquakes had been located, making a total of more 1,400 earthquakes recorded since 0900 on 27 January. The earthquakes occurred at a rate of 25-40 per hour. The events were located along the Koa’e fault system, SW of the summit. The magnitudes ranged from less than 1 to as high as 3.4; several of the earthquakes were large enough to be felt by HVO staff in the field and neighboring communities. The larger earthquakes triggered rockfalls in Halema`uma`u. About 20 microradians of inflation were detected by deformation instruments.

Seismicity decreased by the morning of 1 February, with 25-30 earthquakes per hour, and throughout the day the rate dropped further to 15-20 earthquakes per hour. The events continued to be located at depths of 1-4 km with epicenters in the vicinity of Pu’ukoa’e, 8-11 km SW of the caldera. Seismic and deformation data suggested that magma continued to move along the fault system. Models suggested that as much as 30 million cubic meters of magma had accumulated in the region SW of the caldera. Instruments detected almost 40 microradians of inflation by the morning on 1 February, but by 2 February the deformation data indicated deflation. Earthquake and ground deformation rates decreased significantly during 2-3 February, suggesting that the intrusion of magma had slowed or stopped and that the likelihood of an eruption had decreased. At 0810 on 3 February the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory, and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 September-19 September 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption located at the W side of the down-dropped block within Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater had ceased after activity declined over a few days. During 12-14 September multiple active vents, that were roughly E-W-trending and spanned a distance of about 750 m, produced lava fountains that rose as high as 10 m. Ramparts built by spatter were almost 20 m tall on the S sides (downwind side) of the vents. Lava from the vents flowed onto the N and W parts of the crater floor on 12 September, onto the N and E parts on 13 September, and only onto the W part by 14 September; the distances of the active flows progressively decreased. The area N of the active vents had become perched and was 3 m higher than the surrounding surface. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 20,000 tonnes per day (t/d) on the afternoon of 13 September, down significantly from 190,000 t/d measured just after the onset of the eruption. Effusion rates had decreased but remained at high levels.

Vigorous spattering and lava fountains that rose 10-15 m were visible at the westernmost large spatter cone during 14-15 September. Minor spattering at the next cone to the E did not rise above its rim. Lava continued to flow from the vents and travel N and W, confined to the W part of the down-dropped block and the NE parts of Halema`uma`u. A laser rangefinder pointed at the W portion of the crater continued to record uplift from the magmatic intrusion beneath the caldera since the onset of the eruption; the total local uplift was 6 m by 13 September, 9 m by 14 September, and 10 m by 15 September. Field crews observed that eruptive activity had greatly diminished or ceased at several of the vents by the morning of 15 September. Lava was no longer flowing onto the crater floor but active lava was ponded in an area N of the vents. Intermittent spattering was visible overnight at the large, westernmost cone but beginning at around 0700 on 16 September webcam images recorded minor to no fountaining. By 1115 spattering ceased and by noon the ponded lava had stagnated. Tremor levels indicting fluid movement decreased during 15-16 September and retuned to pre-eruption levels by 1700 on 16 September. Sulfur dioxide emission rates had also decreased and were 800 t/d by 16 September, only slightly above the 100-200 t/d typical of non-eruptive periods. At 0902 on 17 September HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second color on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 September-12 September 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that a new eruption began in Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater on 10 September following a period of increased seismicity. Seismicity increased on 22 August; most of the earthquakes were located at depths of 2-3 km and were all smaller than M2. About 150 occurred during 9-10 September. Tiltmeter and Global Positioning System (GPS) data showed inflation in the S portion of the crater.

At 0252 on 10 September HVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) due to increased earthquake activity and changes in ground deformation that indicated magma moving towards the surface. An eruption commenced at about 1515 in the E part of the caldera based on field reports and webcam images. Fissures opened on the crater floor and produced lava fountains and flows. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code were raised to Warning and Red, respectively. Gas-and-steam plumes rose from the fissures and drifted downwind. By 1900 the line of fissures was about 1.4 km long and extended into the E wall of the down-dropped block. Multiple active fountains were about 20-25 m high; fountains at the initial eruption onset were an estimated 50 m.

At 0810 on 11 September the Volcano Alert Level was lowered back to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was lowered back to Orange because the style of eruption and fissure location had stabilized, the initial extremely high effusion rates had declined (but remained at high levels), and no infrastructure was threatened. The eruption plume, mainly comprised of sulfur dioxide and particulates, rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and had become less dense. Lava erupted from fissures on the down-dropped block flowed W towards Halema`uma`u, covering much of the surface with active lava as deep as about 2.5 m. During 11-12 September easternmost vents on the down-dropped block and the westernmost vents in Halema`uma`u became inactive; the active vents were E-W-trending and spanned a distance of about 750 m. Channelized lava flows traveled N and W onto the Halema`uma`u Crater floor, burying the E rim of the crater and most of the crater floor; higher older lava flows prevented movement onto the SW part of the floor. Lava fountaining continued, rising as high as 15 m by the morning of 12 September. A laser rangefinder pointed at the W portion of the crater recorded almost 5 m of uplift from the magmatic intrusion beneath the caldera since the onset of the eruption.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 June-4 July 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

On 30 June HVO stated that Kilauea was no longer erupting. Lava supply to the lake ceased on 19 June and sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased to near pre-eruption background levels. Seismicity was also low. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second color on a four-color scale). The report noted that gradual inflation was detected at summit tiltmeters during 19-30 June. Incandescence from previously erupted lava was visible in overnight webcam images during 29-30 June; the lava continued to cool.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 June-20 June 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption on the floor of Kilauea’s Halema'uma'u Crater continued during 14-20 June. Activity was characterized by effusion primarily from the vent on the SW wall of the crater, circulation within the crater lakes, slow rise of the crater floor, eruptive tremor, and elevated sulfur dioxide levels (4,500-6,300 tonnes per day). Lava flows from vents at the base and top of a cone on the SW wall of Halema'uma'u entered the lava lake in the far SW portion of the crater; intermittent spattering from the cone was visible at night. Other eruptive vents within the SW lava lake (previously dome fountains) had ceased by 13 June. The surface of the SW lava lake slowly rose about 0.5 m per day during 13-15 June. Additionally, lava circulation continued within the central basin. At 0800 on 15 June the top of the SW wall cone collapsed, leading to nearly constant spattering from the top vent and a change in activity from the base vent. The central basin level has been dropping relative to the rising crater floor (due to lava accumulation underneath), allowing several flows from the SW lava lake to cascade into the basin.

By 16 June, renewed activity on the SW wall was producing vigorous fountaining to at least 10 m high with some higher spatters, with lava flowing into the SW lake. This activity continued into 19 June as the crater floor continued to rise, circulation in central basin slowed, and flows from the base of the SW wall cone changed paths. Around 1600 on 19 June activity rapidly declined, shown by a drop in the SW lake surface, decreased seismicity, and a transition to inflationary tilt from the deflationary trend of the previous two days. Seismic activity remained low and on 20 June HVO reported that the eruption had paused.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 June-13 June 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

A new eruption at Kilauea began at 0444 on 7 June with the burst of tall lava fountains from a vent on the central part of the Halema’uma’u Crater floor. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Warning (the highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). Soon after, lava fountains were active along multiple fissures on the crater floor, and along one fissure that bisected the SW crater wall. Between 0800-0900 the sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 65,000 tonnes per day. Residents of Pahala, 30 km downwind of the summit, reported minor deposits of fine gritty ash and Pele?s hair. Lava flows inundated the crater floor (about 1.5 square km) and added about 6 m depth of new lava within a few hours. A small spatter cone had formed at the vent on the SW wall by midday, and lava from the cone was flowing into the active lava lake below. Fountain heights had decreased from the onset of the eruption and were 4-9 m high by 1600, with occasional higher bursts. Inflation switched to deflation and summit earthquake activity greatly diminished shortly after the eruption onset.

At 0837 on 8 June HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange because the initial high effusion rates had declined, and no infrastructure was threatened. The lava lake had dropped by about 2 m likely due to gas loss by the morning of 8 June. The drop left a wall of cooled lava around the margins of the crater floor. Multiple lava fountains were active in the central E part of the lake and fountains rose as high as 10 m. The spatter cone continued to build over the SW wall vent; lava flows from the vent fed the SW part of the lava lake. The preliminary average effusion rate for the first 24 hours of the eruption was about 150 cubic meters per second, though the estimate did not account for vesiculated lava and variations in crater floor topography. The effusion rate during the very earliest phases of the eruption appeared to be significantly higher than the previous three summit eruptions based upon the rapid coverage of the entire crater floor.

During 8-9 June multiple lava fountains remained active and rose up to 10 m high. The SW wall vent continued to effuse lava into the crater lake which had increased in depth by about 1.5 m. Active lava and vents covered much of the W half of the crater floor, arranged in a broad horseshoe shape around a central uplifted area. This feature in the basin of the 2021-22 lava lake was described as the "western lava lake" from prior eruptions and had reactivated along with a smaller circular pool just SE of the lake. An active lava lake centered within the uplifted area was fed by a vent in its NE corner. A much smaller area of lava was active in the E portion of the crater floor. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 11,000 tonnes per day on 9 June and about 8,900 tonnes per day on 10 June.

During 10-12 June multiple lava fountains remained active and were up to 9 m high, and the SW wall vent continued to effuse lava into the crater lake. The active features in the E portion of the lake had stagnated during 10-11 June. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 7,400 tonnes per day on 11 June. The W part of the lake rose about 1 m during 11-12 June, likely due to the construction of a levee around the pond. Gas plumes rose to 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and were trapped under a weather inversion layer. Activity decreased during 12-13 June and only a few small lava fountains were active. The western lake and the smaller lava pond in the central portion of the crater floor remained active, along with the vent on the SW wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 May-6 June 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that earthquake activity and changes in the patterns of ground deformation beneath Kilauea’s summit began to be detected during the evening of 6 June. The data indicated magma movement towards the surface, prompting HVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

At about 0444 on 7 June incandescence in Halema’uma’u Crater was visible in webcam images indicting that a new eruption had begun. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Warning and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Lava flowed from fissures that had opened on the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 March-21 March 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

On 21 March HVO reported that Kilauea was no longer erupting. The lava lake in Halema’uma’u Crater was no longer being supplied as of 7 March based on lava lake levels and crater floor observations. Sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased to near pre-eruption background levels. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest color on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 March-7 March 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption on the floor of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater continued during 1-6 March but at a decreased rate. The western lake in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake remained weakly active; a few lava flows were visible on 1 March. A small amount of lava circulated within the lake and there were intermittent crustal overturns, but the lake was mostly crusted over and the active area got substantially smaller through the week; by 5 March the lake was completely crusted over. Minor lava ooze outs were visible on 6 March, and the eruption had paused by 7 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 February-28 February 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption on the floor of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater continued during 22-28 February but at a decreased rate. The E and central vents were not erupting. The western lake in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake remained active but with weak lava flows. A small amount of lava is circulating within the lake with intermittent crustal overturns; the lake is mostly crusted over. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 February-21 February 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption on the floor of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater continued during 15-21 February but at a decreased rate during the last half of the week. Lava erupted from three locations during 15-17 February. The lava lake in E half of the crater was active, had a small lava fountain, and remained at about 10 hectares in size; the smaller western lake in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake was also active. The smaller lava pond in the central portion of the crater floor had a small lava fountain, produced nearly continuous overflows, and channeled lava to the E lake. Activity in the E and central lakes diminished in the late afternoon on 17 February, and by 18 February both had stopped erupting. The western lake was active but at a greatly reduced level and lava only minimally circulated; the lake was mostly crusted over and about 10 m lower by 19 February. The lake produced small lava flows and intermittent crustal overturns during 19-20 February. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 February-14 February 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to erupt from three locations on Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater floor during 7-14 February. The lava lake in E half of the crater was active and remained at about 10 hectares in size. A small 3-6 m high lava fountain in the S part of the E lake was active during the first few days but had diminished during 10-11 February and remained at lower levels during the rest of the week. The smaller western lake in the basin of the 2021–2022 lava lake as well as the smaller lava pond in the central portion of the crater floor remained active and overflowed frequently each day. Activity in the southern small lava pond had decreased. During 12-14 February a small lava fountain was visible in the smaller central lava pond and was active along with the fountain in the S part of the E lake. Lava continued to overflow the pond and possibly connected to the larger E lava lake. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 February-7 February 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to erupt on Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater floor during 1-7 February. Activity was concentrated in the E half of the crater in a large, perched lava lake with well-defined levees, covering about 10 hectares. A smaller lake to the W was active in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake. Part of the E lake began to crust over on 1 February, forming a crusted isthmus through the center of the lake and two smaller areas of lava on the N and S sides. The lava fountain was located on the S side. Lava in each of the two smaller areas independently circulated in opposite directions from each other. At around 2315 lava fountaining ceased but resumed about 45 minutes later, rising 1-2 m. During 0100-0400 on 2 February lava from the S side flooded across the whole E lake, covering the isthmus, and returning the E lake to the size it was (10 hectares). The W Lake, and two smaller lava ponds in the central and S portions of the crater floor, remained relatively stable, though one of the ponds overflowed. Two small floating islands in the E lake sank during 2-3 February.

During 2-7 February the E lake, the W lake, and the two small lava ponds remained active and stable. The lava fountain continued to be active, though during 4-5 February bursts of activity caused the fountain to double in height. A second small lava fountain was temporarily active near the first fountain during 0300-0700 on 5 February. Starting at around 2100 on 5 February through 0900 on 6 February a large breakout occurred on the N portion of the crater floor covering an area equal to or slightly larger than the E lava lake. A smaller breakout S of the E lake occurred around 0000 on 6 February. The large breakout continued to be active on 6 February but was only weakly active by 7 February. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 January-31 January 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to erupt in the E portion of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater floor during 24-31 January. Activity was concentrated in the E half of the crater in a large, perched lava lake with well-defined levees, covering about 10 hectares. A smaller lake to the W was active in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake. One dominant lava fountain, 6-7 m high, was active in the E lake. Small daily overflows occurred along the margins of the E lake. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 January-24 January 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to erupt in the E portion of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater floor during 17-24 January. Activity was concentrated in a large, perched lava lake, covering about 10 hectares in the E half of the crater by 17 January, and in a smaller lake to the W, in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake. One dominant lava fountain, 6-7 m high, was active in the E lake. Small daily overflows occurred along the margins of the E lake. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 January-17 January 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to erupt from vents on the central E portion of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater floor during 10-17 January. Activity was concentrated in a large lava lake, covering about 12 hectares in the E half of the crater on 10 January. One dominant lava fountain, 6-7 m high, was active within this area. Lava flows built up the margins of the lake, causing the lake to be perched; small overflows along the margins were visible during 13-16 January. A smaller area of lava was active within the basin in the W half of the crater that had been the focus of activity during 2021-2022. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 January-10 January 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

Small earthquake swarms were recorded at Kilauea on 30 December 2022 and 2 January 2023, with heightened seismicity in between those dates. Increased seismicity and changes in the pattern of deformation began to be recorded during the morning of 5 January. At around 1500 both the rate of deformation and seismicity dramatically increased indicating magma moving towards the surface; at 1520 HVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest color on a four-color scale).

Incandescence seen in webcam images at 1634 on 5 January indicated that an eruption began in Halema’uma’u Crater, prompting HVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest color on a four-color scale). Vents opened in the E central portion of the crater floor and produced multiple lava fountains and flows. Fountain bursts ejected lava as high as 50 m during the initial phase of activity, though in general fountaining was consistently 10 m high. By 1930 lava had covered most of the crater floor (an area of about 120 hectares) to a depth of 10 m. A higher-elevation island that formed during the initial phase of the December 2020 eruption remained exposed (and appeared darker in images) along with a ring of older lava around the lava lake that was active prior to December 2022. Overnight during 5-6 January the lava fountains became less vigorous, rising to 5 m, and lava effusion slowed. By 0815 on 6 January HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange because the initial high effusion rates were declining and there was no threat of significant volcanic ash outside of the closed area within?Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 12,500 tonnes per day. Lava continued to erupt from the vents during 6-8 January, though the footprint of the active area had shrunk, which has been common during the early stages of recent eruptions within Halema’uma’u. By 9 January only one dominant fountain was visible that continued to be active at least through 10 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 December-13 December 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 6-8 December and entered the lava lake, though the eruption rate had diminished, and the floor of the crater had deflated. The eruption ceased on 9 December. During 10-12 December the lake crusted over, no incandescence was visible, and sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased to near pre-eruption background levels. On 13 December HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 November-6 December 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 30 November-6 December entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level most of the week, fluctuating only a few meters during 4-6 December. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 November-29 November 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 23-29 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 November-22 November 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 16-22 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 November-15 November 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 9-15 November, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. On 9 November the sulfur dioxide emission rate was 600 tonnes per day (t/d). The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 November-8 November 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 2-8 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 October-1 November 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 25 October-1 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 October-25 October 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 19-25 October entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 October-18 October 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 11-18 October entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake’s surface was continuously active. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 October-11 October 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that by 5 October about 111 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted from the vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater since the current eruption began on 29 September 2021, raising the crater floor by 143 m. Lava continued to enter the lake during 5-11 October. The active part of the lake stayed at a relatively steady level through the week, varying only slightly. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 September-4 October 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 27 September-4 October, entering the lava lake. The active part of the lake stayed at a relatively steady level through the week, varying only slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were approximately 970 and 1,800 tonnes per day on 28 and 30 September, respectively. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 September-27 September 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 20-27 September, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The continuously active part of the lake dropped 10 m, regained 3 m during 19-22 September, and then was unchanged the rest of the week. Breakouts of lava occurred at the W and N margins of the lake during most of the week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 September-20 September 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 13-20 September, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake’s surface was continuously active. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 September-13 September 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 6-13 September, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake’s surface was continuously active. By 12 September about 111 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted from the vent since the current eruption began on 29 September 2021, raising the crater floor by 143 m. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 August-6 September 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 30 August-6 September, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake’s surface was continuously active. The lake level mostly remained within the bounding levees, though breakouts were visible along the W and NW margins. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 August-30 August 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 24-30 August, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake was continuously active. The lake level mostly remained within the bounding levees, though daily breakouts were visible along the margins. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 August-23 August 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO stated that by 16 August about 104 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted from a vent in the lower W wall of at Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater since the current eruption began on 29 September 2021, raising the crater floor by 137 m. Lava continued to effuse from the vent during 17-22 August, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake was continuously active. The lake level mostly remained within the bounding levees, though daily breakouts were visible along the margins. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 August-16 August 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 9-16 August, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake was continuously active. The lake level mostly remained within the bounding levees, though daily breakouts were visible along the margins. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 August-9 August 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 2-9 August, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The lake level remained within the bounding levees. Daily minor ooze-outs were visible along the margins of the crater floor. Intense incandescence from the W vent was visible during 5-9 August. Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 July-2 August 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 26 July-2 August, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Minor ooze-outs along the margins of the crater floor were visible during 1-2 August. The lake level remained at the bounding levees. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 July-26 July 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO stated that by 19 July about 98 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted from a vent in the lower W wall of at Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater since the current eruption began on 29 September 2021, raising the crater floor by 133 m. Lava continued to effuse from the vent during 19-26 July, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The lake level remained at the bounding levees, though lava oozed from the lake margins on most days. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 1,300 tons/day on 21 July. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 July-19 July 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 12-19 July, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The lake level was relatively low, though by 16 July it had risen to the bounding levees along the margins. Incandescence from the W vent complex was visible during 16-19 July. Lava oozed from the lake margins during the early morning of 19 July. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 July-12 July 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 6-12 July, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The lake level was variable, and occasional lava breakouts occurred along the margins. Low-level spattering from the W vent was visible on most days, with material ejected no more than 10 m above the vent. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 June-5 July 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 29 June-5 July, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The lake level was variable, and lava breakouts occurred along the N margin on most days. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 June-28 June 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 22-28 June, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The lake remained active all week, and nearly continuous breakouts occurred along the margins. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 June-21 June 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 14-22 June, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was continuously active all week, and nearly continuous breakouts occurred along the margins. The lake level was variable in response to cycles of inflation and deflation. By 17 June the total volume of erupted lava was an estimated 93 million cubic meters, and the lake which had risen a total of 120 m since 29 September 2021.The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 June-14 June 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 8-14 June, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was continuously active all week, and the lake level was relatively stable. Nearly-continuous breakouts of lava occurred along the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 1,900 and 1,350 tonnes per day on 8 and 10 June, respectively. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 June-7 June 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 31 May-7 June, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was continuously active all week, and the lake level was relatively stable, dropping and then rising 6 m. Nearly-continuous breakouts of lava occurred along the margins of the lake. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 May-31 May 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 24-31 May, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was continuously active all week, though the height of the lake was high and relatively stable. Nearly-continuous breakouts of lava occurred along the NW and W margins of the lake. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 May-24 May 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 17-24 May, entering the active lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was active all week, though the height of the lake was high and relatively stable. Breakouts of lava occurred along the E, N, NW, and W margins of the lake. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 May-17 May 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 10-17 May, entering the active lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. By 10 May the total volume of erupted lava was an estimated 77 million cubic meters, and the lake which had risen a total of 106 m since 29 September 2021. The surface of the lava lake was active all week, though the height of the lake was high and relatively stable. Breakouts of lava occurred along the NE and NW margins of the lake during 10-11 May, and more notably from the E margins the rest of the week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 May-10 May 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 3-10 May, entering the active lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was active all week, though the height of the lake was relatively stable. Daily breakouts occurred along the NE, NW, and S margins of the lake. A short-lived lava flow effused from the W vent and onto the crater floor at around 0700 on 7 May. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 April-3 May 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 26 April-3 May, entering the active lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Roiling and spattering in the SE part of the lake was visible during 26-27 April. The surface of the lava lake was active all week, and the height of the lake fluctuated; the lake occasionally overflowed the rim, sending lava onto the crater floor. Daily breakouts occurred along the margins of the crater rim. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 April-26 April 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 19-26 April, entering an active lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was active all week, and the height of the lake fluctuated; the lake occasionally overflowed the rim, sending lava onto the crater floor. Daily breakouts occurred along the N, NE, E, and S parts of the crater. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 April-19 April 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 12-19 April, entering an active lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was active all week, and the height of the lake fluctuated. Flows occasionally overtopped perched levees. At 2315 on 10 April a flow emerged from the S side on the vent that covered areas along the southwest and western margins, and was active through 14 April. Breakouts along the N, NE, and S parts of the crater were visible during 14-19 April. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 April-12 April 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 5-12 April. Lava from a vent flowed into the active W part of the lava lake, which comprised about 2.3 percent of the total crater floor’s surface, and onto the crater floor. The surface of the lava lake was active all week, and the height of the lake fluctuated. Numerous ooze outs of lava were visible along the lake’s NW, NE, E, and SE margins; a more substantial ooze-out at the N margin was active during 6-7 April. A small outbreak at the W vent was visible overnight during 8-9 April. Just after 2300 on 10 April a flow emerged from the S side on the vent that covered areas along the southwest and western margins through 12 April. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 March-5 April 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion from vents in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 30 March through 5 April. Lava from a vent flowed into the active W part of the lava lake and onto the crater floor. Numerous and sustained ooze outs of lava along the lake’s margins; effusion along interior surface fractures persisted during the week but showed decreasing activity. On 31 March a hornito that was forming on the E side of the lake exhibited spattering throughout the day. HVO noted that by 29 March about 64 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted since the current eruption began, raising the crater floor by 96 m (315 ft). The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 3,100 tons/day, based on measurements made on 31 March. During 2-5 April continued ooze outs were occurring along the E half of the crater floor and NW margin, but at a decreased rate, and crustal overturning occurred occasionally on the NW margin. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 March-29 March 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion from vents in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 22-29 March. Lava from a vent flowed into the active W part of the lava lake and onto the crater floor. Numerous and sustained ooze outs of lava along the lake’s margins and interior seams persisted during the week. HVO noted that by 17 March about 58 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted since the current eruption began. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 March-22 March 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion from vents in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 15-22 March; effusion briefly paused during 0145-0445 on 18 March. Lava flowed in the active W part of the lava lake causing circulation in the lake that was visible on most days. At around 0700 on 16 March a lava flow originating from the embayment just N of the western vent area traveled NW onto the crater floor; this flow periodically advanced through the week. Ooze outs of lava along the lake’s margins were visible on a few of the days; a notable one began along the N margin at 0345 on 21 March and persisted through the next day. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 March-15 March 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion from vents in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 8-15 March. Throughout February the main cone had broken down and by 4 March lava was effusing from multiple vents, including the tallest cone (19 m high); by 11 March lava was supplied from an embayment just N of the cone which had grown to 27 m high. Lava continued to feed the western active lava lake. Lava breakouts along the SE, NE, and NW lake margins were visible on a few of the days. Minor and slow crustal overturning occurred on the NW and SE parts of the lake’s margins during 13-14 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 March-8 March 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion at the vent of the main cone in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 2-8 March. After a brief pause effusion from the W vent resumed at about 0100 on 2 March and continued through 7 March. Lava from the vent traveled S and W, into the western active lava lake. Lava occasionally oozed out from the margins of the lake during 3-6 March, particularly along the E and N margins. A pause in effusion began in the evening of 7 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 February-1 March 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion at the vent of the main cone in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 22 February-1 March. Effusion from the vent sometimes paused, including from the early afternoon on 23 February to 2115 on 27 February, from 1500 on 26 February to 1000 on 27 February, and again beginning at 0130 on 1 March. When the vent was active lava flowed S and W, into the W part of the lava lake. Lava occasionally oozed out from the margins of the lake. The lake level fluctuated through the week, likely reflecting the lava supply along with periods of inflation and deflation. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 February-22 February 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion at the vent of the main cone in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 16-22 February. Effusion from the vent was very low or had paused from around 0000 on 16 February until about 0230 on 17 February. After another drop, the effusion rate was relatively stable at least through 22 February. The lake level fluctuated through the week, likely reflecting the lava supply along with periods of inflation and deflation. Short-lived lava ooze-outs were visible along the W margins of the lava lake and small flows from the W vent traveled S and W during 20-22 February. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 February-15 February 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion at the vent of the main cone in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 9-15 February. Effusion had paused, but restarted at 0120 on 9 February when lava again began entering the lava lake. The lake level fluctuated through the week, likely reflecting variable lava supply along with periods of inflation and deflation. Effusion from the W vent paused during around 0900-1100 on 11 February. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 February-8 February 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion at the vent of the main cone in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 2-8 February. The lake level fluctuated, likely reflecting variable lava supply along with periods of inflation and deflation. A small spatter cone, less than 6 m tall, located near the E end of the crater produced lava fountains that were 10 m tall in the evening of 1 February. The fountains fed a short flow confined to the E margin of the crater. Effusion from the W vent paused during around 0900-1730 on 2 February. During the rest of the week the effusion rate fluctuated; the lake continued to circulate, although less when the effusion rate was lower. Multiple ooze-outs of lava along the N, E, and S margins of the crater were visible. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 January-1 February 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion at the vent of the main cone in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued intermittently during 26 January-1 February. The lake level fluctuated, reflecting variable lava supply to the lake and periods of inflation and deflation. Lava effused from the vent during 26-28 January, and the W part of the lake was active along with a small pond N of the W vent cone. A few small flows oozed out from the N margin of the lake and an area of spattering in the E part of the crater built a new, small, steep-sided cone. Field crews working near the crater on 27 January heard loud gas-jetting sounds from the new cone.

Active lava was no longer visible in the crater by 0800 on 29 January. During 29-30 January the lake was mostly crusted over, though foundering of the crust in the E part of the lake exposed lava and circulating lava was occasionally visible in the small pond N of the main cone. Lava again began flowing from the main cone just before 2130 on 30 January. Lava quickly filled the ponded area just to the N and flowed into the lake. The lake began to rise and overflowed the S margins by midnight, and the N margins by 0500 on 31 January. Lava flows from the S part of the lake fed flows that traveled SE along the walls of the crater until 1100. Multiple ooze outs from the N margin continued through 1 February. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 January-25 January 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion resumed at the vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater at around 1045 on 18 January. By 1630 the level of the lava lake had risen 12 m, slightly surpassing the high recorded on 12 January, but then slightly dropped within 30 minutes. The W part of the lake was active. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 2,100 tonnes per day the next day. During 19-20 January lava oozed out along the SE and NW margins of the lake, though by the afternoon of the 20th the active portion of the lake was small and located N of the cone. Just after 0400 on 21 January the effusion rate increased and the W half of the lake was again active. Notable overflows of lava later that evening sent flows NW, SW, and SE. The lake level dropped 9 m during the morning of 22 January, and again only a small portion of the lake was active. Lava oozed out from the E and NW lake margins. Lava input into the small lake became intermittent starting at around 1500 on 23 January, though lava oozed out along the NW and S margins. The effusion rate increased at 0552 on 25 January and lava flowed W and N along the crater margins. By 0820 the lava lake had risen 11 m. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 January-18 January 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion resumed at the vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater at around 1840 on 11 January. The level of the lava lake had increased 13 m by about 0300 on 12 January, slightly surpassing the level prior to the pause that began on 10 January; the lake has risen a total of 70 m since the beginning of the eruption. During 12-14 January the lake was active and lava oozed out along the crusted-over E margins. A surge in lava effusion at the vent was recorded at 0545 on 15 January, coincident with a peak in summit inflation. Effusion had paused by the afternoon, though minor activity at the vent on the N side of the spatter cone, minor overturns of the lake, and small oozes of lava at the lake’s margins persisted. The lake level dropped 10 m by the morning of 16 January. Small overturns of the crusted lake were visible during 16-17 January. By 18 January the lake was completely crusted over and a small wispy plume rose from the vent. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 January-11 January 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion resumed at the vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater at around 0400 on 5 January, ending a 3-day pause. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 3,300 tonnes per day on 6 January. Lava effused from the vent on most days during 6-11 January, though effusion paused and the lake crusted over for most of the day on 7 January. Several overflows onto older crust were observed after effusion resumed at around 2130 on 7 January through 8 January. The W surface of the lava lake was active during 9-10 January, though there were some more pauses in lava effusion from the W vent during 10-11 January. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 December-4 January 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion intermittently continued from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. Effusion at the vent paused on the evening of 29 December and the lake mostly crusted over, though lava oozed over the edge of the lake margins in several areas, suggesting a continuing supply of molten lava below the crust. Parts of the crusted lake overturned during 2000-2300. Occasional minor activity at the vent was visible during the morning of 30 December, and lava again began effusing form the vent at 1445. Several large lava overflows of the lake occurred in the evening and bright glow was visible in the evening sky from Volcano to lower Puna. Lava effusion was low during 1-2 January and by 0200 on 2 January the lake once again began to crust over. A large breakout along the N margin of the lake was active. Effusion ceased during 2-4 January; the lake was mostly crusted over except a few overturns N of the vent were noted. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 December-28 December 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion intermittently continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 21-28 December. Effusion paused for a period during 21-22, and sulfur dioxide emissions were 130 tonnes per day during the pause. Strong volcanic tremor began to be recorded at 1930 on 22 December and by 2000 lava again effused from the vent into the rejuvenated a portion of the lake. The lake overflowed and fed substantial lava flows that traveled SE over older crusted parts of the lake all day on 23 December until around midnight. Lava oozed out along the E margins of the lake during 24-25 December, including onto the lowermost down-dropped block from the 2018 caldera collapse, indicating a continuing supply of lava beneath the lake’s crust. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 5,300 tonnes per day on 24 December, much higher than during the pause. The surface of the lava lake had begun crusting over on 25 December and by 26 December lava had again ceased erupting from the vent. An area of the lake, 50 m in diameter, to the N of the vent remained molten on 27 December. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 125 tonnes per day during the pause. Lava again erupted from the vent later that day, beginning at 1930. The lake was incandescent around the vent and lava overflowed the margins, feeding substantial lava flows to the N and S. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 December-21 December 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 14-20 December. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 1,400 tonnes per day on 16 December. By 19 December the lake had risen a total of 69 m since the beginning of the eruption. A series of partial overturns of the lake was visible on 20 December, though by the next morning there was no lava effusion from the vent and the lake had crusted over. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 December-14 December 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater on most days during 8-14 December. The vent contained ponded and sometimes spattering lava that fed the lake through the E part of the W wall cone. The size of the active part of the lake varied, and lava periodically oozed from the cooler, outer margins of the lake onto the lowest of the exposed down-dropped caldera floor blocks. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 3,500 tonnes per day on 9 December. The eruption paused on 11 December then resumed at 2100 on 13 December. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 December-7 December 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 1-2 December. The rate of effusion sharply decreased, along with volcanic tremor levels, during 1600-1800 on 3 December. A small part of the vent cone collapsed at around 1700. No surface activity was observed on 5 December and most of the next day though weather conditions hindered visual confirmation; a few small hotspots around the vent were visible in thermal camera images. Lava was visible in the vent at about 1730 on 6 December and within 30 minutes was flowing into the lake. By 0300 on 7 December lava had covered the prior extent of the lava lake. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 November-30 November 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater during 24-30 November. The vent contained ponded and sometimes spattering lava that fed the lake through the E part of the W wall cone. The size of the active part of the lake varied, and lava periodically oozed from the cooler, outer margins of the lake onto the lowest of the exposed down-dropped caldera floor blocks. Earthquake activity remained below background levels and volcanic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate had averaged 3,000 tonnes per day in recent weeks; on 23 November the rate was higher at 6,400 tonnes per day and on 29 November it was below the average at 1,200 tonnes per day. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 November-23 November 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater. By 16 November the total volume of erupted lava was an estimated 30 million cubic meters, and the lake which had risen a total of 60 m since 29 September. During 17-23 November earthquake activity remained below background levels but volcanic tremor was elevated. Spattering and ponded lava within the vent were visible; lava entered the lake through the E part of the W wall cone, feeding an active area of the lake. Lava periodically oozed from the cooler, outer margins of the lake onto the lowest of the exposed down-dropped caldera floor blocks. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained above background levels, and was 3,000-3,800 tonnes per day on 18 and 23 November. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 November-16 November 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater. By 9 November the total volume of erupted lava was an estimated 27 million cubic meters. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,600 tonnes per day on 9 November. Spatter and ponded lava in the vent were visible during 9-16 November; lava entered the lake through a short channel in the E part of the W wall cone, feeding the lake which had risen 60 m since 29 September. The active area of the lava lake had increased during the week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 November-9 November 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued during 2-9 November at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater. Lava entered the lake through a short channel in the E part of the W wall cone, feeding the lake which had risen 56 m since 29 September; the channel was covered with a cooled crust by 3 November. Lava began to flow over the E edge of the lava lake, which is perched above the crater floor, by 4 November. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,700-2,900 tonnes per day during 3-5 November and 250 tonnes per day during 7-8 November. Low roiling and bursts of spatter from the small perched pond in the W vent cone were observed; activity at the vent had decreased by 8 November, along with the area of active lava at the surface of the main lava lake, then returned to higher levels by 9 November. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 October-2 November 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued during 26 October-2 November at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater. Lava entered the lake through a breach in the E part of the W wall cone, feeding the lake which had risen 52 m since 29 September. The lava lake was not level; the W end was 8 m higher than the stagnant E part on 27 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 3,600 tonnes per day on 28 October. Lava fountains rose less than 10 m from the W vent, though by 29 October low roiling and spatter bursts were also observed. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 October-26 October 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued during 19-26 October at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater. Lava entered the lake through a 10-m-wide breach in the E part of the W wall cone, feeding the lake which had risen 49 m since 29 September. Consistent lava fountains from the W vent rose 5-18 m with occasional bursts up to 23 m, based on field crew observations. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,600-3,200 tonnes per day during 21-22 and 24-25 October. The lava lake was not level with the deepest parts surrounding the W vent; the W end was 8 m higher than the stagnant E part by 24 October. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 October-19 October 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued in Halema`uma`u Crater during 12-19 October. A 10-m-wide, horseshoe-shaped spatter rampart had formed around the W vent and was open to the E where lava was feeding the lake. For about 10 hours on 12 October a new vent N of the W vent produced 10-15-m-high lava fountains. Lava fountains from the W vent rose as high as 20 m and fed the lava lake which was 46 m deep by 18 October. The lava lake was not level with the deepest parts measured around the W vent; the W end was 4-5 m higher than the N and S parts of the lake and 12 m higher than the E end. Cooled and crusted parts of the lake’s surface overturned, or “foundered,” in all parts of the lake except the E part. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 1,600-6,800 tonnes per day during 12-14 and 16-17 October. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 October-12 October 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued in Halema`uma`u Crater during 6-12 October. At the beginning of the eruption, on 29 September, lava erupted from vents along the floor and from the W wall of the crater, though by 8 October only the W vent was active. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained high and were 5,300 tonnes per day on 8 October. A 10-m-wide, horseshoe-shaped spatter rampart had formed around the W vent and was open to the E where lava was feeding the lake. Lava fountains from the W vent were generally 12-15 m high but decreased to 4 m during 10-11 October. The total erupted volume was an estimated 15.9 million cubic meters on 8 October and the lake was as deep as 40 m on 12 October. The lava lake was not level; the W end was 2-3 m higher than the N and S parts of the lake and 5 m higher than the E end. Cooled and crusted parts of the lake’s surface overturned, or “foundered,” in all parts of the lake, though by 11 October foundering was not observed in the E. HVO noted that the central island (or raft) of cooler material from the 2020 eruption remained above the surface as the lava lake rose, and other smaller rafts had reemerged in the E and N parts of the lake. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 September-5 October 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

Seismicity abruptly increased below Kilauea’s summit at about 1400 on 29 September. Around 30 minutes later the earthquakes became more intense, frequent, and shallower, and deformation patterns rapidly changed. The data suggested an upward movement of magma that prompted HVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch at 1509. A new eruption was identified at 1521 when incandescence from Halema`uma`u Crater became visible in webcam views; HVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning. Fissures opened along the bottom of Halema`uma`u Crater floor and produced lava fountains and flows. A photo taken at 1615 showed a large plume comprised of steam, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide rising from the fissures. Measurements just after the eruption started showed sulfur dioxide emissions of around 85,000 tonnes/day. At about 1640 another fissure with several vents opened on the inner W wall of the crater and produced low lava fountains and flows that descended to the crater floor. The vent expanded by 1709. Lava from both fissures pooled on the solidified lava lake surface and quickly began to overturn and create a lava lake. Tephra was deposited in areas SW of the crater and collected by HVO scientists for analysis.

The tallest lava fountain was near the S end of the lava lake and rose 20-25 m during the night of 29-30 September. During a helicopter overflight around 0730 on 30 September scientists determined that the lake was about 980 m E-W and 710 m N-S, covering an estimated 52 hectares. The W wall vent was visible, and several fountains were rising from the fissure in the central part of the lake. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high, estimated at around 20,000 tonnes/day. Overnight during 30 September-1 October fountains rose as high as 15 m at the dominant vent in the W wall. Less vigorous fountaining persisted at other vents, though fewer were active. The lake had risen 24 m by the morning of 1 October, adding 4 m in the past day. Cooled and crusted parts of the lake’s surface overturned, or “foundered.” Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high, estimated at around 12,900 tonnes per day.

The lake had risen another 2 m by the morning of 2 October; fountains were 7 m tall at the main W wall vent and 1-2 m at the southern vents. Fountains occasionally rose as high as 50-60 m in bursts. Pumice, Pele?s hair, and fragments of volcanic glass were deposited downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate on 3 October was again high at 14,750 tonnes/day. The W vent was again the most vigorous during 3-4 October with sustained lava fountains to 10-15 m with occasional bursts up to 20 m. The lake rose 3 m, past the base of the W vent where a 12-m-high spatter cone had formed, and continued to founder in spots. Lava fountains rose 5-10 m from the vents in the S and central portions of the lake, including along a fissure 35-42 m long, with occasional larger bursts. The lake was not level and generally higher near the location of the vents; the W end was 1-2 m higher than the E, and S end was about 1 m higher than the N. By 4 October ledges about 20 m wide separated the N and E parts of the active lava lake from the crater wall and were lower than the lake surface; the N, E, and S margins of the lake were perched about 3 m above the surrounding ledge. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained elevated but had decreased to 7,000-9,000 tonnes/day. HVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch at 1652. On 5 October lava fountaining from the W vent was unchanged while fountains from the other vents rose 1-5 m. The lake rose 1 more meter.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 September-7 September 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that ground deformation beneath the S part of Kilauea’s summit ceased on 30 August and the earthquake rate decreased during 30-31 August. The data suggested that a magma intrusion had slowed or stopped. Earthquake rates and ground deformation remained near pre-intrusion levels through 7 September. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Advisory and Yellow, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 August-31 August 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that a seismic swarm and ground deformation continued beneath the S part of Kilauea’s summit during 24-25 August. The rate of earthquakes per hour peaked at 28 during 1900-2000 on 24 August and then decreased to 5-12 through 25 August. Most of the earthquakes were between magnitudes 1 and 2, occurring at depths of 1-2 km. By 26 August seismicity and ground deformation levels had decreased, suggesting magma was no longer moving; HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code to Advisory and Yellow, respectively. Later that day, ground deformation began again in the S part of the caldera at around 1800 and was followed by an increase in seismicity after 2030. Earthquakes in the swarm were located at depths of 1-3 km. The strongest earthquake was a M 2.8, though the majority were less than M 1. The rate of events per hour was 16, with a peak of 24 just after midnight on 27 August, and then declined to about six. Seismicity remained low through 30 August with 7-8 events per hour, all under M 2 and at depths of 1-4 km. Deformation continued to be detected at variable rates. Although the deformation and seismicity suggested renewed magma movement, the data did not indicate an upward movement of magma.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 August-24 August 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that a swarm of earthquakes beneath the S part of Kilauea that began at 1630 on 23 August continued into the early morning of 24 August. The earthquake swarm increased in intensity at 0130 and was accompanied by an increase in the rate of ground deformation to the W of the swarm, as recorded by the Sandhill tiltmeter. This possibly indicated that there was magma movement 1-2 km beneath the S part of the caldera. Over 140 earthquakes were recorded during 24 August, the largest of which was an Mw 3.3; a majority of them were less than Mw 1. Small earthquakes continued at a rate of at least 10 earthquakes per hour through 24 August. As a result, the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were raised to Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 May-1 June 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

On 27 May HVO reported that Kilauea was no longer erupting; the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Yellow and Advisory, respectively. A decreasing rate of lava entering the lake caused the area of the active lava lake to shrink to two small ponds by 11 May. Lava had stopped flowing into the lake sometimes during 11-13 May, and it was completely crusted over by 20 May. Weak inflation and an increase in shallow volcano tectonic earthquakes at the summit that began on 11 May also suggested that magma was staying at depth.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 May-25 May 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava at Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater lava lake circulated in a 20-m-diameter area on 19 May but was stagnant and crusted over on other days through 25 May. A few minor oozes of lava between the W vent and main island were occasionally visible. The depth of the lava lake was 229 m and had remained unchanged since 11 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 100-150 tons per day during 19-23 May, close to the less than 50 tonnes per day measured during the non-eruptive period from late 2018 to late 2020. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 May-18 May 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the 229-m-deep lava lake at a low rate through a submerged inlet during 12-18 May. Lava circulated in two small pools in the W part. The solidified portion comprised 99 percent of the total area, based on thermal measurements acquired on 13 May. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 115-225 tons per day during 12-14 May, continuing a downward trend that began in mid-April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 May-11 May 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake at a low rate during 5-11 May through a submerged inlet. The depth of the lake was 229 m by 11 May. Lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink. The E half of the lake remained solidified and comprised about 93 percent of the total area, based on thermal measurements acquired on 16 April. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 200-300 tons per day during 5-7 May, and 150 tons per day on 10 May, continuing a downward trend that began in mid-April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 April-4 May 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 28 April-4 May through a submerged inlet. The depth of the lake was about 227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink. The E half of the lake remained solidified and comprised about 93 percent of the total area, based on thermal measurements acquired on 16 April. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 250 and 475 tons/day on 30 April and 2 May, respectively, continuing a downward trend that began in mid-April; the recent rates suggested that the effusion rate had also decreased. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 April-27 April 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 21-27 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 350, 550, 300, and 350 tons/day on 21, 22, 23, and 24 April, respectively. The rates were the lowest measured during the eruption, though elevated above the levels recorded in the months before the start of the eruption (20 December 2020). The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 April-20 April 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 14-20 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 tons/day on 14 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 April-13 April 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 7-13 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 225-226 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,000 tons/day on 8 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 March-6 April 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 31 March-6 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The total depth of the lake measured about 225 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified and expanded toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tons/day on 1 April. HVO field crews observed weak spattering from two areas at the W vent during 1-2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 March-30 March 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 24-30 March. Lava flowed from the main vent into the lake through two crusted-over channels and submerged inlets, the former of which occurred during 24-25 March. The total depth of the lake measured about 224 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified, expanding toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 and 650 tons/day on 22 and 26 March, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 March-23 March 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March, but had ended by the next day.

The depth of the western part of the lake rose from about 221 m to 223 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 650, 700, and 1,100 tons/day on 17, 18, and 19 March, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 March-16 March 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 10-16 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a newer vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March.

The depth of the western part of the lake rose from 221 m to 222 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tons/day on 14 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 March-9 March 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 2-8 March through a submerged inlet. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,000 tons/day during 2-3 March, and 800 tons/day on 7 March. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated around 219-220 m. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. Rangefinder measurements and visual observations indicated that the eastern and western portions of the lake were rising at the same rate, suggesting that lava was accumulating under the crusted eastern portion.

In recent weeks a part of the cone, several meters NE of the main vent, occasionally fed short (less than 100 m) lava flows that entered the lake at the crusted margins. During 5-7 March flows from this vent poured lava into the lake at several shifting inlets, though lava also accumulated on the lake margin within 50 m of the vent. By midday on 7 March the flows had built a perched lava pond on the NW lake margin, but it abruptly collapsed just after 1300. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 February-2 March 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 24 February-2 March. The depth of the western part of the lake deepened from 217 to 219 m. Lava effused from a submerged vent and rapidly developed a thin crust as it flowed E towards the main stagnant island. The crust occasionally overturned at “plate” boundaries, and lava rarely overflowed onto the sloped margins of the lake. The E half of the lake remained solidified; the crusted area expanded towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 700-1,100 tons/day during 25-26 February and 1 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 February-23 February 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 February. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated between 215 and 218 m and the lake surface actively overturned at “plate” boundaries. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,000 tons/day on 19 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 February-16 February 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 10-16 February. The western part of the lake deepened from 215 m to around 217 m and the lake surface actively overturned at “plate” boundaries. The W end of the lava lake was perched by 3 m above the distal margin of recent overflows. A series of surficial cracks separated the W part of the lake from the stagnant E part. Lava spillovers just N of the inlet of lava sporadically flowed around the NW margin of the perched lake. Gas jetting at two locations above the W vents and two bursts of spatter were observed during 9-10 February. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,600 and 1,100 tons/day on 10 and 12 February, respectively. During 15-16 February a few lava flows were visible along the N and E margins of the E part of the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 February-9 February 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava from a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater streamed down the cone into a perched lava lake during 3-9 February. The western half of the lake dropped from 213 m on 3 February to 211 m on 4 February and stayed at that level during 5-6 February; the drop in lake level was likely the result of summit deflation that was detected by tiltmeters. The lake level had risen to 214 m by the morning of 7 February coincident with the onset of summit inflation. A small dome fountain was visible at the entry point of lava into the lake on 8 February. The stagnant E half of the lake, separated by a series of surface cracks, was about 5 m lowed than the W half.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 January-2 February 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava from a vent on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater fed flows that traveled down a channel into a perched lava lake during 27-29 January. The vent was mostly crusted over during 30 January-2 February, though several incandescent areas on cone were visible and lava slowly effused from the base of the cone. The western half of the lake deepened from 209 to 212 m and was elevated ~5 m above the stagnant E half.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 January-26 January 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that low lava fountains from a vent on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater fed flows that traveled down a channel into a perched lava lake during 20-26 January. The western half of the lake deepened from 202 to 205 m and was perched ~4 m above the solidified lava crust adjacent to the crater wall. The stagnant E half remained slightly lower, perched ~2 m above the adjacent crust. The islands remained stationary in the E part of the lake; the dimensions of the largest island remained unchanged and was 23 m above the lake’s surface at the highest point. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,200 tons/day on 23 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 January-19 January 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that low lava fountains from a vent on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater fed flows that traveled down a channel into a perched lava lake during 13-19 January. The western half of the lake deepened from 198 m to 202 m while the stagnant eastern half remained a few meters lower. The lake was perched 1-2 m above the rim. On 13 January a small portion of the cone collapsed, causing a second vent to open adjacent to the main vent and effuse lava for less than 20 minutes. The islands remained stationary in the E part of the lake; the dimensions of the largest island remained unchanged. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 4,700 tons/day on 14 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 January-12 January 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion from vents on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to feed a growing perched lava lake during 6-12 January. Lava flowed through a crusted channel into the lake during most of the week. A dome fountain of upwelled lava at the partially submerged inlet was 5 m tall early on 6 January. Dome fountaining had weakened early on 7 January, giving way to spattering at the top of the vent and the formation of a second cone. Dome fountaining was possibly visible again on 8 January. The lake was perched at least 1-2 m above its narrow edges, though late on 10 January the stagnant, eastern part of the lake had subsided and was 3-4 m shallower. Overall the lake had deepened just 2 m by 11 January, reaching 196 m, and the lake volume was estimated at more than 27 million cubic meters.

An island of cooler, solidified lava and the 11 smaller islands were relatively stationary in the E part of the lake. The dimensions of the largest island remained unchanged (250 m long and 135 m wide), though on 8 January the W end was 9 m above the lake’s surface and the high point was 23 m above the lake, suggesting that the island was rising. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 2,700 and 2,300 tonnes/day on 7 and 10 January, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 December-5 January 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava effusion from a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to feed a growing lava lake during 30 December-5 January. A cone had formed over the remaining active vent, which was one of three that had opened at the beginning of the eruption. Lava sometimes spattered from vents at the top of a cone and flowed down into the lake through a crusted-over channel; during 2-5 January a dome fountain was visible near the lake’s margin, formed by upwelling of lava as in entered the lake at a partially submerged inlet.

The lake deepened from 181 m on 30 December to 191 m by 4 January, and the lake volume was an estimated 26 million cubic meters by 4 January. An island of cooler, solidified lava continued to float around on the lava lake’s surface, and by 4 January the island’s surface was 1-2 m above the surface of the lava lake. Over the week the island was joined by less than a dozen other small islands of cooled and solidified material that also moved around, though they mostly remained in the eastern part of the lake. The lava lake was also becoming perched as overflows of lava onto the narrow edge formed around the lake’s margins continued to build a levee; by 3 January the lake was perched about 1 m above the margin. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between 3,000 and 6,500 tonnes/day. Seismicity remained elevated but stable.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 December-29 December 2020 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption from N and W fissure vents on the inner walls of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to feed a growing lava lake during 23-29 December. Lava erupted from the N and W vents during 23-26 December with lava fountains that were sometimes 10 m high. The lake level rose above the N vent by 0300 on 26 December; later that day, volcanologists noted that the lake was slowly draining at that location. The W vent continued to feed the lake during 27-29 December. An island of cooler, solidified lava (250 m by 135 m in dimension on 28 December) slowly floated around on the lava lake’s surface. The island’s surface was about 6 m above the surface of the lava lake and was covered in tephra, possibly remnants of explosive activity generated when lava first reached the water lake.

The depth of the lava lake increased from 155 m to 169 m during 23-24 December. It continued to rise and was 176 m deep by 1400 on 25 December, though a new, narrow, black rim along the N edge suggested that the lake had briefly been 1-2 m deeper, and then drained back. The lake remained 176-177 m deep through 28 December, but by 29 December had deepened to 180 m. The lake volume was an estimated 22 million cubic meters, and was 770 by 490 m in dimension by 29 December.

Sulfur dioxide emissions decreased over the week, from around 30,000-40,000 tonnes/day on 23 December, to 20,000 tonnes/day on 25 December, 5,000-5,500 tonnes/day during 26-27, and finally dropping to 3,000 tonnes/day during 28-29 December. The emission plume carried Pele’s Hair and Pele’s Tears SW, depositing the tephra in areas downwind, including on HVO monitoring equipment and solar panels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 December-22 December 2020 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that a new eruption at Kilauea began on 20 December, after almost a month of pre-eruptive activity that included a dike intrusion. An earthquake swarm on 30 November centered in the middle of the caldera was recorded followed by periods of increased seismicity in the upper East Rift Zone. Spikes in seismicity began on 2 December; at 1745 earthquakes intensified beneath the S part of the caldera; tiltmeters simultaneously recorded accelerated deformation, resulting in about 8 cm of caldera floor uplift. The data suggested that a small intrusion had a volume equivalent to the amount of lava erupted in just 1-2 hours from Fissure 8 during the 2018 eruption. On 3 December seismcity and deformation decreased to pre-intrusion levels.

On 17 December the number and duration of long-period seismic signals increased. An earthquake swarm and deformation were detected during the evening of 20 December. At about 2136 on 20 December an orange glow was evident in IR monitoring cameras, heralding a new eruption, and prompting HVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Warning and the Aviation Color Code to Red. Three fissures successively opened on the inner N, NW, and W walls of Halema`uma`u Crater; lava flows quickly boiled away the water lake, creating a vigorous steam plume, before the lava ponded at the bottom. Minor lava fountaining (25 m high) from the fissures was visible, with the tallest fountains reaching 50 m at the N fissure. Occasional blasts originated from the ponded lava. A M 4.4 earthquake beneath the S flank was recorded at 2236.

A gas plume was seen rising from Halema`uma`u Crater and drifting SW at 0215 on 21 December. Later that morning HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. The accumulating lava in the crater rose at a rate of several meters per hour. Sulfur dioxide plumes drifted NW. By the morning of 22 December, the surface of the lava lake was about 134 m above the bottom of the crater, or 487 m below the crater rim, and rising 1 m/hour. An estimated 10 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted so far. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high, at around 30,000 tonnes/day. Lava effusion stopped at the NW vent during 0730-0800, and, along with the W vent, was inundated by the lava lake sometime before noon.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 March-26 March 2019 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during the previous several months monitoring data at Kilauea showed relatively low rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ) (including the area of the 2018 eruption). As a result, HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation Color Code to Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 December-11 December 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava at Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone was last visible on 4 September, signaling the end of the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruptive phase. Consequently, the end of the LERZ eruption also marks the end of the over-arching, on-going eruption at Kilauea that began at the East Rift Zone (ERZ) in 1983. That determination was made by HVO in part by using the Global Volcanism Program guideline that an eruption should be considered over on the date of the last eruptive activity, and when there has not been renewed activity in the following three months.

HVO noted that geophysical data continued to show magma being supplied to Kilauea, including the refilling of the middle ERZ, and reminded the public that Kilauea remains an active volcano. As of 4 December the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 October-9 October 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

On 5 October HVO reported that lava at Kilauea had not been active at the surface for 30 days. Seismicity was low, steady, relatively low rates of deformation across the volcano were recorded, and the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ) produced only minor gas emissions. These data indicated that near-term resumption of activity at the summit or at the lower ERZ was unlikely; the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 September-2 October 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported no significant incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 26 September-2 October, though a small amount of fuming was visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and small aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit and the LERZ were low. On 1 October a rockfall at Pu'u 'O'o produced a small ash plume. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 September-25 September 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported no incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 19-25 September, though a small amount of fuming was visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and small aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 September-18 September 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 September-11 September 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 5-11 September weak lava activity at Kilauea’s Fissure 8 was characterized by occasional incandescence; during 9-10 September a small collapse pit formed and exposed hot material underneath. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (<1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. A series of small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 8-10 September generated visible brown plumes. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 August-4 September 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported a break in visible lava activity at Kilauea’s Fissure 8 during 26-31 August. On 1 September incandescence at Fissure 8 was evident in the afternoon; spattering from a small area produced lava flows that slowly covered the 15 x 65 m crater floor by the evening. Lava continued to fill the Fissure 8 crater on 3 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 August-28 August 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during an overflight on 25 August a small lava pond was visible deep within the vent at Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone; the pond was no longer visible on 27 August. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean and produce minimal laze plumes, but by 27 August only a small single breakout from the Kapoho Bay lobe was active. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 August-21 August 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

On 17 August HVO lowered the Alert Level for Kilauea to Watch (the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange), noting reduced activity over the previous several days. Specifically, no collapse events had occurred at the summit since 2 August, lava ceased flowing in the channel from the Fissure 8 cone on 6 August, seismicity and ground deformation at the summit were negligible, and the combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ were lower than any time since late 2007. The small lava pond in Fissure 8 had crusted over by 17 August, with no observed incandescence. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean at a few areas, causing minimal laze plumes. During an overflight on 20 August gas jets ejected spatter from a small incandescent area deep within the Fissure 8 cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 August-14 August 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 August-7 August 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 1-2 August, with lava flowing through the channel and into the ocean producing laze at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. A few spillovers from the channel set vegetation on fire. By 3 August the lava-flow velocity in the channel was low and on 4 August the output at Fissure 8 had waned. Part of the flow field shifted W about 250 m; the westernmost edge was about 70 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park by 5 August. The lava channel was completely crusted over by 6 August, and a lava lake bubbled in the Fissure 8 cone. The laze plumes at the ocean entry were greatly diminished. During 7-8 August the lava lake in Fissure 8 was 5-10 m below the spillway into the channel. A decreasing number of small active ooze outs near the coast were visible.

A collapse event at the summit was recorded at 1155 on 2 August. Seismicity increased afterwards as has been typical since early on in the LERZ eruption, but then decreased along with the rate of deformation. By 7 August deformation had almost stopped. The quiet conditions at the summit represented a significant change from the pattern of seismicity and deformation detected over the past several months.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 July-31 July 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 July-24 July 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline at multiple ocean entries.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, often followed by a surge in activity at Fissure 8. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater. Channel overflows on 18 July destroyed structures in the Leilani Subdivision. The channelized ‘a’a flow was incandescent along its entire length as it flowed towards the ocean. It generated plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) at several points along a broad 6-km-wide flow front, though the main entry area was at Ahalanui, a few hundred meters E of the flow edge which was 175 m NE of Isaac Hale Park (by 24 July). HVO noted that the lava delta was unstable as it has been built out as far as 800 m from the original coastline on unconsolidated lava fragments and sand.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Big Island Video News


11 July-17 July 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 11-17 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline at multiple ocean entries.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater. A few channel overflows occurred. The channelized ‘a’a flow reached the ocean on 12 July, producing a large plume of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles), and covering the Kua O Ka La Charter School and Ahalanui Beach Park. Lava entered the ocean at several points along a broad 6-km-wide flow front, though the main entry area was at Ahalanui (750 m NE of Isaac Hale Park) by 17 July. On 13 July a new island, 6-9 m in diameter, formed a few meters offshore, possibly fed by a submarine tumulus. On 16 July explosions were noted at the main ocean entry, some were strong. Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency noted that an explosion early in the morning ejected tephra that injured 23 people on a nearby tour boat. That same day volcanologists using a radar gun measured an average flow velocity of 29 km/hour of lava exiting Fissure 8.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency


4 July-10 July 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 4-10 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline at multiple ocean entries. Fissure 22 produced spattering 50-80 m above its spatter cone and fed short lava flows that traveled NE on 4 July; weak spattering was visible form the cone the rest of the week.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued; lava fountains rarely rose higher than the 55-m-high spatter cone. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel that did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava in the upper part of the channel; overflows further down traveled beyond the flow-field boundary. Small brush fires were ignited from some of the overflows. A thermal map from 6 July showed that lava was not entering the ocean from the main channel and that the open channel ended about 2 km inland. Lava was flowing into the ocean at the N part of the broad flow front. Observations on 9 July indicated that a blockage had formed upstream of Kapoho Crater, and by 10 July a small lobe was moving around the W side of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 June-3 July 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 27 June-3 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Fissure 22 produced a few short lava flows during 30 June-3 July.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Steam plumes rose from areas in the crater as well as from circumferential cracks adjacent to the crater. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes that rose less than 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued; lava fountains rarely rose higher than the 55-m-high spatter cone. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the fast-moving lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater, and into the ocean. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel. Lava entered the ocean on the S side of the flow front mainly through an open channel, but also along a 1-km-long area marked with billowing laze plumes. A thermal map showed that on 29 June the lava channel had crusted over about 0.8 km inland from the ocean entry, with lava moving beneath the crust.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 June-26 June 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 20-26 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Fissure 16/18 was often incandescent, and lava effusion was visible at Fissure 6 on 21 June. Fissure 22 produced weak lava fountains on 22 June, and weak spattering and small lava flows on 26 June.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Steam plumes rose from areas in the crater as well as from circumferential cracks adjacent to the crater. Explosions from collapse events occurred daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes that rose less than 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 24 June HVO noted that since late May these plumes rarely rose higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. where they can cause an aviation hazard; the Aviation Color Code was reduced to Orange.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued; lava fountains rose occasionally higher than the 55-m-high spatter cone. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the fast-moving lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater, and into the ocean. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel. The lava-flow front at the ocean was almost 3.2 km wide by 25 June, with lava entering the ocean on the S side of the flow front mainly through an open channel, but also along a 1-km-long area marked with billowing laze plumes.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 June-19 June 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Steam plumes rose from areas in the crater as well as from circumferential cracks adjacent to the crater. Summit explosions occurred daily, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On 18 June residents reported feeling a large earthquake at 0613 and hearing roaring. The event was followed by an ash plume rising to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 was stable; lava fountains rose as high 60 m from a 52-m-high spatter cone. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the fast-moving lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater, and into the ocean. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel. Lava entering the ocean built a lava delta that by 16 June was just over 130 hectares in area. A plume of laze rose from the entry points. An area of thermal upwelling in the ocean out from the visible lava-delta front was visible, suggesting lava flowing on the ocean floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 June-12 June 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 7-12 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the Kapoho Bay area. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area; the floor had subsided at least 100 m during the previous few weeks, and by 12 June the lowest point was 300 m below the crater rim. Steam plumes rose from areas in the crater as well as from circumferential cracks adjacent to the crater.

Summit explosions occurred almost daily. Explosions at 1607 and 0244 on 6 and 8 June, respectively, each produced an ash plume that rose 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion was recorded at 0448 on 9 June. Two explosions, the second larger than the first, were recorded at 0046 and 0443 on 11 June. An ash-poor explosion occurred at 0152 on 12 June. A pattern of an increasing number of earthquakes, an explosion, and then a drop-off of seismicity immediately afterwards had emerged during the past few weeks and continued.

A total of 12 rockfalls in Pu'u 'O'o Crater were recorded between 1031 and 1056 on 8 June, following a M 3.2 earthquake at the summit. A red dust plume was visible around 1050 but dissipated quickly.

Fountaining at Fissue 8 was stable, though by 10 June three closely spaced fountains were active within the 35-m-high spatter cone. The heights of the fountains varied, but rose no higher than 70 m. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the fast-moving lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater, and into the ocean. The width of the channel varied from 100-300 m along its length. Periodic overflows sometimes sent small flows down the sides of the channel. Lava entered the ocean at Kapoho Bay, building a lava delta that by 11 June was just over 100 hectares in area. A plume of laze rose from the entry points. An area of strong thermal upwelling in the ocean around 920 m out from the visible lava-delta front was visible beginning on 7 June, suggesting lava flowing on the ocean floor. According to a news report, the Hawaii County Mayor noted that by 8 June lava flows had destroyed over 600 homes.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); USA Today


30 May-5 June 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 30 May-6 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and reached the ocean at Kapoho Bay. Fissures 22, 6, and 13 were periodically active on 30 May, and fissures 6/13 spattered on 4 June. Sluggish lava flows were present around Fissure 18.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, and earthquake activity beneath the caldera was mostly high, as the summit area adjusted to the withdrawal of magma from Overlook Crater. Passive degassing of SO2 from the summit decreased, but emission rates were high enough to impact air quality downwind. Ash emissions were intermittent and low, though around 1100 on 30 May an ash plume rose to 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. A small explosion was detected at 1339 on 1 June. A preliminary M 5.5 earthquake was recorded at 1550 on 3 June, producing an ash plume that rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. A small explosion and accompanying M 5.5 earthquake was detected at 0432 on 5 June; an ash plume rose to 1.6 km (5,100 ft) a.s.l.

During the beginning of the reporting period Fissure 8 generated tall lava fountains, rising 80 m, and some secondary fountains that rose 18 m. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the high fountaining fell in areas W of the fissure and within Leilani Estates. A small (30 m high) spatter cone formed at the downwind side of the fountain. Volcanic gas emissions from the fissures were very high; trade winds blew vog to the S and W parts of the island.

The lava flow fed by Fissure 8 advanced NE at a rate of 550 m/hour during 29-30 May, but then slowed to 90 m/hour on 31 May. High eruption rates led to the formation of a leveed channel along the W edge of the lava flow; small overflows from the channel occurred along its length. On 2 June lava flowed around the N part of Kapoho Crater and then turned S, entering the Vacationland neighborhood. At 0700 the flow front had entered Kapoho Beach Lots, moving about 75 m/hour. Lava entered Green Lake (70 m x 120 m in dimension, and 60 m deep) at 1000, creating a large steam plume. By 1500 lava had completely filled the lake and boiled off the water. Locals reported that lava (with a flow front 800 m wide) entered the ocean at Kapoho Bay around 2230. By late afternoon on 4 June lava had built a delta extending almost 700 m into the bay.

Overnight during 4-5 June lava fountaining at Fissure 8 was less vigorous, with a maximum height of 55 m. By 0630 on 5 June lava had completely filled Kapoho Bay, creating a new coastline 1.1 km away from the former coastline. To the S lava had overtaken most of the Vacationland subdivision and was entering the tidepools. All but the northern part of Kapoho Beach Lots had been covered.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 May-29 May 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 23-29 May. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated in the middle portion of the fissure system, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and also traveled to the ocean.

Earthquakes beneath the summit and ash emissions from Overlook Crater continued as the summit area subsided and adjusted to the withdrawal of magma. Ash emissions were small and frequent, punctuated by larger plumes. The Overlook crater vent continued to widen to the W, and by 25 May the vent area was about 36 hectares. At 1244 on 25 May a M 4 earthquake was located in the summit region. That same day a new pit opened on the N part of Halema`uma`u Crater floor. Three explosions (at 0042, 0144, and 0500) on 26 May generated ash plumes that rose 3-3.3 km (10,000-10,800 ft) a.s.l. A small explosion at 0156 on 29 May sent an ash plume vertically to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted slightly NW. The explosion was felt by residents in Volcano, and ejected incandescent blocks within Halema`uma`u Crater. On 28 May a M 4.1 earthquake occurred at 1739 along the Koa'e fault zone, S of the caldera.

Lava fountains from Fissure 22 continued to form a channelized lava flow that entered the ocean NE of MacKenzie State Park, causing explosions and generating a plume of hazardous laze (lava haze, a mixture of condensed acidic steam, hydrochloric acid gas, and tiny shards of volcanic glass). On 23 May relatively tall lava fountains at fissures 6 and 13 fed another channelized flow that created a second ocean entry. Observers noted that a perched lava pond/channel was 11 m above ground level, and that methane was seen overnight that burned blue in road cracks. On 24 May lava was entering the ocean at three points between Pohoiki Bay and MacKenzie State Park, though by the next day only two were active.

Overnight during 25-26 May vigorous spatter was observed from a cone on Fissure 8, and multiple booming gas emissions occurred at Fissure 17. By the morning of 26 May an estimated 9.6 square kilometers had been covered by new lava. Fissures 7 and 21 fed a perched lava pond and sent flows NE; the lava-flow fronts became ‘a’a. A perched pond on the W side of Fissure 7 was breached, sending short flows W. Later that day the flows turned S, and by dusk were cascading into Pawaii crater, adjacent to the W margin of the Fissure 6 flow that fed one of the ocean entries. Lava from Fissure 21 flowed onto Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) property.

During 26-27 May activity at Fissure 7 increased; lava from fountains 45-60 m tall built a large, 30-m-high spatter rampart. Large cracks were observed overnight on Kupono St., near Fissure 9. Three vents active at Fissure 8 spattered and flamed, and doubled in size in one day. On 27 May lava flows from fissures 7 and 8 advanced NE on PGV property; at about 1900 a flow broke out in this area and advanced rapidly to the N and W, through the E portion of Leilani Estates, prompting several residents to evacuate. Three minor ocean entries were again active. Fissure 24 opened in Leilani Estates.

On 28 May the vents that fed the ocean entries stopped erupting, leading to only residual lava in the channel to occasionally enter the ocean. During 28-29 May fountains, lava flows, and spattering from multiple fissures persisted. Pele's hair from vigorous fountaining (60 m high) at Fissure 8 drifted downwind, with some strands falling in Pahoa. According to a news article, the LERZ eruption had destroyed at least 94 structures, including 53 homes, by 29 May. The flows also cut off road access to PGV, which had been evacuated.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); KIII-TV


16 May-22 May 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

On 16 May HVO reported ongoing deflation at Kilauea’s summit, where the lava lake continued to recede in the Overlook Crater; by the afternoon the caldera floor had dropped a total of almost 1 m since the onset of the lake drainage. The drop of the floor stressed faults around the caldera causing earthquakes as strong at M 4.4. HVO and National Park staff reported frequent ground shaking, and damage to roads and buildings. Phreatic explosions had ejected blocks up to 60 cm in diameter that were found in the parking lot a few hundred meters from Halema`uma`u Crater. Ash plume heights varied, but generally rose no higher than 1.2 km and drifted N. Lava continued to erupt from multiple vents at the NE end of the active fissure system at the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ). Lava from fissure 17 advanced about 90 m. Weak spattering arose from fissure 18, and fissure 20 was again active.

At about 0415 on 17 May an explosive event (or a series of explosions) at Overlook Crater generated an ash plume that, according to the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash fell in areas downwind, including in the Volcano Golf Course and Volcano Village. Subsequent gas, steam, and ash emissions rose to 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Fissure 17 actively spattered, though its lava flow had nearly stalled. Fissures 18, 19, and 20 reactivated, and a new fissure (21) opened between fissures 7 and 3. A 50-100-m-wide depression with cracks formed parallel to the fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, into which pahoehoe lava flowed from fissures 20 and 21. Fissure 22 opened just downrift of fissure 19.

On 18 May a robust gas-and-steam plume rose from Overlook Crater, punctuated by several minor ash emissions. At 2358 a short-lived explosion generated an ash plume that rose up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Spattering continued from fissures 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, and 22, with pahoehoe lava flows being erupted from fissures 17, 18, and 20. Large fountains at fissure 17 ejected bits of spatter 100 m high. Lava flows from fissure 18 traveled almost 1 km SE, and a flow from fissure 15 crossed Pohoiki Road. A fast-moving lava flow (275-365 m per hour) emerged from fissure 20 and traveled SE, across Pohoiki Road. Gas emissions remained elevated in areas downwind of the fissure system; air quality was poor from gas emissions as well as smoke from burning vegetation. Earthquake locations had not moved farther downrift in the previous few days.

Small ash emissions from Overlook Crater occurred intermittently on 19 May. The eruption of lava and ground cracking in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision continued. Fissure 17 was weakly active after fountaining earlier in the day. Fissures 16-20 merged into a continuous line of spatter and fountaining; flows from this fissure 20 complex flowed 275 m/hour S. Two of the flows joined less than a 1.6 km from the ocean and continued to flow S between Pohoiki and Opihikao roads.

During 19-20 May there were two explosive eruptions from Overlook Crater, and several smaller ash emissions. Lava flows reached the ocean overnight (late on 19 May) along the SE Puna coast. On 20 May spatter was ejected from fissures 6 and 17, and fissure 20 produced significant lava flows. A ground crack opened under the E lava channel diverting lava into underground voids. Gas emissions tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from fissure 20. Photos take in the afternoon showed two ocean entries along approximately 1 km of coastline.

A small explosion at Overlook Crater at 0055 on 21 May produced an ash plume that rose around 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Several smaller emissions throughout the day ejected abundant ash. Robust steam-and-gas plumes also rose from the crater. Lava fountains from fissure 22 fed a channelized lava flow that entered the ocean N of MacKenzie State Park. Spattering occurred at fissures 6, 17, and 19. Small ash emissions from Overlook Crater continued on 22 May. Lava continued to enter the ocean, though by the afternoon only one entry was active. Most of the LERZ activity shifted to the middle part of the fissure system. The Aviation Color Code remained at Red and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 May-15 May 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

On 9 May the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea continued. In the northeast part of the area, fissure 15 extended across Poihiki Road, generating a pahoehoe flow about 20 m (66 ft) long. In the summit caldera, steady lowering of the Overlook Crater lava lake within Halema`uma`u crater raised the potential for steam-driven explosions if the lava column dropped to the groundwater level and allowed water into the conduit. On 10 and 11 May, little new extrusive activity was noted from the ERZ fissures, though there were continued earthquakes, ground deformation, and considerable gas discharge. Tiltmeters recorded ongoing deflation and the Overlook crater lava level continued to drop.

Fissure 16 opened at 0645 on 12 May near the end of Hinalo Road. It produced a lava flow that traveled about 230 m before stalling around 1430. An area that had been actively steaming developed into fissure 17, reported at 1800 just east of fissure 16, and was actively spattering and degassing. At the summit, rockfalls from the steep walls into Overlook crater generated intermittent small steam-and-ash clouds throughout the day.

Lava eruptions continued on 13 May along the lower ERZ. Aerial observations showed that a new outbreak in the early morning about 900 m NE of the end of Hinalo Street and 900 m S of Highway 132 was several hundred yards long and ejected spatter along with a slow-moving lava flow. By late in the day this activity from fissure 17 was dominated by lava fountaining, explosions that sent spatter bombs to 100 m into the air, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally NE; as of 1900 one lobe was 2 m thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132. Steady, vigorous plumes of steam and occasionally minor amounts of ash rose from the Overlook vent and drifted downwind to the SW. Later in the day, ash clouds rose up to 650 m (2,000 ft) above the vent. Several strong earthquakes shook the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and the surrounding area overnight.

Activity on the morning of 14 May in the lower ERZ was dominated by lava fountaining, explosions of spatter more than 30 m (100 ft) into the air, and an advancing flow from fissure 17 at the NE end of the fissure system. As of 0630, the fissure 17 flow had traveled about 1.6 km roughly ESE parallel to the rift zone. Fissure 18 was weakly active. A 19th fissure spotted around 0800 just NE of Pohoiki Road and N of Hinalo Street produced a sluggish lava flow. Volcanic gas emissions remained elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Deflationary tilt at the summit continued and seismicity remained elevated.

On the morning of 15 May activity remained concentrated at fissure 17. The lava flow had advanced about 380 m since 1430 on 14 May. At 0645 the flow was nearly 2.5 km long. However, the advance of the flow had slowed significantly since that afternoon. Also in the morning a new fissure (20) located near fissure 18 produced two small pads of lava. Ash emission from the Overlook crater increased compared to previous days. Although varying in intensity, at times the plume contained enough ash to be gray in color. Variable pulses sent the cloud to an estimated 1-1.3 km (3-4,000 ft) above the ground. The ash cloud drifted generally W and SW from the summit and ash fell in the Ka'u Desert. On 15 May the Aviation Color Code was raised from Orange to Red and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Hawaii Emergency Management Agency; Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency


2 May-8 May 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

On 2 May HVO noted that the intrusion of magma into Kilauea’s lower East Rift Zone (ERZ) continued, with deformation and frequent earthquakes (many felt by residents). Small cracks formed on some of the roads in and adjacent to Leilani Estates. Seismicity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained elevated after floor collapses which began on 30 April. Short-lived ash plumes periodically rose from the crater. The lava flows on the pali near the Royal Gardens subdivision were sluggish. Deflation at the summit accelerated around midday, accompanied by a drop in the level of the lava lake.

On 3 May the intensity of the ERZ seismicity decreased slightly, and the eastward migration of hypocenters slowed or ceased; deformation continued. The lava level in Overlook crater dropped over 30 m, though spattering in the lake continued. At 1030 ground shaking from a M 5 earthquake S of Pu'u 'O'o caused rockfalls and possibly a collapse in the crater; an ash plume rose from the crater and drifted SW. More ground cracks in the E part of Leilani Estates formed that afternoon; hot white and blue fumes rose from the cracks. Lava spatter and gas bursts began erupting from 150-m-long fissures just after 1700 and ended around 1830. Lava flows spread less than 10 m, and strong sulfur dioxide odors were noted. The lava lake in the Overlook Crater dropped an additional 37 m.

By the morning of 4 May three fissures were active; fissure 2 opened at 0100 and fissure 3 opened around 0600. Spatter was ejected as high as 30 m and lava flows were traveling short distances. Large, loud bubble bursts occurred at fissure 3. Ash plumes from intermittent collapses at Pu'u 'O'o continued to rise above the crater, and the 61 G lava flow was no longer being fed. A M 6.9 earthquake occurred at 1233, centered on the S flank. Fissures 4 and 5 opened at 1039 and 1200, respectively, and by 1600 there were six, each several hundred meters long. The sixth fissure was on the E edge of the subdivision. The Hawaii Emergency Management Agency stated that multiple agencies were assisting with the mandatory evacuation of residents (about 1,700) in the Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions. A temporary flight restriction was declared for most of lower Puna. The report noted dangerously high concentrations of sulfur dioxide.

Based on satellite InSAR data, the summit caldera floor subsided about 10 cm during 23 April-5 May. Corresponding to this deflationary trend, the summit lava lake in Overlook crater had dropped to about 128 m below the crater rim since 30 April. Summit seismicity increased during 4-5 May coincident with the M 6.9 earthquake; about 152 events (M 2-3) were recorded. Rockfalls from the inner crater walls produced ash plumes that rose above the Halema'uma'u crater rim on 5 May. New ground cracks on Highway 130 opened on 5 May, and at dawn fissure 7 formed. By mid-afternoon fissure 7 stopped erupting, and the 8th fissure opened at 2044 near fissures 2 and 7. Lava fountains from fissure 8 rose as high as 70 m, and in other areas were as high as 100 m. A lava flow from fissure 7 traveled 260 m NE. The lava lake in Overlook Crater continued to drop.

The eruption from one or two fissures was continuous during 5-7 May, and ‘a’a lava flows from fissure 8 advanced 0.9 km NNE by 1000 on 6 May. HVO warned that poor air quality from sulfur dioxide gas emissions, and smoke plumes from burning asphalt and houses was a health concern. Strong gas emissions rose from the fissures during 6-7 May, though lava effusion was minimal overnight. New cracks crossed Highway 130 west of the eruption site, and some others widened. The level of the summit lava lake continued to drop, and by 7 May was 220 m below the crater rim. Two new fissures emerged on 7 May. The first (fissure 11) opened at about 0930 in a forested area SW of Leilani Estates, and was active for about three hours. The second (fissure 12) opened at about 1220 between fissures 10 and 11. By 1515 both new fissures were active, and the W end of fissure 10 was robustly steaming. According to a news article, lava had covered an area about 36,000 square meters.

Lava effusion at night during 7-8 May was minimal, and by around 0700 on 8 May the ERZ eruption had paused. The fissure system was about 4 km long and continued to strongly emit gas. Ash plumes generated by falling rocks in Overlook crater continued to produced ash plumes. On 8 May the Office of the Mayor stated that 35 structures had been destroyed, and lava covered. HVO maps show the locations and numbers of the fissures.

Sources: Hawaii Emergency Management Agency; Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency; US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 April-1 May 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25 April-1 May HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. The lake level was high enough to produce lava flows onto the Halema'uma'u crater floor through 27 April, but afterwards fell to about 15-16 m below the new elevated rim. The lake level rose again, to just below the rim of the Overlook crater vent. Since 21 April about 2/3 of the crater floor had been covered by new lava flows.

Episode 61g lava flows were active above Pulama pali, within 2 km of the active vent. A marked increase in seismicity and ground deformation at Pu'u 'O'o Crater was detected just after 1400 on 30 April, following weeks of uplift and increasing lava levels within the cone. Within a few minutes a webcam on the crater rim recorded the first of two crater floor collapses; the second collapse began at 1520 and lasted about an hour. Thought poor weather conditions inhibited views at times, a webcam recorded what were likely small explosions from the W side of the crater as the floor collapsed. At 1800 seismicity remained elevated, though ground deformation had significantly slowed. A large amount of red ash was produced from the collapses, and deposited around the crater as well as in areas up-rift as far as Mauna Ulu.

Following the collapses of Pu'u 'O'o’s crater floor, seismicity and deformation increased along a large section of the East Rift Zone, in an area 9-16 km down-rift (with seismicity occurring as far E as highway 130), indicating an intrusion of magma. By 0830 on 1 May activity had significantly decreased. During an overflight that day a new, nearly continuous, 1-km-long crack was found on the W (up-rift) side of Pu'u 'O'o. The crack was steaming, and aligned in a segment with small pads of newly-erupted lava and spatter. Thermal images of Pu'u 'O'o Crater suggested that smaller drops of the crater floor likely continued on 1 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 April-24 April 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015.

Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 April-17 April 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. The lake level was high, with spattering visible from HVO and Jaggar Museum; by 16 April the lake level was 10 m below the rim of the Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 11 April a moderate swarm of over 200 earthquakes occurred at depths of 7-9 km below the summit. The largest event was a M 2.4. Seismicity returned to background levels at 0230. Three minor ledge collapses were detected on 12 April, one at 1157 and two just after 1830. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali; on 13 April most scattered breakouts were within 2.2 km from Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and one was about 5 km away.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 April-10 April 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 March-3 April 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 March-27 March 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on Pulama pali. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and increased spattering which began on 22 March. Lava flowed out of a vent on the SE part of the crater onto the crater floor on 25 March, and expanded over the next few days.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 March-20 March 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on Pulama pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 March-13 March 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on Pulama pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 February-6 March 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 February-6 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 February-27 February 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. A small portion of material from the inner veneer of the crater wall collapsed into the lava lake just after 0700 on 23 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 February-20 February 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 February-13 February 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 January-6 February 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 January-6 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 January-30 January 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater; spattering was briefly visible from the visitor overlook on 27 and 29 January. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 January-23 January 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Early in the morning on 19 January rocks from the inside of Halema’uma’u crater fell into the lava lake producing a short-lived explosion of spatter and wallrock that blanketed an area around the former visitor overlook. Debris fell as far as the Halema?uma?u parking lot.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 January-16 January 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 January-9 January 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 December-2 January 2018 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 December 2017-2 January 2018 HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 December-26 December 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 December-19 December 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 December-12 December 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 November-5 December 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 November-5 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 November-28 November 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 November-21 November 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. On 17 November a field crew visited the Kamokuna ocean entry and observed only very sluggish, pasty flows in a few random spots and minor to no degassing in the usual places.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 November-14 November 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, ceased entering the ocean at Kamokuna on 8 November but then began reentering the ocean during 12-13 November. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain, and new breakouts were observed.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 November-7 November 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 October-31 October 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25-31 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 October-24 October 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 October-17 October 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface cracks on the delta that had been covered up by new flows had begun to reemerge and become visible. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 October-10 October 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna although the plume at the entry was weaker. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 September-3 October 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 September-3 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna, although during 1-3 October the plume at the entry waxed and waned. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 September-26 September 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. During 23-24 September a short-lived breakout above the ocean entry disrupted the ramp and produced a brief "firehose" of lava.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 September-19 September 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. On 13 September geologists noted that several prominent cracks running parallel to the coastline had widened in the past two weeks, underscoring the potential for bench collapse into the sea.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 September-12 September 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater, though a deflationary trend the second half of the week caused the lake level to mostly drop. Several rockfalls and collapses of the inner crater wall veneer were noted during 7-10 September; frequent rockfalls were not uncommon during periods of lake level lowering. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. HVO noted that cracks running parallel to the coastline underscored the potential for bench collapse into the sea.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 August-5 September 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 August-5 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain. Slumping of seaward portions of the delta continued, and cracks running parallel to the coastline continued to widen. HVO warned of the potential for larger-scale delta collapses.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 August-29 August 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain. Slumping of seaward portions of the delta continued, and cracks running parallel to the coastline continued to widen. HVO warned of the potential for larger-scale delta collapses.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 August-22 August 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A breakout 120 m up-slope of the ocean entry began at 0410 on 19 August and lasted about 9.5 hours; it produced a lava fall over the sea cliff W of the ramp and a small ‘a’a flow on the W portion of the delta. At 2135 a large littoral explosion occurred near the front of the delta, producing spatter that was ejected higher than the sea cliff (about 28 m high). Another smaller explosion was observed five minutes later. HVO scientists documented ongoing littoral explosions on 21 August, as well as continued widening of the cracks running parallel to the coastline.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 August-15 August 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Slumping of seaward portions of the delta continued, and cracks running parallel to the coastline continued to widen. HVO warned of the potential for larger-scale delta collapses.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 August-8 August 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Slumping of seaward portions of the delta continued, and cracks running parallel to the coastline continued to widen. HVO noted that as recently as 28 July a small slice of the delta fell into the ocean, and warned that there was potential for larger-scale delta collapses.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 July-1 August 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 July-1 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Several large cracks running parallel to the coastline spanned the width of the delta. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain about 2 km upslope from the gravel emergency route.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 July-25 July 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 July HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Several large cracks running parallel to the coastline spanned the width of the delta. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain about 2 km upslope from the gravel emergency route.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 July-18 July 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 July HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond (which had many small spattering sites along the margin) in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Several large cracks running parallel to the coastline spanned the width of the delta; several small collapses at the leading edge of the delta were noted on 11 July. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain within 1 km of the base of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 July-11 July 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 July HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond (which had many small spattering sites along the margin) in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Several large cracks running parallel to the coastline spanned the width of the delta. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 June-4 July 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 June-4 July HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond (which had many small spattering sites along the margin) in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A solidified lava ramp extended from the tube exit high on the sea cliff down to the growing delta, whose leading edge was about 100 m from the tube exit on the sea cliff.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 June-27 June 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 June HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond (which had many small spattering sites along the margin) in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Field observations on 31 May revealed that the lava delta had grown to an area of approximately 0.01 square kilometers. A solidified lava ramp extended from the tube exit high on the sea cliff down to the delta, whose leading edge was about 100 m from the tube exit on the sea cliff. Lava flows from the upper portion of the flow field continued to advance downslope, producing surface flows above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 June-20 June 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 June HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond (which had many small spattering sites along the margin) in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Field observations on 31 May revealed that the lava delta had grown to an area of approximately 0.01 square kilometers. A solidified lava ramp extended from the tube exit high on the sea cliff down to the delta, whose leading edge was about 100 m from the tube exit on the sea cliff. Lava flows from the upper portion of the flow field continued to advance downslope, producing surface flows above and on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 June-13 June 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 June HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond (which had many small spattering sites along the margin) in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Field observations on 31 May revealed that the lava delta had grown to an area of approximately 0.01 square kilometers. A solidified lava ramp extended from the tube exit high on the sea cliff down to the delta, whose leading edge was about 100 m from the tube exit on the sea cliff.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 May-6 June 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 May-6 June HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond (which had many small spattering sites along the margin) in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Field observations on 31 May revealed that the lava delta had grown to an area of approximately 0.01 square kilometers. A solidified lava ramp extended from the tube exit high on the sea cliff down to the delta, whose leading edge was about 100 m from the tube exit on the sea cliff.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 May-30 May 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 May HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. A portion of the N Overlook crater wall collapsed into the lake, causing lake agitation and depositing tephra at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and Jaggar Museum. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna adding to a growing delta. Narrow cracks on the delta parallel to the coast were noted. Surface lava flows were active above and on the upper slopes of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 May-23 May 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 May HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater; the lake rose as high as 15 m below the crater rim and was visible from Hawaii Volcanoes National Park's Jaggar overlook. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna adding to a growing delta. Surface lava flows were active above and on the upper slopes of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 May-16 May 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the lava delta at Kamokuna (the ocean entry area at Kilauea), which had been growing since late March, collapsed on 3 May. Two large cracks parallel to the coast were visible on 27 April, suggesting instability. Between 0935 and 0940 on 3 May a large steam plume appeared in the middle of the lava delta in the area of large cracks. Weak fountaining or spattering likely occurred initially, because new tephra deposits were visible in the steaming area; that activity ended by 0940. Images acquired over the next 25 minutes showed a progressively weaker steam plume, and a subsiding delta. Photos of the ocean entry taken on 7 May showed multiple streams of lava flowing into the ocean.

During 10-16 May HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above and near the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 May-9 May 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 May HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna adding to the growing delta. Surface lava flows were active above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 April-2 May 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 April-2 May HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A growing lava delta is building where the lava enters the water; a small collapse of the delta on 27 April was indicated by the presence of a large dark plume. Surface lava flows were active above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 April-25 April 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A growing lava delta is building where the lava enters the water. Surface lava flows were active above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 April-18 April 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A growing lava delta is building where the lava enters the water. Surface lava flows were active above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 April-11 April 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water. A growing lava delta was an estimated 25 m out from the base of the sea cliff by 10 April. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 March-4 April 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 March-4 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water. National Park Service officials estimated that the lava delta was about 40 m wide and 100 m long. Surface lava flows were active above the pali, and small, short-lived breakouts occurred on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 March-28 March 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. A small collapse of the S part of the crater wall at 0035 on 23 March was followed by a short time of increased spatter.

Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water; the ocean entry was not consistently visible during the week. Surface lava flows were active above the pali, with most of the activity located 1.9-2.9 km from the 61G vent. During 24-25 March HVO noted that a delta had begun to form at the ocean entry, for the first time since the previous one had collapsed on 31 December 2016.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 March-21 March 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna; the lava stream was 1-2 m wide on 16 March, and plunged into the ocean from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water. Surface lava flows were active above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 March-14 March 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal plain, and on and above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 March-7 March 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal plain, along the E side of 61G, about 500 m upslope of the FEMA emergency road. Other surface flows above the pali appeared during 1-2 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 February-28 February 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. A pit on the W side of the crater contains a small lava pond. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal plain, along the E side of 61G, less than 1 km upslope of the FEMA emergency road. Other surface flows streamed down the pali farther inland.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 February-21 February 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu'u 'O'o. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 February-14 February 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu'u 'O'o. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A portion of the sea cliff just W of the ocean entry collapsed on 11 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 February-7 February 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu'u 'O'o.

HVO geologists noted an extensive crack running parallel to the sea cliff about 5-10 m behind the stream of lava entering the ocean at Kamokuna. The crack was 30 cm wide on 28 January and 70 cm wide four days later, on 1 February. In addition, the seaward block bounded by this crack was visibly moving up to 1 cm, and ground shaking could be felt up to several hundred meters away. On 2 February the crack was wider and steaming, and the stream of lava that had been pouring into the ocean from an opening in a lava tube about 20 m above the water was no longer visible (though lava continued to enter the ocean). At about 1255 almost the entire section of the sea cliff that was seaward of the hot crack collapsed. The collapsed block generated a wave that propagated outward from the coast. After the collapse, no lava was visible entering the ocean though a steam plume and spatter from explosions indicated that the entry remained active.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 January-31 January 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25-31 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu'u 'O'o.

HVO noted that thermal images showed a high-temperature area about 5-10 m from the edge of the sea cliff, with hot cracks running parallel to the cliff around the entry point, suggesting sea cliff instability. HVO scientists did not observe significant delta development from ground vantage points on 29 January. A stream of lava continued to pour into the ocean from an opening in a lava tube about 20 m above the water.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 January-24 January 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 January-17 January 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Active surface flows near Pu'u 'O'o advanced ESE; one branch was 2.4 km from the vent on 12 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 January-10 January 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose as high as 9 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. An active branch of 61G remained active E of Pu'u 'O'o and advanced slowly E at a rate of only a few tens of meters per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 December-3 January 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 December 2017-3 January 2017 HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent, and was visible from the Jaggar Museum overlook on most days. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. An active branch of 61G remained active E of Pu'u 'O'o and advanced slowly E at a rate of only a few tens of meters per day. On 31 December almost all of the Kamokuna lava delta had collapsed, along with a large section (180 m long and 70 m wide) of the older sea cliff E of the lava delta.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 December-27 December 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent, and was visible from the Jaggar Museum overlook. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. An active branch of 61G remained active E of Pu'u 'O'o and advanced slowly E at a rate of only a few tens of meters per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 December-20 December 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose as high as 13 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. An active branch of 61G remained active E of Pu'u 'O'o and advanced slowly E at a rate of only a few tens of meters per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 December-13 December 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose as high as 9 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. An active branch of 61G remained active E of Pu'u 'O'o and advanced slowly E at a rate of only a few tens of meters per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 November-6 December 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 November-6 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose as high as 7.5 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. A section of the wall of the Overlook Vent collapsed into the lava lake at 0658 on 2 December ejecting spatter onto the Halema’uma’u Crater rim. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. Breakouts at the upper part of the lava-tube system sent lava E. Other breakouts occurred at the base of the Pulama pali and on the coastal plain about 1 km inland from ocean.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 November-29 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-29 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose as high as 6.5 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. A section of the wall of the Overlook Vent collapsed into the lava lake on 28 November. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. Breakouts at the upper part of the lava-tube system began on 21 November, sending lava as far as 500 m S and E. These breakouts, and others inland from the ocean entry, continued to be active through 29 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 November-22 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose as high as 7.5 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 November-15 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose almost to the rim (Halema’uma’u floor) during 9-10 November. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 November-8 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lava lake fluctuated between 11 and 19 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. Aerial observations on 3 November revealed that the E delta was relatively large with prominent cracks on the surface, suggesting instability.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 October-1 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 October-1 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lava lake fluctuated between 13 and 17.5 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. Aerial observations on 27 October revealed prominent surface cracks on the E delta suggesting growing instability; small collapses of the delta occurred earlier in the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 October-25 October 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lava lake rose as high as 6 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. A small explosion from the lake on 19 October was triggered by a rockslide, and a slightly larger explosion on 20 October was caused by a collapse of a slice of the crater rim.

Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 October-18 October 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; on 15 October the lake rose high enough to produce small lobes of lava that flowed E and W on the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 October-11 October 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna; only the E side of the entry was active. Scattered breakouts were active 2 km inland from the coast. National Park Service staff reported that a collapse of the E part of the lava delta occurred sometime between 2-6 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 September-4 October 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 September-4 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level rose as high as 10 m below the Halema'uma'u floor (on 1 October), and was sometimes visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera). Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple locations near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active 2 km inland from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 September-27 September 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level rose as high as 10 m below the Halema?uma?u floor, and was sometimes visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera); lava fountains along the edge of the lake were visible from the museum on 26 September. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active 2 km inland from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 September-20 September 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level fluctuated between 11 and 28 m below the Halema?uma?u floor, and was sometimes visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera). A drop in the lake level during 16-17 September caused several collapses of solidified lava that had adhered to the crater walls. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple locations near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active 2 km inland from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 September-13 September 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level fluctuated between 5 and 20 m below the Halema’uma’u floor, and was easily visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera). The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna. A large section of the W part of the delta had collapsed on 5 September, causing a small explosion. Scattered breakouts were active 1.7-2 km inland from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 August-6 September 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 August-6 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Incandescence was evident in webcam images from several long-established vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor. A collapse at the W vent increased the size of the vent and a 40-m-diameter lava pond that was 23 m below the vent's rim. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna and spanning about 1 km of coastline and increasing the size of the lava delta at the base of the sea cliff. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 August-30 August 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna and spanning about 1 km of coastline and increasing the size of the lava delta at the base of the sea cliff. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 August-23 August 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna and spanning about 1 km of coastline. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 August-16 August 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali. A small delta collapse during the afternoon of 9 August temporarily darkened the ocean-entry plume.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 August-9 August 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Late on 6 August an explosions triggered by a rockfall into the lake ejected voluminous amounts of hot spatter and rock debris onto the SE rim of Halema’uma’u Crater, covering a broad swath 80 m long and 50 m wide around the formerly-closed public overlook area.

Several incandescent vents on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna in an area that spans 150-240 m wide. A small delta had formed at the entry. An active lobe of lava advanced along the W side of the flow field, crossed the Emergency Access road 500 m W of the main flow, and entered the ocean overnight during 8-9 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 July-2 August 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 27 July-2 August the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at the Kamokuna area; the flow at the ocean entry continued to widen and by 30 July was 240 m across. Nighttime webcam views of the flow field showed incandescent areas mostly on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 July-26 July 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 20-26 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to advance across the coastal plain. The most distal part of the flow had stalled on 18 July but was again active by 22 July. Based on National Park personnel observations, the flow front was about 370 m from the ocean by 24 July. At 0112 on 26 July lava reached the ocean. Nighttime webcam views of the flow field showed incandescent areas from skylights, and advancing lava on the pali and coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 July-19 July 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 13-19 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to advance across the coastal plain. By midday on 15 July the lava flow was about 870 m from the ocean, advancing only 60 m since 12 July. A satellite image acquired on 17 July showed that the flow front was 820 m from the ocean. By the evening of 18 July the flow tip had stalled but breakouts were active a few hundred meters upslope.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 July-12 July 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 6-12 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. Episode 61g, a lava flow originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to advance across the coastal plain, burning vegetation in the adjacent kipuka at the base of the pali. By 10 July the lava flow was about 1 km from the ocean.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 June-5 July 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 29 June-5 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. A lava flow originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank continued to advance and spread SE. Webcams recorded bright incandescence from several skylights along the upper part of the tube system supplying lava to the front part of the flow, and also from the flow field. By 29 June the toe of the lava flow had reached the base of the pali (burning vegetation in the adjacent kipuka), and by 3 July it had advanced 690 m onto the coastal plain, 2.6 km from the ocean.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 June-28 June 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 22-28 June the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. A lava flow originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank continued to advance and spread SE. Webcams recorded bright incandescence from several skylights along the upper part of the tube system supplying lava to the front part of the flow. The advancement rate of the flow front was 100 m/day the previous week and by 24 June the lava flow had entered the N part of the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. The advancement rate had increased to 300 m/day during 25-28 June; satellite images acquired on 27 June revealed that the lava flow was 6.3 km long and was progressing down the pali along the W boundary of the subdivision.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 June-21 June 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 15-21 June the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. A lava flow originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank continued to advance and spread SE. Webcams recorded bright incandescence from several skylights along the upper part of the tube system supplying lava to the front part of the flow. An active lava pond in Pu'u 'O'o's W pit was confirmed by observers on 16 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 June-14 June 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 8-14 June the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. A new lava flow that began on 24 May on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's N flank had stalled; a new flow on the E flank had advanced 3.3 km SE along the National Park boundary by 10 June, and was about halfway to the top of Pulama pali. Vents on the crater floor and upper NE flank remained incandescent, and a pit just W of the crater contained a small lava pond. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow appeared to be inactive by 10 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 June-7 June 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 1-7 June the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Two new flows from Pu'u 'O'o Crater's N and E flanks, which began on 24 May, continued to be active within 1.3 km of their respective vents. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.4 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 May-31 May 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that around 0650 on 24 May new lava flows broke out from the flanks of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o cone. The first flow originated about 250 m from the rim of the cone's NE flank and traveled NW, and the second flow came from an area on the E flank, about 500 m from the cone's rim, and traveled SE. By 0830 the first flow was about 1 km long and the second one was about 700 m long. By the same time on 25 May the first flow had become channelized and a new 950-m-long lobe had descended NW. The other flow was active but had not significantly advanced.

The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent during 25-31 May; a rockfall into the lake on 26 May and briefly triggered sloshing and agitation of the lake. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Webcams recorded glow from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. The new lava flows extended about 1.2 km NW and SE by 27 May and continued to be active through 29 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 May-24 May 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 18-24 May. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent; some rockfall/wall collapse events occurred during 19-20 May. Webcams recorded glow from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and from skylights in the lava tube on the NE flank of the cone. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. On 19 May HVO noted that webcams detected about 1 m of uplift of the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor during the previous few days. During 19-20 May four small rockfalls from the crater wall resulted in disturbance to the lake surface or increased spattering.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 May-17 May 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 11-17 May. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded glow from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and from skylights in the lava tube on the NE flank of the cone. Vents in the SW and E parts of the crater periodically produced small lava flows within the crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 May-10 May 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 4-10 May. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. A small lava flow from a NE vent intermittently flowed onto the crater floor during 4-5 and 7 May. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 April-3 May 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 27 April-3 May. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. A small lava flow from the E vent flowed onto the crater floor during 28 April-1 May. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.7 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 April-26 April 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 20-26 April. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.7 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 April-19 April 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 13-19 April. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. The June 27th lava flow, trending NE, continued to be active within 7.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 April-12 April 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 6-12 April. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The lava lake dropped during a deflationary event that began on 4 April and, by 7 April, was 52 m below the crater floor, the deepest it has been since 30 December 2015. On 7 April at 0147 a large part of the inner crater wall fell into the lake. The deflationary event lasted for about four days. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 7.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 March-5 April 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 30 March-5 April. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. A very small lava flow briefly erupted onto the crater floor during 31 March-1 April, and on 3 and 4 April. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 7.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 March-29 March 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 23-29 March. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. A small lava flow broke out from a spatter cone on the NE side of the crater floor on 24 March and again the next evening. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 7.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 March-22 March 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 16-22 March. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 7 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. At about 0320 on 22 March a small lava flow was visible on the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 March-15 March 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 9-15 March. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 March-8 March 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 2-8 March. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. At 0200 on 2 March a small cone on the E side of the crater briefly produced spatter, and then at 0815 a vigorous lava flow erupted from a W vent. During 3-4 and 6-7 March minor amounts of lava intermittently flowed from S vents. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 February-1 March 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 24 February-1 March. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. During 24-25 and 29 February lava from at most two vents flowed onto the crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 February-23 February 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 17-23 February. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. A moderate-size collapse of part of the crater wall into the summit lava lake on 21 February ejected some ash onto the caldera rim. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 February-16 February 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 10-16 February. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 February-9 February 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 3-9 February. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the NE rim. On 8 February a small lava flow erupted from the E vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 January-2 February 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 27 January-2 February. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 January-26 January 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 20-26 January. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 January-19 January 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 13-19 January. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. Several small and brief lava flows erupted onto the crater floor on 14 January. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 January-12 January 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 6-12 January. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. At 0351 on 8 January a rockfall triggered a small explosion that ejected lava fragments onto the crater rim. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. A short lava flow erupted onto the crater floor on 6 January. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 December-5 January 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 30 December-5 January. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. On 2 January part of the E rim of the Overlook vent collapsed into the lava lake, triggering an explosion that ejected tephra onto the rim of the vent. At 0318 on 4 January another explosion occurred from the collapse of part of the N wall.

Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. During 30 December-1 January a few small lava flows erupted from the vents, and on 4 January a small lava flow erupted from a vent on the NE side of the crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 December-29 December 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 23-29 December. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 December-22 December 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 16-22 December. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Scientists conducting fieldwork on 17 December observed an active lava pond on the E rim of Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 December-15 December 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 9-15 December. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. A new incandescent and fuming vent, reported on 10 December, appeared to be from a small collapse into an older, but still hot lava tube. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 December-8 December 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 2-8 December. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 November-1 December 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 25 November-1 December. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o; lava flowed from two of the vents on 25 November. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 November-24 November 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 18-24 November. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. A very long-period earthquake detected at 0230 on 24 November corresponded with the collapse of a very large section of the N rim and wall of the summit vent which caused increased lake spattering and turbulence. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o; a lava flow erupted from a vent on the crater floor on 24 November. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 1.9-6.1 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 November-17 November 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 11-17 November. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 1.9-6.1 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 November-10 November 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 4-10 November. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 2.2-6.4 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 October-3 November 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 28 October-3 November. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 2.2-6.3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 October-27 October 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 21-27 October. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent; small sections of the inner wall veneer fell into the lake on 22 October causing increased spattering and sloshing. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 2.2-6.3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 October-20 October 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 14-20 October. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent; small rockfalls into the lake during 14-15 October caused brief spattering and lake-surface agitation. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 2.2-6.3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 October-13 October 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 7-13 October. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 3-7 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 September-6 October 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 30 September-6 October. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 3-7 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. A small lava pond, not visible with the webcams, remained active in a pit on the W side of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 September-29 September 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 23-29 September. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. A small lava pond, not visible with the webcams, remained active in a pit on the W side of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 September-22 September 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity and deformation at Kilauea was at normal levels during 16-22 September. The lava lake rose and fell, circulated, and occasionally spattered in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater; smoke plumes from burning vegetation marked the most distal flows.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 September-15 September 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 9-15 September. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 September-8 September 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 2-8 September. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 August-1 September 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity at Kilauea remained at background levels during 26 August-1 September. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. On 27 August lava erupted from a vent on the NE side of the crater floor and slowly spread out; the flow was active until about midnight. A large breakout also occurred on the NE flank from a lava tube supplying distant flows; lava traveled 580 m before stopping. On 29 August a very small and short-lived flow emerged from a vent on the SE portion of the crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active in three areas with surface flows within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater; smoke plumes from burning vegetation marked the most distal flows.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 August-25 August 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity at Kilauea remained at background levels during 19-25 August. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active in three areas with surface flows within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater; smoke plumes from burning vegetation marked the most distal flows.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 August-18 August 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity at Kilauea remained at background levels during 12-18 August. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active in three areas with surface flows within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater; smoke plumes from burning vegetation marked the most distal flows.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 August-11 August 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 5-11 August. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o, including a small lava pond (40-50 m across and 21 m deep) in a collapsed pit. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater; smoke plumes from burning vegetation marked the most distal flows.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 July-4 August 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 29 July-4 August. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o; for 45 minutes on 31 July a lava flow effused from a vent on the E part of the crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 July-28 July 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 15-22 July. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent; occasional collapses of material briefly agitated the lake surface. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 July-21 July 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 15-22 July. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater; smoke plumes rose from burning forest at the most distant part of the flow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 July-14 July 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 8-14 July. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Satellite images showed expansion of the flow field since 6 July, with gradual northward advancement of the most western and north-pointing branch of the flow field.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 July-7 July 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 1-7 July. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within the Overlook vent, vigorously spattering. On 1 July part of the rim and wall of Overlook crater collapsed into the lava lake, starting at about 1430, producing an ashy plume, rapid oscillation of the lava lake, and intense spattering in the lake at the impact site. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 June-30 June 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit and upper East Rift Zone was at background levels during 24-30 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within the Overlook vent, exhibiting vigorous spattering. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 June-23 June 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 17-23 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within the Overlook vent, exhibiting vigorous spattering. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o. A small-scale lava flow spilled onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor from a vent on the N side of the floor at 0130 on 19 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 June-16 June 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 10-16 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within the Overlook vent, vigorously spattering. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 June-9 June 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 3-9 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater (now called the Overlook vent); the lake level was about 62 m below the crater floor on 9 June. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 May-2 June 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 27 May-2 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was about 44 m below the crater floor on 29 May and 73 m below the floor on 31 May. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 7.9 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 May-26 May 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 20-26 May. The summit tiltmeter network recorded fluctuating inflationary and deflationary tilt from the typical Halema'uma'u source. Nighttime incandescence suggested an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 May-19 May 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the circulating lava lake in the pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater started to drop on 9 May and as of 15 May was about 50 m lower than the raised vent rim. The lake-level drop was accompanied by a change from inflation of the summit area to deflation centered near Halema'uma'u Crater. In addition, on 13 May, the focus of deformation changed to the S part of Kilauea's summit caldera and upper Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ), where rapid and localized inflationary tilt was recorded. Seismicity shifted from Kilauea's summit and the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) to the S part of the summit; seismicity at the upper SWRZ continued. The number of earthquakes increased on 15 May. The data suggest that magma had moved into a shallow area beneath the S part of the caldera and upper SWRZ. During 16-18 May rates of tilting slowed, and seismicity at the summit and SWRZ remained above background levels but had decreased. By 19 May seismicity rates at the summit were normal and tilit had decreased slightly. The lava lake remained about 45-50 m below the crater floor.

Nighttime incandescence suggested an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to have active surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 May-12 May 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Lava overflowed the rim multiple times almost daily, and since the first overflow on 28 April, had built up a rim that by 8 May was 10 m higher than the Halema'uma'u crater floor. Contemporaneously with deflation detected during 10-12 May, the lake receded, and by 12 May was barely visible from the Jaggar Museum.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava erupted from several vents multiple times onto the crater floor. An overflight on 8 May revealed an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of the main crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins, within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o. Most of the surface flows were fed from the 21 February breakout and located less than 3 km from the NE rim of Pu'u 'O'o. Forest burned about 8 km NE of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 April-5 May 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

In a special statement on 29 April, HVO reported that beginning at 2140 the night before the lava lake in Kilauea’s Halema'uma'u Crater overflowed it's rim multiple times, sending lobate sheets of pahoehoe as far as 130 m across the crater floor. The report also noted that a few explosions in the lake triggered by falling wall rock had occurred; one at 1020 on 28 April ejected boulders of molten spatter (2 m in diameter) onto the rim of Halema'uma'u Crater, in the vicinity of the closed visitor overlook fence. Spatter also blanketed an area 100 m along the rim and 50 m back. This area had been closed to the public since 2007.

The accumulating lava had built up a rim around the lake that was a few meters above the crater floor. On 30 April the lava-lake surface was about 4 m below the new rim. During 1-2 May the lake level was near or at the rim, and overflowed onto the floor several times. During 2-3 May the lake surface was 3-5 m above the original, pre-flow crater floor. A collapse of a portion of the crater wall at 1320 on 3 May impacted the lake and triggered a small explosion, ejecting fist-sized clasts onto the crater rim. Lava overflowed the rim several times during 4-5 May.

During 29 April-5 May Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins, within 8 km of Pu'u 'O'o. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a, and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. Forest burned about 8 km NE of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 April-28 April 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 April HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins, within 8 km of Pu'u 'O'o. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a, and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. Forest burned about 8 km NE of the crater. The thermal webcam recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents in the crater. Lava that sporadically erupted from vents on the SE and S parts of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor covered the floor.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. Abrupt inflation began at 1640 on 21 April; concurrently the lava lake rose and was 20 m below the crater floor on 23 April, the highest level since the eruption began in 2008. A small collapse from the overhanging W wall at about 0520 triggering a small explosive event that ejected spatter out onto the Halema'uma'u crater floor. The lake continued to rise and was 12 m below the floor on 25 April. Two collapses of the W crater wall each triggered explosions that ejected clumps of spatter (some 30 cm in diameter) up onto the rim of Halema'uma'u and dusted the Jaggar Museum area with ash. During 25-26 April the lava lake rose to within about 4 m of the crater floor. During 27-28 April the lava lake fluctuated but was mostly 3-4 m below the rim, and briefly reached the rim on 28 April at a time without spattering.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 April-21 April 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 April HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a, and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. The thermal webcam recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents in the crater. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. On 16 April several small lava flows extruded from two S vents on Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 April-14 April 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 April HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a, and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. A lava flow from a vent at the S edge of Pu'u 'O'o began at 1700 on 7 April and remained active through 9 April.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 April-7 April 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 April HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a (burning trees were visible), and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. During an overflight on 3 April geologists observed a small collapse pit had formed sometime since the previous overflight (possibly on 18 March based on tilt data) in the W portion of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The opening was about 27 m in diameter but the chamber below was much larger. The floor of the collapse pit was about 80 m in diameter, about 24 m below the pit rim and hosted two active lava ponds.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 March-31 March 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25-31 March HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with four separate breakouts in three areas within and along the flow-field margins. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a (burning trees were visible), and a relatively small breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. On 25 March HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level from Warning to Watch, noting that in recent weeks the Pu'u 'O'o lava flows nearest to the town of Pahoa were inactive. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 March-24 March 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 March HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small and scattered breakouts within the flow-field margins, upslope of the leading front. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a (burning trees were visible), and a relatively small breakout 5 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. A small lava pond was visible in the central Pu'u 'O'o vent; on 23 March a tiny lava flow erupted from the vent. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 March-17 March 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 March HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small and scattered breakouts within the flow-field margins, upslope of the leading front. Most of the erupting lava was found in the two largest breakouts: the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o and the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a. A third and relatively small breakout was 5 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. A small lava pond was visible in the S portion of the crater. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. During 12-13 March a tiny lava flow erupted from the NE edge of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 March-10 March 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 March HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small and scattered breakouts within the flow-field margins, upslope of the leading front. These breakouts included a lobe extending to the N, about 1.6 km upslope from Highway 130, and a lobe on the S side of the flow, about 870 m upslope of Malama Market. The most northern lobe of lava remained stalled, about 500 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 February-3 March 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25 February-3 March HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to widen with several small breakouts across the interior and edges of the lobes, upslope of the leading front. These breakouts included a lobe extending to the N, which remained about 1.6 km upslope from Highway 130, and a lobe on the S side of the flow, about 870 m upslope of Malama Market. The most distal lobe of lava remained about 500 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor and minor lava flows within the crater were observed. During an overflight on 27 February volcanologists observed a few lava ponds in the vents. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 February-24 February 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-24 February HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small breakouts across the interior and edges of the lobes, upslope of the leading front. These breakouts included a lobe extending to the N, about 1.6 km upslope from Highway 130, and a lobe on the S side of the flow, about 870 m upslope of Malama Market. The most northern lobe of lava remained about 500 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 February-17 February 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 February HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small breakouts across the interior and edges of the lobes, upslope of the leading front. Small brush fires from the breakouts were noted about 3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater and in an area W of the Kaohe Homesteads. The most northern lobe of lava remained about 500 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 February-10 February 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 February HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small breakouts across the interior and edges of the lobes, upslope of the leading front. The most northern lobe of lava remained about 500 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 January-3 February 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 January-3 February HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to widen and breakout lava flows continued upslope of the leading front. The most northern lobe of lava was about 500 m above Highway 130 by 3 February, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 January-27 January 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 January HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to widen and advance, with breakout lava flows upslope of the leading front. The most northern lobe of lava continued to advance and by 27 January the front was about 500 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 January-20 January 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 January HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with breakouts upslope of the leading front. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system stalled; by 20 January the front was about 650 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 January-13 January 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 January HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with breakout lava flows upslope of the leading front. On 13 January scientists conducted an overflight of the flow field and observed scattered breakouts along the distal part of the flow between 0.5 and 1 km upslope of the stalled flow front; a narrow lobe that had been advancing NNE was 700 m upslope of the stalled front. Additional breakouts were scattered from 1.7 to 3 km upslope of the flow tip and near the crack system.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 December-6 January 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 December-6 January HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with breakout lava flows upslope of the leading front. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system stalled and by 30 December the front was about 800 m above the intersection of Pahoa Village Road and Highway 130, and 530 m from the Pahoa Marketplace.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 December-30 December 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 December HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system advanced, and by 30 December the front was about 800 m above the intersection of Pahoa Village Road and Highway 130, and 604 m from the Pahoa Marketplace.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 December-23 December 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 December HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system advanced and by 22 December the front was about 1 km above the intersection of Pahoa Village Road and Highway 130, near the Pahoa Marketplace.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 December-16 December 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 December HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system advanced at rates of several hundred meters per day; by 16 December the front was about 1.6 km above the intersection of Pahoa Village Road and Highway 130, near the Pahoa Marketplace.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 December-9 December 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 December HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system advanced at rates of several hundred meters per day; by 9 December the front was about 3.5 km above the intersection of Pahoa Village Road and Highway 130, near the Pahoa Marketplace.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 November-2 December 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 November-2 December HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. During an overflight on 1 December volcanologists observed a narrow lava flow that had originated from the W edge of the flow field and traveled 2.8 km N, burning vegetation along its path. They noted that weak surface activity was present in three areas upslope: the W side of the flow field that had produced the new lava flow, the E edge of the crack system, and at a breakout 3.5 km upslope of Pu'u 'O'o. They also measured a cross-sectional area of the lava stream within a tube near Pu'u 'O'o and found a 25% reduction in area compared to the previous week. The result was consistent with less lava flowing through the tube due to the summit deflation, which has been ongoing since 29 November.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 November-25 November 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 November HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. A satellite image acquired on 22 November showed that active breakouts were focused in two areas: in the upper part of the flow field about 4 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o, and above the ground crack system near an abandoned geothermal well site on Kilauea’s east rift zone. On 24 November slow-moving pahoehoe flows near the well site had advanced and were 5.7 km SW of the transfer station on Apa'a Street.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 November-18 November 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 November HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. On 15 November the closest active lava to Pahoa Village Road was about 630 m upslope of the road. Multiple breakouts were active upslope of Apa’a Street and Cemetery Road, including a breakout traveling along the S margin of the earlier flow that crossed Cemetery Road and burned the road surface. During an overflight on 17 November, scientists noted a marked decrease in the surface breakouts that have been active N of Kaohe Homesteads, and near Apa’a Street and the Pahoa Japanese Cemetery during the previous few weeks. This decrease in supply was caused by a large breakout from the lava tube at Pu’u Kahauale’a, near Pu'u 'O'o, which began overnight during 14-15 November. A report on 18 November noted that the lower portion of the lava flow, near the Kaohe Homesteads and Pahoa, had stalled, but breakouts remained active in the upslope portion of the flow between 1.6 km and 9 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 November-11 November 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 November HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. Breakout lava flows behind the stalled leading edge continued to advance. On 10 November the closest active lava to Pahoa Village Road was about 450 m upslope of the road, on the N margin of the flow field. Multiple breakouts were active around Apa’a Street and Cemetery Road. Lava advanced to within 20 m of the transfer station fence and through residential property across the street; at 1155 an unoccupied home on that lot was ignited by advancing lava.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 October-4 November 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 October-4 November HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. Breakout lava flows behind the stalled leading edge continued to advance; during 30-31 October a lobe downslope of the Pahoa cemetery was active, burning trees in a forested area and causing numerous loud methane bursts. The lobe entered residential property at 1645 on 31 October, advanced along the N edge of the property, and then stalled on 4 November. The interior areas of the flows continued to inflate.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 October-28 October 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 October HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. On 22 October a narrow lava flow (less than 50 m wide) that had overtaken the flow front during the previous few days moved into a small gully; the advancement rate was variable and sometimes as high as 300 m/day. Another breakout upslope continued to advance at a slower rate. On 24 October HVO scientists aboard an overflight measured the cross sectional area of the lava tube feeding the flow; the measurement suggested that the volume of lava being supplied to the flow from the Pu'u 'O'o vent had slightly increased.

At approximately 0350 on 25 October lava crossed Apa’a Street and continued to advance towards Pahoa town. Throughout the morning the flow moved down the Pahoa cemetery driveway and then turned SE into adjoining pasture. At 0900 on 26 October the flow was an estimated 140 m wide. The next day it had narrowed to 100 m wide and was about 570 m from Pahoa Village Road. At about 0200 on 28 October the flow had reached the first occupied residential property. The leading edge of the flow was less than 50 m wide but increased to 150 m upslope. At 1730 the lava flow was 310 m in a straight-line distance from Pahoa Village Road and about 900 meters in a straight-line distance from Highway 130. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

According to news articles, Pahoa town, residence to 800-900 people, consists of small shops and homes. A school and a few roads were closed. Crews were building temporary access roads and trying to build berms to divert lava away from the highly traveled Highway 130.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); CBC; CNN


15 October-21 October 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

The 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active, with several breakouts about 1.3 km upslope of the front, although it stopped advancing on 17 October. Along the S side of the main flow a narrow breakout flow traveled at a rate of 80 m/day. The leading edge of the flow remained 1.4 km upslope from Apa’a Street. Vegetation along the flow margins was burning. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 October-14 October 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

The 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to advance. Volcanologists aboard an overflight on 13 October noted that the flow had advanced about 220 m since 10 October, with an average travel rate of approximately 75 m/day since 6 October. The leading edge of the flow was 1.4 km upslope from Apa’a Street. Vegetation along the flow margins was burning. An overflight on 14 October revealed that the flow had advanced an additional 40 m. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 October-7 October 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

The 27 June NE-trending lava flow remained active; flows that had broken out upslope from the leading but stalled front had overtaken that front by 1 October. By 6 October the115-m-wide flow was advancing at a rate of about 120 m/day and was 1.2 km upslope from Apa`a Street. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 September-30 September 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-30 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. Small collapses from the inner wall occasionally occurred and on 24 September produced a small brown plume from the vent. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. Volcanologists on an overflight on 26 September observed sloshing lava in the pits.

The 27 June NE-trending lava flow remained active upslope from the leading edge. By 22 September the flow had extended 16.4 km from the vent (measured in a straight line), placing the active flow front within the NW portion of the Kaohe Homesteads, a vacant forested portion of the subdivision, 2.3 km upslope from Apa`a Street and 3.3 km from Pahoa Village Road. Two slow-moving lobes behind the flow front advanced; the nearest lobe was about 125 m behind the stalled front. During an overflight on 29 September volcanologists observed breakouts where the flow first entered the crack system about 8 km behind the stalled front, and where it exited the system about 3 km upslope from the front. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 September-23 September 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. Two small lava ponds in the S pit were visible during the earlier part of the week, and small breakout flows near the crater burned adjacent forest.

The NE-trending lava flow had advanced at an average rate of 290 m/day between 15 and 17 September and 190 m/day between 17 and 19 September, and continued to cause localized fires as it spread through the forest. By 22 September the flow extended 16.4 km from the vent (measured in a straight line), placing the active flow front within the NW portion of the Kaohe Homesteads, a vacant forested portion of the subdivision. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 September-16 September 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining 50-60 m below the Overlook Crater rim. Elevated gas emissions were detected during the week of 9 September, with amounts of 3,300-6,700 tonnes per day, and persisted through this reporting period. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have fallen several kilometers away.

During 10-16 September little change was recorded from Pu`u `O`o; glow was visible overnight above several outgassing openings in the crater floor. By 16 September the NE-trending lava flow extended 15.5 km from the vent, placing the active flow front within the NW portion of the Kaohe Homesteads, a vacant forested portion of the subdivision. The flow had advanced at an average rate of 215 m/day between 12 and 15 September and continued to generate smoke and localized fires as it spread through the forest.

The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 September-9 September 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining 50-60 m below the Overlook Crater rim. Elevated gas emissions were detected on 2 September, 3,300-6,700 tonnes per day, and persisted through this reporting period. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have fallen several kilometers away.

During 3-9 September little change was recorded from Pu`u `O`o; glow was visible overnight above several outgassing openings in the crater floor. On 3 September HVO raised the Volcano Alert Level from Watch to Warning due to the advancement of the June 27th lava flow. By that afternoon the NE trending lava flow had reached ~13.2 km from the vent, placing the active flow front 1.3 km from the E boundary of the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve. The lava flow continued to generate smoke and localized fires as it spread through the forest, and as of 9 September had advanced ~800 m.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 August-2 September 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 August-2 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

During 27 August-2 September glow was visible overnight above several outgassing openings in Pu`u `O`o's crater floor. On 28 August there was a brief reduction in surface activity. On 1 September aerial views showed small lava ponds within the NE, SE, and N pits within the crater, and a crusted pond surface in the SE pit. The June 27th lava flow remained active. On 1 September active lava was 12.6 km from the vent, and about 1.9 km from the eastern boundary of the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve. Lava a few hundred meters behind the front had flowed into a large ground crack and disappeared from view; a line of steam from the crack extended E. The most distant steaming along the crack was 12.8 km from the vent and 1.7 km from the Forest Reserve boundary. Small breakouts were active closer to Pu`u `O`o, about midway along the length of the June 27th flow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 August-26 August 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. On 23 August part of the deep inner ledge surrounding the lava lake collapsed, disrupting the lava lake surface for a short time.

During 20-26 August glow was visible overnight above several outgassing openings in Pu`u `O`o's crater floor and on 20-21 August glow was visible at skylights along the June 27th flow lava tube. On 22 August observations during a helicopter flight showed the June 27th flow had poured into a deep, large crack of Kilauea’s east rift zone and produced a line of steaming that advanced eastward. On 25 August an overflight confirmed that lava in the crack had returned to the surface, creating a small, isolated pad of lava. On 26 August the farthest portion of this new pad of lava was about 11.4 km from the vent on Pu`u `O`o and about 3.1 km from the eastern boundary of the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve. A separate branch of the June 27th flow continued to advance into a different section of forest northeast of Pu`u `O`o and was 7.3 km from the vent on 25 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 August-19 August 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. On 15-18 August glow was visible during the night above outgassing pits on the northeast, south, and southeast edges of Pu`u `O`o's crater floor and at skylights along the June 27th flow lava tube. On 12 August these pits at the edges of the crater floor were identified in an overflight. The June 27th flow continued to advance into forest NE of Pu`u `O`o. The tube-fed flow slowed and widened over several days, and its distal tip was 9.4 km from the vent (straight-line distance) on 18 August. The flow also hosted a broad area of lava flow breakouts mid-way along its length that reached the forest about 5 km NE of the vent, on the N side of the current flow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 August-12 August 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. On 6 August a small collapse of the north rim and wall of Halema'uma'u Crater temporarily increased spatter on the lava lake surface.

On 6-12 August HVO reported one small lava pond on the S and glow along the S, SE, and NE edges of the crater floor of Pu?u ?O?o . On August 6 June 27th flow front had encroached on forest 7 Km ENE of Pu?u ?O?o . Monitoring of the volcanoes was disrupted by Hurricane Iselle on 7 August and HVO is working to fully recover from the impacts of the storm. In the interim, staff from the Alaska Volcano Observatory and from USGS Headquarters in Reston, VA have increased satellite monitoring for volcanoes in Hawai’i.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 July-5 August 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 July-5 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele’s hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been deposited several kilometers away.

On 30 June the mapped June 27th flow front had reached 4.2 km from vent on northeast flank of Pu’u ‘O’o’. The flow front has continued to advance reaching about 5 km NE of Pu’u ‘O’o’ on 4 August. Two small lava ponds remained active on the south side of Pu’u ‘O’o’s crater. On 30 July-2 August small lava flows were fed by the eastern lava pond.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 July-29 July 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. On 24 July a small explosion triggered by rockfalls from the southeast crater wall sent spatter onto the closed tourist overlook at Halema`uma`u; small rockfalls also disturbed the lava lake surface on 27 July.

Lava flows fed from a vent on Pu`u `O`o's northeast flank continued to advance slowly NE as two lobes that reached 2.4 km from the vent on 25 July. Lava was at or near the surface within the four pits on the crater floor and a small lava flow erupted from the southern pit during the night of 25-26 July. On 28 July there were a few small collapses around the edge of Pu`u `O`o's crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 July-22 July 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. A 27 June breakout of lava flowed in an incipient lava tube from the vent to the gentle break in slope at the base of Pu`u `O`o, and continued slowly moving in two main lobes that extended about 2 km NE. Two small lava ponds within cones are present within the two southeastern pits in the crater floor, and glow above two other pits indicated lava is near the surface.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 July-15 July 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-14 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater. The lava-lake level fluctuated between 30 and 45 m below the Overlook crater rim; on 13 July, the level dropped 45-50 m during periods of spattering. Weak inflation was measured at the summit during 2-8 July, deflation during 9-10 July, no significant deformation during 11-13 July, and slight inflation on 14 July. Gas emissions remained elevated; during the weeks ending on 1 and 8 July, the summit SO2 emission rates were 3,800-8,400 tonnes/day and 5,800-6,900 tonnes/day, respectively. Earthquakes during 2-7 July (11-21/day) and 8-14 July (5-27/day) were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

On 3 July, the total SO2 emission rate from all East Rift Zone sources was 500 tonnes per day. During 2-14 July, four lava ponds within cones occupied the crater floor of Pu`u`O`o. The vent which opened on the NE flank of Pu`u`O`o on 27 June remained active and supplied a flow extending NE, constructing a lava shield that continued to expand until 10 July. This new flow cut off lava supply to the Kahauale`a 2 flow, which by 3 July was no longer active. The new shield developed a perched lava pond which crusted over and became quiescent when the pond spilled over on 11 July. Lava continued to erupt from the base of the structure, supplying flows that accumulated around the flat-lying terrain at the base of Pu`u`O`o until 14 July. Continuous deflation was measured at Pu`u`O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 June-1 July 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25 June-1 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

During 25-26 June, lava flows from the N and NE spatter cones at Pu'u 'O'o Crater were active and persistent glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 27 June the crater floor slowly subsided and new lava erupted on the N flank. During 27-30 June lava flowed from four locations on the NE flank, advancing to about 1 km NE. Spatter cones collapsed varying amounts. A 28 June satellite image showed that the 27 June lava flows had expanded in area and extended no more than 1.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o cone. During 25-27 June there were multiple active breakouts in the interior of the Kahauale`a 2 flow at the north base of Pu'u 'O'o and distant broad smoke plumes, with multiple glowing points visible at night from both near and distant breakouts. Only one stationary glowing spot was seen during 28-30 June on a nearby breakout from the Kahauale`a 2 flow, and little to no smoke from the distal end of that flow, suggesting that the flow was cutoff and dead.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 June-24 June 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-23 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema‘uma‘u Crater. The lava-lake level dropped several meters on 21 June then returned to an estimated 34-35 m below the floor of Halema‘uma‘u Crater by 22 June. Gas emissions remained elevated. The ambient SO2 concentrations near the vent varied greatly but remained higher than 10 ppm, and frequently exceeded 50 ppm (upper limit of the detector) during times with moderate trade winds. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu‘u ‘O‘o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 17 June geologists mapped five small breakouts as far as 7 km NE from Pu‘u ‘O‘o. The local webcam captured views of the active break-out flows at the N base of Pu‘u ‘O‘o cone as well as distant smoke plumes from the slow-moving lava flow burning vegetation along the NE margin of the Kahauale‘a 2 flow. Overall, however, this slow-moving flow has appeared to be weakening over the past few months.

The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 June-17 June 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity from the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o, and on 6 June they mapped four small breakouts as far as 6.5 km from Pu’u 'O'o. Smoke plumes rising from forested areas suggested advancing lava from a new 12 June breakout at the N base of the Pu’u 'O'o cone. Overall, however, this slow-moving flow has appeared to be weakening over the past few months.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 June-10 June 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity from the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o, and on 6 June they mapped four small breakouts as far as 6.5 km from Pu’u 'O'o. Smoke plumes rising from forested areas suggested advancing breakout flows.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 May-3 June 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 May-3 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, NE, SE, and S portions of the crater floor. During 30 May-1 June the small lava lake in the NE spatter cone briefly overflowed its rim each morning. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity from the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o; on 30 May they mapped three small breakouts 1.8-6.2 km from Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 May-27 May 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, NE, SE, and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 May-20 May 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. Lava flows from the N spatter cone traveled short distances during 14-15 May. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 14 May showed that the farthest point of activity was 8.8 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 May-13 May 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The S spatter cone periodically erupted lava flows that overflowed on the N flanks and extended from the S base of the cone. The N cone ejected spatter. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. On 5 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity, 8.6 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 April-6 May 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 April-6 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The S spatter cone periodically erupted lava flows that traveled N and SE beyond the crater rim. During 5-6 May the N cone ejected spatter and a small lava flow. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burned adjoining forest. On 5 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity, 8.6 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 April-29 April 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. During 28-29 April the lake level rose to an estimated 30 m below the crater floor, the highest level measured since February 2013.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. On 22 April, just before midnight, the N spatter cone produced a vigorous lava flow that traveled E across the crater floor in minutes, over the crater edge, and then down the NE flank of the cone along the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow tube. The flow continued to be sporadically active during the rest of this reporting period. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. On 28 April geologists mapped the farthest point of activity, 8.3 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 April-22 April 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. On 18 April geologists noted that the farthest point of activity was 7.5 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 April-15 April 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone (during most of the reporting period). The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 9 April showed the farthest point of activity was 8.3 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 April-8 April 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. During an overflight on 7 April geologists observed that the farthest point of activity was 8.2 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 March-1 April 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 March-1 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, continued to advance, with breakout lava flows from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 27 March showed active breakouts 5.5 and 8 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 March-25 March 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. Lava from the pond periodically spilled over the rim during 18-19 March. Breakouts from the main stalled lobe of the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, continued to advance and burn adjoining forest. Overflight mapping on 21 March showed that the edge of the most distant breakout flow was 8.2 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 March-18 March 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. On 12 March lava flowed S from the S cone. Once on 14 March and twice on 17 March lava from the pond rose and spilled over the rim.

Breakouts from the stalled main lobe of the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance and burned adjoining forest. A satellite image from 11 March showed that the edge of the most distant breakout flow was 8 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 March-11 March 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, continued to advance, with breakout lava flows from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image from 7 March showed that the edge of the most distant breakout flow was 7.9 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 February-4 March 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 February-4 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor; the lava pond in the NE spatter cone was possibly crusted over. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, stalled in mid-January but remained active with scattered break-out flows behind the flow front that burned adjoining forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 February-25 February 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and a lava pond was active in the NE spatter cone. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, stalled in mid-January but remained active with scattered break-out flows behind the flow front that burned adjoining forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 February-18 February 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and a lava pond was active in the NE spatter cone. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows behind the flow front that burned the forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 February-11 February 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and a lava pond was active in the NE spatter cone. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow (based on a satellite image from 2 February), fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows 4.8 and 6.9 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o that burned the forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 January-4 February 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 January-4 February 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. A lava pond was active in the NE spatter cone. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow (based on a satellite image from 27 January), fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows 4.8 and 6.7 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o that burned the forest. On 31 January a few brief lava overflows occurred from two of the cones.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 January-28 January 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 January 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow (based on mapping from 24 January), fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 23 January a small lava flow also oozed out of the SE spatter cone. During 23-26 January lava rose in the westernmost spatter cone and flowed down the N flank.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 January-21 January 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 January 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. A "deflation-inflation" event, or DI, began on 17 January and by 21 January the lava-lake level had dropped more than 20 m to about 70 m below the crater floor. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.5-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow (based on a satellite image from 17 January), fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 19 January the N side of the NE spatter cone collapsed, possibly due to lower lava levels as a result of the DI event, exposing a small lava pond.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 January-14 January 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 January 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. Fed by the NE spatter cone, the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow had reached 7.5 km long by 9 January (based on a satellite image), and was active with scattered break-out flows that burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 January-7 January 2014 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 December 2013-7 January 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 6.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, remained active with scattered break-out flows that burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. During 1-2 January the SE spatter cone erupted a total of five short lava flows, and on the morning of 6 January it ejected a small amount of lava.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 December-31 December 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 6.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 December-24 December 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-23 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o; the flow however was most active about 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o based on satellite images from 20 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 December-17 December 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. The flow was most active about 5 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o, based on satellite images from 10 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 December-10 December 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o; the flow however was most active about 5 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o based on a satellite images from 30 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 November-3 December 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 November-3 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o; the flow however was most active between 3.3 and 5.8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o based on a satellite images from 30 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 November-26 November 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 November-19 November 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. On 18 November the southernmost spatter cone produced a lava flow that after a few hours burst out in a dome fountain; lava spread over much of the S crater floor before stopping about 30 minutes later. The 7.1-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 November-12 November 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. On 5 November a cone erupted a low fountain of lava which waned quickly; it was the first lava erupted in Pu'u 'O'o in several months.

The 6.4-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 7 November geologists confirmed that, after being active for more than two years and producing some memorable ocean entries, the Peace Day flow, to the SE of Pu'u 'O'o, was no longer active.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 October-5 November 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 October-5 November, HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The depth to the lake surface ranged between 44 and 53 m, and levels frequently corresponded to fluctuations in tilt measured at the summit. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 5.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. The Peace Day flow, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, showed little activity and may have ceased; only one breakout flow was mapped during fieldwork on 21 October, and thermal anomalies since that date have been minor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 October-29 October 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 5.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of a possible minor breakout above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 October-22 October 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 5.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of a few breakouts; on 21 October geologists mapped a small breakout lava flow, with two lobes, about 3 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 September-24 September 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 3.6-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of a few breakouts; during an overflight on 19 September geologists observed two small breakouts 2.7 km and 6 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 September-17 September 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 3.2-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts high on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 September-10 September 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was 47-56 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. Short lava flows issued from one or more of the NE spatter cones four times during 8-9 September.

The 3.2-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 August-3 September 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 August-2 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was 45-52 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 30-31 August and 2-3 September. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. A small and brief lava flow issued from the NE spatter cone on 30 August. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain. A brief plume near the ocean entry on 2 September possibly signified a small bench collapse.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 August-27 August 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was 35-39 m below the crater floor on most days. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. During 22 and 26-27 August two lava flows from the NE spatter cone were visible, and HVO noted that lava from the NW spatter cone had built a second, taller cone immediately to the E. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E which was last visible on 23 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 August-20 August 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was as high as 36 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 16 and 18 August. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 18 August on 1330 the E flank of the N spatter cone apparently burst, causing lava flows to sporadically rush from the cone and cover a large part of the crater floor by the next morning. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 August-13 August 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level rose during the week; the level was 49 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 7 August and 37-39 m below the floor during 10-12 August. The level rose to 48 m below the floor during 12-13 August.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 July-6 August 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 July-6 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 51 m below the Halema'uma'u Crater floor on 5 August.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far NE as 3.2 km and as far NW as 2 km, and burned forest occasionally in two locations at the N edge of the 1983-1986 'a'a flows from Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 July-30 July 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level receded during 25-26 July and was 75 km below the Halema'uma'u Crater floor on 26 July. The inner ledge, a long-time fixture within the vent, started collapsing at 2030 on 25 July; several pieces of the pit wall fell into the lake on both days. The lake level started to rise again and was 65 and 67 m below the crater floor on 28 and 29 July, respectively.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far NE as 3.2 km and as far NW as 2 km, and burned forest in two locations at the N edge of the 1983-1986 'a'a flows from Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 July-23 July 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. On 19 July several pieces of the pit wall fell into the lake.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry at a location E and outside of the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 July-16 July 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 July-9 July 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. Branches of the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 June-2 July 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 June-2 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater but remained about 40-45 m below the crater floor. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flows (formerly known as the Kahauale’a II lava flow), fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. At about 2230 on 18 June breakouts from the Kahauale’a 2 lava tube, near the NE spatter cone and high on the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, produced lava flows that traveled N down the flank. On 27 June the Kahauale’a 2 flow field was mapped and found to be 40 percent larger than when it was last mapped on 11 June.

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 June-25 June 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater but remained about 40-45 m below the crater floor. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.5 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. At about 2230 on 18 June breakouts from the Kahauale’a II lava tube, near the NE spatter cone and high on the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, produced lava that traveled N down the flank. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 June-18 June 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was about 45 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 14-15 and 17-18 June.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.5 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 June-11 June 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 45-46 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 5-6 June.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor; the NE spatter cone produced a small lava flow on 5 June. The Kahauale’a II lava flows, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2 km and as far NNW as 1.6 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 May-4 June 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 May-4 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows traveled N from the base of Pu'u 'O'o cone. The most distal front of the flow was 1.8 km from its source at a spatter cone on the NE edge of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor. At 0740 on 26 May lava began to spill from the N side of the NE spatter cone, feeding a new breakout on the N flank of Pu'u 'O'o. .

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, but mainly flows entering the ocean at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 May-28 May 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows traveled N from the base of Pu'u 'O'o cone. The most distal front of the flow was 1.8 km from its source at a spatter cone on the NE edge of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor. At 0740 on 26 May lava began to spill from the N side of the NE spatter cone, feeding a new breakout on the N flank of Pu'u 'O'o.

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, but mainly flows entering the ocean at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 May-21 May 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. Lava from base of Pu'u 'O'o cone traveled N and was named the Kahauale’a II flow. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of lava flows active on the coastal plain that were entering the ocean at a location outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 May-14 May 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. Lava from the E lava pond traveled down the N, NE, E, and S flanks, extending beyond the base of Pu'u 'O'o cone. During 10-11 May the SW spatter cone erupted lava, and during 11-12 May the SE spatter cone also produced flows.

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of lava flows active on the pali and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean in at least two locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 May-7 May 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. Small lava flows issued from the N spatter cone on 1 May and from the SW cone on 2 May. The lava pond overflowed during 3-4 and 6-7 May.

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of lava flows active above the pali SE of Pu'u 'O'o, on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean in at least two locations spanning the National Park boundary. On 3 May a breakout on the top of the pali produced a lava flow that traveled down to the coastal plain in about 1 hour. Branches from the flow advanced during 4-6 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 April-30 April 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 April-23 April 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the crater floor. Just before midnight on 19 April a vigorous lava flow gushed out of the N spatter cone and quickly covered the N portion of the crater floor, then went over the E rim. The lava pond on the NE crater's edge briefly overflowed. On 21 April the two spatter cones on the S portion of the crater floor produced lava flows.

Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, stopped advancing on 20 April, although a few breakout lava flows were observed during 20-22 April. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two or three locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 April-16 April 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.9 km NE over older flows. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 April-9 April 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.9 km NE over older flows. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 March-2 April 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 March-2 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.4 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 March-26 March 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Lava flowed from the cone on the NE edge of the crater on 23 March, the first lava activity in the crater in a month. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.4 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 March-19 March 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 31 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 14 March.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. A second lava-flow branch was active near the coast and a third branch was active near the base of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 March-12 March 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 3.5 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a, but possibly stalled at the end of the week. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. A second lava-flow branch was active near the coast and a third branch was active near the base of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 February-5 March 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 February-5 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced 2.5 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a, and started fires in the kipuka. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o) and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced towards the coast and produced scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 February-26 February 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 35 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 20 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance NE and SW over older flows. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o) and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced towards the coast and produced scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. A few small bench collapses may have occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 February-19 February 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was between 25-30 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 13 and 15-17 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched crusted lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flowed from the SE and S spatter cones on 13 February and from the SW cone on 17 February. On 19 February lava flowed from the SW and NE spatter cones. New breakouts occurred on the Kahauale'a lava tube high on the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Multiple lava flows, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, from the lava lake (perched 5-6 m higher than the crater rim) traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance N and E over older flows. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o) and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced towards the coast and produced scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 February-12 February 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 27 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 6 February, 25-27 m below the floor on 7 February, and 31 m below the floor on 11 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched crusted lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Multiple lava flows from the lava lake (perched 5-6 m higher than the crater rim) traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance over older flows. Lava flows were active on the pali and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced more than 1.2 km from the base of the pali and remained active with scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 January-5 February 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 January-5 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 32 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 31 January.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. Lava from the lava lake (perched 5-6 m higher than the crater rim) flowed across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance over older flows. On 31 January the N spatter cone gushed with lava; the flow quickly banked against the N crater wall, advanced E to the base of the perched pond at the NE edge, and W towards the W crater wall. On 4 February a minor amount of lava flowed out of the SW spatter cone, and a brief but voluminous lava flow gushed out of the NW spatter cone on 5 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 January-29 January 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. on 23 January a portion of the W vent wall fell into the lake. The lake level was 35 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 23 January and 38 m below the floor on 28 January.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. On most days lava flows from multiple vents were active on the crater floor. On 25 and 26 January pilots confirmed that a lava flow remained active on the E flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 January-22 January 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. During 15-16 January rocks fell into and disrupted the lake surface. The lake level was 35 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 16 January and 27 m below the floor on 19 January.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. Lava levels remained mostly high in the crater; several lava flows from multiple vents were active on the crater floor. The lava lake was perched several meters above the crater rim and sporadically issued lava that flowed outside the crater and onto the E flank of the cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 January-15 January 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 40-45 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 9-10 January, 32 m below the floor on 14 January, and 25 m below the floor on 15 January (which was a little higher than the previous high point in late October 2012).

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. During 9-13 January the lava lake overflowed and occasionally fed larger flows on the crater floor and two small flows on the E flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Lava flowed from the SE spatter cone on 11 January and from the SW spatter cone the next day. Lava levels remained high in the crater during 14-15 January; several lava flows from multiple vents were active on the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 January-8 January 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. A few pieces of the inner ledge of the lake as well as several pieces of veneer on the walls of the conduit occasionally fell into the lake.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. On 4 January the N and W rims of the lava lake collapsed into the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 December-1 January 2013 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 December-1 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. The lava lake briefly overflowed on 27 December. During 29-30 December lava flowed from the easternmost spatter cone in the S part of the crater floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. During 28-30 December web cameras recorded infrequent and weak steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 December-25 December 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 December HVO reported that on most days the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. During 21-24 December a few brief and short lava flows issued from the spatter cones at the S edge of the crater floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. There were no webcam recordings of any ocean entry plumes or reports suggesting that lava had been entering the ocean since 17 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 December-18 December 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 December HVO reported that on most days the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a lava lake on the NE part of the floor which was mostly covered by a spatter cone. The lava lake overflowed during 12-13 December, and on 13 December lava flowed from the SW spatter cone. On 14 December the N rim of the NE spatter cone/lava lake collapsed and was followed by a brief overflow of the lake. A larger lava flow issued from a spatter cone on the N edge of the crater floor, followed by another smaller flow; both flows traveled W, then split and flowed N and S. Another rim collapse from the NE spatter cone/lava lake and small overflow were observed the next day.

Lava flows remained active in two branches on the coastal plain: a small W branch, and a larger E branch with scattered activity extending from the pali to the coast E of the easternmost boundary of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. An ocean entry was marked by a weak and variable plume near Kupapa'u, with lava entering the water in at least two different areas. A new lava flow at the top of the pali was observed on 11 December. On 15 December observers noted that lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. On 16 December HVO noted that a lava delta at the ocean entry had slowly grown to be 50 m wide.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 December-11 December 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 December HVO reported that on most days the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE part of the crater, and glow emanated both from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the NW edge. The lava lake briefly overflowed on 5 December, and small, short-lived lava flows emanated from the spatter cones during 7-9 December. Through the week a spatter cone formed over the lava lake, covering the surface.

Lava flows remained active in two branches on the coastal plain: a small W branch, and a larger E branch with scattered activity extending from the pali to the coast E of the easternmost boundary of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. An ocean entry was marked by a weak and variable plume near Kupapa'u, with lava entering the water in at least two different areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 November-4 December 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 November-4 December HVO reported that on most days the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE part of the crater, and glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the NW edge. Lava overflowed the lava lake on 24 November and 2 December.

Lava flows remained active in two branches on the coastal plain: a small W branch, and a larger E branch with scattered activity extending from the pali to the coast E of the easternmost boundary of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. During 28-30 November steam plumes did not rise from the ocean entry point; on 30 November geologists confirmed that active lava flows were 100 m from the coast. Lava again entered the ocean during 1-2 and 4 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 November-27 November 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE part of the crater, and glow emanated from vents at the S edge of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the N edge. A small lava flow issued from the E vent at the S edge of the crater floor on 24 November.

The easternmost of two lava flows on the coastal plain entered the ocean on 24 November in an area 500 m E of the easternmost border of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Steam plumes rose from the entry point during 25-26 November, suggesting lava continued to enter the ocean. A plume was absent on the morning of 27 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 November-20 November 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-19 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain, but were about 290 m from the coast.

Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained elevated. Lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE pit at Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and glow emanated from vents at the S edge of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the N edge. Small lava flows issued a few times from the westernmost vent at the S edge of the crater floor during 17-18 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 November-13 November 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were about 500 m from the coast.

Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained elevated. Lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE pit at Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and glow emanated from vents at the S edge of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the N edge. Small lava flows issued a few times from the westernmost vent at the S edge of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 October-6 November 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 October-6 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1-1.3 km from the coast. The perched lava lake within the NE pit at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained active, and glow emanated from sources at the S and N edges of the crater floor. Spatter from the N edge was observed. On 1 November geologists observed the perched lava lake and noted that it was a few meters above the Pu'u 'O'o Crater rim. During 2-3 November lava flowed from the spatter cone on the N part of the crater floor, and was accompanied by spattering.

During 4-5 November activity increased within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. A small amount of lava spilled out of the perched lava lake and from the easternmost of the two sources at the S edge of the crater floor; larger, episodic flows from the easternmost source at the S floor edge continued later. Spattering continued from the cone at the N floor edge.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 October-30 October 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter, Pele's hair, and rock from the vent wall onto nearby areas. Cracking noises, audible from the Jaggar overlook and caused by rocks of the vent wall fracturing from the heat, emanated sporadically from the vent. Occasional collapses of rock from the vent walls triggered bursts of spatter that deposited a small amount of ejecta on the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater. On 25 October the lake rose to a level 27 m below Halema'uma'u Crater floor.

Lava flows accumulated at the base of the pali in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1.3 km from the coast. Flows also remained active on the pali. Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained elevated: the lava lake in the NE pit overflowed its rim, the vent on the N part of the crater floor produced lava flows, and lava fountaining and lava flows from the S vent were observed. Spattering was recorded from sources at the S and N edges of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 October-23 October 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Cracking noises, audible from the Jaggar overlook and caused by rocks of the vent wall fracturing from the heat, emanated sporadically from the vent. On 18 October the lake rose to a level 42 m below Halema'uma'u Crater floor, and the next day the lake rose to 38 m below the floor. During 21-23 October the lake rose to within 33 m of the crater floor. Small collapses of rock into the N portion of the lava lake triggered small spatter explosions on 21 and 23 October.

Lava flows accumulated at the base of the pali in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1.4 km from the coast. Flows also remained active on the pali. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence was visible from lava flows in the S pit, lava circulating in the NE pit, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit. Three small lava flows erupted from a spatter cone on the S side of the crater floor on 17 October. Two fuming hot vents in the same area were observed the next day. Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater was elevated during18-21 October; the lava lake in the NE pit overflowed its rim, the S pit produced three lava flows, and the spatter cone vigorously spattered.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 October-16 October 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

Lava flows accumulated at the base of the pali in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1.7 km from the coast on 10 October. Flows also remained active high on the pali. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence was visible from lava flows in the S pit, lava circulating in the NE pit, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit. On 12 October lava erupted from an incandescence spatter cone at the W edge of the N pit, filling a low depression on the N side of the crater floor and extending almost to the NE pit and lava lake. Small flows erupted from a spatter cone in the S pit during 13-14 and 16 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 October-9 October 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. On 5 October geologists using a laser range-finder measured the high lava level at 52 m below the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater, which was a new maximum level.

Lava flows reached the base of the pali in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1.6 km from the coast. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence was visible from lava flows in the S pit, lava circulating in the E pit, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit. An opening in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow until nearly the end of the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 September-2 October 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 September-2 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Periodic measurments indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed down the pali. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence was often visible from the S pit, from lava circulating in the E pit, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit. An opening in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 September-25 September 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision and began to flow down the pali. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence from the S and E pits on the crater floor, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit, was often visible. An opening in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 September-18 September 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair, and possible crater wall veneer, onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence from the S and E pits on the crater floor, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit, was often visible. An opening in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow. On 14 September HVO geologists estimated that the lava lake in the E pit was about 10 m below the rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 September-11 September 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

On 4 September HVO geologists observed the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and noted lava ponds in the E and S pits, with the N pit being fully crusted over. During 5-11 September glow emanated from the E and S pit craters; lava in the N pit was crusted, but was periodically incandescent on the W edge. A collapse in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow. Lava flows were active above and at the top of the pali. On 11 September a geologist confirmed that lava flows above the pali had advanced to the top of the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 August-4 September 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 August-4 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. On 28 August two major collapses of the inner wall significantly disrupted the lake's circulation.

Lava flows were periodically active on the pali and the coastal plain. At Pu'u 'O'o, a collapse of the crater floor just before 0400 on 30 August enlarged the newer pit crater at the S edge, making it appear slightly larger in the webcam views than the older, active, pit crater on the E edge. A new pit crater formed at the N edge of the floor after 1000, and by 1300 it was filled with lava. The N rim of the E pit crater fell into the lava lake there just before 1700. During 30-31 August incandescence emanated from the lava lake in the E pit crater but was absent from the S pit crater. A few scattered areas of flow activity on the coastal plain more than 2 km from the coast were visible on web cameras. On 1 September glow emanated from the E and S pit craters. Crusted lava filled the N pit crater and sagged, and a couple of small lava flows traveled from the edge onto the sagging crust. The N pit appeared to be a passive lava lake, without a direct source of magma underneath. A collapse in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o continued to glow but was less bright the next day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 August-28 August 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent likely continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. There were no significant geologic changes in Pu'u 'O'o Crater; incandescence emanated from a lava lake in a pit on the NE part of the crater floor, from a pit crater on the S part of the crater floor, and from a vent at the base of the SE flank. The vent on the S part of the crater floor produced a small lava flow on 26 August. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain, and were as close as 2 km from the ocean on 28 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 August-21 August 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. There were no significant geologic changes in Pu'u 'O'o Crater; the glowing vent at the base of the SE flank continued to glow brightly, and incandescence emanated from a lava lake in a pit on the NE part of the crater floor. A small, new pit crater opened on the S crater floor on 17 August. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain. The active lava-flow front was about 2 km from the ocean on 18 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 August-14 August 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. There were no significant geologic changes in Pu'u 'O'o Crater; a few days before 11 August a new glowing vent SE of the crater appeared, probably from a newly-opened skylight in the lava-tube system feeding flows on the pali and coastal plain. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain. The active lava-flow front was about 2 km from the ocean on 14 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 August-7 August 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Glow from the lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor was visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 July-31 July 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25-31 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain; the active lava-flow front was about 1.8 km from the ocean on 31 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 July-24 July 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain; the active lava-flow front was about 1.9 km from the ocean on 24 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 July-17 July 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor was 7-8 m below the rim on 12 July. The pond and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. A vent on the W part of the crater was also briefly incandescent. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain; the active lava-flow front was about 1.3 km from the ocean.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 July-10 July 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. On most days lava flows were active on the pali, at the base of the pali and onto the coastal plain, and farther out on the coastal plain near the Royal Gardens/Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 June-3 July 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 June-3 July HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the pali and coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 June-26 June 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 June HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain and traveled as far as 1 km from the ocean. Lava flows were also active on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 June-19 June 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 June HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor was visible with the web cameras, and on 15 June was 7-8 m below the rim. Incandescence emanated from two vents along the S edge of the crater floor, and a lava flow issued from a south-central vent on 14 June. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain and traveled as far as 1.1 km from the ocean. Lava flows were also sometimes active on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 June-12 June 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, rising as high as the inner ledge about 60 m below the crater floor. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor was visible with the web cameras. Lava flows periodically issued from vents on the S and south-central parts of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain and traveled as far as 1.6 km from the ocean. Lava flows were also sometimes active on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 May-5 June 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 May-5 June HVO reported that the circulating and spattering lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, rising as high as the inner ledge about 60 m below the crater floor. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The level of the lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor rose back into view. Field geologists observed many lava flows coming down the pali and extending onto the coastal plain. A small new collapse pit in Pu'u 'O'o about 50 m west of the southern spatter cone was observed on 1 June; weak incandescence from this pit was visible in the thermal camera. On 5 June geologists observed a second small collapse pit near the south-central edge that had been covered by a small shield of lava while the lava pond in the E collapse pit had risen to within about 5 m of the rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 May-29 May 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 May HVO reported that the circulating and spattering lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Parts of the inner ledge and crater wall surrounding the lake occasionally collapsed into the lake. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, Pele's hair, and occasionally fresh spatter from the margins of the lava lake, onto nearby areas. The level of the lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor dropped out of view. A small lava flow erupted from a vent on the S part of the floor on 23 May. On 28 May HVO noted that lava-flow activity on the coastal plain SE of Pu'u 'O'o appeared to have stopped.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 May-22 May 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 May HVO reported that the circulating and spattering lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, and spilled over the deep inner ledge on multiple occasions. On 15 May laser measurements indicated that the lava-lake surface was about 65 m below the Halema'uma'u Crater floor, among the highest levels measured; the lake rose five more meters during 18-19 May. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter from the margins of the lava lake, onto nearby areas. A lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor remained active with spattering. On 19 May a small collapse of the N rim of the pit slightly enlarged the pit and lava pond within. A small lava flow erupted from a vent on the S part of the floor. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain, and were about 750 m from the sea.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 May-15 May 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. On 14 May laser measurements indicated that the lava-lake surface was about 67 m below the Halema'uma'u Crater floor. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter from an active source at the SE edge of the lava lake, onto nearby areas. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from two skylights on the uppermost part of the lava-tube system. Geologists observed slowly advancing lava flows on 13 May that were about 1.4 km from the coast. A short lava flow issued from an incandescent vent on the S part of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 May-8 May 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Frequent measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter from an active source at the SE edge of the lava lake, onto nearby areas. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. Geologists observed slowly advancing lava flows on 4 May that were about 1.1 km from the coast, not reaching as far as previous flows on the coastal plain over the past month. On 5 May further collapse of the pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor led to much brighter incandescence from that area. Lava flows on the coastal plain stalled while new lava flows high on the pali formed on 5 May, vigorously advancing from the base of the pali to more than halfway across the flow field during 5-8 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 April-1 May 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25 April-1 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Frequent measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 900 m from the coast. New lava flows on the pali were observed on 30 April, while web cameras recorded decreasing incandescence on the coastal plain during 30 April-1 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 April-24 April 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.1 km from the coast. During 19-20 April small lava flows issued from a vent on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 April-17 April 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.4 km from the coast. On 11 and 13 April small lava flows issued from a vent on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 April-10 April 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.6 km from the coast. During 6-9 April a small lava flow issued three times from a vent on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The first two flows advanced N almost the entire width of the floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 March-3 April 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.6 km from the coast. On 2 April a small lava flow issued from a vent on the S edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 March-27 March 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 March HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 March-20 March 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 March, HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, and were about 2 km from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 March-13 March 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 March, HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain. On 12 March the leading edge of the flows were 9 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and about 2 km from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 February-6 March 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 February-6 March, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Web camera views and satellite images indicated that lava flows continued to advance, reaching more than 7.5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Active flows were also visible at the top of the pali SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Incandescence was visible on the NE and SE edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. According to a news article, the last house in the Royal Gardens subdivision was destroyed by a lava flow on 2 March.

Sources: Hawaii Tribune Herald; US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 February-28 February 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 February, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Web camera views and satellite images indicated that lava flows remained active within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision more than 7.5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Lava flows also remained active high on the pali and across the December 2011 flows. Incandescence was visible on the NE and SE edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on Pu'u 'O'o's E flank during 23 and 26-28 February. On 22 February a small lava flow from the SE source was observed by the web camera. Two minor lava flows issued from the NE source on 26 February, and one lava flow issued from NE source on 27 February.

On 25 February HVO geologists aboard an overflight reported that the small cone on the NE source periodically ejected spatter, and the SE source fumed and produced a lava flow. They also noted that the flow advanced as two lobes; one lobe traveled along the E margin of the December 2011 flows and another advanced along the W margin of the December 2011 flows. During 27-28 February the web camera and satellite images indicated that both the E and W lobes continued moving down the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 February-21 February 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 February, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Strong incandescence was visible from the collapsed cone on the NE edge and weaker from a cone on the SE edge during 15-18 and 20 February. A web camera recorded strong incandescence above the pali during 15-16 February. Incandescence also emanated from two sources on the E flank on 19 and 21 February.

Web camera views and satellite images indicated that lava flows remained active within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision more than 6.5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o during 15-21 February. The flows advanced down the pali along the E side of the December 2011 flows during the week and on 21 February advanced to the kipuka on the E. On 17 February a second smaller branch appeared on the W side of the December 2011 flows. Ground-based observers reported active lava flows at the top of the pali during 15-21 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 February-14 February 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 February, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Incandescence was visible on the NE and SE edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and strongest from a small cone on the NE edge during 8-13 February. A web camera recorded incandescence above the pali on 8 and during 12-14 February. The SE vent issued short lava flows on 14 February.

In comparison to last week, thermal anomalies increased on the flow field during 8-9 February. HVO geologists aboard an overflight on 9 February reported that the small cone on the NE edge had collapsed and was venting hot gas, and the pit was filled with a stream of lava heading NE. Geologists mapped active flows on the flow field about 6 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Web camera and satellite images indicated that the flows remained active 6 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision during 10-14 February, and from the Kalapana (E side of the coastal plain) on 13 February. Ground based observers reported active lava at the top of the pali on 11 and 13-14 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 February-7 February 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 February, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). On 1 February lava ejections on the S edge rebuilt a low spatter cone. On 3 February two large rockfalls into the lake originated from the Halema'uma'u Crater floor. The first collapse from the N rim induced secondary collapses of the inner ledge and ejected spatter onto nearby portions of the Halema'uma'u Crater floor. The second collapse deposited large amounts of debris into the NE side of the lava lake.

At Pu'u 'O'o short lava flows issued from the SE vent during 1-2 February. Incandescence was visible on the NE and SE edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 3-7 February and from a small cone on the NE edge during 5-7 February. The web camera showed incandescence reflected in the clouds above the pali on 2 and 4 February. During 1-7 February, thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery 4-5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 January-31 January 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25-31 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. During 25-27 January lava ejections on the SE edge built a small spatter rampart and produced small lava flows on the inner ledge.

Incandescence was visible on the NE, SE, and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 25-31 January. On 25 January lava started to fill a Pu'u 'O'o crater floor depression and continued episodically all week. Geologists on a 26 January overflight reported lava flows 4 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o. On 27 January the SE and NE vents started to effuse lava. During 24-31 January, thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery 3-4 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 January-24 January 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible on the NE, SE, and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 18-24 January. Incandescence emanated both from small lava flows which had issued from the NE and SE sources on 18 January, and from a long narrow lava flow that traveled W across the crater floor on 20 January. Minor surface flows were observed in satellite imagery on the upper flow field on 18 January, and during 19-23 January, small thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery on the upper E rift zone. Scientists on an overflight reported small active pahoehoe lobes about 4 km SE of the Pu'u 'O'o cone on 21 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 January-17 January 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible from small spatter cones on the E, S, and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 11-17 January. Incandescence was also exhibited by short lava flows from the E pit on 13 January, small lava flows issuing from the SE spatter cone, and a small flow from the NE pit on 16 January. During 11-16 January a thermal anomaly about 2-4 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o cone was seen in satellite imagery. On 12 January, geologists on an overflight confirmed surface activity at this location. By 15 January the source of the thermal anomaly had extended to the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 January-10 January 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible along the 21 September 2011 fissure on the SE flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone during 4-5 January and from small spatter cones on the E, S, and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 4-10 January. A web camera showed no activity on the flow field during 4-10 January; however clouds may have prevented views. On 6 January activity increased within a small pit that formed on the E edge of the crater during the previous week. The pit filled with lava and overflowed generating a small lava flow to the N within the crater. Activity continued within the pit during 7-8 January with short lava flows N and W. On 8 January thermal anomalies seen in satellite imagery were about 2-4 km SW of Pu'u 'O'o cone and observers on an overflight reported surface flows in the same area. On 9 January satellite imagery showed a weaker thermal anomaly.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 December-3 January 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 December-3 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and along the 21 September 2011 fissure on the SE flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone. Geologists on an overflight reported that pahoehoe lava flows were significantly broader (700-1,000 m) across the coastal plain and were entering the ocean along a 900 m wide area of the coast on 27 December. Lava flows continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and entered the ocean W of Ka'ili'ili on 28 December. During 29 December-2 January a web camera showed no surface activity on the pali, weak sporadic flows near the coast, and weak plumes from the ocean entry. At night during 31 December-2 January incandescence was seen above the pali; on the night of 1 January ground based observers reported lava on the pali. Clouds prevented observations from a web camera on 3 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 December-27 December 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. On 22 December the SW vent wall collapsed into the lake, ejected lava onto the inner ledge, and caused an increased amount of ash in the plume.

Incandescence was visible from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. Pahoehoe lava flows, that were 300-400 m wide and fed by lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and entered the ocean W of Ka'ili'ili. During 25-26 December the tube appeared to be more robust and less surface flow activity was reported. Small plumes were observed from the ocean entry during 22-24 December and infrequent weak plumes were observed during 25-26 December. On 27 December a breakout of lava flows were visible on the pali (a fault scarp).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 December-20 December 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible along the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, from a skylight on the lava tube, and from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. Pahoehoe flows that were 300-400 m wide, fed by lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and entered the ocean W of Ka'ili'ili. The lava delta now extends 15-20 m into the ocean at a point 6.4 km W of the Chain of Craters Road. During 17-20 December the lava flow branched, with lobes advancing NE and W into the ocean. Infrequent plumes were observed from the ocean entry during 18-20 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 December-13 December 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible along the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, along the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, and from a skylight on the lava tube. Lava continues to erupt into the perched pond formed on 6 December. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite. Analysis of 10-12 December satellite images suggested that lava had reached the coast and was flowing into the ocean. During 11-12 December incandescence was observed from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor; short lava flows issued from the E edge of the crater floor on 12 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 November-6 December 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 November-6 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

On 2 December incandescence was seen from a new area low on the N flank of Pu'u'O'o. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite, ground observers and an overflight on 3 December. During 4-5 December the vent on the E edge of the crater produced lava flows that partially filled the depression left by the flank fissure eruption in September and a perched lava lake was built on 6 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 November-29 November 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 5.7 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite. Incandescence from a skylight on the lava tube was also observed. Short lava flows issued from the E edge of the crater floor on 23 November and from both the E and W edges of the crater floor on 27 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 November-22 November 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite. Incandescence from a skylight on the lava tube was also observed. During 18-19 November the vent on the E edge of the crater produced lava flows that partially filled the depression left by the flank fissure eruption in September. There were also two brief and small lava-flow effusions from the W edge vent. Intermittent lava flows continued from the E vent during 20-22 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 November-15 November 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence emanated from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 4.7 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on an overflight on 12 November and satellite images. Incandescence from a skylight on the lava tube was also observed.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 November-8 November 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence emanated from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the 21 September fissure on the upper E flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone during most of the reporting period. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 4.5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on an overflight on 3 November and satellite images acquired during 4-7 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 October-1 November 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 October-1 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence emanated from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the 21 September fissure on the upper E flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone. On 30 October incandescence was seen from a new area high on the W edge of a depression in the crater floor. Lava flows remained active to the SE of Pu'u 'O'o during 26-30 October, but were more sluggish during 31 October-1 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 October-25 October 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. At the E rift zone, incandescence emanated from the 21 September fissure on the upper E flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone and lava flows remained active on the flow field to the SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Vents on the E and W edges of crater floor were incandescent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 October-18 October 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. At the E rift zone, the fissure that formed on 21 September on the upper E flank of Pu'u 'O'o continued to periodically feed lava flows to the NE and SE of the fissure that did not significantly advance. Vents on the E and W edges of Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor were incandescent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 October-11 October 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

At the E rift zone, the fissure that formed on 21 September on the upper E flank of Pu'u 'O'o continued to feed slowly-advancing lava flows to the NE and SE of the fissure. During the beginning of the week, overall activity within and SE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater had slowed; only a few lava patches were visible in webcams. During 7-8 October lava began to flow from a vent at the E end of the crater floor and from an area at the W end the next day. Lava flows from the E-end source stalled on 10 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 September-4 October 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 September-4 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

At the E rift zone, the fissure that formed on 21 September on the upper E flank of Pu'u 'O'o continued to feed lava flows on 28 September that traveled along the edges of a low lava ridge. Most of the active lava spread out at higher elevations S and W of Pu'u Halulu (1.3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o). Lava activity resumed from two sources on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and continued to spread W within the crater. During an overflight on 29 September, geologists observed that the fissure fed scattered active lava flows within 1.8 km on the SE flank of the cone. During 2-3 October lava from the E-crater floor source covered the crater floor. On 4 October active lava was confined to a small lake on the E side of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 September-27 September 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 September, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

At the E rift zone, lava in the W lava lake in Pu'u 'O'o Crater fed a series of lava flows that traveled down the W flank of Pu'u 'O'o during 20-21 September. At about 0225 on 21 September activity in the crater and overflows to the W suddenly decreased, as lava broke through the upper E flank of Pu'u 'O'o, bypassing the crater. The new fissure fed a channelized 'a'a lava flow that advanced rapidly downslope 2.5 km SE. A second flow to the W of the first began the next day. In addition, a small pad of lava actively refilled the bottom of the drained E lava lake and small flows were barely active at the W edge of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The channelized 'a'a lava flow reached 3.7 km long on 23 September and then stalled within the Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve. Most of the active lava spread S and W of Pu'u Halulu (1.3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o) during 23-27 September. Minor lava activity resumed within Pu'u 'O'o Crater with short lava flows issuing from the base of the E wall on 25 September and from the W wall base during 25-26 September. The crater floor of Pu'u 'O'o slowly subsided. Lava activity resumed within the E lake on 26 September. The floor of the crater continued to subside during 26-27 September, opening up cracks in the N crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 September-20 September 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 September, HVO reported that the level of the lava-lake surface in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater periodically fluctuated and circulated. Daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

At the E rift zone, lava in the E lava lake overflowed the E rim of Pu'u 'O'o crater on 13 September and advanced a few hundred meters. Lava erupted within the W lava lake and the next day overflowed the W edge of the crater through two broad gaps in Pu'u 'O'o cone, spreading up to several hundred meters downslope and mantling the W flank of Pu'u 'O'o. The flows had stopped by the evening of 15 September. During 15-16 September the level of the lava lakes had dropped 10-15 m. During 17-18 September the W lake was inactive and the E lake weakly bubbled and slowly circulated. Activity within the W lake increased abruptly on 19 September and, during 19-20 September, lava flowed across the W part of the crater floor. On 20 September lava refilled two perched lava ponds on the W edge of the crater, overflowed the southern-most pond, and produced a channelized lava flow that advanced 800 m down Pu'u 'O'o's W flank.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 September-13 September 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 August-6 September, HVO reported that the level of the lava-lake surface in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater periodically fluctuated and circulated. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o' crater, lava from E, W, and S-central sources on the crater floor fed an eastern and a western perched lava lake during 7-8 September. Lava also covered much of the crater floor, rising to within 5 m of a low point on the E crater rim. During 9-10 September a large amount of lava from a new source of effusion at the NE edge of the crater covered most of the crater floor. On 10 September a pilot confirmed that lava overtopped the E rim and fed a short lava flow. Not long after that the effusion rate decreased and lava fed only the two perched lava lakes. During 11-13 September the lava lakes mostly circulated and, by 12 September, had overflowed onto the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 August-6 September 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 August-6 September, HVO reported that the level of the lava-lake surface in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater periodically fluctuated but remained mostly stable below the inner ledge 75 m below the crater floor. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o' crater, lava from sources on the E portion of the crater floor fed a perched lava lake. Lava from a source at the W edge of the crater floor spread N and S along the base of the W crater wall and up to the base of the W, inactive wall of the perched pond. During 2-3 September a new perched pond fed from the W-edge source had formed.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 August-30 August 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 August, HVO reported that the level of the lava-lake surface in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater periodically fluctuated but remained below the inner ledge 75 m below the crater floor. At Pu'u 'O'o' crater, lava from sources on the E and S portions of the crater floor fed a lava lake that was formed during 25-26 August. A new source opened at the W edge of the crater floor during 29-30 August, and lava quickly spread N and S along the base of the W crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 August-23 August 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 August, HVO reported that lava continued to trickle onto the collapsed floor of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o' crater and some spattering occurred from various areas on the floor. The only activity on the W flank was observed during 17-20 August; a small lava flow from the base of the N pond rim near the Kamoamoa fissures and a larger flow from the N flow branch were both active. During 20-21 August a small amount of lava emitted from a vent on the S crater floor flowed a short distance. Later, lava started issued in larger quantities from another source on the S part of the floor that quickly filled in a low trench. Lava continued to flow onto the crater floor during the next two days.

During 17-18 August lava flowed onto the floor of the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. By the next day a persistent spattering source at the W edge of the cavity pushed the lava surface sluggishly from W to E. During 19-21 August drain-and-fill cycles were observed; the highest level of the lava surface was below the inner ledge 75 m below Halema'uma'u Crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 August-16 August 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 August HVO reported that Kilauea's summit lava lake was mostly crusted, but lava, possibly from a source higher on the SE wall, occasionally flowed over the surface. Small rockfalls from the vent walls were frequent, and the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. During an overflight on 11 August, scientists observed an E-W trench in the deepest part of the cavity. Lava was upwelling from the E end and flowing W. During 14-15 August hot and possibly spattering vents were visible on the W part of the cavity floor.

At the E-rift zone, lava continued to trickle onto Pu'u 'O'o's collapsed crater floor and some spattering occurred from various sources the floor. The W-flank vents remained active and fed an elongated perched lava pond that extended to the SW, and also a small flow which advanced a short distance N. Small overflows or breaches from the elongated lake were occasionally active on the N side. During the 11 August overflight, scientists noted that the activity was less vigorous; the two channels that continued to feed the perched lake were crusted over and the W-flank vents were no longer spattering. The pond rims were higher and the pond was narrower, lava flows from the base of the pond were active on the N and W sides of the pond, and the S rim of the pond appeared to be slowly migrating S. The crater floor subsided a small amount on 15 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 August-9 August 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that on 3 August at 1402 the floor of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o crater, which had risen significantly over the past month, began to subside. At 1420 lava erupted from a vent low on the W flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone, about halfway between Pu'u 'O'o Crater and the E end of the Kamoamoa fissure, and formed two branches. The weaker flow traveled N into a forested kipuka. The higher-volume S branch quickly advanced down Kilauea's S flank along the edge of flows erupted during 2002-2004. By 1515, the crater floor and perched lava lake began to collapse; the circulation in the lava lake was maintained as the crater floor dropped. Within a few hours the lava lake was no longer visible and the crater floor, which had dropped 75-85 m, was covered with rubble. Between 1530 and 1615, the preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was as high as 7,000 tonnes/day. The rate decreased to 4,000 tonnes/day at about 1700. Also by that time the lava flow had advanced 3.6 km.

During 4-9 August lava continued to flow from multiple W-flank vents topped with spatter cones, ponding in a low area due to a decreasing effusion rate. The Pu'u 'O'o crater rim was extremely unstable; continued collapses along the crater walls sent blocks of rock onto the crater floor. Lava also slowly flowed back onto the collapsed crater floor.

During 3-9 August the level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Overall, the lake level receded and on 6 August was about 75 m below the crater floor. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 July-2 August 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 27 July-2 August. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

Lava from the Puka Nui and MLK pits, smaller craters to the W of the main Pu'u 'O'o crater, continued to overflow to the SW, producing a tube-fed pahoehoe flow that had advanced about 700 m from the Puka Nui rim during 25-30 July. Lava from the base of the NE crater filled a trough between the crater wall and the perched lava lake. Uplift of the crater floor and lava lake continued until 30 July, when a breakout lava flow started along the base of the crater's S wall and the lake slowly subsided. Subsidence continued the next day but switched to inflation on 1 August. The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was calculated at 1,700, 1,000, and 800 tonnes/day on 29 and 30 July, and 1 August, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 July-26 July 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 20-26 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Spattering occurred at locations along the edge of the lake. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the circulating lake. The perched lake and crater floor continued to be uplifted and cracks on the doming crater floor were observed. Minor lava activity was noted in the Puka Nui and MLK pits, smaller craters to the W of the main Pu'u 'O'o crater. Based on several measurements throughout July, the crater floor was uplifted about 0.5-1 m per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 July-19 July 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 13-19 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Spattering occurred at locations along the edge of the lake. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all of the east rift zone sources was 1,500 tonnes/day on 12 July, the highest emission rate since the end of the Kamoamoa eruption in early March. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge and, to a lesser degree, along the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The near-vertical rim of the perched pond continued to be uplifted until through 17 July; the crater floor and perched lake rims formed a nearly-continuous ramp sloping away from the lake. The lava lake surface of the perched lava lake was elevated about 6 m higher than the surrounding crater floor and the rim was a few meters higher than the surface; the crater floor was 19 m below the E crater rim. Since the last measurements on 29 June, the crater floor had been uplifted about 1 m per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 July-12 July 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 6-12 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Spattering occurred at locations along the W edge of the lake. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge and, to a lesser degree, along the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The near-vertical rim of the perched pond, which was elevated about 5 m higher than the surrounding sub-horizontal crater floor on the E side, continued to be uplifted; the crater floor and perched lake rims formed a nearly-continuous ramp sloping away from the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 June-5 July 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 29 June-5 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. On 3 July inflation caused the crater floor and perched lake rim in the southern half of Pu`u `O`o Crater to rise; those areas continued to rise on 4 July until a large breach on the S rim of the lava lake occurred at midnight. Lava spilled onto the crater floor between the perched rim and the crater wall. The N rim rose briefly but rapidly between 5 and 10 minutes after midnight. The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was calculated at 700 tonnes/day on 30 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 June-28 June 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 22-28 June. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW, depositing variable amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. A small shield had built up against the SW crater wall on the W side of the lake. On 23 June the rim of the perched lava lake was elevated 6-8 m higher than the surrounding crater floor; the crater floor was 35 m below the E crater rim. The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was calculated at 700 tonnes/day that same day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 June-21 June 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 15-21 June. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW, depositing variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. On 17 June a heated brown plume rose from a spattering source on the SE edge of the lake; the ejecta were primarily fresh spatter bits suggesting that the plume derived from a partial collapse of the spattering source or a small rockfall.

At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the W and NE edges of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. A small shield had built up against the SW crater wall on the W side of the lake. There was also minor lava activity from at least one source at the base of the SW crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 June-14 June 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 8-14 June. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional increases in the lake level covered a vent on the south side wall; on other days lava from the vent cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the W and NE edges of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and infrequently overflowed the edges or flowed through a rim breach, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. There was also minor lava activity from at least one source at the base of the SW crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 June-7 June 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 1-7 June. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional increases in the lake level covered a vent on the south side wall; on other days lava from the vent cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW. The (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 1,100 tonnes/day on 3 June.

Lava from a vent near the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The rim of the perched lava lake was elevated 2-3 m higher than the surrounding crater floor, which was 39 m below the E crater rim on 1 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 May-31 May 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 25-31 May. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. An increase in the lake level covered the vent on the south side wall during 25-28 May. On other days lava from the vent cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW. The (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 700 tonnes/day on 26 May; the emission rates were slowly increasing.

Lava from a vent near the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The rim of the perched lava lake was elevated 10 m higher than the surrounding crater floor, which was 52 m below the E crater rim on 11 May. During 27-29 May lava from a vent at the base of the SW wall produced lava flows that slowly began filling the gap between the crater wall and the perched lake wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 May-24 May 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 18-24 May. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Lava from a vent above the south side cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW and likely deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava mostly from a vent near the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The rim of the perched lava lake was elevated several meters higher than the surrounding crater floor, which was 52 m below the E crater rim on 11 May. On 20 May a small lobe of lava visible in the web camera appeared on the W edge of the crater floor. The (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 800 tonnes/day on 20 May; the emission rates were slowly increasing.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 May-17 May 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 11-17 May. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Lava from a vent above the south side cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent generally drifted SW or W and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava mostly from vents near the W edge of the lake continued to fill in a perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 May-10 May 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 4-10 May. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. On 5 May the lava lake level dropped 10-20 m and lava from a vent well above the south side cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava from vents near the W edge of the lake and near the base of the E crater wall continued to fill in a perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges and filled the entire bottom of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The crater had infilled about 70 m since the crater floor collapsed in March.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 April-3 May 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 April-3 May, HVO reported that the level of Kilauea's summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava from one or two vent sources continued to fill in a new lava lake in the center of the crater floor. Lava overflowed the edges of the lake, constructing a perched lava lake. During 30 April-1 May the overflows filled the entire crater floor before receding back within the boundaries of the perched lava lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 April-26 April 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 April, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and from Pu'u 'O'o crater. The level of the circulating lava-pool surface in a deep pit below the Halema'uma'u crater floor periodically fluctuated. A gas plume from the vent drifted mostly SW, and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, central sources continuously erupted lava within a perched lava lake that was approximately half the diameter of the crater floor. The lava level fluctuated within the lake walls and episodically overflowed the rim. During 23-24 April lava from several central sources buried most of the perched lake and covered the crater floor. During 24-25 April several large draining events were characterized by a drop in the new lava-lake surface by several meters and minor collapses of the lake's rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 April-19 April 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 April, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. The level of the circulating lava-pool surface in a deep pit was approximately 100 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, and periodically rose and drained. A gas plume from the vent drifted NE and SW, and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. On 16 April two collapses of interior vent walls covered most of the molten surface with rock debris and generated brown plumes. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, central sources continuously erupted lava within a perched lake that was approximately half the diameter of the crater floor. The lava level fluctuated within the lake walls and episodically overflowed the rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 April-12 April 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater was visible on 5 April and rose, fell, and circulated within the pit during 6-12 April. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, the level of the lava lake rose and fell, and was fed from a source in the central portion of the lake. During 5-8 April a gas plume from the vent deposited very small amounts of ash nearby, derived from rockfalls and occasional spatter from the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 March-5 April 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that lava in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater was visible on 5 April and rose, fell, and circulated within the pit during 6-12 April. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, the level of the lava lake fluctuated, and was fed from a source in the central portion of the lake. During 5-8 April a gas plume from the vent deposited very small amounts of ash nearby, derived from rockfalls and occasional lake spatter.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 March-29 March 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that at Kilauea's east rift zone small areas of incandescence in Pu'u 'O'o crater were visible through the web camera during 23-24 March. The lava lake in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater was crusted over; frequent rockfalls produced a few brown-tinged plumes. On 25 March the lava lake reappeared as lava streamed across and eventually covered the floor of the pit. The next day lava returned to Pu'u 'O'o crater about 20 days after the crater floor collapsed on 5 March. Lava slowly filled the deepest parts of the crater forming a lava lake. The lava lake within Halema'uma'u crater again crusted over. During 27-29 March the lava lake in Pu'u 'O'o crater circulated and was fed from two closely-spaced sources in the W center of the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 March-22 March 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that at Kilauea's summit caldera a gas plume from the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater drifted mainly SW during 16-22 March and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby. The lava lake within the pit was mostly crusted over during 16-19 March but occasionally produced incandescence. The lake was visible during 20-22 March and periodically changed depth. At the east rift zone, small incandescent areas were visible in Pu'u 'O'o crater. The Kamoamoa fissure remained inactive. During 16-18 March the sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was below the detection threshold of 20-30 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 March-15 March 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that on 9 March vigorous spattering as high as 50 m was noted from the W end of the Kamoamoa fissure, which had opened on 5 March, along Kilauea's east rift zone between Napau Crater and Pu'u 'O'o. Low lava fountains fed a channelized 'a'a lava flow, 80-290 m wide, that advanced at least 2.9 km to the SE. The lava flow waned starting at 1700 and spattering from the fissure stopped around 2230. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

During 9-10 March gas measurements showed a sulfur dioxide emission rate of about 4,400 tonnes/day from all east rift zone sources. The rate dropped to 350 tonnes/day on 10 March, and to 100 tonnes/day on 13 March, a value lower than those measured for the months before the Kamoamoa fissure eruption. Seismic tremor declined, but remained elevated above pre-Kamoamoa eruption levels at the summit and the eruption site. During 13-15 March incandescent areas were visible within Pu'u 'O'o crater.

At the summit caldera, a gas plume from the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater drifted mainly SW during 9-15 March. The level of the lava in the pit was about 220 m below the crater floor, confirmed during an overflight on 9 March. It could not be observed during an overflight the next day because the bottom of the vent was obscured by rubble. Incandescence was occasionally seen in the web camera. An overflight on 14 March revealed that lava was present in the vent; the level slowly rose during the night. On 15 March tephra and fresh spatter was collected from an area beneath the plume.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 March-8 March 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-4 March, activity from Kilauea's summit caldera and east rift zone was similar to activity during the previous several weeks. The level of the circulating lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater fluctuated and rose to at most 70 below the crater floor. Scattered surface flows were active on the pali and coastal plain, and lava covered large portions of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor. An unusually high number of earthquakes were located at Kilauea; during 1-4 March a majority of the earthquakes were located at the upper east rift zone.

On 5 March at 1342 there was the onset of rapid deflation at Pu'u 'O'o and increased tremor along Kilauea's middle east rift zone, and at 1400 the summit began to deflate. Between 1416 and 1421 the floor of the Pu'u 'O'o crater began to collapse and within 10 minutes incandescent ring fractures opened on the crater floor. As the floor continued to drop, lava appeared in the center and the NE spatter cone collapsed. The collapse of a large block along the E crater wall produced an ash plume. The floor continued to drop as fume obscured the camera view at 1626. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Warning. A later report indicated that the crater floor dropped a minimum of 115 m.

Coincident with the Pu'u 'O'o collapse, an earthquake swarm began along the east rift zone in the area of Maka'opuhi and Napau craters, WSW of Pu'u 'O'o. A fissure, ultimately 2.3 km long, opened along the east rift zone between Napau Crater and Pu'u 'O'o, erupting spatter up to 25 m high and lava that burned nearby vegetation. Lava on one side of the fissure flowed into a nearby deep parallel fissure and disappeared. Fissure activity had paused by 2155.

Kilauea's summit continued to deflate and the lava lake level within the Halema'uma'u crater vent dropped, facilitating rockfalls from the vent wall. On 6 March at 0703 the lake level to receded almost beyond the webcam view following a large collapse. Spattering from the fissure resumed and two more fissures opened that produced more gas than lava. Spatter was reaching heights of 40 m. The tiltmeter on the N flank of Pu'u 'O'o recorded over 150 microradians of deflation beginning at 1400 on 5 March that markedly slowed by the morning of 6 March. Rockfalls exposed incandescent areas within Pu'u 'O'o. Lava flows on the coastal plain and pali were less active. The average sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 10,000 tonnes/day on 6 March, 2011, the highest rate there since an eruptive surge in July 2008 produced an emission rate of 7,000 tonnes/day.

On 7 March the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Vigorous spattering from the W end of the fissure continued; spatter rose as high as 30 m. No active lava flows were observed on the pali or coastal plain. The lava lake surface in Halema'uma'u crater was 200 m below the crater floor, based on visual estimates. Rockfalls in the crater produced dusty-brown plumes during 7-8 March. Low fountains and spattering from the fissure fed several lava flows that advanced S.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 February-1 March 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23 February-2 March, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the circulating lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater fluctuated between 80 and 120 m below the crater floor. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby. At the east rift zone, two branches of the 29 November lava flow (from a lava tube breach at 366 m elevation) produced scattered surface flows on the pali and coastal plain. In Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava periodically effused or spattered from a cone on the NE portion of the crater floor and from a vent in the E crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 February-22 February 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the circulating lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater fluctuated between 70 and 125 m below the crater floor. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, two branches of the 29 November lava flow (a lava tube breach at 366 m elevation) produced scattered surface flows on the pali and coastal plain. In Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava effused from a cone on the NE portion of the crater floor and from a vent in the E crater wall during most of 16-18 February, covering a large portion of the crater floor. After the lava effusion ceased, incandescence emanated from the cone and vent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 February-15 February 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and periodically changed depth. The highest level the lava rose to 72 m below the crater floor. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted mostly W and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava flows continued from one of the upper rootless shields, near the TEB vent. Two branches of the 29 November lava flow (a lava tube breach at 366 m elevation) produced scattered surface flows on the pali and coastal plain. In Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from a cone on the N portion of the crater floor, lava effused from a cone on the W edge of the floor, and spatter and lava flows were produced from a vent in the E crater wall. On 12 February increased activity from a cone on the N floor was characterized by lava flows and incandescent tephra ejected 40-50 m above the cone. During 14-15 February lava from a NE cone covered the E half of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 February-8 February 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 100 m below the crater floor, periodically rising or falling. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mostly SW, W, and N deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube in a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation continued to advance both E and W, producing scattered surface flows. At the lowest elevation of the E branch, lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, periodically burning vegetation, and to the S towards the coast. On 4 February incandescence from the TEB vent and upper rootless shields visible on the web camera was later confirmed to be from spatter and lava flows. Lava continued to issue from each location during 5-8 February. Multiple small ocean entries were active on the W part of the Puhi-o-Kalaikini lava delta until 7 or 8 February.

In Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater, and spatter and lava flows were produced from a cone on the N portion of the crater floor. On 7 February activity significantly increased; lava flowed from several vents including the vent on the E wall and multiple spatter cones on the N and NW areas of the floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 January-1 February 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 January-1 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 125 m below the crater floor, periodically rising or falling. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mostly SW deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube in a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance both E and W, producing scattered break-out flows. At the lowest elevation of the E branch, lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, periodically burning vegetation, and to the S towards the coast. Multiple small ocean entries were active on the W part of the Puhi-o-Kalaikini lava delta. Incandescence emanated from a spatter cone on the N portion of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 January-25 January 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that the largest of about 36 rockfalls that occurred in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater on 17 January was followed by an explosive event, of a magnitude not seen since 2008, and felt locally. Ballistics up to 10 cm in diameter and hot tephra ejected from the pit were deposited on the rim of Halema'uma'u crater. Spatter up to 8 cm long was ejected onto the crater rim after collapses on 21 January.

During 19-25 January, activity continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising or falling. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mostly SW and W deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube, at a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance both E and W. At the lowest elevation of the E branch, lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, periodically burning vegetation. Steam sporadically rising near the ocean suggested that the lava entered the ocean, although not continuously. One part of the W branch stopped entering the ocean on 18 January, but remained active. Incandescence emanated from a spatter cone on the N portion of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 January-18 January 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 January, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising several meters higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted S, NE, and N deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube at a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches, E and W. At the lowest elevation of the E branch lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, set a kipuka on fire, and destroyed a structure. One part of the W branch entered the ocean at Ki, about 2 km SW of the end of Highway 130. A spatter cone on the N portion of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor fed lava flows and incandescence emanated from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 January-11 January 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 January, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising several meters higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted SW, NE, and N deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube at a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches, E and W. At the lowest elevation of the E branch lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana. One part of the W branch entered the ocean on 6 January at a location about 2 km SW of the end of Highway 130. Lava flows fed by an 8-m-high cone on the N portion of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor covered and recovered the E crater floor. The web camera also recorded incandescence from a small fume-producing vent in the E wall of the crater. On 10 January the sides of the cone seemingly gave way and lava poured into two active flows that traveled toward the W portion of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 December-4 January 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 December-4 January, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising several meters higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mainly SW deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube onto the surface, at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches. The lava flow at the lowest elevation advanced E beyond Kalapana by 3 January. Incandescence from a small spatter cone on the north-central part of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued. Lava from that cone flowed SE, NE, and W. Lava from a second spatter cone, located on the NW edge of the crater, was active on the crater floor. Weak incandescence was also visible from a small, fume-producing vent in the E wall of the crater, and from other various areas on the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 December-28 December 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 December, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at approximately 125-130 m below the crater floor, periodically rising 20-30 m higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted NW, N, and NE deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube onto the surface, at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches. The E branch advanced along the E edge of the Quarry flow to about 60 m elevation and burned small remnants of a forest. On 22 December a breakout lava flow from the 365-m elevation advanced 820 m. Multiple scattered breakout lava flows were observed during the reporting period. Incandescence from a small spatter cone on the north-central part of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued. Lava from a second spatter cone, located on the NW edge of the crater, advanced E on the crater floor and then stalled on 27 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 December-21 December 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 December, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at approximately 130 m below the crater floor, periodically rising 20-30 m higher. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent drifted SW and SE, when visible through fog, and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube onto the surface at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches. The E branch advanced along the E edge of the Quarry flow to about the 60-m elevation and burned small remnants of a forest. Incandescence from a prominent but small spatter cone on the north-central part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued. Lava from a second spatter cone, located on the NW edge of the crater, flowed across the W side of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 December-14 December 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 December, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at approximately 130 m below the crater floor, periodically rising 15-20 m higher. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed a short distance through the TEB lava-tube system before breaking out onto the surface at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation, forming a lava pond atop a new shield. Two breakout lava flows traveled about 120 m down the pali. Lava flows from a small spatter cone on the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued. A small lava flow traveled W on 10 December. On 13 December lava flowed from a second spatter cone, located on the NW edge of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 December-7 December 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 December, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at approximately 135 m below the crater floor, periodically rising about 15 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent mostly drifted SW and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed a short distance through the TEB lava-tube system before breaking out onto the surface at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation on 1 December. Lava started to build a shield and also extended several hundred meters from both sides of the lava tube. A small breakout lava flow on top of the pali traveled 100 m downslope to within about 6 km of Kalapana Gardens. During 2-7 December, lava flows at the saddle area advanced W, N, and E. Lava was last observed entering the ocean at Puhi-o-Kalaikini during 29-30 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 November-30 November 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between approximately 140 and 145 m below the crater floor, periodically rising about 20 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent mostly drifted SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed surface flows on the coastal plain, breakout flows W and N of a county viewing area (located along Highway 130), and one or more ocean entries on the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta W of Kalapana Gardens subdivision. A lava flow that broke out of the tube on 24 November advanced towards an abandoned house in Kalapana Gardens, and on 27 November, set fire to and destroyed the structure. Incandescence was visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor on 23 November before it started to spatter and feed a small lava flow. The lava flow continued to advance E during 24 November-1 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 November-23 November 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable approximately 150 m below the crater floor, periodically rising about 20 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed small weakly active surface flows on the coastal plain, breakout flows W of a county viewing area (located along Highway 130), and a single ocean entry on the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta W of Kalapana Gardens subdivision. Incandescence was visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 17-18 November. Spattering from the vent was seen during 18-19 November, and a slow-moving lava flow began at about noon on 19 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 November-16 November 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at 155 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose about 20 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence was seen from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed some small lava flows on the coastal plain and the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Incandescence was frequently visible from areaS on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 November-9 November 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 150 and 160 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose about 20 m above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed some small lava flows on the coastal plain and the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Some short-lived breakouts of lava occurred from the portion of the lava tube that crosses Highway 130, about 300 m SW of the current County Viewing Area. Incandescence was frequently visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 October-2 November 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 October-2 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 160 and 170 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose a few meters above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum, on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed two ocean entries at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. On 27 October a small lava flow broke out of the lava tube and was active W of the end of Highway 130. A channelized 'a'a lava flow at the base of the pali began the next day. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain during 29-30 October and 1-2 November. Incandescence was frequently visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 October-26 October 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; periodically the lava rose above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum, on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW.

At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed at least one ocean entry at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. Small surface flows on the coastal plain and pali were visible during 20-22 October. A vent on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor ejected spatter on 20 October. Incandescence was visible from the vent the next day and from multiple vents during 22-23 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 October-19 October 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 155 and 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 15-20 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW.

At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed small lava flows and at least one ocean entry at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. A break-out lava flow began just west of the end of Highway 130 on 15 October. During 15-19 October the lava filled in low areas between the highway and the inactive flows that had stopped near Kalapana Gardens earlier in the year. A vent on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor effused lava during 12-14 October and was incandescent during 15-19 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 October-12 October 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 150 and 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 10-30 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW.

At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Break-outs of lava from a tube near the end of Highway 130 and NW of Kalapana on 4 October and other small break-outs during 6-12 October were noted. On 7 October another ocean entry point developed on the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta, just W of the first entry.

Lava from a vent on the NW edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater flowed E across the crater floor during most of the reporting period. On 6 October a vent on the N floor of the crater opened and effused lava that buried the E portion of the crater with lava about 10 m thick. On 8 October, lava drained back into the vent on the N floor. Lava-flow activity on the crater floor was intermittent during 8-10 October. The next day the flows had stalled.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 September-5 October 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 September-5 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at about 150 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 15-35 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. A lava flow that broke out of the lava-tube system W of the end of Highway 130 on 26 September produced a flow E toward Kalapana Gardens that stalled on 28 September. Two days later a new breakout lava flow began near the end of Highway 130, just west of Kalapana Gardens subdivision. The flow sparked fires in a small, sparsely forested kipuka, and remained active through 4 October.

During 29 September-4 October, incandescence was visible from a skylight on the lava tube downslope from the rootless shield complex. A large skylight on top of a rootless shield, built over the TEB lava tube mid-way between the top of the pali and the TEB vent, also showed incandescence. On 29 September, lava began to erupt from a vent on the NW edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater and flowed E across the floor. The lava flow in Pu'u 'O'o crater continued to be active through the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 September-28 September 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 September HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable around 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 15-35 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Weak thermal anomalies detected in satellite imagery suggested little to no lava flow activity on the pali or the coastal plain. On 26 September lava broke out of the lava-tube system W of the end of Highway 130 and produced a flow E toward Kalapana Gardens. The next day lava, flowing at a slower rate, filled in low areas S of the Hawaii County lava viewing area.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 September-21 September 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 September HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at about 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 20-40 m above the stable surface level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from a lava flow on the SW floor during 16-19 September. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Weak thermal anomalies detected in satellite imagery during 17-19 September suggested little to no lava flow activity on the pali or the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 September-14 September 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 September HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and spatter, nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from a lava flow on the SW floor on most nights. During an overflight on 9 September, geologists saw that the lava flow had ponded on the W side of the crater floor. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 September-7 September 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 September HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from an active hornito on the N floor. On 4 September lava started to flow along the S margin of the crater floor and was active the next day. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed minor surface flows on the coastal plain, as well as the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 August-31 August 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25-31 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from an active hornito on the N floor. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed minor surface flows on the coastal plain, as well as two ocean entries at Puhi-o-Kalaikini, SW of Kalapana.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 August-24 August 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from multiple areas on the N floor. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed occasional surface flows on the pali and on the coastal plain NW and W of Kalapana Gardens, as well as the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 August-17 August 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, a small incandescent vent on the N floor that occasionally extruded lava flows was observed to be a hornito. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed occasional surface flows at the base of the pali and on the coastal plain WNW and W of Kalapana Gardens, as well as the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 August-10 August 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system fed surface flows on the coastal plain, an inflating surface flow in Kalapana, and two ocean entries. The delta built by the W ocean entry named Puhi-o-Kalaikini was 900 m wide by 8 August. The less vigorous E entry, 'Ili'ili, remained active until 9 August. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence from small areas on the N crater floor was visible. During 9-10 August minor spattering from the area built a very small cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 July-3 August 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 July-3 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system advanced NE over coastal highway 137 towards Kalapana Gardens subdivision. Two lava lobes that had overtopped the Hakuma horst, SW of Kalapana Gardens, flowed into the ocean. The first flow initially entered the ocean on 25 July and continued to build a small delta that was about 500 m wide by 3 August. On 28 July, the second flow entered the ocean, about 545 m E of the first ocean-entry point. In addition to the activity near the ocean, scattered small active lobes of lava were seen about 1 km W of the highway 130/137 intersection.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 July-27 July 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 July HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system advanced E and NE along coastal highway 137 beginning on 17 July and expanded S, filling in the area between the highway and the N-facing scarp of the Hakuma horst. On 24 July, lava flowed N and by the next morning had destroyed a home in Kalapana Gardens. Advancing lava flowed over an area of the horst and on 25 July reached the ocean. On 26 July, lava caused small brush fires and methane explosions in a kipuka on the W edge of the Kalapana subdivision. By 1200 on 27 July, a second lava flow 500 m E of the ocean entry had advanced over the horst and was about 20 m from the ocean. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, intermittent incandescence from lava flows on the N crater floor was visible starting on 24 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 July-20 July 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 July HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW. At the east rift zone, two lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system advanced E through the coastal highway 130/137 intersection beginning on 17 July, and by 19 July were within 70 m of the nearest structure. A second set of active lava lobes were approximately 1 km to the NW and also advanced toward that general area. According to a news article, two people evacuated their home in Kalapana due to advancing lava flows.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


7 July-13 July 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 July HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra downwind. At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system built up a number of rootless shields between 580 and 395 m elevation. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations showed that minor lava flows originating from the shields traveled as far down as 60 m elevation near the base of the pali on 11 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 June-6 July 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 June-6 July HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system built up a number of rootless shields between 580 and 395 m elevation. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations showed that minor lava flows originating from the shields traveled as far down as 365 m elevation on 1 July. A gas vent on the E wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater was incandescent during most of the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 June-29 June 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system built up a number of rootless shields between 580 and 520 m elevation. Satellite images showed thermal anomalies from minor lava flows originating from the shields. The Pu'u 'O'o web camera showed incandescence from a vent on the E wall of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 June-22 June 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system built up a number of rootless shields between 580 and 520 m elevation. Satellite images showed thermal anomalies from minor lava flows originating from the shields. The Pu'u 'O'o web camera views of a lava pond on the crater floor, that was an estimated 300 x 150 m in dimension, were often obscured by fumes. One small lava flow was seen on the crater floor on 18 June. Scientists saw a new gas vent on the E wall of the crater during an overflight on 21 June that had generated incandescence during the previous few days.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 June-15 June 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface remained mostly stable in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra downwind. Vigorous bubbling of the lava surface was seen during 14-15 June.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system at 580 m elevation built up rootless shields. Minor surface lava flows from the shields were often active on the pali and the coastal plain, and advanced along the W side of the TEB flow field towards the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. The Pu'u 'O'o web camera recorded a growing and sometimes circulating lava pond on the crater floor that was an estimated 300 x 125 m in dimension. The pond was fed predominantly from a source near the N rim of the Pu'u 'O'o, with some contributions from a source near the S shore.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 June-8 June 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of the circulating, crusting, and bubbling lava-pool surface remained mostly stable in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. A plume from the vent drifted SW, dropping small amounts of ash and spatter downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system at 580 m elevation built up rootless shields. Minor surface lava flows from the shields were active on the pali and the coastal plain. Lava stopped flowing into the ocean at the Ki entry sometime during 2-3 June. The Pu'u 'O'o' web camera recorded a growing and circulating lava pond on the crater floor that on 5 June was an estimated 300 x 125 m in dimension. A small spattering cone was seen on the floor to the N of the pond.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 May-1 June 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 May-1 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of the circulating, crusting, and bubbling lava-pool surface remained mostly stable in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. On 31 May the surface rose to the highest level yet recorded, but was still more than 100 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S, entering the ocean at Ki. Other lava flows were active above the pali. On 27 May geologists noted a small rootless shield building up at a break-out point at 580 m elevation. Small lava flows issued from vents on Pu'u 'O'o's S crater wall during 26-27 May, and pooled on the crater floor at least through 31 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 May-25 May 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, occasional rising and falling of the circulating, crusting, and bubbling lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. The plume of gas from the summit vent drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit during 19-21 and 24 May were in the 800-1,200 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S, entering the ocean at Ki. Other lava flows were active on the flow field. A small lava flow issued from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o's S crater wall on 21 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 May-18 May 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, occasional rising and falling of the circulating lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. The plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted SW. On 14 May the sulfur dioxide emission rate measured at the summit was1,000 tonnes/day. The surface dimensions of the lava pool were an estimated 60 m by 90 m on 17 and 18 May.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S into the ocean. Geologists confirmed a collapse of a 17 m by 75 m sliver of Pu'u 'O'o crater's N rim that occurred on 11 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 May-11 May 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. The plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted SW and W, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and Pele's tears, downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate measured at the summit on 5 May was 880 tonnes/day.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S into the ocean. Lava also flowed along the highway, after covering the county viewing area on 5 May. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater. On 9 May lava flows near the county viewing area stalled.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 April-4 May 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 April-4 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u crater; glow from the vent was visible. On most mornings the plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted NW, W, and SW. On 29 April small rockfalls disrupted the surface of the pond, producing "dusty" plumes. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit during 28-29 April were in the 800-1,000 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply a surface flow that had advanced down the Pulama pali, onto the coastal plain, heading S, and reached the ocean on 29 April. Lava continued to flow into the ocean, just W of the "old" coastal viewing area during the rest of the reporting period. Lava also flowed along the E margin, between the highway and the coast. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 April-27 April 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 April HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava column continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u crater; glow from the vent was often visible. On most mornings the plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted SW, depositing small amounts of tephra near the vent. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit during 21-23 April were in the 630-770 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply a surface flow that had advanced down the Pulama pali and onto the coastal plain, heading SE along the east margin of the TEB flow field. The lava flowed through vegetation, causing small brush fires and minor methane bursts. On 22 April a second lava flow to the W was also active. Two days later, the first lava flow appeared to have stalled. The W flow continued to advance, and by 27 April was within the County Viewing Area.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 April-20 April 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 April activity reported by HVO at Kilauea was continuing at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava column continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u crater. Cycles occurred every 10-20 minutes until becoming more sporadic the evening of 14 April. On 15-16 April there were only 1-2 cycles/day. Activity increased again on the 17th, with cycles every 10-30 minutes. Glow from the vent was visible when the rising and falling cycles were frequent. On most mornings the plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted SW, depositing small amounts of tephra near the vent. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit on 12, 14, 15, and 19 April were in the 600-790 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply surface flows that advanced down the Pulama pali towards the coastal plain; on 16 April those flows were within 300 m of the coastal plain. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. Geologists in the field on 17 April reported that the flow front had reached the E margin of the older Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) flow field on the coastal plain. On 19 April the flow front headed SE along the east margin of the TEB flow field, just W of the end of the Kalapana access road, and was 380 m NW of the viewing area.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 April-13 April 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 April, HVO reported incandescence from a 60-m-wide active lava surface about 200 m below a 130-m-wide vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor; a few times the level fluctuated between 235 and 260 m below the surface. Rocks from the vent walls fell into the pond, causing spattering. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and Pele's tears, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 and 500 tonnes per day were measured on 8 and 9 April, respectively.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Lava flows moved SE down Pulama pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 March-6 April 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 31 March-6 April, HVO reported incandescence from a 60-m-wide active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor; a few times the level fluctuated between 235 and 260 m below the surface. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit on 31 March was 1,400 tonnes per day, the highest recorded in 2010. The rate on 1 and 2 April was 1,000 and 650 tonnes per day, respectively.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Lava flows advanced E, and then SE down Pulama pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 March-30 March 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally spatter, downwind. Gas measurements on 25 and 26 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 and 800 tonnes per day, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 March-23 March 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash and spatter downwind. Measurements on 19 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 500 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows above the pali. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 March-16 March 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor towards the end of the reporting period. Lava fountaining from the N edge of the pit was also noted. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 11 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 March-9 March 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 March, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements during 4-5 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 700-800 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 February-2 March 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24 February-2 March, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. Low lava fountains rose from the south edge of the deep pit. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 25 February indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 900 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 February-23 February 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 17-23 February, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. Bursting bubbles and low lava fountains were also noted. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 18 February indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed over 3 km SE through a lava tube system before breaking out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the W side of the TEB flow field, on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 February-16 February 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 February, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Measurements on 11 February indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 900 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. That same day a significant rockfall or collapse event was followed by a brown plume for several minutes.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed over 3 km SE through a lava tube system before breaking out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 February-9 February 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 February, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,200 and 700 tonnes per day were measured on 4 and 8 February, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed over 3 km SE through a lava tube system before breaking out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. By 8 February, pahoehoe lava flows had advanced 700 m from the base of the pali S onto the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 January-2 February 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 January-2 February, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted N, NW, and W, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 400 and 1,000 tonnes per day were measured on 28 January and 1 February, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed over 3 km SE through a lava tube system before breaking out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on top of and on the pali; lava burned forest on the W side of the TEB flows. Incandescence was seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 January-26 January 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 January, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted multiple directions, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through a lava tube system. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on top of the pali from lava-tube breakouts.

During an overflight of Pu'u 'O'o crater on 19 January scientists saw a recent but inactive lava flow across the bottom of the crater. On 22 January a small part of the crater rim collapsed in front of the web camera, revealing an incandescent vent at the base of the E wall. During 23-26 January, incandescence was seen from the vent, as well as from high on the E wall, the crater floor, and low on the S wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 January-19 January 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 January, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. On 14 January, the lava surface suddenly rose to very high levels multiple times; the highest level was about 120 m below the floor of Halema'uma'u crater. Thermal anomalies from the areas above the pali, detected from satellites on the same day, indicated that lava emissions from the TEB vent had resumed. Lava flows were noted during 17-19 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 January-12 January 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 January, HVO reported that lava flows from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex were seen above the pali by observers, or detected in satellite images. Lava did not enter the ocean at Waikupanaha. Incandescence was seen almost daily coming from multiple locations in Pu'u 'O'o crater. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a plume that drifted SW, N, and NE, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. The NE-drifting plume resulted in poor air quality in some communities on 9 January. Incandescence originated from an active and sometimes sloshing lava surface within an opening on the deep floor of the vent cavity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 December-5 January 2010 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 December-3 January, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at Waikupanaha. Lava was not seen entering the ocean on 4 and 5 January. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and occasional visual observations revealed active lava flows on the pali. Incandescence was seen almost daily coming from Pu'u 'O'o crater. During an overflight of Pu'u 'O'o crater on 29 December, geologists saw that a part of the high point of the W rim had collapsed, and a new gas vent had opened up at base of the N wall.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a plume that drifted NE and NW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Incandescence originated from an active and sometimes sloshing lava surface within an opening on the deep floor of the vent cavity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 December-29 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-29 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at Waikupanaha. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on and at the base of the pali, and on the coastal plain. On 26 December, explosions at the ocean entry ejected material 15 m high. Incandescence was seen almost daily coming from Pu'u 'O'o crater. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a plume that drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Incandescence originated from a very active, sloshing lava surface within a single opening on the deep floor of the vent cavity. Parts of the opening rim periodically collapsed into the lava surface generating spatter that deposited on the floor and walls of the vent cavity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 December-22 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at Waikupanaha. Incandescence was seen almost daily coming from Pu'u 'O'o crater. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce an off-white plume that drifted E and SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from a few holes in the deep floor of the vent cavity. Occasionally, lava ponded on the floor of the cavity. Spatter originated from a small spatter cone on the E side of the vent cavity floor. Spatter from the opening frequently fed small lava flows that traveled down the flank of the cone. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 tonnes per day were measured on 18 December. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 December-15 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and areas farther to the W. Towards the beginning of the reporting period, thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed occasional active lava flows. Incandescence was seen almost daily from Pu'u 'O'o crater. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce an off-white plume that drifted predominantly to the SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from a few holes in the deep floor of the vent cavity. On 13 December, lava ponded on the floor, crusted over, and blocked the holes. Incandescence was again visible the next night.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 December-8 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and an area 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the coastal plain. Incandescence was occasionally seen from Pu'u 'O'o crater; on 2 December, incandescence originated from vents on the E wall. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white or off-white plume that drifted E, W, and SW, and dropped small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from multiple spattering holes in the deep floor of the vent cavity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 November-1 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 25 November-1 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and an area 700 m farther to the W. A small bench collapse may have occurred on 27 November. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows on the coastal plain. Incandescence was occasionally seen on the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white or off-white plume that drifted mainly SW and dropped small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from a lava pond deep in the vent cavity floor; the lava pond circulated and spattered during 25-26 November and 1 December. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,000 tonnes per day were measured on 28 and 30 November. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

According to a news article on 30 November, Hawaii county was declared a natural disaster area due to the negative impact that vog from Halema'uma'u crater has had on croplands and livestock.

Sources: Hawaii News Now; US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 November-24 November 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and an area 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows at locations on and at the base of the pali, at the TEB vent, and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was seen on the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white or off-white plume that drifted mainly SW and dropped small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from a circulating and spattering lava pond that occasionally rose above and drained back below holes in the vent cavity floor. On 21 November, a sliver of the rim collapsed and was followed by an explosion that produced a dense brown plume that dissipated after a few minutes (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/archive/2009/Nov/HMMvent_21Nov2009_x2speed.mov). Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 700-1,100 tonnes per day was measured during 18-20 and 23 November. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 November-17 November 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and an area 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite suggested active surface lava flows. Incandescence was seen on the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and intermittently from an East wall vent. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted W and SW. Incandescence originated from a spattering lava pond inside the vent cavity. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 tonnes per day was measured on 16 November. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 November-10 November 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and a second location, 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also W of the County Public Viewing trail. The last remaining structure on the flow field burned on 3 November. Incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent during 6-7 November.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW and likely produced some ashfall. Incandescence originated from a spattering lava pond inside the vent cavity. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 700 and 400 tonnes per day were measured on 6 and 9 November, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 October-3 November 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 28 October-3 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Lava began entering the ocean at a second location, 700 m farther to the W, on 31 October. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also immediately W of the County Public Viewing trail. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Incandescence originated from occasionally spattering holes from a surface inside the vent cavity. On 3 November, a collapse of the surface revealed a circulating and spattering lava pond below. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 800 tonnes per day was measured on 30 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 October-27 October 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 21-27 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry on most days. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. For a few days an active lava flow advanced on the coastal plain, burning vegetation and pavement along the former Kalapana access road. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Incandescence originated from occasionally spattering holes from a surface inside the vent cavity. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 560-1,400 tonnes per day was measured during 21-22 and 26 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 October-20 October 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 14-20 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows on top and at the base of the pali. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Fresh Pele's Hair was collected near the summit on 16 October. Incandescence originated from sources inside the vent cavity; on 18 October a lava pond surface was seen, but then disappeared. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 690-940 tonnes per day was measured during 16-18 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 October-13 October 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 7-13 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images revealed active surface lava flows on top of the pali. Intermittent incandescence was seen from Pu'u 'O'o crater and the East wall vent during 7-10 October.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Incandescence originated from a source deep inside the vent cavity; on 13 October a crusted lava pond surface was seen. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 800 tonnes per day was measured on 11 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 September-6 October 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 30 September-6 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images revealed active surface lava flows on top of the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Small amounts of occasional fresh ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. During 30 September and 2, 4, and 5 October, a lava pond within the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, rose and fell, circulated, and weakly spattered. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 410, 650, and 480 tonnes per day were measured on 30 September, 1 and 2 October, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 September-29 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 23-27 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Lava was not seen entering the ocean on 28 and 29 September. Visual observations and thermal anomalies detected in satellite images revealed active surface lava flows on most days. On 23 September, weak incandescence was detected from inside Pu'u 'O'o crater and from a gas vent in the E crater wall. Explosive activity at the ocean entry on 26 September was possibly caused by a small bench collapse.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW and W. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Weak incandescence from the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, was visible at night. Rushing gas and rockfall sounds were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the vent. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 400, 700, and 665 tonnes per day were measured on 23, 24, and 28 September, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. On 26 September, a series of rockfalls accompanied an apparent collapse of the vent floor, causing the lava level to drop and the plume to turn "dusty brown" for several minutes. On 28 September, a spattering lava pond was seen inside the vent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 September-22 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 16-22 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Visual observations and thermal anomalies detected in satellite images revealed active surface lava flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,300, 1,000, and 400 tonnes per day were measured on 16, 17, and 18 September, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. During 16 and 17 September, two hybrid earthquakes were followed by 20-40 minutes of sustained tremor. The plume turned briefly "dusty" after the first event and incandescent tephra was ejected onto the rim after the second event; both produced glassy spatter.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 September-15 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 9-15 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Weak, sporadic explosions from the ocean entry were seen on 10 September. Occasional thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. The plume briefly turned brown on 9 September from a rockfall. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Incandescence from small openings in the floor of the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, was visible at night with varying intensity. During the night from 12 to13 September, spattering from the opening was seen on the web camera. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 900 tonnes per day was measured on 11 September. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 September-8 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 2-8 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Degassing and rockfall sounds were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the vent. Incandescence from small openings in the floor of the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,200 and 785 tonnes per day were measured on 2 and 3 September, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 August-1 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 26 August-1 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Degassing sounds were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the vent. Incandescence from the floor of the vent was visible at night on the web camera, or from HVO. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,000 and 950 tonnes per day were measured on 26 and 27 August, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 August-25 August 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 19-25 August, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations during 18-19 August revealed active surface lava flows. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Rushing gas sounds were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the vent. Incandescence from the floor of the vent was visible at night on the web camera. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 950-1,140 tonnes per day was measured during 19-21 August. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 August-18 August 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 12-18 August, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the flow field.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust," were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume; possibly fresh tephra, including Pele's Hair, was collected on 12 August. Rushing gas sounds were often heard in the vicinity of the vent. During 12-13 August, a new, brightly incandescent hole appeared on the floor of the vent. The vent increased in size and incandescence continued to be seen on the web camera during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 2,050 and 900 tonnes per day was measured on 12 and 14 August; respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 August-11 August 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 5-11 August, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali, and along the E and W TEB flow field. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust," likely generated from small vent wall collapses, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,800 tonnes per day was measured on 7 August. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. For the first time in weeks, on 10 August, incandescence from the vent was seen.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 July-4 August 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 July-4 August, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust," likely generated from small wall collapses in the vent, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 675 tonnes per day was measured on 31 July. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 July-28 July 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows at several locations on the pali. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were reported on 22 July. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 800, 500, and 950 tonnes per day on 22, 24, and 27 July, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day; between the 30 June rockfall sequence and 19 July rates were 200-400 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 July-21 July 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-20 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows at several locations on the pali, and on the TEB flow field. A structure in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision was destroyed on 16 July. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were reported on 17 July. Lava was not seen entering the ocean on 21 July.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. No lava or incandescence from the crater had been seen since a "deflation-inflation" event on 4 July. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 400 and 1,100 tonnes per day on 17 and 20 July, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 July-14 July 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field. Explosions from both ocean entries were reported on 8 July; strong explosions ejected incandescent tephra up to 20 m high at the Waikupanaha entry.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. No lava or incandescence from the crater had been seen since a "deflation-inflation" event on 4 July. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were between 300 and 400 tonnes per day during 8-10 and 13 July. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 July-7 July 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-6 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field.

A sequence of rockfalls within the cavity on the floor of Halema'uma'u crater began at 1338 on 30 June. The first rockfall was followed by a loud explosion, and produced a M 2.4 equivalent earthquake felt at HVO and the adjacent Jaggar Museum. The gas plume turned brown for several minutes. Several more rockfall signals were detected by the seismic network; two more were felt locally. Booming sounds also accompanied several of the rockfalls. Chunks of the vent rim fell into the cavity. By 1600, more than 30 rim-collapse events had been recorded by seismometers, with a few more occurring on 1 July. Seismic tremor amplitudes decreased by more than 50 percent. By 1800, the levels were at their lowest values since 30 August 2007. On 1 July, scientists observed rocky rubble within the vent and no incandescence. Sporadic gas jetting noises were heard coming from the vent.

During 1-2 July, a few areas of incandescence were seen in the vent by the web camera. During 2-4 July, scientists observed a small ponded lava surface and weak spattering deep within the vent. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 360 and 200 tonnes per day on 3 and 5 July, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 June-30 June 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-30 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field. Explosions from both ocean entries were occasionally reported. On 28 June, officials reported a wide swath of lava flows descending the pali.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra, including Pele's hair and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool (54 m in diameter) near the base of the cavity, about 290 m below the floor of the crater, produced incandescence of variable brightness. The level of the lava pond rose periodically. Sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 800 tonnes per day on 24 and 26 June. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 June-23 June 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

Daily reports from HVO about Kilauea during 17-23 June indicated continuing visible glow from the Halema'uma'u vent. Molten lava remained in the neck of a funnel-shaped cavity in the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater. Webcam views showed the lava level rising several meters for brief periods before returning to depths of about 290 m below the crater rim and 205 m below the crater floor, as determined by laser-ranging measurements. Throughout the week lava from east rift zone vents flowed through tubes to the coast and entered the ocean at two locations west of Kalapana; active surface flows also continued on the pali within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remained elevated. The plume continued to carry glassy bits of spatter and small amounts of ash. A deflation-inflation event began on 22 June and was continuing the next day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 June-16 June 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 10-16 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were reported on 13 June.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, about 100 m below the floor of the crater, produced bright incandescence. The Halema'uma'u Overlook Vent webcam that has a view into the vent cavity showed a draining event from the actively bubbling lava pond on the evening of 12 June. Sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 1,100 and 1,000 tonnes per day on 11 and 12 June, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 June-9 June 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 3-9 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The Kupapa'u ocean entry was again active starting on 4 or 5 June. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows above and in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision, and on the TEB flow field.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, about 100 m below the floor of the crater, produced bright incandescence. Lava was clearly visible in the Halema'uma'u Overlook Vent webcam on 5 June. On 8 and 9 June, sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 700 and 800 tonnes per day on 4 and 5 June, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 May-2 June 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 27 May-2 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The Kupapa'u ocean entry was active until 31 May. On 30 May, a thermal anomaly on the upper TEB flow field was detected on satellite imagery. Pilot reports and satellite imagery analysis on 2 June confirmed active surface lava flows in this area. A small channelized 'a'a lava flow had stagnated above the top of the pali.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, occasionally tinged brown, that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra, including Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, deep below the floor of the vent, produced incandescence of variable intensity. Sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 May-26 May 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 20-26 May, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that rose 200-300 m. The plume drifted N, NE, and SW, and caused poor air quality in the summit region. Small amounts of usually ash-sized tephra, including Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and glassy spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, deep below the floor of the vent, produced incandescence of variable intensity. Sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater on 26 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 May-19 May 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 13-19 May, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, occasionally tinged brown, that drifted mainly W. Various amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and irregular pieces of vesicular glass, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, deep below the floor of the vent, produced incandescence of variable intensity. Sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 May-12 May 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 6-12 May, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. On 6 May, a bench collapse from Kupapa'u was detected by seismic signals. Tour pilots reported an active surface lava flow above the pali that was less than half a kilometer long. A thermal anomaly corresponding to the flow was detected on satellite imagery. Geologists on an overflight on 7 May mapped a stalled 'a'a flow that broke out from the TEB lava tube and was being covered by pahoehoe from the breakout point. They also saw that the Waikupanaha delta had built out to the furthest point in its over 13-month history and that bus-sized chunks of delta were scattered on the beach fronting the Kupapa'u entry, as a result of the 6 May collapse. Some explosions occurred at the Waikupanaha ocean entry on 10 May.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume that that drifted W and SW. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, deep below the floor of the crater, produced the brightest incandescence from the summit vent since early December 2008. Sounds resembling rushing gas and falling rocks were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Fresh spatter was retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during 6-7 May. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated; measurements were 1,100 and 700 tonnes per day on 8 and 10 May, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 April-5 May 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 29 April-5 May, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Some explosions occurred at the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume that sometimes caused poor air quality in nearby areas. Sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Various amounts of tephra, spatter, and ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. On 3 May, unusually bright incandescence seen from the vent on the web camera was accompanied by a decrease in summit tremor levels of about 40 percent. During 4-5 May, bright incandescence was again noted; summit tremor levels were variable but never exceeded moderate values.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 April-28 April 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 22-28 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry, and on 22 April small littoral explosions continued to build up a steep-sided cone at the Kupapa'u entry. Surface flows were present on the coastal plain. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted SW, N, and NE. Poor air quality in nearby communities was sometimes caused by the plume. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas or rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Various amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair, spatter, and ash, were frequently retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 April-21 April 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 15-21 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were present on the coastal plain and at the base of the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas or rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Pele's hair, tiny glass spheres, and ash were frequently retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated, reaching 700 tonnes per day on 15 April; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 April-14 April 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 8-14 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows on the coastal plain or from the Prince lobe were seen or detected by satellite imagery. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated; measurements were 1,000, 900, and 1,000 tonnes per day on 8, 9, and 13 April, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. On 13 April, Pele's hair, tiny glass spheres, and ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. On 14 April, ash was collected from the bins. Seismic instruments recorded a M 5 earthquake beneath the S flank, 12 km SE of the summit, at a depth of 10 km.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 April-7 April 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 1-7 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Surface flows on the coastal plain were seen or detected by satellite imagery. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 2 April, geologists found that the surface lava flow feeding the Kupapa'u entry was 1 km (0.6 m) wide.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Variable amounts of tephra including some Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and rock dust were retrieved daily from collection bins placed near the plume. During 31 March and 1 April, geologists utilizing an infrared camera to look into the vent saw a lava pond that rose and fell approximately every 3 minutes. During 2-3 April, the lava pond was replaced by a large hot opening; ejected spatter built up a rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated; measurements were 550, 800, and 700 tonnes per day on 1, 2, and 3 April, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 March-31 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 24-31 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Daily thermal anomalies seen on satellite imagery suggested surface flows on the coastal plain.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Variable amounts of tephra and some Pele's hair were retrieved almost daily from collection bins placed near the plume. On 24 March, a dusty brown plume rose from the vent. Geologists utilizing an infrared camera saw at least two spattering openings deep below the vent rim. On 25 March, two more brown plumes were emitted. A larger collapse was followed by a large, dense, brown plume, and several more brown plumes over the next two hours. The rockfalls within the vent covered the previously seen hot vents. During 26-28 March, infrared camera views revealed a rising and falling lava surface deep below the crater floor. The lava surface was static, but circulating on 29 March. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500, 900, and 1,000 tonnes per day on 25, 26, and 30 March, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 March-24 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 18-24 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Activity near the Prince Lobe was noted, and thermal anomalies seen on satellite imagery during most days suggested surface flows on the coastal plain. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were seen on 19 March. During 19-20 March, the Kupapa'u bench was 450 m wide (along shore) and extended 70 m into the ocean.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, occasionally tinged brown, that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Tephra and some glassy spatter were retrieved almost daily from collection bins placed near the plume. On 20 March, geologists utilizing an infrared camera saw that a single small spattering vent (another was out of sight to the E) at the bottom of a large overhung cavity beneath the Halema'uma'u crater floor emitted gas and steam. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500 and 900 tonnes per day on 19 and 23 March, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 March-17 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 11-17 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. Thermal anomalies noted during most days on the coastal plain suggested surface flows. During 11-13 March, scattered surface flows near the Prince lobe were noted. On 13 March, a 30-m-wide lava flow entered the ocean at Kupapa'u, a second ocean entry location to the W of Waikupanaha. Kupapa'u was active during 14-17 March.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume; southwesterly winds often caused poor air quality in communities to the N. Incandescence from the vent was seldom seen. On 12 March, seemingly fresh spatter was collected from bins placed near the plume; minimal amounts of ash were collected the next day. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,000 tonnes per day on 13 March; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. Field visits to the caldera floor indicated that there was an ash emission event sometime before dawn on 15 March, possibly following a wall collapse within the Halema'uma'u vent. Ash coated several monitoring instruments and was detected in Volcano, about 6 km NE. On 16 March, the plume drifted N and dusted HVO with ash.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 March-10 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

During 4-10 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. Thermal anomalies noted during most days on the coastal plain suggested surface flows. Scattered surface flows near the Prince lobe were noted on 5 and 9 March. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen. Small amounts of newly ejected tephra were collected on 5, 6, and 10 March. Geologists utilizing an infrared camera on 3 March saw two spattering vents and a hot area about 100 m below the vent rim. Hot areas were also visible during 4-5 March, and on 6 March they saw an enlarged puffing vent. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 700 tonnes per day on 5 and 6 March; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 February-3 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 25 February-3 March lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. A sizable collapse of the Waikupanaha bench was seen by a visitor on 28 February. Thermal anomalies noted during most days on the coastal plain suggested surface flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of ejected tephra, including Pele's hair, were routinely collected. On 26 February, geologists utilizing an infrared camera saw two spattering and episodically degassing vents about 100 m below the vent rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,100 tonnes per day on 27 February and 1 March; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 February-24 February 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 18-24 February lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. On 17 February, four large explosions that accompanied a collapse of the Waikupanaha bench ejected rocks and spatter 275 m inland. Lava also entered the ocean at Waha'ula during 18-20 February, and at a second point further E, named Poupou, starting on 18 February. Incandescence originated from the Prince lobe on 20 February. Thermal anomalies noted on the coastal plain suggested surface flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of ejected tephra, including Pele's hair and some spatter, were routinely collected. Geologists utilizing an infrared imager during an overflight on 20 February saw a small, hot degassing vent deep below the vent rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,400, 1,500, 1,300, and 900 tonnes per day on 17, 18, 19, and 20 February, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 February-17 February 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 11-17 February lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Waha'ula ocean entries. On most days, multiple explosions and spatter at the ocean entry were seen. On 11 February, geologists found a new littoral cone, on the edge of the bench, with a large crack running through it. Spatter on the cone and the bench behind it resulted from lava bubble bursts and steam jetting reported during the previous two days. A second crack between the cone and the sea cliff was also noted. The cracks suggested that the bench was slowly failing and did not collapse as reported a few days prior. Occasional incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and some spatter, were routinely collected. Infrared images taken during an overflight on 11 February revealed the development of a small spattering cone over the conduit that hosted a lava pond the previous week. Images taken on 14 February indicated that the conduit had mostly crusted over; a small, puffing vent was visible. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 800 tonnes per day on 12 February, and 500 tonnes on 13 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 February-10 February 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 4-10 February lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Waha'ula ocean entries. On 7 and 8 February, multiple explosions at the ocean entry were seen. On 9 February, booming noises and explosions were noted at the ocean entry; observers reported lava bubble bursts at 15-30 minute intervals. Seismicity and later observations indicated that the bench had collapsed. Incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; the plume turned brown on 5 and 7 February. Small amounts of tephra were routinely collected. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Geologists looked into the vent on 4 and 6 February and saw lava rising and falling about 115-120 m below the vent rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 900 tonnes per day on 4 and 9 February, and 500 tonnes on 5 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 January-3 February 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 28 January-3 February lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha and Waha'ula ocean entries. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 28 January. Incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; occasional shifts in the wind caused poor air quality at the summit and surrounding areas. Small amounts of newly ejected tephra, including rock dust, spatter, and Pele's hair, were collected. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,100 tonnes per day on 30 January and 1,500 tonnes on 2 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 January-27 January 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 20-27 January lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 20, 21, and 26 January. On 22 January, the Prince lava flow, W of the main lava-tube system, entered the ocean at Waha'ula but was too small to generate a steam plume. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali; geologists found active lava flows on the coastal plain on 26 January.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of newly ejected tephra, including rock dust, spatter, and Pele's Hair, were collected. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas, rockfalls, and rock impacts were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 900 tonnes per day on 22 and 23 January; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 January-20 January 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 14-20 January lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and incandescence was seen on the pali. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 17 and 18 January. Variable winds caused the County Viewing Area to close during 14-16 January.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Variable winds occasionally caused poor air quality around the summit; on 16 January sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air reached unsafe levels. On 17 January, a geologist near the vent heard rockfalls, and rock impact and rushing sounds. Vent rim collapses the next day caused a dusting of fine tephra, and on 20 January faint incandescence from deep within the vent was noted.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 January-13 January 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 7-13 January lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and incandescence was seen at the base of the pali. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 6, 8, and 11 January. A lobe of lava called the Prince lobe, to the W of Waikupanaha, advanced to within about 160 m of the coastline.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Tephra production had stopped; rockfalls inside the vent continued. An infrared camera showed that the vent conduit was closed by rubble deep beneath the floor of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 800 tonnes per day on 7 January; above the 2003-2007 average rate of 140 tonnes per day. Variable winds periodically caused sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air to reach unsafe levels and effect nearby communities, and caused the Jaggar Museum to close on 12 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 December-6 January 2009 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 31 December-6 January lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and incandescence was seen at the base of the pali. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 31 December and 5 January.

Earthquakes strong enough to be located were variously scattered beneath the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank fault. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Consistent with a decreasing trend of ash production since 15 December, the vent produced minimal amounts of fine tephra; essentially no tephra was collected during 5-6 January. Sounds resembling rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500 tonnes per day on 31 December and 2 January; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 December-30 December 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 24-30 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies were detected on satellite imagery at the base of the pali and on the coastal plain. Explosions at the ocean entry were noted on 26 and 29 December.

Earthquakes were variously located beneath the caldera, along the S-flank fault, and along the SW rift zone. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Following a decreasing trend since 15 December, the vent produced minimal amounts of tephra that mostly consisted of fine rock dust. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 400 and 800 tonnes per day on 24 and 29 December, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 December-23 December 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 17-23 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies were detected on satellite imagery at the base of the pali and on the coastal plain. During 19-20 December geologists reported explosions at the ocean entry. Earthquakes were variously located beneath the caldera and along the S-flank fault. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 December-16 December 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 10-16 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally seen at the TEB vent, and surface flows were noted on and at the base of the pali, and on the coastal plain. A branch of lava previously seen traveling S towards the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary went about 55 m into the park. On 16 December, a Pu'u 'O'o Crater web camera was hit with a small amount of debris, suggesting a collapse in the crater.

Earthquakes were variously located beneath the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater the number of earthquakes on 10 December ranged from 150 to 200, but were too small to be located more precisely (less than M 1.7 and recorded on fewer than four seismometers). The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Weak winds caused poor air quality at the summit. Sounds resembling rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 December-9 December 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 3-9 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally seen at the TEB vent, and surface flows were noted on and at the base of the pali. On 6 December, a few explosions originated from the ocean entry. Observers reported that a small bench collapse that occurred sometime between 6 and 7 December sent boulders up to 0.5 m in diameter inland about 50-75 m.

Earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank fault. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Night-time incandescence was rarely seen at the base of the plume, and sounds resembling rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater. During 2-4 December, the plume drifted NW and high concentrations of sulfur dioxide were measured at various locations. On 4 December, hybrid earthquakes were followed by several minutes of dense brown emissions. A vent rim collapse was seen on 5 December after rockfall and booming sounds were heard, and brown ash was emitted. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,000 and 500 tonnes per day on 4 and 5 December, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 November-2 December 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 26 November-2 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was seen at the TEB vent. Breakout lava flows low on the pali fed channelized flows that traveled S towards the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary. GPS stations spanning Pu'u 'O'o Crater recorded almost 4 cm of contraction during the previous 3 months. Earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the SW rift zone, the S-flank fault, and the Koa'e fault. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Night-time incandescence was occasionally seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500 tonnes per day on 26 November; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 November-25 November 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 19-25 November lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence and active surface flows were seen on and at the base of the pali (fault scarp), and at the TEB vent. Earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank fault. During 20-21 November, tremor levels increased to four times the background level. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Night-time incandescence was occasionally seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,700 and 700 tonnes per day on 20 and 24 November, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 November-18 November 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 12-18 November lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence and active surface flows were seen on and at the base of the pali (fault scarp). Earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater daily earthquakes ranged from 20 to 40 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume on the web camera for the first time in about a month, and sounds resembling distant surf and rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 and 800 tonnes per day on 14 and 17 November, respectively; the 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 November-11 November 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 5-11 November lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected on satellite imagery indicated active surface flows. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 2,000 tonnes per day on 7 November, near the 2005-2007 average background rate of 1,700 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from 40 to 60 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume that occasionally turned brown and drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and sounds resembling distant surf and rock clattering were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tonnes per day on 7 November. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 October-4 November 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 29 October-4 November lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected on satellite imagery indicated active surface flows, especially in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Explosive activity at the ocean entry was reported on 31 October and 1 November. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,200 and 1,700 tonnes per day on 30 October and 3 November, respectively, half of the background rate of the 2005-2007 average.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from 40 to 60 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and sounds resembling distant surf and rock clattering were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 500-700 tonnes per day during 29-31 October and 3 November. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 October-28 October 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 22-28 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Lava flow production possibly paused during 26-27 October. Multiple surface lava flows on the pali were noted. On 23 October, a plume drifted above the County Viewing Area near the ocean entry and rained acid droplets, causing a closure. Explosions at the ocean entry were reported on 24 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,000 tonnes per day on 23 and 24 October, half of the background rate of the 2005-2007 average. Weak winds caused the viewing area to close again on 25 October.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from less than 30 per day to 70 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and sounds resembling distant surf, rock clattering, and rock impacts were heard in the vicinity of the crater. Weak winds resulted in poor air quality at the summit during 21 and 25-28 October. During an overflight on 24 October, HVO geologists used a FLIR (Forward Looking InfraRed) camera to view the vent. The vent (about 80 m by 60 m) was wider than a lower orifice (about 30 m by 15 m), but narrower than a chamber above the orifice, resulting in an over-hanging vent rim prone to collapse. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 500-900 tonnes per day during 22-24 October. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 October-21 October 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 15-21 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Multiple surface lava flows on the pali were noted; on 16 October a channelized 'a'a flow was active in the Royal Gardens subdivision and a pahoehoe flow was seen on the W side of the active flow field. Lava destroyed one of two remaining intermittently occupied structures in the subdivision. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,000 tonnes per day on 17 October, half of the background rate of the 2005-2007 average. Explosions at the ocean entry were reported on 19 October.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from 40 per day to more than 100 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, which was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes or vent rim collapses, that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. Two vent explosions occurred on 14 October. The first was initiated by the collapse of a thin piece of the vent rim. The second explosion ejected molten spatter that fell within 100 m of the vent and produced an eruption plume that rose 2 km above the caldera rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 600 and 900 tonnes per day on 16 and 17 October, respectively. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 October-14 October 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 8-14 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Multiple lava breakouts, including a small 'a'a flow E of the Royal Gardens subdivision, and points of incandescence on the pali were noted. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,400 tonnes per day on 12 October, below the background rate since early 2005. Explosions at the ocean entry were reported on 13 October.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from 40 per day to more than 80 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, which was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes, that drifted mainly SW and S. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. An explosion on 12 October produced pulsating ash-rich clouds with pulses of incandescent gas and tephra. Significant tephra deposits included frothy ejecta up to fist and grapefruit sizes. In a video of the eruption, incandescence in the plume appears to be well above the level of the crater rim (about 70 m above the vent). The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tonnes per day on 10 October. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 October-7 October 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 1-7 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex. Lava that reached the ocean entry generated a steam plume during much of the reporting period; a plume was absent during 4-6 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,400 tonnes per day on 5 October, below the background rate as averaged over the past 25+ years.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater small earthquakes per day ranged from less than 40 to 100 (background is about 20-40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with occasional minor ash content that drifted mainly SW, but also in multiple other directions. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 and 1,100 tonnes per day on 3 and 5 October, respectively. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 September-30 September 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 24-30 September, lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the ocean entry. Explosions at the ocean entry were noted on 25 and 27 September.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 40-100 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor tephra content that drifted mainly SW. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. The plume was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes. During an overflight on 26 September, HVO geologists estimated that the surface of the lava pond was about 120-140 m below the crater floor, about 20-40 m lower than the previous pond surface observed on 5 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 September-23 September 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 17-23 September, lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. During 18-19 September, explosions from the base of the plume ejected debris into the air. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,700 tonnes per day on 21 September, near the background rate as averaged over the past 25 years.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 40-80 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. On 19 September a M 4.3 earthquake, felt island-wide, was located at a depth of 9.7 km below the S flank. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with occasional minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impact and rushing gas sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tonnes per day on 21 September. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 September-16 September 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 10-16 September, lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 9 September, geologists observed small littoral explosions that ejected debris 20 m into the air. Incandescence flashed from multiple sources within the central and western parts of Pu'u 'O'o crater were seen during 11-12 September.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 50-100 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impact sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 September-9 September 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 3-9 September, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and one further to the E. On 5 September, geologists saw multiple surface flows during an aerial observation: four on the coastal plain, and a large 'a'a flow and a small pahoehoe flow in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impact sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sample collection bin contained tephra, Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and a variously shaped glass fragments. On 5 September, scientists saw the surface of a sloshing lava lake, 50 m in diameter, about 100 m below the vent rim while hovering over the vent in a helicopter. A second view revealed a roiling pond with multiple bursting bubbles that changed into a central upwelling circulation pattern. The level of the lake dropped slightly before the cycle restarted.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 August-2 September 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 27 August-2 September, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex and reached the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 31 August, students from the University of Hawaii at Hilo reported low-level explosive activity at Waikupanaha.

A high number of Kilauea's earthquakes were centered in various locations along the Koa'e fault system, beneath the summit, N of Kupaianaha, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, more than 40 and up to 400 small earthquakes per day (background 40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impacts and muted rushing sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. During 26-27 August, multiple ash ejections were observed. On 27 August, the white plume was temporarily tinged brown and rose to a higher altitude following an explosive eruption (the fifth in 2008). Glass fragments and tephra up to 5 cm in diameter burned holes in a collection tarp placed near the overlook. Analysis of photos captured over the previous month showed that the vent had lengthened by almost 50 percent along the edge of the crater floor. On 29 August, the collection bin contained Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and a variety of other shapes of glass fragments.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 August-26 August 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 20-26 August, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 20 August, geologists observed bursting lava bubbles from an area E of Waikupanaha that threw molten fragments 10-20 m into the air. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 3,200 and 1,800 tonnes per day on 20 and 22 August, respectively; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

Kilauea earthquakes were centered in various locations along the Koa'e fault system, S and W of the caldera, beneath the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, more than 40 small earthquakes per day (background 40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. About 100 earthquakes were detected on 26 August. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impacts and muted rushing sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. On 21 August, an earthquake was accompanied by a 400-m-high jet of mostly gas that rose vertically, then drifted SW. The jet also contained some rock dust and bits of volcanic glass. Several small ash ejections occurred on 25 August. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 600-1,000 tonnes per day during 20-25 August. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 August-19 August 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 13-19 August, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was noted from the rootless shield complex during 13-15 August. Earthquakes were in various locations along the Koa'e fault system, S and W of the caldera, beneath the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, around 40 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown. Night-time incandescence was intermintently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impacts and rushing sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 August-12 August 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 6 and 9-12 August lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Occasional explosions and surface lava flows were noted near the ocean entry. A small fountain in a lava pond at the top of one of the rootless shields was observed on 10 August. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,700 and 2,400 tonnes per day on 8 and 9 August, respectively; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the Koa'e fault system, SE and W of the caldera, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, up to 100 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a mainly white plume with minor ash content that drifted SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume rock-clattering sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 900 tonnes per day on 7 August. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 July-5 August 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

HVO reported that during 30 July-5 August lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Explosions from the ocean entry were noted on 30 July. On 31 July, about 2.3 acres (or 25 percent) of the bench E of the ocean entry collapsed. A small lava pond at the top of one of the rootless shields was observed during an overflight. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,800 tonnes per day on 31 July; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the Koa'e fault system, N of the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 40 or fewer small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a mainly white plume with minor ash content that drifted SW, then occasionally rotated SE. During 1-3 August, seismic signals resembling those from explosions were accompanied an increase in plume vigor and by the color turning temporarily brown. An event on 1 August started with a collapse of a small portion of the vent rim and was followed by ejected incandescent tephra. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Rushing and rock-clattering sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 800 and 700 tonnes per day, on 31 July and 4 August, respectively. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 July-29 July 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO geologists, video footage, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 23-29 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. A bench collapse at the ocean entry occurred on 22 July. Pu'u 'O'o crater incandescence originated from vents on the crater floor and was reflected in a gas plume emitted from a vent on the E wall. A surface lava flow was seen behind the coastal bench on 28 July. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was high at 4,700 and 5,400 tonnes per day on 24 and 26 July, respectively; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the Koa'e fault system, beneath Makaopuhi crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, another 20-60 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in the crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Rock-clattering sounds were heard in the vicinity of Halema'uma'u crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and between 600 and 800 tonnes per day, during 24-26 July. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day. On 26 July, incandescent material was ejected from the vent in Halema'uma'u crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 July-22 July 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO crews, video footage, pilot reports, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 16-22 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex. The lava flowed into the ocean at the Waikupanaha ocean entry resulting in occasional explosions and a vigorous steam plume from contact with the water. Lightning was sometimes seen in the steam plume. Incandescence was observed from the TEB vent, rootless shields, breakouts along the W margin of the TEB lava tube, and from vents and sporadic spatter in Pu'u 'O'o crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was very high at 6,300 tonnes per day on 17 July; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were located beneath the summit area and beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, another 20-40 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located. The vent in the crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Rock clattering, booming noises, and "rushing sounds" were heard in the vicinity of Halema'uma'u crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and between 700 and 800 tonnes per day, during 16-18 July. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day. On 19 July, incandescent material was ejected from the vent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 July-15 July 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

During most of 9-15 July 2008 the Kilauea summit and Pu`u `O`o cone continued to deflate. Small amounts of ash and elevated amounts of sulfur dioxide gas continued to issue from the Halema`uma`u vent.

At the east rift eruption site, an unusually high amount of sulfur dioxide gas issued from Pu`u `O`o crater on 9 July. More lava than usual continued to erupt from the TEB vent area during 9-12 July and flowed into the tube system, feeding multiple short surface flows. Lava also resumed flowing into the ocean at Waikupanaha. Surface flows within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision were seen on the morning of 13 July; they may have reached the coastal plain the next day. Strong incandescence was seen from within Pu`u `O`o crater from the 10th through the 15th.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 July-8 July 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO crews, video footage, pilot reports, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 2-8 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex. The TEB vent is located a little over 2 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o crater. During 2-6 July, lava flows reached the Waikupanaha ocean entry and created a steam plume from contact with the water. Incandescence was also seen from surface lava flows at multiple breakout points along the lava tube system. On 7 July, seismic tremor levels near the TEB vent abruptly doubled, corresponding to a substantial new breakout in the rootless shield area. The steam plume at the Waikupanaha ocean entry was also absent that day and the next. An overflight revealed that a lava fountain from one of the breakouts on rootless shield 3 (about 1 km SE of the TEB vent) was 12-15 m high and fed several lava flows. The lava fountain and a lava pond were active during 7-8 July and incandescence at shield 6 (about 2 km SE of the TEB vent) was noted.

At Pu'u 'O'o the sulfur dioxide emission rate fluctuated between 3,100 and 4,800 tonnes per day when measured during 4-6 July; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day. Incandescence from two distinct sources in the E and W ends of Pu'u 'O'o crater was observed on the web camera during 4-6 July. Diffuse incandescence was noted during 7-8 July.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were located beneath the summit area, along S-flank faults, along the E and SW rift zones, beneath Halema'uma'u crater, and beneath the area where the Koa'e fault system joins the upper E rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, another 20-100 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located. The vent in the crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, between 700 and 1,400 tonnes per day, during 2-7 July. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 June-1 July 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 25 June-1 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 24 June, small episodic explosions at Waikupanaha propelled spatter about 50 m into the air; explosions were also noted on other days. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,300 tonnes per day when measured on 24 June; the average background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day. During 28 June-1 July, a small surface 'a'a lava flow near the E boundary of the Royal Gardens subdivision advanced E. During 30 June-1 July, several surface flows from multiple points along the lava tube system were noted.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the summit area, along S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Another 20-60 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tonnes per day when measured on 26 June. The background rate is 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 June-24 June 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 18-24 June, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,400 tonnes per day when measured on 18 June; the average background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, beneath the summit area, along the Koa'e and S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. About 100-140 small earthquakes (not located) were detected during 18-21 June. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 400 and 1,100 tonnes per day when measured during 18-22 June. The background rate is 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 June-17 June 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO crews, reports from county officials, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 11-17 June lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. Gas continued to jet from a vent about 30 m below Pu'u 'O'o crater's E rim.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath HVO, beneath Puhimau Crater, N of Pu'u 'O'o, beneath the summit area, along the S-flank fault, and along the SW rift zone. An average of 10-40 small earthquakes (not located) were detected daily. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 420 and 800 tonnes per day when measured during 9-14 June. The background rate is 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 June-10 June 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 4-10 June lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. Gas continued to jet from a vent about 30 m below Pu'u 'O'o crater's E rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was generally high and fluctuated between 1,530 and 3,080 tonnes per day when measured on 3, 5, 6, and 9 June. The background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day when measured on 25 May and earlier.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the summit, along the S-flank fault, and along SW rift zones. An average of 10-20 small earthquakes (not located) were detected daily. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During the night incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 680 and 1,160 tonnes per day when measured during 3-9 June. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 May-3 June 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 28 May-3 June lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. Gas continued to jet from a vent about 30 m below Pu'u 'O'o crater's E rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 2,740 and 4,700 tonnes per day when measured on 27 and 30 May. The background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day when measured on 25 May and earlier.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located along the S-flank fault and along the E and SW rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During the night incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 550 and 1,840 tonnes per day when measured during 27-31 May and 2 June. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 May-27 May 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 21-27 May lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. An overflight of Pu'u 'O'o crater on 23 May revealed that a new gas vent about 30 m below the E rim jetted gas at temperatures as high as 600 degrees Celsius.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u crater, S of the summit, along the S-flank and Koa'e faults, SW of Hi'iaka Crater, and along the SW rift zone. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 990 and 1,540 tonnes per day when measured during 23-25 May. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 May-20 May 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 14-20 May lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. Spatter at the Waikupanaha ocean entry built a second littoral cone.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u crater, W of the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly NE and occasionally SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 1,320 and 680 tonnes per day when measured on 17 and 18 May, respectively. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 May-13 May 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 7-13 May lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. During 10-13 May, spatter at the Waikupanaha ocean entry was propelled 20-30 m high and built a littoral cone.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u crater, N of the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. During 11-12 May, the summit tiltmeter network recorded the tenth 'deflation-inflation' (DI) tilt event since the emergence of the new vent in Halema`uma`u Crater and the seventeenth so far in 2008.The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 590 and 1,100 tonnes per day during 6-12 May. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 April-6 May 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 30 April-6 May lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 4 May, lava flows from breakouts on the pali reached the coastal plain. Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 540 and 1,250 tonnes per day during 30 April-5 May. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 April-29 April 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 23-29 April lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted on 23 April.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u vent, beneath the S Kilauea caldera, NW of Pahala, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. On 28 April, the emission rate at the summit was 1,910 tonnes per day, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. According to news articles, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park closed during 24-25 April due to elevated levels of sulfur dioxide. About 2,000 people were evacuated from the Park.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


16 April-22 April 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 16-22 April lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entries. The Ki ocean entry was inactive during 19-22 April. Occasionally, incandescence from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u Crater, beneath Napau Crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the upper E and SW rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white ash plumes that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. On 16 April, a small explosion from the vent ejected ash onto the overlook parking lot and on a portion of Crater Rim drive. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 870 and 1150 tonnes per day during 15-21 April, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 April-15 April 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 9-15 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex was mostly concentrated at multiple locations of the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries. Occasionally, incandescence from a skylight adjacent to the TEB vents and from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the upper E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white ash plumes that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. On 10 April, a small explosion from the vent ejected incandescent blocks to the rim of the crater, about 70 m above, and enlarged the vent by 5-10 ms. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 575 and 890 tonnes per day during 10-14 April, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. At Pu'u 'O'o crater the emission rate was between 1,760 and 2,750 tonnes during 8-13 April. According to news articles, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park was closed during 8-9 April due to elevated levels of sulfur dioxide.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


2 April-8 April 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 2-8 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was mostly concentrated at the E Waikupanaha, W Waikupanaha, and Ki ocean entries. Spattering and small steam explosions were intermittently reported. Occasionally, incandescence from a skylight adjacent to the TEB vents and from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted. Diffuse incandescence was seen on the web camera at Pu'u 'O'o crater during 2-4 and 7-8 April.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, beneath the summit to the S and W, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce brown or white ash plumes that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume and incandescent fragments were ejected from the vent. Based on pilot observations, the Washington VAAC reported that the plumes rose to altitudes of 3.4-3.8 km (11,200-12,500 ft) a.s.l. on 5 and 7 April. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 480-800 tonnes per day during 2-7 April, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. At Pu'u 'O'o crater the emission rate was 1,300 tonnes on 5 April.

According to a news report, the Hawaii County Civil Defense issued a health advisory on 7 April for those living downwind of Halema'uma'u and Pu'u 'O'o craters. Residents of specified areas were then advised by the State Department of Health to evacuate because of projected dangerous level of sulfur dioxide. Residents of other areas were put on alert.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Honolulu Advertiser


26 March-1 April 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews as well as web camera views, HVO reported that during 26 March-1 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was mostly concentrated at multiple points along the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries. Incandescence from the TEB vent was noted. During 25-26 March, an active lava flow was spotted SE of Kalalua Cone. Diffuse incandescence was seen on the web camera in Pu'u 'O'o crater.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, beneath the summit to the W, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce brown ash plumes that turned white for periods of time on 27, 28, and 31 March and on 1 April. Analysis of ash from the white plumes revealed that there was more volcanic glass than ash from the brown plumes. The plumes drifted mostly SW. Incandescence was seen at the base of the plume during the night. During 29 March-1 April, incandescent fragments were ejected from the vent.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 700-1,500 tonnes per day during 26-31 March, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 March-25 March 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews as well as web camera views, HVO reported that during 19-25 March lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was mostly concentrated in and near the Royal Gardens subdivision and at multiple points along the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries. Lava flows advanced eastward over an old sea cliff and onto the 1990 lava delta, and were 120 m W of the viewing area on 23 March. Flows through a kipuka produced fires during 18-22 March.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the S-half of the caldera, beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, N of Pu'u 'O'o, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. At 0258 on 19 March, an explosion from Halema'uma'u Crater scattered debris over an area of about 75 acres (30 hectares), covering a portion of Crater Rim Drive and damaging the overlook. On Crater Rim Drive, the debris was up to 2 cm in diameter and increased in size and thickness towards the overlook. The largest block ejected during the explosion was about 1 cubic meter. Small impact craters from 30-cm-blocks were abundant in the overlook area. The event was the first explosive activity in the crater since 1924. During 19-24 March, seismic tremor levels were elevated above their already high pre-explosion levels and incandescence at the gas vent was intermittent. Small incandescent tephra particles erupted from the vent overnight during 23-24 March and were deposited on the rim of the crater. On 24 March, the gas plume from the vent became ash-laden and rose to an altitude of about 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted SW. Geologists found Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and spatter in the overlook area. The largest spatter was 10 cm in diameter. During 24-25 March, overnight observers reported incandescence at the base of the continuous ash plume. Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,500 ft) a.s.l. on 25 March and drifted SW. The eruption was the first to produce lava in Halema'uma'u since 1982.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 1,200-2,200 tonnes per day during 18-23 March, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. On 23 March, the emission rate was 2,200 tonnes per day at Pu'u 'O'o. Sulfur dioxide concentrations were mostly below detection limits at the Jaggar museum and the Kilauea Visitors Center.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 March-18 March 2008 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews as well as web camera views, HVO reported that during 12-18 March lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was concentrated at rootless satellitic shields to the SE, in and near the Royal Gardens subdivision, and at ocean entries. During 12-13 March, lava flows entered the ocean at multiple locations on the Waikupanaha delta and at a new location 100 m E. A breakout from the E margin near the access road split into two lobes, surrounded and destroyed existing structures and covered the access road, and entered a nearby kipuka. On 14 March, lava entered the ocean at two primary Waikupanaha delta locations; the W delta was 600 m wide. An overflight revealed that the Kalalua flow (from the rootless shield complex to the E and SE of the TEB shield) advanced 240 m since 6 March. Lobes from the E-margin lava flows advanced SE into the kipuka and S of the access road, and entered the ocean during 14-15 March. Breakout lava flows were visible inland of the Waikupanaha and new ocean entires, at the base of Royal Gardens, and near the top of the pali. During 15-18 March, lava flows entered the ocean at multiple locations on the Waikupanaha delta and at a new location, 200 m W of the viewing area, named the Ki entry. On 17 March, breakouts and burned vegetation were visible within 1 km of the ocean entries.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located E of Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and lower E rift zones. Sometime during 10-12 March, a new gas vent appeared just above the base of the E wall of Halema'uma'u crater. During 14-18 March, incandescence from the gas vent originated from a spot about 30 m wide within the rubble at the base of the E crater wall. Cracking rocks, possibly due to the heat, were heard by scientists at the Halema'uma'u overlook. On 17 March, the area of incandescence appeared slightly enlarged with a new a